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CHEMISTRY

INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT
DETECTING METALS PRESENT
IN INDIAN COINS

PREPARED BY:- GAURAV BHADULA


CLASS :-

XII-A

ROLL NO.:-

INDEX
S. NO.

TOPIC

1.

CERTIFICATE

2.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

3.

AIM & INTRODUCTION

4.

THEORY

5.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

6.

CHEMICALS REQUIRED

7.

PROCEDURE & OBSERVATION

8.

CONCLUSION

9.

PRECAUTIONS

10.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MST. GAURAV
BHADULA OF CLASS XII, SECTION- A HAS
COMPLETED THE CHEMISTRY PROJECT
ENTITLED: DETECTING METALS PRESENT IN INDIAN COINS
UNDER MY GUIDANCE AND TO MY SATISFACTION.

Mrs. ROHINI VYAVHARE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to thank Mrs. ROHINI


VYAVHARE MAAM for her constant support and
guidance without which this project would not have
been possible.
I would also like to thank Mr. HARDEV (the lab
attendant) for the help they rendered throughout the
PROJECT.

AIM:-

TO DETECT THE
METALS
PRESENT IN
INDIAN COINS.

INTRODUCTION
A

Coin

is

piece

of

hard

metal

that

is

standardized in weight, produced in large


quantities in order to facilitate trade. A coin is
a small, flat, round piece of hard metal used
primarily as a medium of exchange. They are
standardized in weight, and produced in large
quantities in order to facilitate trade. They are
most often issued by a government.

Coins that

are intended for circulation have some special


requirements based on the conditions they will
encounter.

For

example,

coin

maybe

in

circulation for up to thirty years, and so, must


have

excellent

corrosive

wear

properties.

resistance

and

anti-

Achieving

this

goal

necessitates the use of base metal alloys, to make


coins.

THEORY
An alloy is a homogenous mixture of two or more
metals and a non-metal. An alloy is a mixture
of metals or

mixture

of

metal

and

another element. Alloys are defined by metallic


bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of
metal

elements

or

mixture

of

metallic

phases. Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a


defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. It is
prepared

to

suit

the

requirements

which

the

constituent metals cannot fulfil if not mixed the


other ones. We can determine the constituents of an
unknown alloy by dissolving it in an Aqua Regia,
then performing the usual qualitative analysis on
the solution. Examples of alloys are phosphor
bronze and amalgams, steel, solder, brass.

APPARATUS REQIRED
1. test tube

2. beaker

3. test tube

4. tripod stand

holder

5. burner

6. sand paper

CHEMICALS
REQUIRED
1.Hydrochloric acid (Hcl)
2.Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
3.Hydrogen Sulphide Gas
4.Nitric Acid (HNO3 )
5.Ammonium Acetate
6.Potassium Iodide
7.Potssium Chromate
8.Potassium Ferrocyanide
9.Ammonium Hydroxide
10.Ammonium Chloride
11.Potassium sulphocyanide
12.Potassium Nitrite
13.Nesslers reagent
14.Ammonium Phosphate

PROCEDURE
&
OBSERVATION
1. Preparation of Aqua Regia:
Take a clean beaker and add 3 test tubes
of concentrated HCl to it.
To this add one test tube of concentrated
HNO 3 , and stir.
2. Take five beakers put equal amounts of Aqua
Regia in them.
3. Clean the coins using a sand paper and put
them in the beakers and let them remain
there for three days.
4. After the coins are dissolved, add half beaker
of water in each, and detect the presence of
the basic radicals present in each coin one by
one.

TEST FOR CATION (NH4+):


Preliminary:
Original Solution + NaOH Heat fumes with characteristics
smell of ammonia.

Confirmatory:
2K 2 [Hgl 4 ] + NH

(Nesslers reagent)

H 2 N.Hg0.HgI + 7KI +2H 2 0


(Brown ppt.)

OBSERVATION:
COINS
1
2
5
10

NaOH Test
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

INFERENCE:
None of the Coins contain NH 4 + ion.

Nesslers Reagent
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

TEST FOR CATION (Pb+) :


Preliminary:
Original Solution + dil. HCl
Pb2+ + 2HCl (aq.)

white ppt.
PbCl 2 (white ppt.) + H+

Confirmatory:
White ppt. + Kl
PbCl 2 + 2Kl

Yellow ppt.
Pbl 2

+ 2KCl

OBSERVATION:
COINS

Dil. HCl Test

1
2
5
10

NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

INFERENCE:
None of the Coins contain Pb2+.

Potassium Iodide
Test
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

TEST FOR CATION (Cu2+) :


Preliminary:
black ppt.

