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What is Power System Protection?

Deals with the protection of electrical power systems from faults through
the isolation of faulted parts from healthy electrical network

The objective of a protection schemes is to keep the power system stable


by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as
much of the network as possible still in operation

Objectives of Power System Protection:

Reliability: System operate properly


Security: Dont trip when you shouldnt
Dependability: Trip when you should

Selectivity: Trip the minimal amount to clear the fault or abnormal


operating condition

Speed: Usually the faster the better in terms of minimizing equipment


damage and maintaining system integrity

Simplicity: KISS

Economics: Dont break the bank

Necessity of Power System Protection:

Limits the damage caused by faults

Protect people and equipment from damage

Protecting equipment from overload conditions

Ensure interruption to least number of people

In case of short circuit damage to the equipment is proportional to (I f *t)

Where If is fault current

And t is the time of fault clearing

Since If cant be controlled easily therefore t must be minimized. Protection


system helps in reducing this t to minimize damage.
Power System Protection-An Art or Science?
Power System Protection is considered to be a combination of Art & Science since
there are multiple feasible Solutions that can be offered to overcome a certain
issue.

Protection Relays:

A protection relay is a relay which responds to abnormal conditions in an


electrical power system, and controls circuit breaker(s) so as to isolate the
faulty section of the system with the minimum interruption to the service.

A Good Day in Power System Protection:

CTs and VTs bring electrical info to relays


Relays sense current and voltage and declare fault
Relays send signals through control circuits to circuit breakers
Circuit breaker(s) correctly trip

A Bad Day in Power System Protection:

CTs or VTs are shorted, opened, or their wiring is.


Relays do not declare fault due to setting errors, faulty relay, CT
saturation
Control wires cut or batteries dead so no signal is sent from relay to
circuit breaker
Circuit breakers do not have power, burnt trip coil or otherwise fail
to trip

Hence,
Protection System Typically are Designed for N-1

Protection Performance Statistics:

Correct & Desired: 92.2%


Correct but undesired: 5.3%
Incorrect: 2.1%
Fail to Trip: 0.4%

Types of Protection Relays:

Overcurrent Relay (also known as Over current & Earth Fault relay)
Distance Relay
Differential Relay
Breaker Failure Relay
Synchro-check Relay
Auto-reclosure Relay
Trip circuit Supervision Relay
Tripping/Lockout Relay
DC Trip Unit
Fault Current Locator

Relay Symbols (ANSI VS IEC Comparison):

History of Relaying:
1. Electromechanical Relays

Robust in use

Slower in response

Difficult to install

Expensive

Lacks modern features like fault locator, telecommunication signals,


reclosing etc

No memory to save fault records

Not flexible in use

2. Static Relays:

High performance

Sophisticated characteristics

Cheaper than EM relays

Faster response

Not much robust comparing to EM relays

3. Numerical Relays:

Highly economical

Continuous self-monitoring

More reliable

Easy to install

Memory to save older fault records

Lot of modern functions available

Comparison of Characteristics of Different Generation of Relays:


Characteristics

Electromechani
cal
Static

Numerical

Speed of Response

Slow

Fast

Very Fast

Timing Accuracy

Temperature
Dependent

Temperature
Dependent

Stable

Size

Bulky

Small

Very Compact

Draw Out Required

Required

Required

Not Required

CT Burden

High

Low

Low

Reset Time

Very High

Less

Less

Functions

Single Function

Single Function

Multi-Function

Maintenance

Frequent

Frequent

Very Low

Deterioration due to
Frequent Operations

Yes

No

No

Reliability

High

Low

High

SCADA Compatibility

No

No

Yes

Zones of Protections:

To maintain the coordination in protection, concept of Zones are


introduced

Each part in network is enclosed in a zone

Zones are overlapped in order to have backup protection

Major Power System Components and Zones of Protection

Tests carried out by Protection Engineers to ensure Healthiness:


Power Transformer Testing:
TTR Test
Insulation Resistance Test
Winding Resistance Test
Open Circuit Test
Short Circuit Test
C & DF Test
Electrical Device Test
Instrument Transformer Testing:
Ratio Test,

Polarity Test,

Saturation Test,

Hi-Pot Test

Miscellaneous Testing:
Earth Resistance Test
Earth Continuity Test
HV Test of LAs, 11 KV B.B, Wall Bushings, EHT Cables etc.
Tele Protection Testing

Types of Power System Protection:


1. Overcurrent Relay:

It is one of the earliest protection being used in Utilities &


commonly known as Over-current & Earth-fault protection.

