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No. 1

January 2017

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two bodies or between adjacent part of a body or

between a system and its environment at different

temperatures.

When some heat is given to a body and its state does

not change, the temperature of the body rises and if

heat is taken from a body its temperature falls i.e.,

temperature can be regarded as the effect of cause,

heat.

Temperature is that property of a body which helps

us to decide the degree of its hotness.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics : If two systems

A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with a

third system C, then A and B will be in thermal

equilibrium with each other.

Scales of Temperature : Centigrade or Celsius (C),

Fahrenheit (F) and Kelvin (K), are commonly used

temperature scales.

Relation between these scales

TC TF 32 TK 273

=

=

5

9

5

Although the temperature of a body can be raised

without limit, it cannot be lowered without limit

and theoretically limiting low temperature is taken

to be zero on the Kelvin scale.

released by the body.

Q = msT

Where, m = masss of the body, s = specific heat of

the body and T = change in temperature

The amount of heat required to change the state of

a body of mass m from solid to liquid at melting

point of the solid or from liquid to gas at boiling

point of the liquid is Q = mL, where L is the latent

heat of the substance.

Q

, if the substance

As Q = msT s =

mT

undergoes the change of state which occurs at

Q

constant temperature (T = 0), then s =

= .

0

or boils at constant temperature is infinite.

Thermal or heat capacity of a body, H = ms

Thermal capacity of the body and its water

equivalent are numerically equal.

If thermal capacity of a body is expressed

in terms of mass of water, it is called water

equivalent of the body.

Heating curve of a body (state changes from solid to

liquid and liquid to gas)

are mixed together, heat flows from the substance

at higher temperature to the substance at lower

temperature till a common temperature is

reached. In this process, heat lost by one substance

= heat gained by the other substance, i.e.,

m1 s1 (T1) = m2 s2 (T2)

Joules mechanical equivalent of heat

J=

heat energy produced (H )

If T is rise in temperature of a body of mass m

on falling through a height h, then

mgh

gh

or T =

smT

Js

When a block of ice of mass m melts on falling

through a height h, then

J=

J=

10

Thermal Expansion

Coefficient of linear expansion

Increase in length

=

Original length Rise in temperature

L L0

= T

or LT = L0 (1 + T )

L0 T

Coefficient of area expansion

Increase in area

=

Original area Rise in temperature

A A0

= T

or AT = A0 (1 + T )

A0 T

Coefficient of volume expansion

Increase in volume

=

Original volume Rise in temperature

V V0

= T

or VT = V0 (1 + T )

V0 T

The three coefficients of thermal expansion are

related as = = .

2 3

Effect of thermal expansion

With increase in temperature volume of

substance increase while mass remains constant,

therefore density should decrease.

=

(1 ) (if <<1)

1 +

When a solid whose density is less than the

density of liquid is floating, then a fraction of it

l

When temperature is increased, s and l

both will decrease. Hence, fraction may

increase, decrease or remain same. At higher

temperature,

1 + l

f= f

; = increase in temperature

1 + s

mgh

JL

or h =

mL

g

v is suddenly stopped, the entire KE of bullet is

converted into heat, then

1 2

mv

v2

J=2

or T =

smT

2 Js

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

increase.

When a solid whose density is more than the

density of liquid is immersed completely, then

upthrust will act on 100% volume of solid and

apparent weight appears less than the actual

weight.

Wapp = W FB

Here, FB = Vsl g

With increase in temperature, Vs will increase and

l will decrease, while g will remain unchanged.

Therefore upthrust may increase, decrease or

remain same.

With increase in temperature, length of

pendulum will increase. Therefore time period

will increase. A pendulum clock will become

slow and it loses the time.

At some higher temperature,

1

1

2

1

T = (T T ) = T

2

T

t

Time lost during time interval t is t =

T

If temperature of a rod fixed at both ends is

increased, then thermal stresses are developed

in the rod.

Thermal stress = Y; Y = Youngs modulus of rod

1 x1 x2 x3

1

=

+

+

K K1 K 2 K 3 (x1 + x2 + x3 )

In general, K =

block between parallel face is

dQ

dT

= KA

dx

dt

Where A is area of cross-section of slab,

dT

= temperature gradient and K = coefficient of

dx

thermal conductivity of the solid.

KA(T1 T2 )

t

In steady state, heat flow Q =

x

Rate of heat flow = Heat current

dQ Temperature difference

=

Thermal resistance

dt

T T2

x

Thermal resistance, R = 1

=

Th

dQ / dt KA

Conducting slabs in series

T1

Q=

12

x1

x2

x3

K1

K2

K3

A(T1 T2 )t

x1 x2 x3

+

+

K1 K 2 K 3

T2

(T1 > T2)

( x i )

xi

K

i

T T

Q = (K1 A1 + K 2 A2 + K 3 A3 ) 1 2 t

x

Equivalent thermal conductivity

K A + K 2 + A2 + K 3 A3

K1, A1

K= 1 1

A1 + A2 + A3

T1

K2, A2

T2

(K i Ai )

K3, A3

In general, K =

x

Ai

Time taken in growth of ice layer (from thickness

L 2

x1 to x2) on water surface is t =

(x 2 x21);

2KT

T = temperature of atmosphere.

Heat Transfer

0 to x, from x to 2x and so on will be in the ratio

t1 : t2 : t3 : : 1 : 3 : 5.

Radiation

temperature is above absolute zero, and all objects

absorb some of radiations.

The intensity of radiation is inversely proportional

to the square of distance of point of observation

form the source (i.e., I 1/d2).

When a body is heated, all radiations having

wavelengths from zero to infinity are emitted.

Radiations of longer wavelengths are predominant

at lower temperature.

energy absorbed

Absorptive power a =

energy incident

a < 1 for ordinary body

a = 1 for perfectly black body

Spectral absorptive power a = absorptive power of

wavelength .

a < 1 for ordinary body

a = 1 for perfectly black body

Emissive power : Energy radiated per unit area per

unit time is called emissive power of a body.

Stefans law : Emissive power of a body is given by,

E = eT4

Here e = emissivity

e 1 and e = 1 for a perfectly black body

Q = eT 4At

Here, A = surface area of body, T = temperature

of body, t = time = Stefans constant.

Net emissive power of a body

E = emissive power absorptive power

= e(T4 T04)

Kirchhoff s law : If different bodies (including a

perfectly black body) are kept at same temperature,

then emissive power is proportional to the

absorptive power.

e

e a or = constant

a

or

e

e

e

=

=

a

a Body-2 a Perfectly black body

Body-1

are also good emitters of same wavelength.

At a given temperature, ratio of e and a for

any body is constant. This ratio is equal to e of

perfectly black body at that temperature.

Wiens Displacement law

T1 + T2

T1 T2

t = k 2 T0 .

L

L

1

m or mT = Constant = Wiens constant (b)

T

Here, b = 2.89 103 mK

Further, area of this graph will give total emissive

power which is proportional to T 4.

Cooling of a body by radiation

Rate of cooling

dT eA 4

dT

=

(T T04 ) or

(T 4 T04 )

dt

ms

dt

difference of a body with atmosphere is small,

then rate of cooling is proportional to the

temperature difference.

If body cools by radiation according to this

law, then temperature of body decreases

exponentially.

In the figure,

Ti = initial temperature of

body

T0 = temperature of

surrounding.

Temperature at any time t

can be written as,

T = T0 + (Ti T0 )e kt ; k = constant

If body is cooling according to this law then to

find temperature of a body at any time t, we will

have to calculate e t . To avoid this, you can use

a shortcut approximate formula given below

t, then the equation assumes

the form y = mx + c; where

m = k and C = ln(T1 T0)

ln( 0)

If Qemission > Qabsorption temperature of body

decreases and consequently the body appears

colder.

If Qemission < Qabsorption temperature of body

increases and it appears hotter.

If Qemission = Qabsorption temperature of body

remains constant (thermal equilibrium).

Gas Laws

Name of law

Boyles law

Charles law

14

Constant terms

Basic concept

(i) Mass of gas PV = constant

(ii) Temperature V 1/P

P1V1 = P2V2

(i) Mass of gas

(ii) Pressure

Graph

V/T = constant; V T

V1 V2

=

T1 T2

Vt =V0(1 + t)

slope = 0A

(K)

273C

(C)

(ii)Volume

P/T = constant; P T

P1 P2

=

T1 T2

Pt =P0(1 + t)

equal volumes of all gases contains equal number

of molecules.