Original Solution + dil. HCl + H 2 S


Confirmatory:

Take the original solution and add ammonium hydroxide in


excess.
Cu2+ (aq.) + NH 4 OH

{Cu(NH 3 ) 4 }2+
(Deep Blue solution)

Potassium Ferrocyanide + Original sol.


brown ppt.
Cu2+ (aq.) + K 4 {Fe(CN) 6 }

Chocolate

Cu 2 {Fe(CN) 6 }4K+

OBSERVATION:
COINS
1
2
5
10

NH 4 OH Test

Potassium Ferrocyanide
Test
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
BLUE SOLUTION CHOCOLATE BROWN
PPT.
BLUE SOLUTION CHOCOLATE BROWN
PPT.

INFERENCE:
5 Coin contains Cu2+.
10 Coin contains Cu2+.

TEST FOR CATION (Fe3+) :


Preliminary:
Original Solution + NH 4 Cl + NH 4 OH
ppt.)
Fe3+ + 3NH 4 OH

(Reddish brown
Fe(OH) 3 + 3NH 4 +

Confirmatory:
1. Brown ppt. Is dissolved in HCl (aq.)
Fe(OH) 3 + HCl (aq.)
FeCl 3 + H 2 O
2. To the above solutions add Pot. Ferrocyanide sol.
Prussian blue colouration is obtained.
4FeCl 3 + 3 K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]
12KCl + Fe 4 {Fe(CN) 6 } 3

OBSERVATION:
COINS
1
2
5
10

NH 4 OH + NH 4 Cl
Test
Reddish Brown
ppt.
Reddish brown
ppt.
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

INFERENCE:
1 Coins contain Fe3+.
2 Coins contain Fe3+

Potassium Ferrocyanide
Test
Prussian Blue colouration
Prussian Blue Colouration
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

TEST FOR CATION (Co2+) AND (Ni2+):


Preliminary:
Original Solution + NH 4 Cl + NH 4 OH + H 2 S
Co2+ (aq.) + S2 -

CoS (black ppt.)

Ni2+ (aq.) + S2-

NiS

Black ppt.

(black ppt.)

Dilute the black ppt. in Aqua Regia.


Co2+ gives pink solution.
Ni2+ gives greenish solution.
CoS + 2HCl + 3[O] (from Aqua Regia)
H 2 O + SO 2

CoCl 2 (pink) +

NiS + 2HCl + 3[O] (from Aqua Regia)


+ H 2 O + SO 2

NiCl 2 (greenish)

Confirmatory:
1. For CO 2+ ion:
CO2+ (aq.) + 2KSCN

acetone

blue coloured layer of


[Co(SCN) 2 ] in
acetone

2. For Ni2+ ion:


Greenish solution + Dimethyl glyoxime

cherry red ppt.

OBSERVATION:
COINS
1
2
5
10

Ni
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
POSITIVE

INFERENCE:
1 and 5 coins contain Ni2+.
2 coin contains Co2+.

CO
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE

TEST FOR CATION (Ba2+), (Sr2+) AND (Ca2+):


Preliminary:
Original Solution + NH 4 Cl + NH 4 OH + (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3
ppt.
BaCO 3 (white ppt.)
Ba2+ + CO 3 2Sr2+ + CO 3 2-

SrCO 3 (white ppt.)

Ca2+ + CO 3 2-

CaCO 3 (white ppt.)

white

OBSERVATION:
COINS
1
2
5
10

Reaction with (NH 4 ) 2 CO


No Precipitate
No Precipitate
No Precipitate
No Precipitate

INFERENCE:
None of the coins contain any of the metals of group V.

TEST FOR CATION (Mg2+):


To the original solution add excess NH 4 Cl (s) , NH 4 OH and
Ammonium Phosphate solution and scratch the sides of the
test tube with a glass rod.
A white ppt. Confirms Mg2+.

OBSERVATION:

COINS
1
2
5
10

Reaction with (NH 4 ) 3 PO


No Precipitate
No Precipitate
No Precipitate
No Precipitate

INFERENCE:
None of the coins contain Mg2+.

CONCLUSION
The metals present in Indian Coins are:
COINS
1
2
5
10

Metal present
NICKEL & IRON
IRON & COBALT
NICKEL & COPPER

PRECAUTIONS
ALWAYS WEAR LAB COAT AND GLOVES.
DO NOT DISTURB THE SOLUTION FOR 3
DAYS.
CLEAN THE COINS BEFORE DOING TEST.
DO NOT SHAKE THE AQUA REGIA
VIGOROUSLY.
THE APPARATUS TO BE USED SHOULD BE
CLAENED THOROUGHLY.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
N.C.E.R.T. Chemistry for Class
XII
Comprehensive Practical
Chemistry for Class XII
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