It uses the CT inputs while working on the simple principle of excess


current i.e. Relay picks-up when current exceeds pickup value and
send trip signal.

It can be Directional or non-Directional.

Protection coordination is achieved by either Time grading or


Current grading or both.

There are various types of O/C Protection following IEEE & IEC standard
curves:

Instantaneous overcurrent protection

Definite time overcurrent protection

IDMT (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) over current protection

Directional overcurrent protection

Application of O/C Protection:


Works as backup protection for

Auto / power transformers

220kV / 132V / 66kV Transmission Lines

Works as main protection for

11kV transformer incoming

11kV outgoing feeders

220kV / 132kV / 11kV bus couplers

Large Motors in Network having rating above 1200 HP against


Overload & Short circuit.

O/C & E/F Relays in K-Electric Network:


Electromechanical
BBC ICM21 (obsolete)

Static
GEC MCGG22

Numerical
Siemens 7SJ6025

Westinghouse 50 (obsolete) GEC MCGG21

Siemens 7SJ511

SIEMENS R3AS7EK
(obsolete)

GEC MCGG62

ABB REF543

GEC MCGG82

Areva MICOMP122

ASEA RXIDF-2H

Siemens ARGUS
7SR1103

SIEMENS 7SK8855
(obsolete)
BBC IT94 (obsolete)
BBC IC91 (obsolete)
TOSHIBA TCO31B
(obsolete)
ASEA RACID

ABB SPAJ140C

Commonly Used O/C, E/F Relays in KE Network & their Indications:


1. Numerical Relays (Siemens
7SJ6025)

LED Indications:
1 = Phase (Time)
2 = Earth (Time)
3 = Phase / Earth (Inst.)
4 = General Trip
LED Run = Relay Healthy
LED Error = Relay Blocked
LCD Display:
L1 = Red phase
L2 = Yellow phase
L3 = Blue phase
E = Earth

2. Numerical Relays (Siemens


7SJ511)

LED Indications:

1 = Measurement Supervision
2 = L1 Pickup
3 = L2 Pickup
4 = L3 Pickup
5 = Earth Pickup
6 = Breaker Failure
LED Run = Relay Healthy
LED Error = Relay Blocked

3. Numerical Relays (AREVA


Micom P122)

LED Indications:
1 = Trip
2 = Alarm
3 = Warning
4 = Healthy
5 = Phase (Time)
6 = Phase (Inst.)
7 = Earth (Time)
8 = Earth (Inst.)
LCD Display:
L1 = Red phase
L2 = Yellow phase
L3 = Blue phase
E = Earth

4. Numerical Relays (ABB


REF543)
LED Indications:
1 = OC Protection Start
2 = OC Protection Trip
3 = EF Protection Start
4 = EF Protection Trip
5 = Spring Discharge
6 = Trip Circuit Failure
7 = MCB AC/DC Trip
8 = UFR Trip
9 = Interlocked
Bottom 3 LEDs:
1 = Relay Ready, IRF, Test Mode
2 = Relay Start, Block
3 = Relay Trip

5. Numerical Relays
(SIEMENS ARGUS
7SR1103)

LED Indications:
1 = Protection Healthy
2 = Pickup
3 = Trip
4 = Phase A
5 = Phase B
6 = Phase C
7 = Earth (Time)
8 = Earth (Inst.)
9 = Phase (Time)
10 = Phase (Inst.)