N1 = N2 ; if P, V and T are same.

Daltons law : According to this law, the pressure

exerted by a mixture of several gases equals the sum

of the pressure exerted by each component of gas

present in the mixture i.e., Pmix = P1 + P2 + P3 ......

RT

P=

n Pmix n

V

slope = 0B

(K)

(C)

273C

Average speed

vav =

RT

(n + n + n + .......)

V 1 2 3

Grahms law of diffusion : According to this law, at

same temperature and pressure, the rate of diffusion

of gases inversely proportional to the square root of

the density of gas i.e.,

1

Rate of diffusion rd

1

Also, vrms

so vrms rd

;

8P

8 RT

8 kT

=

=

M

m

1

3

2

ET = Nm vrms

= PV

2

2

Total internal energy of an ideal gas is kinetic.

Total Energy

E 1 2

3

= vrms = P

Volume

V 2

2

Molar K.E. or Mean Molar K.E. (E) : K.E. of N

molecules

3

3

(R = Nk)

E = RT = NkT

2

2

Molecular kinetic energy or mean molecular

K.E.(E ) : K.E. of a gas molecule

EV =

Pmix =

E=

E

3 RT

3

or E =

E = kT

N

2 N

2

Degree of Freedom

molecule or an atom can exhibit motion is called

its degrees of freedom.

to specify the dynamical state of a system is called

its degrees of freedom.

1 mN 2

1 2

P=

vrms = vrms

3 V

3

Where, m = mass of each molecule, N = total

number of molecules, V = volume of container or

total volume of gas, = density of gas, vrms = root

mean square speed of the gas.

Various types of speeds of gas molecules

3P

3RT

3kT

=

=

M

m

Here, M = molar mass of the gas

three degree of freedom are there corresponding

to translational motion.

degrees of freedom in this case depends on the

structure of the molecule.

high temperature.

vrms =

vmp =

2P

2RT

2kT

=

=

M

m

15

Atomicity of gas

Translational

Rotational

Monatomic

e.g., He, Ar, Ne, Ideal gas etc

Vibrational Total

0

Graphically

Diatomic

e.g., H2, O2, Cl2, N2 etc

Triatomic

or

Polyatomic

(linear)

e.g., CO2, C2H2

O=C=O

Triangular

(non-linear)

e.g., H2O, O3 etc

heat of gas.

Energy of one mole of gas related with each

degree of freedom = RT/2

Energy of one mole of gas related with all

degrees of freedom = fRT/2

Energy of each molecule of gas related with all

degrees of freedom = fkT/2

n = n1 + n2

U = U1 + U2

CV =

f

U

R

f

; CV = R =

; CP = CV + R = + 1 R

2

T

2

1

CP

R

2

2

CP =

;=

= 1+ ; = 1+

CV

f

f

1

n2 a

P

+

(V nb) = nRT [for n - mole]

V 2

where a and b are Van der waals constant

Critical parameter :(Pc , Vc , Tc)

a

8 a

Pc =

, Tc =

, V = 3nb

2

27 Rb c

27b

Approximate ideal gas law

PV = nRT = NkT

16

n1CV1 + n2CV2

P = P1 + P2

U = U1 + U2

CP =

n1CP1 + n2CP2

n1 + n2

n1 + n2

n1

n2

CP

n

=

or

=

+

CV

1 1 1 2 1

n M +n M

M= 1 1 2 2

n1 + n2

= CV + R

molecules, k = R/NA

CV =

KE) U = fRT/2

(U = fRT/2)

specifying its pressure (P), volume (V), temperature

(T), internal energy (U) and the number of moles

(n).

The relation between the thermodynamic variables

(P, V, T) of the system is called equation of state.

For n moles of an ideal gas, equation of state is

PV = nRT

Thermodynamics system may be of three types :

Open system : It exchanges both energy and

matter with the surroundings.

Closed system : It exchanges only energy (not

matter) with the surroundings.

nor matter with the surroundings.

Work Done

Mathematical method : W = PV

V2

W = PdV

V1

If V constant, W = 0

If T constant, W = 2.303 n RT log10(V2/ V1)

= 2.303 nRT log10(P1/P2)

If Q constant, W = nR(T1 T2)/ 1

= (P1V1 P2V2)/ 1

Graphical method :

Work done = Area

enclosed between P - V

curve on V axis

Sign concept for work done :

If V dV = + ve expansion of gas

W = (+ve) work done by the system.

If V dV = ve Compression of gas

W = (ve) work done on the system.

Sign concept for heat :

If heat given to system or heat absorbed by

the system Q = +ve

If heat rejected by system or heat evolved

by the system Q = ve

Sign concept for internal energy : Obtained by

difference of (Q W)

If dU (+ve) then U

If dU (ve) then U

First law of thermodynamic is based on energy

conservation, Q = W + dU

Heat and work both are path dependent so they

called unexact differential parameter.

Internal energy is a point function or state function,

Internal energy only depends on initial and final

state of system so it is called exact differential

parameter.

Basic Point

Isochoric

Isobaric

Isothermal

Constant

Volume

Pressure

Temperature

parameter

Equation of state P T

PV = constant

VT

Work done

W = zero

W = P V

= nRT

W = 2.303nRT log10

Adiabatic

Heat

PV = constant, TV l = constant

P1T = constant, P = constant,

PV

V2

nR(T1 T2 ) PV

= 1 1 2 2

W =

V1

1

1

Applied to first

Q 0,

U = 0, Q = W

Q = dU

law of thermodyW 0,

= nCVT

namics

U 0

Q = CPT,

dU = CVT

P-V diagram

Q o

Q = 0, W= U = nCVT

dP/dV =

Specific condition Closed

container

Slope =

dP/dV = 0

Constant

pressure

(Open

container)

(ii) slowly process

vessel

(ii) Rapidly/fast/sudden process

process total heat can not be converted into

mechanical work.

heat flow from a low temperature body to a high

temperature body.

Carnots theorem : This theorem states that

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

17

be greater than or equal to efficiency of a reversible

heat engine provided both work between same heat

source and sink.

Heat engine : Main elements of heat engine

Heat source at temperature T1 = Heat reservoir

Working substance

Sink at low temperature T2 = Cold reservoir

Q

T

= 1 2 100% = 1 2 100%

Q1

T1

Refrigerator : It is just opposite to a heat engine.

In refrigerator, heat is absorbed from a cold

body and some external work is to be done

on refrigerant and the total heat is given out at

higher temperature source.

The coefficient of performance (C.O.P.) is

reciprocal of efficiency and for refrigerator it is

better to work out with its C.O.P.

!"

Q1 = Q2 + W

W Q1 Q2 T1 T2

Efficiency =

=

=

Q1

Q1

T1

18

C.O.P.() =

Q2

T2

C.O.P. =

=

Q1 Q2 T1 T2

reservoirs of heat at its two ends conducts an amount

of heat Q in time t. The metallic rod is melted and the

material is formed into a rod of half the radius of the

original rod. What is the amount of heat conducted

by the new rod, when placed in the same thermal

contact with the two reservoir in time t ?

Q

Q

Q

(a)

(b)

(c) 2 Q

(d)

4

16

2

2. A piece of blue glass heated to a high temperature

and a piece of red glass at room temperature, are

taken inside a dimly lit room, then

(a) the blue piece will look blue and red will look

as usual

(b) red looks brighter red and blue looks ordinary

blue

(c) blue shines like brighter red compared to the

red piece

(d) both the pieces will look equally red.

3. A steel scale measures the length of a copper rod as

80 cm when both are at 20C, the calibration

temperature for the scale. The scale read for the length

of the rod when both are at 40C is (Given, for

steel = 11 106 C1 and for copper = 17 106 C1.)

