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Area of Torricelli's Trumpet or Gabriel's Horn, Sum of the Reciprocals of the Primes, Factorials of Negative Integers

Sinisa Bubonja

30.12.2016.

Abstract

In our previous work [1], we defined the method for computing general limits of functions at their singular points and showed that it is useful for calculating divergent integrals, the sum of divergent series and values of functions in their singular points. In this paper, we have described that method and we will use it to calculate the area of Torricelli's trumpet or Gabriel's horn, the sum of the reciprocals of the primes and factorials of negative integers.

Contents

1

Introduction

1

2

Method for Computing General Limits of Functions at Their Singu- lar Points

2

3

Area of Torricelli’s Trumpet or Gabriel’s Horn

7

4

Sum of the Reciprocals of the Primes

7

5

Factorials of Negative Integers

8

1

Introduction

Divergent series and divergent integrals have appeared in mathematics for a long time. Mathematicians have devised various means of assigning finite values to such

1

series and integrals, although intuition suggests that the answer is infinity or it does not exist. Method for computing general limits of functions at their singular points, discovered in our previous work [1], will permit us to use the method of partial sums for calculating sums of divergent series and Newton - Leibniz formula for calculat- ing divergent integrals, which is the new and surprising result. We also showed that our method is the strongest method around for summing divergent series and it is superior to other known methods; for more details we refer the reader to [2]. As for prerequisites, the reader is expected to be familiar with real and complex analysis in one variable.

In Section 2 we describe the method for computing general limits of functions at their singular points and show how that method may be used for assigning finite values to divergent series and divergent integrals. In this section, we present definitions and theorems with proofs because paper, [1] where the method is discovered, is not writ- ten in English.

In Sections 3, 4 and 5 we have compiled some of the standard facts on an area of Torricelli's trumpet or Gabriel's horn, the sum of the reciprocals of the primes and factorials of negative integers, respectively. In those sections, we assign finite values to an infinite area of Torricelli's trumpet or Gabriel's horn, the sum of divergent series of the reciprocals of the primes and Gamma function at their singular points, respectively. Gamma function extends factorials to real and even complex numbers. The gamma function is undefined for zero and negative integers, from which we can conclude that factorials of negative integers do not exist.

2 Method for Computing General Limits of Func- tions at Their Singular Points

Definition 2.1 Let f be a function and has a series expansion about the point a C . We will denote by lim za f (z) the general limit of function f at point a and define

lim za f (z) = c,

where c is constant term of any series expansion of f about a.

D

D

Example 2.1 The series expansions of sin z, cos z and e z at infinity are same these functions and we considered that constant terms of their series expansions are 0. By previous definition,

z sin z = z cos z = z e z = 0.

D

lim

D

lim

D

lim

2

Example 2.2 Let us find the general limit of Riemann zeta function as z approaches

1. The Laurent series expansions of a function ζ(z) about z = 1 is the series

1

z1 +

γ γ 1 (z 1)+ 2 γ 2 (z 1) 2 1 6 γ 3 (z 1) 3 + 24 γ 4 (z 1) 4 + O((z 1) 5 ), where γ is Euler- Mascheroni constant and γ n is the nth Stieltjes constant. By previous definition,

1

1

D

lim ζ(z) = γ.

z1

Definition 2.2 Let f be a function and has a series expansion about the point . We will denote by lim z(α) f (z), lim z(α) + f (z) and lim z(α) f (z) the general limit, upper general limit and lower general limit of a function f(z) as z approaches to over radial line l α, = {r · e iα |r R}, α [0, 2π), respectively, and define

D

D

D

D D

z→∞(α) + f(z) = z+e

lim

lim iα f(z) =

D

r→∞(0) + f(r · e iα ) =

lim

D

r+ f(r · e iα ),

lim

D

D

z→∞(α) f(z) = z→−e

lim

lim iα f(z) =

D

r→∞(0) f(r · e iα ) =

lim

D

r f(r · e iα ),

lim

D

z→∞(α) f(z) =

lim

1

2 (

D

z→∞(α) + f(z) +

lim

D

z→∞(α) lim f (z)) =

D

r→∞(0) f(r · e iα ).

lim

Definition 2.3 Let f be a function and has a series expansion about the point a C. We will denote by lim za(α) f (z), lim za(α) + f (z) and lim za(α) f (z) the general limit, upper general limit and lower general limit of a function f(z) as z approaches to a over radial line l α,a = {a + r · e iα |r R}, α [0, 2π), respectively, and define

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

za(α) + f(z) = za+e

lim

lim iα0 f(z) = r0(0) + f(a + r · e iα ) = lim + f(a + r · e iα ),

lim

r0

D

D

D

za(α) f(z) = zae

lim

lim iα0 f(z) = r0(0) f(a + r · e iα ) =

lim

D

lim f(a + r · e iα ),
r0

D

za(α) f(z) = 1 2 (

lim

D

za(α) + f(z) +

lim

D

za(α) lim f (z)) =

D

r0(0) f(a + r · e iα ).

lim

Definition 2.4 Let f Define

be a function and has a pole of order m N at a C .