6. Numerical Relays (ABB


SPAJ 140C)
LCD Display:
1 = Phase (Time) Pickup
2 = Phase (Time) Trip
3 = Phase (Inst.) Pickup
4 = Phase (Inst.) Trip
5 = Earth (Time) Pickup
6 = Earth (Time) Trip
7 = Earth (Inst.) Pickup
8 = Earth (Inst.) Trip
9 = Breaker Failure
LED Indications:
IL1 = Red
IL2 = Yellow
IL3 = Blue
I0 = Earth

7. Static Relays (GEC MCGG22,


MCGG82, MCGG62)

LED Indications:
Red LED1 :
Trip
Red LED2 :
Green LED-3 :
Pickup

Instantaneous
Time Delay Trip
I > Is = Relay

MCGG22 relay is separate for each


phase i.e. Red, Yellow, Blue and
Earth

MCGG82 is a combined single unit


for all phases

MCGG62 is a combined unit for 3


phases i.e. Red, Yellow and Blue
8. Static Relays (ASEA RACID)

LED Indications:
Green LED = In Service
R = Red phase pickup
S = Yellow phase pickup
T = Blue phase pickup
N = Earth pickup
I> = Phase (Time) pickup
k/t = Phase (Time) Trip
I>> = Phase (Inst.) pickup
ti>> = Phase (Inst.) Trip
I > = Earth (Time) pickup
k/t = Earth (Time) Trip
I >> = Earth (Inst.) pickup
ti >> = Earth (Inst.) Trip
LCD Display:
The fault current values
appears on screen when
tripping occurs

CASE SCENARIOS:
CASE SCENARIO 1
(Transformer)

On 19-11-2012, 40 MVA-1 tripped off


from 11kV
Side at Garden grid stations along with
11kV feeder Hoti Market which failed
to trip.
Upon investigation, the trip coil of
11kV feeder
VCB trolley was found dislocated due
to which
Feeder failed to trip and fault was
cleared by
Over current protection of 11kV
Incoming.
Since fault was not cleared by 11kV
feeder, the
Over current protection of 11kV
Incoming worked as back up protection
and isolated the fault.
CASE SCENARIO 2
(Transmission Line)

On 21-07-2012, 60 MVA Auto Trafo


tripped off from both sides at Vinder
grid station.
Upon investigation, the yellow phase
jumper was
Found open at location # 131.
Since the jumper was not grounded,
the fault
was cleared by backup i.e. earth fault
protection
instead of distance relay due to load
unbalancing condition

2. Differential Relay:

Also known as Merz-Price Protection Scheme

It is considered to be the fundamental protection for Transformer &


Bus bars in Utilities.

It is also used as back-up protection for short length EHV lines in


Network.

It works on the comparison/ Difference of CT currents installed on


both sides of Protected Equipment where CTs are selected in a
way that Zero Current will flow if there is no fault exist between
both CTs.

Polarity of CTs are also considered while connections.


Through-Current & Internal Fault Representation

IP

At the time of Transformer energization (No load); Inrush Current


(2nd Harmonics) Block
1 pu

CT-X

IP

CT-Y

IS

IS

Relay
IR-X

IR-Y

+1
Current, pu

1 + (-1) = 0
0

-1
DIFF CURRENT

Option is used to avoid unnecessary tripping due to Inrush


(magnetization) current.

Differential Relays covers all the Equipment that lie between Both
CTs including CTs, PTs, Lightening Arrestors (LA), Bus bars,
Transformer & Power Cables etc.
Differential Relays operates instantaneously once triggers to limit
the Damaging effect due to Short circuit.
VA Burden, Turns Ratio, Accuracy limits of all CTs should be matched
to avoid mal-operation.

Application of Differential Protection:


Used to protect Bus Bar in following two configuration:

Low Impedance Bus bar protection scheme: combines all CTs


input together before gets entered into Relay.

High Impedance Bus bar protection scheme: All CTs input gets
entered into the Relay separately.

Used to protect Transformer & Short length Extra High Voltage lines.