(a) 97.096 cm

(b) 80.0096 cm

(c) 89.0096 cm

(d) 92.23 cm

4. If the ratio of specific heat of a gas at constant

pressure to that at constant volume is , the change

in internal energy of a mass of the gas, when the

volume changes from V to 2 V at constant pressure

P, is

PV

R

PV

(a)

(b) PV (c)

(d)

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

5. A reversible engine converts (1/6)th of the heat into

work. When the temperature of the sink is reduced

by 62 K, the efficiency of the engine is doubled. The

temperatures of the source and sink respectively are

(a) 95C and 47C (b) 80C and 37C

(c) 99C and 37C (d) 90C and 47C

6. A thermally insulated vessel contains an ideal gas

of molecular mass M and ratio of specific heats . It

is moving with speed v and is suddenly brought to

its temperature increases by

( 1)

( 1)

Mv 2 (b)

Mv 2

(a)

2 ( + 2) R

2 R

Mv 2

( 1)

Mv 2

(c)

(d)

2R

2R

7. The average translational energy and the rms speed

of molecules in a sample of oxygen gas at 300 K

are 6.21 1021 J and 484 m s1 respectively. The

corresponding values at 600 K are nearly

(a) 12.42 1021 J and 968 m s1

(b) 8.78 1021 J and 684 m s1

(c) 6.21 1021 J and 968 m s1

(d) 12.42 1021 J and 684 m s1

8. The Wiens displacement law express relation between

(a) wavelength corresponding to maximum energy

and temperature

(b) radiation energy and wavelength

(c) temperature and wavelength

(d) colour of light and temperature.

9. At what temperature is (1/2)kBT equal to minimum

rotational energy permitted for a hydrogen molecule?

(a) 87 K

(b) 92 K (c) 82 K

(d) 98 K

10. A polyatomic gas with n degrees of freedom has a

mean energy per molecule given by

nkT

nkT

nkT

3kT

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

N

2

2

2N

11. 10 g of ice cubes at 0C are released in a tumbler

(water equivalent 55 g) at 40C. Assuming that

negligible heat is taken from the surroundings, the

temperature of water in the tumbler becomes nearly

(L = 80 cal g1)

(a) 31C (b) 22C (c) 19C (d) 15C

12. A piece of lead is dropped from an aeroplane at a

height of 200 m. If 60% of the striking energy is

converted into heat, then the rise in temperature is

(specific heat for lead is 127.7 J kg1 K1)

(a) 9.2 K (b) 9.8 K (c) 12.7 K (d) 11.4 K

13. The molecules of a given mass of a gas have rms

velocity of 200 m s1 at 27C and 1.0 105 N m2

pressure. When the temperature and pressure of the

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

19

the rms velocity of its molecules in m s1 is

(a)

100 2

100

(b)

3

3

400

3

[NEET Phase I 2016]

which the heat capacity increases with temperature.

One of these is at 100 C, while the other one is at

0 C. If the two bodies are brought into contact,

then, assuming no heat loss, the final common

temperature is

(a) 50 C

(b) more than 50 C

(c) less than 50 C but greater than 0 C

[NEET Phase II 2016]

(d) 0 C

15. A body cools from a temperature 3T to 2T in

10 minutes. The room temperature is T. Assume

that Newtons law of cooling is applicable. The

temperature of the body at the end of next

10 minutes will be

7

3

4

(a)

T

(b)

T

(c)

T

(d) T

4

2

3

[NEET Phase II 2016]

16. The temperature inside a refrigerator is t2 C and

the room temperature is t1 C. The amount of heat

delivered to the room for each joule of electrical

energy consumed ideally will be

t1

t + 273

(a)

(b) 1

t1 t2

t1 t2

t2 + 273

t1 + t2

(c)

(d)

t1 t2

t1 + 273

[NEET Phase II 2016]

17. A pendulum clock loses 12 s a day if the temperature

is 40C and gains 4 s a day if the temperature is

20 C. The temperature at which the clock will

show correct time, and the co-efficient of linear

expansion () of the metal of the pendulum shaft

are respectively

(a) 25C; = 1.85 105 C1

(b) 60C; = 1.85 104 C1

(c) 30C; = 1.85 103 C1

(d) 55C; = 1.85 102 C1

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

18. An ideal gas undergoes a quasi static, reversible

process in which its molar heat capacity C remains

constant. If during this process the relation of

pressure P and volume V is given by PVn = constant,

then n is given by (Here CP and CV are molar specific

20

respectively)

C CP

C

(a) n = P

(b) n =

C CV

CV

C C

C CV

(c) n = P

(d) n =

C CV

C CP

19. n moles of an ideal gas

undergoes a process

A B as shown in the

figure. The maximum

temperature of the gas

during the process will

be

9P0V0

3P0V0

9P0V0

9P0V0

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

4nR

2nR

2nR

nR

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

20. 200 g water is heated from 40 C to 60C. Ignoring

the slight expansion of water, the change in its

internal energy is close to (Given specific heat of

water = 4184 J kg1 K1)

(a) 167.4 kJ (b) 8.4 kJ (c) 4.2 kJ (d) 16.7 kJ

[JEE Main Online 2016]

1.

2.

3.

4.

SOLUTIONS

(b) : A = A/4 and l = 4l

Q

A l 1 1 1

Q

=

= = , Q =

Q

A l 4 4 16

16

(c) : According to Stefans law, E T4

As the temperature of blue glass is more than that of

red glass, so it will appear brighter than red glass.

(b) : 1 cm length of steel scale at 40C

= 1 cm + 1 (11 106)(40 20) cm = 1.00022 cm

Length of copper rod at 40C

= 80 cm + (80 17 106) (40 20) cm = 80.0272 cm

Number of division on the steel scale

80.0272 cm

80.0096

=

1.00022 cm

Length of the rod = 80.0096 cm

CP CV

CP

(a) : As

=

=1

CV

CV

C CV

R

=

or CV = P

1

1

nRT

Now U = nCVT=

( PV = nRT)

1

P V P (2V V ) PV

U =

=

=

1

1

1

T 1

T

6

5. (c) : As = 1 2 , = 1 2 ; T1 = T2

T1 6

T1

5

T2

1 1

Also, = 2 = = 1

T1

6 3

or

6.

7.

8.

9.

(T 62)

1

=1 2

T1

3

or

(T 62)

1

=1 2

(6/5)T2

3

6

6

Also, T1 = T2 = 310 K = 372 K = 99C

5

5

1

(d) : Loss in KE of the gas = mv2

2

Heat gained by gas = nCVT

1 2

m R

mv = nCVT =

T

2

M 1

( 1)

Mv 2

or T =

2R

(d) : Average translational energy temperature.

Thus, when temperature is doubled, average translational

energy becomes double, i.e., 12.42 1021 J.

Further, as vrms T ; when T becomes 2 times

of its previous value, vrms becomes 2 times of its

previous value, i.e.,

2 484 m s1 = 684 m s1

(a) : Wiens displacement law states that the product

of absolute temperature and the wavelength at

which the emissive power is maximum is constant

i.e. max T = constant. Therefore it expresses relation

between wavelength corresponding to maximum

energy and temperature.

1

(a) : Kinetic energy of rotation = I2

2

(I )2 L2

=

=

(as L = I)

2I

2I

1

For kBT to be equal to minimum rotational energy,

2

L2

L2

1

kBT = min or T = min

...(i)

kB I

2

2I

From quantum mechanics,

h

10 34 kg m2 s 1

L2min =

...(ii)

2

In case of hydrogen molecule

I = 2mR2, m = 1.67 1027 kg, R 5 1011 m

Thus, I = 2(1.67 1027)(5 1011)2 kg m2

= 8.3 1048 kg m2

...(iii)

From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),

T=

(10 34 )2

(1.38 10 23 )(8.3 10 48 )

87 K

1

the energy per degree of freedom is kT . For a

2

polyatomic gas with n degrees of freedom, the mean

1

energy per molecule = nkT .

2

11. (b) : Let the final temperature be T.

Heat required by ice = mL + m s (T 0)

= 10 80 + 10 1 T

Heat lost by water = 55 (40 T)

By using law of calorimetry,

heat gained = heat lost; 800 + 10T = 55 (40 T)

T = 21.54C = 22C

12. (a) : We are given, h = 200 m, c = 127.7 J kg1 K1

Let m be the mass of the piece of lead.

Potential energy of the lead piece = mgh

Since 60% of the potential energy is converted into

heat, heat produced = (60/100) mgh = 0.6 mgh.