D

lim z+ P n (z) =

0

1

P n (z)dz,

lim z P n (z) = 1

D

0

z→∞(0) P n (z) = 1 2

1

lim D

P n (z)dz,

1

P n (z)dz,

3

lim

D

z0 + P n

1

z =

1

−∞

lim

D

z0 P n

z = +

1

1

P n

1

z ·

P n

1

z ·

z 1 2 dz,

z 1 2 dz,

z

1 2 dz,

lim

D

z0(0) P n

1

z =

2 1

1

1

P n

1

z ·

1 2 dz,

z

D D

za(α) f(z) =

lim

za(α) F 1 (z) + c 0 ,

lim

where P n (z) = a n z n + a n1 z n1 + · · · + a 1 z + a 0 is polynomial of degree n 0, c 0 is a constant term and F 1 (z) is the principal part of a Laurent series expansion of f at a.

Example 2.3 Let us find the general limit of a Riemann zeta function as z ap- proaches 1 over radial line l 0,1 , where l 0,1 is real axis. The Laurent series expansions of a function ζ(z) about z = 1 is the series z1 +γ γ 1 (z 1) + 1 2 γ 2 (z 1) 2 6 γ 3 (z 1) 3 + 24 γ 4 (z 1) 4 + O((z 1) 5 ), where γ is Euler-Mascheroni constant and γ n is the nth Stieltjes constant. By previous definitions,

1

1

1

D

D 1

z1(0) ζ(z) = z1(0)

lim

lim

z 1 +γ =

D

lim

r0(0)

1 + r 1 +γ = 1

1

2

1

1 1

r ·

1 2 dr + γ = 0+ γ = γ.

r

Example 2.4 Let us find the sum of divergent series n=1 1 = 1+1+1+1+···+1+···. Thus, by previous definition,

n=1

1 =

D

lim

m+

m

n=1

1 =

0

m+m =

D

lim

1

mdm = 1 2

.

Example 2.5 Let us find the sum of divergent series n=1 n k = 1 k + 2 k + 3 k + 4 k +

=

B n m k+1n since B 1 = 1 2 , where B n denotes the nth Bernoulli

· · · + m k

+

·

·

·,

where k

n

is positive integer.

By Faulhaber’s formula, m

n=1 n k

1

k+1

k

n=0 (1) n k+1

number. Therefore n=1 n k = lim

n

D

m+ m

n=1 n k = lim

1

k+1

D

m+(

n

k+1

B n

1

k

n=0 (1) n k+1

B n m k+1n ) =

n

1

1 ( k+1

0

k

n=0 (1) n k+1

B n m k+1n )dm =

k

n=0 (1) n k+1

1 0 m k+1n dm =

1

k+1

k

n=0 (1) n k+1

n

B n

(1)

k+2n

k+2n

k

= k+1 n=0 k+1

1

n

B n

k

k+2n = (1) k

(1)

k+1

·(

k

n=0 k+1

n

k

k+1 ·B k+1 by recurrence equation for Bernoulli numbers and previous definition. We have

(1)

B

k+2n ) =

n

n=1

n k =

B k+1

k + 1

since k N, because the odd Bernoulli numbers are zero.

4

Theorem 2.1 If f is a function and has a pole of order 1 at a C and if c 0 is

a constant term of a Laurent series expansion of f at a, then

D

za(α) f(z) = c 0 ,

lim

α [0, 2π).

Proof: By previous definition, lim za(α) f (z) = lim za(α) F 1 (z)+c 0 = lim

c 0 = lim

where F 1 (z) is the principal part of a Laurent series expansion of f at a. Similarly

we can prove that the theorem holds for a = .

1 3 dr + c 0 = 0 + c 0 = c 0 ,

D

D

D

za(α)

c

za +

1

D

r0(0)

c

1

iα a + c 0 =

2

1

1

1

c

1

re

·

1

2 dr + c 0 =

r

c 1

2e

1

1

r

a+re

Example 2.6 Let us find the general limit of a Gamma function, denoted by Γ(z), as z approaches 0 over radial line l 0,0 , where l 0,0 is real axis. The Laurent series expansions of a function Γ(z) about z = 0 is the series z γ+ 12 (6γ 2 +π 2 )z+ 6 z 2 (γ 3

γψ () ()) + z (γ γ π γπ +

γ ψ () ()+π ψ () ()+ψ () ())+O(z ), where γ is Euler-Mascheroni constant and ψ () (z) is the nth derivative of the digamma function. By previous theorem,

1

1

1

γπ 2

2

+ ψ () ()) +

z (γ + γ π + π



D D

z0(0) Γ(z) =

lim

lim

z0 Γ(z) = γ.

