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=

lim

n!1

(2 points)
n+1 e

= 0. (1 points)
It means that the series is NOT convergent no matter what value z is.

ENGG2012 A&B Advanced Engineering Mathematics


Solution 7

Problem 4 (10 points in total)

Since e2z is analytic function (4 points), we have


Z
Z 2i
1
e2z dz =
e2z dz = e2z
2
c
i

2i

(4 points) = 0. (2 points)

Tutor: William Li
i

Problem
5 (20 points in total)
P1:
(a)

Apply Gaussian elimination to matrix A, we have


2
3
2
0
2 1 3
1 0 0
6
7
6
6
7
6
6 1 4 0 7 7!6 0 1 0
4
5
4
5 5 5 5
0 0 1

29
9
21

7
7
7 . (6 points)
5

Thus, the dimension for the row space is 3. (1 point)


h
i h
i
h
i
The bases for row space are 1 0 0
29 , 0 1 0 9 , and 0 0 1 21 . (3 points)3
The dimension for the column space is 3. (1 point)

The bases for column space are


2
0
6
6
6 1
4
5

7
7
7,
5

6
7
6
7
6 4 7
4
5
5

6
7
6
7
and 6 0 7 . (3 points)
4
5
5

The null space are the solution of Ax = 0 (1 point), which is


2
3 2
3
x1
29
6
7 6
7
6
7 6
7
6 x2 7 6
9 7
6
7=6
7 x4 . (2 points)
6
7 6
7
6 x3 7 6 21 7
4
5 4
5
x4
1
The dimension of null space is 1. (1 point)
(b)

The rank of A is equal to the rank AT , which is equal to 3. (2 points)


Problem
6 (20 points in total)

(a)

The character polynomial of B is


2
P ( ) = Det(B

I) (2 points) =

2
2

+ 21 + 45. (2 points)

The eigenvalues are the solution P ( ) = 0.

there are two eigenvalues for B:


(b)

P( ) =

= 5 and

The eigenvectors are the solution of (B


Gaussian Elimination , we have
2
7
6
6
6 2
4
1

2
4
2

5)( + 3)2 ,
3. (4 points)

I)x = 0. (2 points) When

7
6
7
6
6 7!6 0
5
4
5
0

0
1
0

7
7
2 7 , (2 points)
5
0

= 5 By applying

x3

x4

The dimension of null space is 1. (1 point)


(b)


P2:

21

The rank of A is equal to the rank AT , which is equal to 3. (2 points)

Problem 6 (20 points in total)


(a)

The character polynomial of B is


2
I) (2 points) =

P ( ) = Det(B

2
2

+ 21 + 45. (2 points)

The eigenvalues are the solution P ( ) = 0.

there are two eigenvalues for B:


(b)

P( ) =

= 5 and

The eigenvectors are the solution of (B


Gaussian Elimination , we have
2
7
6
6
6 2
4
1
the eigenvectors are

2
2

x1

and the dimension of the eigenspace is 1. (1 point)


=

7
6
7
6
6 7!6 0
5
4
5
0

6
7 6
6
7 6
6 x2 7 = 6 2
4
5 4
x3
1

When

3. (4 points)

I)x = 0. (2 points) When

5)( + 3)2 ,

0
1
0

= 5 By applying

7
7
2 7 , (2 points)
5
0

7
7
7 x3 , (2 points)
5

x
2
3
6 1 7 6
7
6
7
7
6
7
6
7 6
6 x2 7 = 6 1 7 x2 + 6 0 7 x3 , (2 points)
4
5 4
5
4
5
x3
0
1

and the dimension of the eigenspace is 2. (1 point)

3 By applying Gaussian Elimination , we have


2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1 2
3
6
7
6
7
6
7
6
7
6 2
4
6 7 ! 6 0 0 0 7 , (2 points)
4
5
4
5
1
2 3
0 0 0

the eigenvectors are

Page 6
1) Calculate the eigenvalue and eigenvector of matrix

1 0 0

A= 0 1 8


0 1 3

P3:

Solution: The characteristic equation of A is:


'
'
' 1
0
0
'
'
det(A I) = 0 ' 0
1
8
'
'
' 0
1
3

'
'
'
'
'
'=0
'
'
'

3 52 + 5 = ( + 1)( 1)( 5) = 0

1 = 1, 2 = 5, 3 = 1;
By definition x is an eigenvector of A corresponding to if and only if x is a nontrivial solution of
(A I)x = 0. That is

1
0
0

0
1
1

x1

x2 = 0

x3
0
3
8

For = 1. the linear system becomes:


0
0 0 0
x1

0 0 8 x2 = 0

0
x3
0 1 2
Solving this linear system (like Gaussian elimination) yields:

1
x1

x2 = s 0 , so that

0
x3



0

0

is the eigenvector of A corresponding to = 1. Similarly, we have the final results:



1
0
0

1 = 1x1 = 0 , 2 = 5x2 = 2 , 3 = 1x3 = 4



0
1
1

Page 8 To find the eigenvalues of A, we have (A I)x = 0. Similarly, to find the eigenvalues of 2I A,

we have,
March 1, 2010

[(2I A) I] = 0 [A (2 )I] = 0

So, eigenvalues of 2I A are (2 i ), i = 1, 2, ..., n.


!n
So, det(2I A) = i=1 (2 i ).

DRAFT

Whats the coefficient of !

$ a11
! I # &&
&( an1

? And compare with the coefficient of !

from

a1n
1n %
'
'
ann ')

Still let ! be 0, we have p(0) " (#1)n !1!2 ...!n and det(# A) " (#1)n det( A)


P4:

2. From (a), we have a " 2


From (b), we use tr ( A) "

*!
i

, and det( A) " + ! i


i

2, d " 3#3
2 b
1 d

" 3*(#3)

=> d " #2, b " 5

From (c), we still use tr ( A) "

*!
i

, we obtain 2 # 2 , f " 0 , 1 # 2

Observe that p(! ) " 0 , that means p(0) " 0 , p(1) " 0 and p(#2) " 0 .
We can obtain c " 9, e " #7

$3 2 %
$1 %
,- " &
'
'
(1 1 )
( 0)
$3 2% $1 % $ 1 #2%
We have B " S -S #1 = &
'&
'&
'
(1 1 ) ( 0) ( #1 3 )

3. let S " &

We just need find the eigenvalue of the block matrix(why?). The eigenvalues are 1,3,1,3

$1 % $ 1 % $ 0 % $ 0 %
&1 ' & #1' &0 ' & 0 '
And corresponding eigenvectors are & ' , & ' , & ' , & ' respectively.
& 0 ' & 0 ' &1 ' & 1 '
& ' & ' & ' & '
(0 ) ( 0 ) (1 ) ( #1)
As these eigenvectors are linearly independent, B is diagonalizable.
4. Find the eigenvalue of A , they are , , 1. Check that A is diagonalizable (omit). So we have

( A # rI ) " S (- # rI )S T
Let wT " vT S , and w is arbitrary due to v arbitrarily chosen.
If wT (- # rI )w . 0 , or w12 (!1 # r ) , ... , wn2 (!n # r ) . 0
We should let all (!i # r ) . 0 , so r / 1/ 4