If T is the rise in temperature, then

heat gained by the piece = mcT

Assuming that there is no loss of heat,

heat gained = heat produced

or mcT = 0.6 mgh

0.6 gh 0.6 9.8 200

=

= 9. 2 K

or T =

c

127.7

13. (d)

14. (b) : Since, heat capacity of material increases with

increase in temperature so, body at 100 C has

more heat capacity than body at 0 C. Hence, final

common temperature of the system will be closer to

100 C.

Tc > 50 C

15. (b) : According to Newtons law of cooling,

dT

= K (T Ts)

dt

dT

dT

For two cases, 1 = K (T1 Ts) and 2 = K (T2 Ts)

dt

dt

3T + 2T

Here, Ts = T, T1 =

= 2. 5 T

2

dT1 3T 2T T

and

=

=

dt

10

10

dT

2T + T

2T T

T2 =

and 2 =

dt

2

10

T

So,

...(i)

= K (2.5T T )

10

2T T

2T + T

...(ii)

=K

T

2

10

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

21

T

(2.5T T )

=

2T T 2T + T

2

3

T = 3(2T T) or, 4T = 6T T = T

2

16. (b) : Temperature inside refrigerator = t2 C

Room temperature = t1 C

For refrigerator,

Heat given to higher temperature (Q1 )

T

= 1

Heat taken from lower temperature (Q2 ) T2

Q1 t1 + 273

=

Q2 t2 + 273

Q1

t + 273

t t

W

= 1

or,

= 1 2

Q1 W t 2 + 273

Q1 t1 + 273

The amount of heat delivered to the room for each

joule of electrical energy (W = 1 J)

t + 273

Q1 = 1

t1 t2

17. (a) : Time period of the pendulum clock at

temperature is given by

1

l (1 + )

l

l

T = 2 = 2 0

= 2 0 (1 + ) 2

g

g

g

1

T T0 1 +

2

...(i)

temperature 0

T = T0 1 + 0

0

2

...(ii)

1

T40 = T0 1 + 40

2

1

T20 = T0 1 + 20

2

...(iii)

...(iv)

T40 T

1

0

= (40 0 )

T0

2

or 12 s = (40 0) (12 h)

From equations (ii) and (iv), we get

T T20 1

0

= (0 20)

T0

2

or, 4 s = (0 20)(12 h)

22

..(v)

...(vi)

3(0 20) = (40 0)

30 + 0 = 40 + 60

100

0 =

= 25C

4

From equation (vi), 4 s = (25 20)(12 3600 s)

4

=

= 1.85 105 C 1

5 12 3600

18. (b) : Here, PVn = constant

or, PnVn1 dV + Vn dP = 0

or, nPdV = V dP

Also, from ideal gas equation PV = nRT

PdV + VdP = nR dT or PdV nPdV = nRdT

nRdT

or, PdV =

(1 n)

Also, dQ = dU + dW nC dT = nCVdT + PdV

nRdT

nCdT = nCV dT +

(1 n)

R

R

or, C = CV +

or, (1 n) =

C CV

(1 n)

C (CV + R) C CP

R

or, n = 1

=

=

C CV

C CV

C CV

19. (a) : Equation of line AB is given by

y y

y y1 = 2 1 (x x1 )

x2 x1

2P P

P P0 = 0 0 (V 2V0 )

V0 2V0

P0

P

or P = V + 3P0 or, PV = 0 V 2 + 3P0V

V0

V0

P0 2

or nRT = V + 3P0V

V0

1 P0 2

or T =

V + 3P0V

...(i)

nR V0

dV

P

3

or 0 (2V ) + 3P0 = 0 V = V0

V0

2

So, from equation (i)

9 P0V0

1 P0 9 2 9

Tmax =

V + PV =

nR V0 4 0 2 0 0 4 nR

20. (d) : For isochoric process, U = Q = ms T

Here, m = 200 g = 0.2 kg, s = 4184 J kg1 K1

T = 60C 40C = 20 C = 20 K

U = 0.2 4184 20 = 16736 J = 16.7 kJ

CLASS XI Series 7

Oscillations and Waves

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv)

Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v)

(vi)

SECTION-A

frequency of a harmonic oscillator?

2. Why is a loud sound heard at resonance?

of 45 Hz. The mass of the wire is 3.5 102 kg and

its linear mass density is 4.0 102 kg m1. What is

(a) the speed of a transverse wave on the string, and

(b) the tension in the string?

will the shock waves in water be longitudinal or

transverse?

and progressive waves?

when the temperature is increased?

OR

Why is a tuning fork used as a standard oscillator? On

what factors does the pitch of a tuning fork depend?

40 cm. What is the maximum wavelength of the

stationary wave produced in it?

SECTION-B

y = sin t cos t is simple harmonic with a time

period of 2/.

7. The length of a seconds pendulum on the surface of

earth is 1 m. What will be the length of a seconds

pendulum on the moon?

8. A wire stretched between two rigid supports

U(x) = U0 (1 cos x) where U0 and are constants.

Find the time period of small oscillations.

SECTION-C

rigidly at one end and a mass m attached to its free

end. A force F applied at the free end stretches the

spring. Figure (b) shows the same spring with both

ends free and attached to mass m at either end.

Each end of the spring in figure (b) is stretched by

the same force F.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

23

(ii) increases with temperature,

(iii) increases with humidity.

Distinguish between conditions for the production

of stationary waves and beats.

in the two cases?

(ii) If the mass in figure (a) and the two masses in

figure (b) are released, what is the period of

oscillation in each case?

12. A pipe 20 cm long is closed at one end. Which

harmonic mode of the pipe is resonantly excited

by a 430 Hz source? Will the same source be in

resonance with the pipe if both ends are open?

(Speed of sound in air is 340 m s1).

13. A train, standing at the outer signal of a railway

station blows a whistle of frequency 400 Hz in still

air. The speed of sound in still air can be taken as

340 m s1.

(i) What is the frequency of the whistle for a

platform observer when the train

(a) approaches the platform with a speed of

10 m s1?

(b) recedes from the platform with a speed of

10 m s1?

(ii) What is the speed of sound in each case?

14. Two simple harmonic motions are represented by

the equations:

4

Here y1 and y2 are in cm and t is in second.

Find the ratio of their amplitudes. What are time

periods of the two motions?

15. A simple pendulum is hung in a stationary lift and

its periodic time is T. What will be the effect on its

periodic time T if

(i) the lift goes up with uniform velocity v,

(ii) the lift goes up with uniform acceleration a, and

(iii) the lift comes down with uniform acceleration a?

16. Use the formula v =

of sound in air

24

P

to explain why the speed

simple pendulum is simple harmonic. Derive an

expression for its time period. Does it depend on

the mass of the bob?

19. On a quiet day, two persons A and B, each sounding

a note of frequency 580 Hz, are standing a few

metres apart. Calculate the number of beats heard

by each in one second when A moves towards B

with a velocity of 4 m s1.

(Speed of sound in air = 330 m s1.)

20. A spring balance has a scale that reads from 0 to

50 kg. The length of the scale is 20 cm. A body

suspended from this balance, when displaced and

released, oscillates with a period of 0.6 s. What is

the weight of the body?

21. The patterns of standing waves formed on a stretched

string at two instants of time are shown in figure.

The velocity of two waves superimposing to form

stationary waves is 360 m s1 and their frequencies

are 256 Hz.

plotted.

(ii) Mark nodes and antinodes on the curve.

(iii) Calculate the distance between A and C.

OR

A horizontal spring block system of mass M executes

simple harmonic motion. When the block is passing

through its equilibrium position, an object of mass

m is put on it and the two move together. Find the

new amplitude and frequency of vibration.

22. Discuss first three modes of vibration of a closed

organ pipe.

SECTION-D

23. Rohit was a good football player. But since last few

days he was getting pain in his stomach. His parents

took him to a doctor who examined him and asked

him to get an ultrasound done to detect the exact

cause. Rohit was afraid of ultrasound scanner

and refused to get it done. His parents made him

understand that the scanner uses ultrasonic rays

which go inside and detect any problem inside the

body. So he got it done and the scanner showed that

he has small tumour in his stomach and that has

to be operated as early as possible. Doctor operated

him off the tumour and after a month he became

fine again.