Definition 2.5 Let f be a function and has a series expansion about the point a C and does not have a pole at a.

D

D

za(α) + f(z) = c ( za(α) f(z) = c)

lim

lim

if lim za(α) + f (z) (lim za(α) f (z)) is infinite or does not exist, where c is a constant

term of any series expansion of f about a; otherwise

D

za(α) + f (z) =

lim

za(α) + f(z) (

lim

D

za(α) f (z) =

lim

za(α) lim f (z)).

Example 2.7 Let us find the sum of the harmonic series which are divergent. We

have

n=1

1

n

= lim

D

m+ m

n = lim m+ H m , where H m is harmonic number.

1

D

n=1

Therefore, by previous definition,

n=1

1

n = γ,

where γ is Euler-Mascheroni constant, because the series expansions of a function H m

) 7 ), where

about m = is the series (γ ln( m )) + ln(z) is natural logarithm.

1

1

1

252m 6 + O((

m

2m 12m 2

120m 4

+

1

1

1

5

Example 2.8 Let us find the sum of divergent series n=1 (n 1)! = 0! + 1! +

2! + 3! + · · · + (n 1)! + · · ·. We have n=1 (n 1)! = lim

D

m+ m

n=1 (n 1)! =

D

lim m+ (1) m m!!(m 1)+!(2) + 1, where n!! is the double factorial function and !n is subfactorial function. Therefore, by previous definition,

n=1

(n 1)! 0.697175 + 1.15573 · i,

because the constant term of a series expansion of function (1) m m!!(m1)+!(2)+

1 about are 1+ Γ(1,1)

where Γ(a, z)

is the incomplete gamma function.

1.1557273497909217179100931833126962991208510231644158204 · i,

e

=

0.69717488323506606876547868191955159531717543095436951732

Example 2.9 Let us find the finite value of divergent integral

+

0

sin xdx. We have

+

0

sin xdx = (cos x)|

+

0

D

= lim x+ (cos x)+cos 0. Thus, by previous definition,

+

0

sin xdx = 0 + 1 = 1,

+

because the series expansions of cos x at are cos x = cos x + 0.

Example 2.10 Let us find the finite value of divergent integral

=

lim x+ (Ci(x) ln x cos x) lim x0 (Ci(x) ln x cos x) = 0 γ = γ, where Ci(x) is cosine integral and γ is Euler-Mascheroni constant. Thus, by previous definition,

where ln x is natural logarithm. We have

ln x sin xdx,

+

0

+

0

ln x sin xdx = (Ci(x)ln x cos x)|

0

+

D

D

+

0

ln x sin xdx = 0 γ = γ,

because the series expansions of Ci(x) ln x cos x at are cos x(ln x + O(( x ) 7 )) +

1

1

cos x(( x ) 2 +

and the series expansions of Ci(x) ln x cos x at 0 are γ + 4 x 2 (2 ln x 1) + 96 x 4 (1

4

+0

1

6 4 120

x

x

6

+O(( x ) 7 ))+sin x(

1

1

x x 2

3 +

x

5

+O(( x ) 7 ))+O(( x ) 9 )

1

24

1

1

2 arg(x)

1

1

π

1

ln x) + 4320 x 6 (6 ln x 1) + O(x 7 ).

Theorem 2.2 If f is a function and has a pole of order m N at a C and if c 0 is a constant term of a Laurent series expansion of f at a, then lim za f (z) is a mean value of general limits lim za(α) f (z), α [0, 2π).

D

D

Proof:

nitions and the first mean value theorem for definite integrals, lim za f(z) =

Let us first prove that the theorem holds for a

C.

2π ·

1

2π

D

lim za(α) F 1 (z)+ c 0 =

2π

D

0

0

1 2π ·

2π ·

0

1

2π

D

1

By previous defi-

D

1

2π ·

za(α) + F 1 (z) +

D

2π

0

D

lim za(α) f (z)=

2 (lim

D

lim za(α) F 1 (z))+c 0 =

1 2 (lim r0 + F 1 (a+re iα )+lim za(α) F 1 (a+re iα ))+

6

k=m c k (a+re iα a) k )+

·

e iαk +c 0 = 0+c 0 = c 0 ,

where F 1 (z) is the principal part of a Laurent series expansion of f at a. Similarly

we can prove that the theorem holds for a = .

