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ENGG2012 A&B Advanced Engineering Mathematics

Solution 6
Tutor: Xixuan Wu
Email: xixuan1124 [AT] gmail.com
P1: Let vector a = [1,2,3], b = [1,0,4], c = [2,1,0], Calculate the inner and cross
product of a,b?
(2). What is a(bXc)?
(3). Prove that a b a b a b .
2

(4). Find the base for row and column space? Evaluate the rank of A and AT?

1 3 5 6
A 2 6 9 12
3 9 15 18
Solution: (1). a b 1*1 2*0 3*4 13

ab i

2 3
1 3
1 2
j
k
i8 j 2k
0 4
1 4
1 0

1 2 3
(2). a (b c) 1 0 4 1*( 4) 1*(0 3) 2*(8 0) 15
2 1 0

(3). a b a b sin
2

a b sin 2 a b a b cos2 a b (a b)2


2

(4). Through Gaussian elimination:


T

1 0
1 3 5 6 1 3 5 6

2 6 9 12 0 0 1 0 , the row base: 3 , 0

5 1
3 9 15 18 0 0 0 0

6 0

1 3 5 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
2 6 9 12 => 2 0 1 0 => 2 1 0 0 , the column base:

3 9 15 18 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0

1 0
2 , 1

3 0

So rank(A)=rank(AT)=2.

P2: Are the following are vector spaces? Explain why. If they are vector spaces,
find the basis and dimension.

1

a. All vectors x in R3 such that x 2 0

3

T

b. All vectors (x,y)T in R2 such that x+y=2.


c. All vectors x in R3 which are in column space AND null space of the matrix:

1 2 1

1 2 1
1 2 1

Solution:
a. We define the addition and scalar multiplication:

x1 x2 x11 x21

x12 x22

x13 x23 , kx1 kx11


T

kx12

kx13

For:

x1 x2

1
1
1
1
1
T

T
T
T
2 x1 2 x2 2 0 , kx1 2 kx1 2 0
3
3
3
3
3




So its a vector space.

For

x11

x12

1
x13 2 0 => x11 2 x12 3x13 0 =>
3

x11
2
3


=> x12 c2 1 c3 0 , So the basis are



x13
0
1

x11 2c2 3c3

x12 c2
x c
13 3

2
3
1 and 0 , dimension is 2.


0
1
x
y

b. We define the addition and scalar multiplication: z

z1 z2 x1 x2

y1 y2 , kz kx1
T

ky1

For x1 x2 y1 y2 4 2 , we know its not a vector space.


c. The definition of addition and scalar multiplication is the same with that of (a).
Vector (x,y,z) in column space AND null space should fulfill:

x
x
1
x
y k 1 , 1 2 1 y 0 . We assume w y




z
z
1
z
x1 x2
1
1
1

w1 w2 y1 y2 k1 1 k2 1 (k1 k2 ) 1
z1 z2
1
1
1

x
x

1 2 1 (kw) 1 2 1 (k y ) k 1 2 1 y 0
z
z
x
1
1

So its a vector space. w y k 1 c1 1 , So the basis is


z
1
1

1
1 , dimension is 1.

1

P3: (a). In a 2-D x-y plane, find the matrix (call it R) that represents a reflection
about the line defined by y=x.
(b). Find the inverse of matrix R.
(c). Find the matrix (call it T) that represents a rotation by 90 in the
counter-clockwise direction in the same plane.
(d). Find the matrix that represents first a reflection about the line y=x, and then
followed by a rotation of 90 in the counter-clockwise direction in the same plane?
Whats the operation corresponding to this matrix?
Solution: (a).

r11 r12
r11 r12 1 r11 r11 r12 0 r12
, So:

,

r21 r22
r21 r22 0 r21 r21 r22 1 r22

Suppose R

From Figure 1,

0 1

1 0

So (1,0) and (0,1) both are reflection of each other about y=x. So R

(b).

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1
I

R 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
1 0

t11 t12
. Just like method in (a), we consider the rotation of (1,0)
t21 t22

(c). Suppose T
and (0,1).

t11 t12 1 t11 0


,
t21 t22 0 t21 1

So

t11 t12 0 t12 1


t

21 t22 1 t22 0

t 0 1
t
T 11 12

t21 t22 1 0
d11 d12

d 21 d 22

(d). Follow the method of (a) and (c), we suppose the matrix is D

d11 d12 1 d11 1 d11 d12 0 d12 0


d
,

21 d 22 0 d 21 0 d 21 d 22 1 d 22 1
1 0
x
x
x
. Clearly D TR , R TR

0 1
y reflection y rotation y

So D

x x
D , So the operation is just reflected about the y-axis.
y y