Answer the following questions based on above

information :

(i) What are the values shown by Rohit's parents?

(ii) On which principle does the ultrasonic scanner

work?

(iii) If the ultrasound uses the operating frequency

of 4.2 MHz, the speed of sound in the tissue is

1.7 km s1. What is the wavelength of the sound

in tissue?

SECTION-E

height h floats in a liquid of density 1. The cork is

depressed slightly and then released. Show that the

cork oscillates up and down simple harmonically

with a period

T = 2

h

1 g

to viscosity of the liquid).

OR

A mass attached to a spring is free to oscillate, with

angular velocity , in a horizontal plane without

friction or damping. It is pulled to a distance x0

and pushed towards the centre with a velocity v0 at

time t = 0. Determine the amplitude of the resulting

oscillations in terms of the parameters , x0 and v0.

25. Find the total energy of the particle executing

SHM and show graphically the variation of potential

energy and kinetic energy with displacement in SHM.

OR

Explain the formation of beats analytically. Prove

that the beat frequency is equal to the difference in

frequencies of the two superposing waves.

in a gas. Why and what correction was applied by

Laplace in this formula?

OR

Explain why (or how) :

(i) in a sound wave, a displacement node is a

pressure antinode and vice versa,

(ii) bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature

and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,

(iii) a violin note and sitar note may have the same

frequency, yet we can distinguish between the

two notes,

(iv) solids can support both longitudinal and

transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves

can propagate in gases, and

(v) the shape of a pulse gets distorted during

propagation in a dispersive medium.

SOLUTIONS

(a mass attached to a spring) is given by T = 2 m/k ,

where k is the force constant of the spring. If is the

frequency of the harmonic oscillator,

=

1

1 k

=

or 1/ m

T 2 m

mass should be reduced to (1/4)th of its original

value.

2. At resonance, a compression falls on a compression

and a rarefaction falls on a rarefaction. On account

of this, the amplitude of the vibrating particles

increases. Since the intensity of sound is directly

proportional to the square of the amplitude of the

vibrating particles, hence maximum sound is heard

at resonance position.

3. An explosion in a lake generates shock waves in

water thereby resulting in a tremendous increase

in pressure in the medium (water). A shock wave

is thus a longitudinal wave travelling at a speed

which is greater than that of a longitudinal wave of

ordinary intensity.

4. As the temperature increases, the length of the

prong of the tuning fork increases. This increases

the wavelength of the stationary waves set up in the

tuning fork. As frequency, 1/, so frequency of

the tuning fork decreases.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

25

= 2 L = 2 40 cm = 80 cm

6. Given, y = sin t cos t

1

1

sin t

cos t

= 2

2

4

4

y = 2 sin t

4

Hence, (sin t cos t) represents SHM.

Again,

y = 2 sin t = 2 sin t + 2

4

4

2

= 2 sin (t + )

4

7. For seconds pendulum, T = 2 s

l

l

l

1

2 = 2

=

= constant

g

g

g 2

l

l

moon = earth

g moon g earth

T = 2

g

1 1

lmoon = learth moon = 1 = m

6 6

g

earth

mass/length = = 4.0 102 kg m1

l=

M 3.5 10 2 7

= m

=

4.0 10 2 8

7

=l=

2

8

7

m = 1.75 m

4

= 45 1.75 = 78.75 m s1

(b) As, v = T

9. Difference between stationary and progressive

waves

(i)

26

Stationary waves

The disturbance

remains confined to

a particular region,

and there is no

onward motion.

Progressive waves

The disturbance

travels forward,

being handed over

from one particle to

the neighbouring

particles.

(ii)

There is no transfer

of energy in the

medium.

Energy is

transferred in the

medium along the

waves.

(iii) The amplitude of

The amplitude of

vibration of particles vibration of each

varies from zero at

particle is same.

nodes to maximum

at antinodes.

OR

When a tuning fork is struck lightly against a rubber

pad, it produces only fundamental tone. If it is struck

forcefully, it produces overtones which soon dies out.

So a tuning fork can be used as a source of standard

frequency.

Factors on which the pitch of a tuning fork depends :

(i) It is inversely proportional to the square of the

length of its prongs.

(ii) It is directly proportional to the thickness of the

fork.

(iii) It is directly proportional to the square root of the

Young's modulus of elasticity of its material.

(iv) It is inversely proportional to the square root of

the density of its material.

Hence low frequency tuning forks are long and thin

while high frequency tuning forks are short and thick.

10. Given, U(x) = U0(1 cos x)

Differentiating both sides with respect to x

dU (x )

= U 0 (0 + sin x ) = U 0 sin x

dx

dU (x )

F=

= U 0 sin x

dx

For small oscillations, sin

sin x x

F = U0 (x) = U02x

Also,

F = kx

From equations (i) and (ii)

k = U02

m

m

= 2

T = 2

Thus,

k

U 02

...(i)

...(ii)

(a) Suppose the maximum extension produced in

the spring is y. Then,

F=ky

(in magnitude)

or

y = F/k

(b) In this case, force F on each mass acts as the

force of reaction developed due to force F on

maximum extension is given by y = F/k

(ii) Period of oscillation:

If T1 is the time period in case (a), then

m

T1 = 2

k

In case (b), the time period of oscillation of a two

body oscillator (two bodies of mass m1 and m2

connected at the ends of a spring of spring constant

k) is given by

T2 = 2

k

where is called the reduced mass of the system

defined as

m1m2

=

m1 + m2

In the present case, m1 = m2 = m. So,

mm m

=

=

m+m 2

m/2

m

= 2

k

2k

12. Here, L = 20 cm = 0.2 m, n = 430 Hz, v = 340 m s1

The frequency of nth normal mode of vibration of

closed pipe is

v

340

n = (2n 1)

430 = (2n 1)

4L

4 0.2

430 4 0.2

or 2n 1 =

= 1.01

340

2n = 2.01 or n 1

Hence, it will excite the lst normal mode of vibration.

In a pipe, open at both ends, we have

v

n 340

430 2 0.2

= 430 n =

n = n

= 0.5

340

2L

2 0.2

As n has to be an integer, therefore, open organ pipe

cannot be in resonance with the source.

Thus, T2= 2

= 400 Hz; speed of sound, v = 340 m s1

speed of source, vs = 10 m s1

(i) (a) When the train approaches the platform, the

apparent frequency as heard by the observer on

the platform will be

340

v

=

=

400

340 10

v vs

340

=

400 = 412.1 Hz

330

(b) When the train recedes from the platform, the

apparent frequency as heard by the observer

will be :

340

v

340

=

400 =

400

340 + 10

v + vs

350

= 388.6 Hz 389 Hz

(ii) The speed of sound in each case remains same

i.e., 340 m s1.

=

...(i)

4

4

y2 = 5(sin 3t + 3 cos 3t)

= 10 sin 3t 1 + cos 3t 3

2

2

3

3

or y2 = 10 sin 3t +

...(ii)

3

The general equation for SHM is

y = A sin (t + 0 ) = A sin 2 t + 0 ...(iii)

T

2 2

A1 = 10 cm, A2 = 10 cm,

=

= 3

T1 T2

2

A1

= 1; T1 = T2 = s

3

A2

a

a

figure (a) with uniform

a

velocity v, tension in

the string, T = mg.

The value of g remains

unaffected.

The period T remains same as that in stationary lift,

l

i.e., T = 2

g

(ii) When the lift goes up with acceleration a as

shown in figure (b), the net upward force on the

bob is T mg = ma T = m(g + a)

The effective value of g is (g + a) and the time period is

T1 = 2

l

g +a

(iii) When lift comes down with acceleration a

figure (c), the net downward force on the bob is

mg T = ma

T = m(g a)

The effective value of g becomes (g a) and the time

period is

l

T2 = 2

g a

Clearly, T2 > T, i.e., time period increases.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

27

given by, v =

Pm

= constant

P

Since m is constant, so

= constant

P

in the same ratio so that the factor

remains

speed of sound in a gas for a given temperature.

(ii) Effect of temperature : We know that

nRT

PV = nRT or P =

V

P

nRT

RT

Also v =

=

=

M

V

where M = molecular weight of the gas

As , R and M are constants, so v T ,

i.e., velocity of sound in a gas is directly proportional

to the square root of its temperature, hence we

conclude that the velocity of sound in air increases

with increase in temperature.