2π · 2π ·

1

0

2 (lim

2π

0

1

2 (

1 2

1

2π

1

D

r0 +

1

1

D

r0 + 1

c 0 =

c 0 =

k=m c k (a+re iα a) k +lim

−∞

k+1

1

k=m c k (re iα ) k dr +

1

1

2π ·

1

2

+

k=m c k (re iα ) k dr)+ c 0 =

k+1

2π

0

1

1

2π

2π

0

1

k=n c k 1+(1) k

e iαk +c 0 =

1

k=n c k 1+(1) k

3 Area of Torricelli’s Trumpet or Gabriel’s Horn

Torricelli’s Trumpet, also called Gabriel’s Horn, a mathematical figure that stretched

to infinity but was not infinitely big is the surface of revolution obtained by rotating

the graph of the function f (x) =

x 1 on the interval [1, ) around the x-axis. Using

integration, it is possible to find the surface area A:

A = 2π +x · 1 + x 2 dx = 2π +x · 1 +

1

1

1

1

1

1 4 dx 2π +x dx = +.

x

1

1

Let us find the finite value of divergent integral A = 2π

1

+

x · 1 +

1

1 4 dx. We have

x

2π

1

+

x · 1 +

1

4 dx = 2π

1

x

1

x

4

+1x 2 sinh 1 ( x 2 )

2 x 4 +1

2

1

+ 1 1

1

x

4

+

. Thus, lim

D

x+2π

1

x

4

+1x 2 sinh 1 (x 2 )

2 x 4 +1

2

2 ) 0.70996, where ln(z) is natural logarithm and sinh 1 (z) is the inverse hyper-

+ 1 lim x1 2π

1

x

4

1

x

4

+1x 2 sinh 1 (x 2 )

1 2

1

1

4 + 1 = 1

1

x

2 π ln(4)π2π( 2 sinh 1 (1)

1

2 x 4 +1

bolic sine function, because the series expansions of 2π

at are

1

x

4

+1x 2 sinh 1 ( x 2 )

1

2 x 4 +1

(2π ln( x ) π + 2 π ln(4))

1

1

π

32x 8 + O(( x ) 11 ). This gives

π

4x

4 +

1 2

1 4 + 1

x

A = 0.70995

.

4 Sum of the Reciprocals of the Primes

The sum of the reciprocals of all prime numbers diverges. This was proved by Leon- hard Euler in 1737, and strengthens Euclid’s 3rd-century-BC result that there are infinitely many prime numbers. We will denote by p n nth prime number. Let us find

the sum of series

where P (s)

1 = lim s1 D P (s),

+

n=1

1

p

n .

We have

n=1

1

p

n

= lim

D

m+ m

n=1

p

n

1

s is the prime zeta function. For s close to 1, P (s) has the

p

p is prime

7

expansion P (1 + ) = ln + C + O( ), where 0 and C =

, Mertens constant, γ is Euler-Mascheroni constant, µ(n) is the M¨obius function, ζ(n) is the Riemann zeta function and ln(z) is natural logarithm. Therefore, lim 0 P (1 + ) = lim 0 (ln + C + O( )) = C because the series expansions of a function ln + C + O( ) about = 0 is the series (C + ln( )) + O ( 1 ). This gives

=

M γ = 0.261497212

where M is Meissel-

ln ζ(n) =

+

n=2

µ(n)

n

0.577215664

= 0.315718452

+

n=1

1

p n

D

D

+

n=1

1

p n

= M γ = 0.315718452

.

5

Factorials of Negative Integers

The gamma function was first introduced by Leonhard Euler in his goal to gener-

alize the factorial to non integer values.

x z1 e x dx is defined to be an extension of the factorial to complex and real

number arguments. It is analytic everywhere except at z = 0, 1, 2,

a poles of order 1. It is related to the factorial by Γ(n + 1) = (n)! as special case of functional equation Γ(z +1) = zΓ(z). Gamma function is not the only solution of the previous functional equation. Let us find the factorials of negative numbers as the general limit of a gamma function as z approaches n, where n are positive integers. We have (n)! = lim zn Γ(z) = c(n), where c(n) denote the constant term of the Laurent series expansion of a function Γ(z) about z = n. This gives

, where it has

The (complete) gamma function Γ(z) =

+

0

D

(1)! = 1 + γ,

(2)! = 3 4 γ 2 ,

(3)! = 11

36 + γ

6 ,

(4)! =

25

288

γ

24 ,

, where γ is Euler-Mascheroni constant.

References

[1] Sinisa Bubonja, General Method for Summing Divergent Series. Determination of Limits of Divergent Sequences and Functions in Singular Points, Preprint,

viXra:1502.0074

8

[2] Sinisa Bubonja, General Method for Summing Divergent Series Using Mathemat- ica and a Comparison to Other Summation Methods, Preprint, viXra:1511.0247

[3] G. H. Hardy, Divergent series, Oxford at the Clarendon Press (1949)

[4] Bruce C. Brendt, Ramanujan’s Notebooks, Springer-Verlag New York Inc. (1985)

[5] John Tucciarone, The Development of the Theory of Summable Divergent Se- ries from 1880 to 1925, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 1/2, (28.VI.1973), 1-40 1, 2

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