Differential Relays for Transformer in K-Electric Network:


Electromechanical

Static

Numerical

BBC D202

ASEA RADSB

Siemens 7UT513

BBC D21SE3

ASEA RADSE

Siemens 7UT612

GEC DMH

BBC DT92

Areva P631

BBC D22SE3

GEC MBCH12

Areva P632

SIEMENS 7UT92

ABB RET670
ABB RET316
ABB SPAD

Commonly Used Trafo Differential Relays in KE Network & their


Indications:
1. Numerical Differential Relay
for Trafo (Siemens 7UT612)

LED Indications:
L1 = Red Phase Pickup
L2 = Yellow Phase Pickup
L3 = Blue Phase Pickup
Trip I>
Trip I>>
nth Harmonics
LED Run = Relay Healthy
LED Error = Relay Blocked

2. Numerical Differential Relay


for Trafo (ABB RET670)

LED Indications:
Ready = Relay Healthy
Start = Relay Pickup
Trip = Relay Trip Command
Diff. Trip = Diff. Prot Operated

3. Numerical Differential Relay


for Trafo (AREVA P631,
P632)

LED Indications:
Healthy = Relay is Healthy
Blocked = Relay is Blocked
Alarm = For any Internal Fault
L1 = Red Phase Pickup
L2 = Yellow Phase Pickup
L3 = Blue Phase Pickup
Trip = General Trip

4. Numerical Differential
Relay for Trafo (SIEMENS
7UT512 / 7UT513)

LED Indications:
Healthy = Relay is Healthy
Blocked = Relay is Blocked
L1 = Red Phase Pickup
L2 = Yellow Phase Pickup
L3 = Blue Phase Pickup
General Trip
Stage-1 I> Operated
Stage-2 I>> Operated
Nth harmonics

5. Numerical Differential
Relay for Trafo (SIEMENS
ABB SPAD346C)

LCD Display:
1 = Diff. Stage-1 Trip
2 = Diff. Stage-2 Trip
3 = 2nd Harmonic / 5th
Harmonic Block
LED Indication:
L1 = Red
L2 = Yellow
L3 = Blue

6. Static Differential Relay for


Trafo (GEC MBCH)

LED Indications:
Trip = General Trip

7. Static Differential Relay for


Trafo (ASEA RADSB)

Differential Relay Operated


(Mechanical Flag)

8. Electro-Mechanical Differential Relay for Trafo (BBC D202,


D21SE3, D22SE3)

Differential Relay
Operated (Mechanical
Flag)

CASE SCENARIOS:
CASE SCENARIO 1

On 26-08-2012 at 0710, 40 MVA Trafo2 tripped off from both sides at


Garden Grid Station.
As reported by on duty SBO, 40 MVA
Trafo-2 tripped off from both sides on
differential protection.
Moreover, yellow phase lightning
arrestor of 132kV side was found
faulty upon investigation.
Since the lightening arrestor comes
under differential protection zone, the
fault was cleared by differential
protection.

CASE SCENARIO 2

On 01-10-2012 at 0725 hrs, 40 MVA


Trafo-4 tripped off from both sides at
SITE Grid Station.
As reported by on duty SBO, 40 MVA
Trafo-4 tripped off from both sides on
BACKUP OVER CURRENT protection.
Moreover, 11kV Incoming circuit
breaker trolley was found carbonized.
Since the 11kV Incoming circuit
breaker trolley do not comes under
differential protection zone, the fault
was cleared by EHV backup over
current protection.

Line Differential Relay:

It works on Principal of Current Difference.