(iii) Effect of humidity: As v = P , i.e., v 1

of dry air. Since the speed of sound is inversely

proportional to the square root of density, so sound

travels faster in moist air than in dry air.

17. Principle of superposition of waves states that

when a number of waves travel through a medium

simultaneously, the resultant displacement of any

particle of the medium at any given time is equal to

the algebraic sum of the displacements due to the

individual waves. Mathematically,

y = y1 + y2 + y3 + ..... + yn

(i) When two waves of same frequency moving

with the same speed in the opposite directions

in a medium superpose on each other, they

produce stationary waves.

(ii) When two waves of slightly different frequencies

moving with the same speed in the same

direction in a medium superpose on each other

they produce beats.

18. Suppose at any instant during oscillation, the bob

of a simple pendulum lies at position A when its

displacement is OA = x and the thread makes angle

28

with the vertical. The forces

acting on the bob are

Q

(i) Weight mg of the

bob acting vertically

downwards.

Q

(ii) Tension T along the

Q

Q

Q

string.

Thus, the restoring force is

F = mg sin

3

5

= mg + .....

3! 5!

be neglected, then, F = mg

If l is the length of the simple pendulum, then

x

arc

(rad) =

=

radius l

x

F = mg

l

mg

g

x or a = x = 2 x

or ma=

l

l

Hence for small oscillations, the motion of the bob

is simple harmonic. Its time period is

2

2

l

or T = 2

T=

=

g

g /l

Obviously, the time period of a simple pendulum

depends on its length l and acceleration due to

gravity g but is independent of the mass m of the bob.

moving towards observer B.

vs = + 4 m s1, vo = 0

v vo

330 0

=

580

=

330 4

v vs

330

=

580 = 587 Hz

326

moving towards stationary source B.

vo = 4 m s1, vs = 0

v vo

330 + 4

=

580

=

330 0

v vs

334

=

580 = 587 Hz

330

Number of beats heard per second by A

= = 587 580 = 7

Number of beats heard per second by B

= = 587 580 = 7

mean position.

Maximum kinetic energy = Total energy

1

1

or

Mv 2 = kA2

2

2

k

A

M

When mass m is put on the system,

v=

combination in equilibrium position, then by the

conservation of linear momentum,

Mv

Mv = (M + m)v or v =

M+m

If A is the new amplitude, then

1

1

( M + m)v 2 = kA2

2

2

M +m

v =

k

A =

M +m

Mv

k

M +m

M +m

M

k

A=

k

M+m

M

New frequency, =

M

A

M +m

1

k

2 M + m

vibration, there is only one node at the closed end

and one antinode at the open end. If L is the length

of the organ pipe, then

L=

Frequency,

1 =

1

4

or 1 = 4L

v

v

= (say)

=

1 4 L

fundamental frequency.

(ii) Second mode of vibration : In this mode of

vibration, there is one node and one antinode

between a node at the closed end and an antinode

at the open end.

v 360

= =

= 1.406 m

256

1.406

AA = =

= 0.3516 m

4

4

Time (t) at which the second curve is plotted

AA 0.3516

=

= 9.8 10 4 s

v

360

(ii) Nodes : A, B, C, D, E

Antinodes : A, C

(iii) Distance between A and C

= = 1.406 m = 1.41 m

OR

Original frequency,

1 k

=

2 M

Let A =Initial amplitude of oscillation

or

L=

Frequency,

3 2

4

or 2 =

4L

3

v

3v

=3

=

2 4 L

This frequency is called first overtone or third

harmonic.

(iii) Third mode of vibration : In this mode of

vibration, there are two nodes and two antinodes

between a node at the closed end and an antinode

at the open end.

2 =

Maximum extension, y = 20 0 = 20 cm = 0.2 m

Maximum force, F = mg = 50 9.8 = 490 N

Spring constant,

F 490

= 2450 N m 1

k= =

y 0. 2

When a body of mass M is suspended from the

spring balance, it oscillates with a period of 0.6 s.

M

M

Time period, T = 2

or T 2 = 4 2

k

k

T 2 k (0.6)2 2450

M= 2 =

4

4 (3.14)2

M = 22.36 kg

Weight of the body,

W = Mg = 22.36 9.8 = 219.1 N

5

L= 3

4

or 3 =

4L

5

29

v

5v

=5

=

3 4 L

Hence different frequencies produced in a closed

organ pipe are in the ratio 1 : 3 : 5 : 7 : ...... i.e., only

odd harmonics are present in a closed organ pipe.

Frequency, 3 =

awareness about technology.

(ii) An ultrasonic scanner works on the principle of

reflection of ultrasonic waves from a region where

there is a change in tissue density.

1

1.7 103 m s 1

v 1.7 km s

(iii) Wavelength, = =

=

4.2 MHz

4.2 106 s 1

= 404.76 m

24. Let X be the equilibrium position of a cylinder

floating in a given liquid. Assume

V = volume of cork = Ah

m = mass of cork = Ah.

the liquid upto point P in position X.

W = weight of the cylindrical cork.

W1 = weight of the liquid displaced by the cork.

W= mg = (Ah)g

of cylinder dipped in liquid density of liquid g

= Al1g

According to the law of flotation,

W = W1 or Ahg = Al1g

l

or

h= 1

a small distance y from equilibrium. Since W = W1

then the restoring force acting on the cylinder is

given by

F = weight of the liquid displaced by the

length y of the cylindrical cork

= ( Ay )1 g = ( A1 g ) y = ky

where k = A1g is the force constant.

If a be the acceleration produced in the cylindrical

piece of the cork, then

F

F A1 gy

= =

a=

mass of cork m

Ah

1 g

y

a=

or

h

30

is directly proportional to its displacement

from equilibrium position and acts towards the

equilibrium position, so the motion of the bob is

simple harmonic having time period (T) given by

y

displacement

= 2

acceleration

1 g

y

h

h

T = 2

1 g

T = 2

or

OR

Let the displacement of the particle at any time t be

represented by

x = A cos(t + 0)

...(i)

where A = amplitude, 0 = initial phase

If v be the velocity of the particle at time t, Then

dx

d

=

v=

Acos(t + 0 )

dt

dt

= Asin(t + 0 )

...(ii)

At t = 0, x = x0 and v = v0

By putting t = 0 in equations (i) and (ii), we get

x0 = Acos0, v0 = Asin0

or

or

v0 = ( A sin 0 )2 = A2 (1 cos2 0 )

= A2 x02

...(iii)

Squaring on both sides of equation (iii), we get

v2

v02 = 2 ( A2 x02 ); A2 x02 = 02

2

2

v

v

A2 = x02 + 02 ; A = x02 + 02

25. The energy of a harmonic oscillator is partly kinetic

and partly potential. When a body is displaced

from its equilibrium position by doing work upon

it, it acquires potential energy. When the body is

released, it begins to move back to equilibrium

position, thus acquires kinetic energy.

At any instant, the displacement of a particle

executing SHM is given by

x = A cos(t + 0)

dx

Velocity, v =

= A sin(t + 0)

dt

Hence, kinetic energy of the particle at any time t

is given by

1

1

K = mv2 = m2 A2 sin2(t + 0)

2

2

= A2 A2 cos2 (t + 0) = A2 x2

1

1

or

K = m2 (A2 x2) = k(A2 x2)

2

2

When the displacement of a particle from its

equilibrium position is x, the restoring force acting

on it is

F = kx

If we displace the particle further through a small

distance dx, then work done against the restoring

force is given by

dW = Fdx = + kxdx

The total work done in moving the particle from

mean position (x = 0) to displacement x is given by

x

2

1

W = dW = kxdx = k x = kx 2

2 0 2

0

The work done against the restoring force is stored as

the potential energy of the particle. Hence potential

energy of a particle at displacement x is given by

1

1

1

U = kx2 = m2x2 = m2 A2 cos2(t + 0)

2

2

2

At any displacement x, the total energy of a

harmonic oscillator is given by

1

1

E = K + U = k(A2 x2) + kx2

2

2

1 2 1

or E = kA = m2A2 = 22m2A2

2

2

( = 2)

oscillator is independent of time or displacement.

At the mean position, x = 0

1

1

Kinetic energy, K = k(A2 02) = kA2

2

2

1

Potential energy, U = k(02) = 0

2

Hence at the mean

position, particle has

only kinetic energy.

At the extreme positions,

x=A

Kinetic energy,

1

=

= +

K = k(A2 A2) = 0

2

1

Potential energy, U = kA2

2

Hence at the two extreme positions particle has

only potential energy.

OR

Consider two harmonic waves of frequencies 1

and 2 (1 being slightly greater than 2) and each

of amplitude A travelling in a medium in the same

direction. The displacements due to the two waves

at a given observation point may be represented by

y1 = A sin1 t = A sin2 1 t

y2 = A sin2 t = A sin2 2 t

By the principle of superposition, the resultant

displacement at the given point will be

y = y1 + y2 = A sin2 1 t + A sin2 2 t

+

= 2 A cos 2 1 2 t sin 2 1 2 t

2

2

If we write

+

mod = 1 2 and av = 1 2

2

2

then

y = 2A cos (2 mod t) sin (2 av t)

or

y = R sin(2 av t)

resultant wave.

The amplitude R of the resultant wave will be

maximum, when

cos 2 mod t = 1

or

2 mod t = n

where n = 0, 1, 2, ...

(1 2)t = n

1

2

n

= 0,

,

, .....

or t =

1 2

1 2 1 2

Time interval between two successive maxima

1

=

1 2

Similarly, the amplitude R will be minimum, when

cos 2 mod t = 0

or

2 mod t = (2n + 1)/2 where n = 0, 1, 2, ...

or

(2n + 1)

1

3

5

or t =

=

,

,

, ...

2(1 2 ) 1 2 2(1 2 ) (2 1 2 )

The time interval between successive minima

1

=

1 2

Clearly, both maxima and minima of intensity

occur alternately. Hence the time interval between

two successive beats

1

tbeat =

1 2

The number of beats produced per second is called

beat frequency.

or

31

beat =

1

t beat

or beat = 1 2

a gas under isothermal conditions. Thus the

temperature of gas remains constant. If Biso is the

bulk modulus of the gas at constant temperature,

then the speed of sound in the gas will be

v=

Biso

PV = constant

(Boyle's law)

Differentiating both sides, we get

PdV + VdP = 0

VdP

dP

or P =

=

dV

dV /V

Change in pressure (dP )

=

= Biso

Change in volume (dV )/Original volume (V )

Hence the Newton's formula for the speed of sound

in a gas is

P

v=

1.013 105

280 m s1

1.293

This value is about 16% less than the experimental

value (331 m s1) of the speed of sound in air at STP.

Hence Newton's formula is not acceptable.

The French scientist Laplace pointed out that sound

travels through a gas under adiabatic conditions not

under isothermal conditions.

So, when sound travels through a gas, the

temperature does not remain constant. The pressure

and volume variations are adiabatic. If Badia is the

adiabatic bulk modulus of the gas, then the formula

for the speed of sound in the gas would be

v=

v=

Badia

Differentiating both sides, we get

PV 1 dV + V dP = 0

or

PV 1 dV = V dP

dP

P=

= Badia

dV /V

where = CP/CV, is the ratio of two specific heats.

Hence the Laplace formula for the speed of sound

in a gas is

32

v=

Laplace correction.

For air = 7/5, so speed of sound in air at STP will

be

P

7

v=

=

280 m s1 = 331.3 m s1

5

OR

(i) In a sound wave, a node is a point where the

displacement is zero as here a compression and a

rarefaction meet and the pressure is maximum,

so it is also called pressure antinode.

While an antinode is a point where the amplitude

displacement is maximum but pressure is

minimum. So this point is also called pressure

node.

Hence displacement node is a pressure

antinode and displacement antinode is pressure

node.

(ii) Bats emit ultrasonic waves of large frequencies

(small wavelength) when they fly. These

ultrasonic waves are received by them after

reflection from the obstacle. Their ears are so

sensitive and trained that they can not only get

the information of the distance of the obstacle

but also the nature of the reflecting surface.

(iii) The quality of the sound produced by an

instrument depends upon the number of

overtones. Since the number of overtones is

different in the cases of sounds produced by

violin and sitar therefore we can distinguish

through them.

(iv) Solids possess both the volume elasticity and

the shear elasticity. Therefore they can support

both longitudinal and transverse waves.

On the other hand, gases have only the volume

elasticity and no shear elasticity, so only

longitudinal waves can propagate in gases.

(v) A sound pulse is a combination of waves of

different wavelengths. In a dispersive medium,

the waves of different wavelengths travel with

different speeds in different directions, i.e.,

with different velocities. So the shape of the

pulse gets distorted, i.e., a plane wavefront in a

non-dispersive medium does not remain a

plane wavefront in a dispersive medium.

Class XI

extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Thermodynamics

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Total Marks : 120

Only One Option Correct Type

(c)

speed, the root mean square speed and the most

probable speed of the molecules in an ideal

monatomic gas at absolute temperature T. The mass

of a molecule is m. Then,

(a) No molecules can have speed greater than vrms.

v

(b) No molecule can have speed less than p .

2

(c) v p < v > vrms .

(d) The average kinetic energy of a molecule is

3 2

mv .

4 p

2. Figure shows graph of

pressure versus density for an

ideal gas at two temperatures

T1 and T2.

R

(a) T1 > T2

(c) T1 < T2

(b) T1 = T2

(d) None of these

PT diagram.

Which of the curves show the

same process on a VT diagram?

(a)

34

(b)

(d)

480 K and 300 K. If the engine actually produces 1.2 J

of mechanical energy per calorie of heat absorbed,

then the ratio of actual efficiency to theoretical

efficiency is

(a) 16/21 (b) 21/16 (c) 5/16 (d) 16/5

5. A gas at pressure P is adiabatically compressed so

that its density becomes twice that of initial value.

Given that = CP /CV = 7/5, what will be the final

pressure of the gas?

(a) 2 P

(b) 1.4 P

a sample of helium is (5/7)th that of the molecules

in a sample of hydrogen. If the temperature of

the hydrogen gas is 0 C, that of helium sample is

about

(a) 0 C

(b) 4 C

(c) 273 C (d) 100 C

7. One mole of an ideal gas requires 207 J heat to raise

the temperature by 10 K when heated at constant

pressure. If the same gas is heated at constant

volume to raise the temperature by the same 10 K,

the heat required is

(Given the gas constant R = 8.3 J mol1 K1)

(a) 198.7 J (b) 290 J (c) 215.3 J (d) 124 J

be of the order of the mean free path in nitrogen at

1.02 atm pressure and 18.0 C? Take the diameter

of the nitrogen molecule to be 315 pm and speed of

sound to be 343 m s1.

(a) 5.36 109 Hz

(b) 7.38 108 Hz

8

(c) 2.88 10 Hz

(d) 3.88 109 Hz

9. A thermodynamic process is

shown in the figure. The pressure

and volumes corresponding to

some points in the figure are

PA = 3 104 Pa; VA = 2 103 m3;

PB = 8 104 Pa; VD = 5 103 m3.

In the process AB, 600 J of heat is added to the

system and in process BC, 200 J of heat is added

to the system. The change in internal energy of the

system in process AC would be

(a) 560 J (b) 800 J (c) 600 J (d) 640 J

10. The internal energy of a monatomic ideal gas is 1.5

nRT. One mole of helium is kept in a cylinder of

cross section 8.5 cm2. The cylinder is closed by a

light frictionless piston. The gas is heated slowly in

a process during which a total of 42 J heat is given

to the gas. If the temperature rises through 2 C,

find the distance moved by the piston. Atmospheric

pressure = 100 kPa.

(a) 10 cm (b) 20 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 40 cm

11. A gas is expanded from volume V0 to 2V0

under three different processes is shown in figure.

Process 1 is isobaric, process 2 is isothermal and

process 3 is adiabatic. Let U1, U2 and U3 be the

change in internal energy of the gas in these three

processes. Then

(c) U2 < U1 < U3

(d) U2 < U3 < U1

according to the law, P = P0 aV2, where P0 and

a are constant, the highest temperature of the gas

attained is

(a)

P0 P0 1/2

nR 3a

(b)

2P0 P0 1/2

nR 3a

(c)

2 P0 P0 1/2

3 nR 3a

(d)

P0 P0 1/2

3 nR 3a

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the correct

choice as :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the

correct explanation of assertion.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the

correct explanation of assertion.