A Line Differential Relay monitors:
Input Current= Output Current

Commonly Used Line Differential Relay in KE Network:


1. Numerical Differential
Relay for Line (ABB
RED670)
LED Indications:
Ready = Relay Healthy
Start = Relay Pickup
Trip = Relay Trip Command
Diff. Trip = Differential.
Protection Operated
OC Trip = Tripping on
Carrier
EF Trip = Zone-1 Operated
Direct Trip Receive =
Start R = Red Phase Pickup
Start Y = Yellow Phase
Pickup
Start B = Blue Phase Pickup
OC Start = Over current
Pickup
EF Start = Earth fault
Pickup

3. Distance Relay:
a. Also known as Impedance Relay & considered to be the
fundamental protection for Transmission Lines in Utilities.
b. Relay measures the Impedance, reactance or admittance between
the Location of Relay & the fault Point using the Input from both CT
& PT.
c. It works on the Principal that the Impedance/ reactance of a
transmission line is proportional to its Length.
d. In case of fault on Transmission line, current flowing to the Faulty
point increases and the Voltage at relay point decreases. Hence,
Relay sees this as fall in impedance and if this is below a pre-fixed
setting, relay operates.
e. It is designed/ distributed in multiple Zones to ensure High speed
Protection System.
f.

It has a definite time of tripping for each zone.

g. Communication aided schemes make more selective.

Types of Faults on Transmission Lines:

Zones in Distance Protection:

Zone 1 in KE Network is set to be operated instantaneously.


Zones 2 & 3 are set to be operated in 350 mSec & 700 mSec respectively.

Distance Relay Characteristics

Types of Line Protection Relays:

Where, each type has its own Advantages & limitations.

Distance Relays for Transmission Lines in KE Network:


Electromechanical

Static

Numerical

BBC LZ3

ASEA RAZOA

Siemens 7SA511

BBC LZ31

ASEA RAZFE

Siemens 7SA522

BBC LZ32

GEC (Quadramho)

Siemens 7SA612

BBC L3WYS

GEC (Micromho)

Siemens 7SA611

BBC L8B

Siemens 7SD60

BBC LH1W

Siemens 7SD61
Areva P443
Areva P543
ABB REL670
GEC (Optimho)
GE (D-60)

Commonly Used Distance Relays in KE Network & their Indications:


1. Numerical Distance Relay
for Line (Siemens 7SA522,
7SA611, 7SA612)
LED Indications:
L1 = Red Phase Pickup
L2 = Yellow Phase Pickup
L3 = Blue Phase Pickup
E = Earth Pickup
General Trip
Zone-1 Trip
Zone-1B Trip
Zone-2 Trip
Zone-3 Trip
Zone-5 Trip
Carrier Sent
Carrier Receive
Carrier Fault
VT Fail
Broken Conductor
AR Operated
Power Swing
SOTF = Switch On To Fault
LED Run = Relay Healthy
LED Error = Relay Blocked

2. Numerical Distance Relay


for Line (ABB ABB REL670)
LED Indications:
Ready = Relay Healthy
Start = Relay Pickup
Trip = Relay Trip Command
Dist. Trip = Dist. Prot
Operated
Carrier Trip = Tripping on
Carrier
ZM01 Trip = Zone-1 Operated
ZM Delay Trip = Zone-2 or 3
Operated
TOC1 Trip = Over current Trip
Start R = Red Phase Pickup
Start Y = Yellow Phase Pickup
Start B = Blue Phase Pickup

Dist. Start = Distance Pickup


TOC1 Start = Over current Pickup

3. Numerical Distance Relay


(AREVA P443)
LED Indications:
Healthy = Relay is Healthy
Blocked = Relay is Blocked
Alarm = For any Internal Fault
L1 = Red Phase Pickup
L2 = Yellow Phase Pickup
L3 = Blue Phase Pickup
E = Earth Pickup
Trip = General Trip
SOTF = Switch Onto Fault
PSB = Power Swing Blocking
Zone-1 = Zone-1 Operated
Zone-2 = Zone-2 Operated
Zone-3 = Zone-3 Operated
Zone-5 = Zone-5 Operated
CS = Carrier Sent
CR = Carrier Receive
Comm. Fail = Communication
Channel Fail
AR Not Ready
AR Successful
4. Numerical Distance Relay
(SIEMENS 7SA511)

LED Indications:
Healthy = Relay is Healthy
Blocked = Relay is Blocked
L1 = Red Phase Pickup
L2 = Yellow Phase Pickup
L3 = Blue Phase Pickup
E = Earth Pickup
General Trip
SOTF = Switch Onto Fault
Power Swing = Power Swing
Detected
Zone-1 Time Expired = Zone-1
Operated
Zone-2 Time Expired = Zone-2
Operated
Zone-3 Time Expired = Zone-3
Operated
Zone-5 Time Expired = Zone-5
Operated
Carrier Sent
Carrier Receive
Carrier Faulty
AR Not Ready
AR Successful
5. Static Distance Relay
(GEC OPTIMHO)
LED Indications:
LED Trip = General Trip
LED Alarm = Alarm
LED Relay Available =
Relay is Healthy
The faulty phase, Zones and Fault
Locations are displayed on LCD
Screen.

6. Static Distance Relay


(GEC QUADRAMHO)

LED Indications:
A = Red Phase Pickup
B = Yellow Phase Pickup
C = Blue Phase Pickup
Inst. Trip = Zone-1 Trip
Delayed Trip = Tripping on
Zone-2 or 3
Z2/Z3 Start = Zone-2 / 3
Pickup
Aided Trip = Tripping with
Carrier
SOTF = Switch On To Fault
Power Swing = Power
Swing Detected
VT Fail = Failure of VT
7. Static Distance Relay
(ASEA RAZOA)
LED Indications:
Trip = Distance Protection
Trip
R = Red Phase Pickup
S = Yellow Phase Pickup
T = Blue Phase Pickup
N = Earth Pickup
II = Zone-II Pickup
III = Zone-III Pickup
IV = Zone-IV Pickup
ZE = Extra Measuring
Unit Operated
VT Fail = Failure of VT

8. Static Distance Relay


(ASEA RAZFE)
LED Indications:
U = Distance Protection Trip
RN = Red Phase Pickup
SN = Yellow Phase Pickup
TN = Blue Phase Pickup
2 = Phase to Phase Fault
Pickup
3 = 3 Phase Fault
Pickup
TK2 = Zone-II Operated
TK3 = Zone-III Operated
P
= Power Swing
Detected
DC = DC Supply
Disturbed

9. Electromechanical
Distance Relays (BBC
LZ3, LZ31, LZ32, L3WYS,
LHIW, L8B)

CASE SCENARIOS:

Breaker Failure Relay:


In Network there is also a possibility that high voltage circuit breakers can
fail to open when trip command is issued by protective relay. Hence, in
order to avoid huge damage, all the circuit breakers feeding the fault are
tripped after the elapsed of certain fixed time by the relay. This Relay is
called Breaker Failure Relay.
Synchro-check Relay:
This becomes necessary when two system/line merge at any one bus bar
of network. Then, the closing of breaker may be manual or through auto
reclosing scheme.
The Parameters that relay check to be matched are:

Voltage: Difference shouldnt be exceeded from 5%.

Frequency: Difference shouldnt be exceeded from 5%.

Phase angle: Difference shouldnt be exceeded from 15.

Auto-Reclosure Relay:
In 80 to 90 % of faults on transmission lines, the faults are of transient
nature as of insulator flashes. Thus, if line is tripped and time is allowed
for the fault arc to de-ionize(i.e. Dead Time), reclosure of the circuit
breaker will result in the successfully re-energization of line through Autoreclosure relay which attempts under some determined conditions.
Hence, Auto-reclosure helps in improvement in continuity of supply.
Miscellaneous Relays:
Trip circuit Supervision Relay:
This relay operates when Negative terminal of Supply to relay gets
disappeared.
Tripping/ Lock out Relay:
This relay blocks the possibility of any other operation on subject breaker
unless reset. DC Trip Unit Relay:
This relay checks the availability of DC supply on switches and operates in
case of DC unavailability to avoid any damage to Network due to any fault.
Fault Locator Relay:
This relay is used to calculate the possible distance of fault from feeding
end by using the Input from CTs & PTs during Fault scenario to measure
Impedance and compares it with the defined Impedances of Lines.

DC Trip Unit:
Operates when DC disappears to any relay.