(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

13. Assertion : All molecular motion ceases at 273C.

Reason : Temperature below 273C cannot be

attained.

14. Assertion : A refrigerator transfers heat from lower

temperature to higher temperature.

Reason : Heat cannot be transferred from lower

temperature to higher temperature normally.

15. Assertion : The total translational kinetic energy of

all the molecules of a given mass of an ideal gas is 1.5

times the product of its pressure and its volume.

Reason : The molecules of a gas collide with each

other and the velocities of the molecules change

due to collision.

JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs

Only One Option Correct Type

pistons. They contain the same volume of an ideal

gas at the same temperature. The mass of the gas in

A is mA and that in B is mB. The gas in each cylinder

is now allowed to expand isothermally to double the

initial volume. If the changes in the pressure in A and

B are found to be P and 1.5 P respectively then

(a) 4mA = 9mB

(b) 2mA = 3mB

(c) 3mA = 2mB

(d) 9mA = 4mB

17. A smooth vertical tube having

two different cross sections is

open from both the ends but

closed by two sliding pistons

as shown in figure and tied

with an inextensible string.

One mole of an ideal gas is

enclosed between the piston.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

35

pistons is given S. The masses of pistons are m1

and m2 for larger and smaller one, respectively.

Find the temperature by which the gas is raised so

that the pistons will be displaced by a distance l.

Take atmospheric pressure equal to P0.

l

(a) [P0S + (m1 + m2)g]

R

l

(b) [P0S + (m1 m2)g]

R

P0 S l

(m1 m2 ) gl

(c)

(d)

R

R

18. Figure shows a process

ABCA performed on an

ideal gas. The net heat

given to the system during

the process will be

V2

(a) nR T2 ln (T2 T1 )

V1

(b) nR T2 ln 2 (T1 + T2 )

V1

(c) nR T1 ln 1 + (T1 T2 )

V2

(d) nR T1 ln 1 (T2 T1 )

V2

constant in the upper part of the atmosphere. The

mean molecular weight of air is M. An expression

for the variation in pressure in the upper atmosphere

with height h is (P0 is the pressure at h = 0)

(a) P = 2P0 eMgh/RT

(b) P = P0 eMgh/RT

(c) P = P0 eMgh/2RT

(d) P = P0 e2Mgh/RT

isothermally. A number of PV curves are drawn

for the two processes over different ranges of

pressure and volume at different temperatures. It

will be found that

(a) two adiabatic curves do not intersect

(b) two isothermal curves do not intersect

(c) an adiabatic curve and an isothermal curve

may intersect

(d) the magnitude of the slope of an adiabatic curve

is greater than the magnitude of the slope of an

isothermal curve for the same value of pressure

and volume.

36

container supports a freely moving piston of

mass m. The piston and the cylinder have equal

cross-sectional area A. When the piston is in

equilibrium, the volume of the gas is V0 and its

pressure is P0. The piston is slightly displaced

from the equilibrium position and released. Then

(Assuming that the system is completely isolated

from its surrounding.)

(a) Piston will execute SHM.

(b) Motion of the piston will be periodic only.

2 A P0

.

(c) Frequency of motion is

mV0

(d) Frequency of motion is

A P0

.

2 mV0

expanded according to the law P = V, where is

a constant. The initial volume of the gas is equal to

V0. As a result of expansion the volume of the gas

increases times. Then

(a) the increment of the internal energy of the gas

(2 1)

is V02

.

( 1)

(b) the work performed by the gas is 0.5 V20 (2 1).

(c) the molar heat capacity of the gas in the process

( + 1)

R

.

( 1)

(d) Both (b) and (c).

23. The speeds of ten particles in m s1 are 0, 1.0, 2.0,

3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 4.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0.

(a) The average speed is 3.1 m s1.

(b) The root mean square speed is 3.75 m s1.

(c) The most probable speed of these particle is 3 m s1.

(d) Mean square speed is 17 m2 s2.

Integer Answer Type

temperature 500 K. A small hole is made in it so

that hydrogen leaks out. If the final pressure is P/2

and the temperature falls to 300 K, the mass of

hydrogen (in g) that leaks out is

25. A vessel contains a mixture of 1 mole of oxygen

and 2 moles of nitrogen at 300 K. Find the ratio of

average rotational kinetic energies per O2 molecule

to per N2 molecule.

under a piston are transferred

infinitely slowly from a state

with a volume of V0 and a

pressure 3P0 to another state

with 3V0 and a pressure P0

as shown in figure.

If the maximum temperature that the gas will reach

x P0V0

, what is the value of x?

in this process is

nR

Comprehension Type

non-conducting material is divided into two equal parts

by a fixed rigid wall whose lower half is non-conducting

and upper half is purely conducting. The right side of the

wall is divided into equal parts (initially) by means of a

massless non-conducting piston free to move as shown.

Section A contains 2 mol of a gas while the section B

and C contain 1 mol each of the same gas ( = 1.5) at

pressure P0. The heater in left part is switched on till the

final pressure in section C becomes 125/27 P0.

29. One mole of a

monatomic

ideal

gas is taken along

two cyclic processes

E F G E and

E F H E

as shown in the

PV diagram. The processes involved are purely

isochoric, isobaric, isothermal or adiabatic.

Match the paths in column I with the magnitudes of

the work done in column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) G E

(P) 160 P0V0 ln2

(B) G H

(Q) 36 P0V0

(C) F H

(R) 24 P0V0

(D) F G

(S) 31 P0V0

A

B

C

D

(a) Q

R

S

P

(b) P

Q

S

R

(c) S

Q

P

R

(d) S

R

Q

P

is positive, match

the following option

of column I with

the corresponding

option of column II.

PV

5P0V0

(b)

(a) 0 0

R

3R

P0V0

5P0V0

(c)

(d)

R

3R

28. The heat supplied by the heater is

368

113

P0V0

(b)

PV

(a)

9

5 0 0

316

405

(c)

P0V0

(d)

PV

9

8 0 0

Column I

(A) JK

(B) KL

(C) LM

(D) MJ

A

B

(a) Q, S

S

(b) P

Q, R

(c) Q

P, S

(d) P

Q

Column II

(P) W > 0

(Q) Q < 0

(R) W < 0

(S) Q > 0

C

D

P

Q

Q

P, R

S

Q, R

P, S

R

> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

< 60%

37

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known as energy bands.

There are two types of energy band

Valence band : Range of energy possessed by

valence electron is known as valence band. These

electrons are bounded and not responsible for

flow of current.

Conduction band : Range of energy possessed

by free electron is known as conduction band.

These electrons are responsible for flow of

current.

Width of forbidden

energy gap depends

upon the nature of

substance.

strongly attached with nucleus.

As temperature increases, forbidden energy gap

decreases (very slightly).

Property

40

between the bottom of the conduction band and

top of the valence band. No electron exist in this

gap.

Conductors

Semiconductors

Insulators

1.

and its value

102 108 S m1

and insulators 105 106 S m1 1011 1019 S m1

2.

Resistivity

value

and insulators 105 106 m 1011 1019 m

3.

value

but less than that in insulators For diamond,

For Ge, Eg = 0.72 eV; for Si, Eg Eg = 7 eV

= 1.1 eV; for GaAs, Eg = 1.3 eV

4.

Current carriers

and

its Negligible

102 108 m

Free electrons

Free electrons

5.

Number of current

carriers (electrons

or holes) at ordinary

temperature

6. Temperature

coefficient of

resistivity ()

7. Effect of temperature

on conductivity

8. On increasing

temperature the

number of current

carriers

9. On mixing impurities

their resistance

10. Current flow in these

takes place

11. Examples

Very high

Very low

Negligible

Positive

Negative

Negative

Conductivity decreases

Conductivity increases

Unaffected

Increases

Conductivity

increases

Increases

Increases

Decreases

Remains unchanged

Easily

Very slow

etc.

diamond, glass etc.

Classication of Semiconductor

semiconductor.

A semiconductor doped with suitable impurity

to increase its conductivity, is called extrinsic

semiconductor.

On the basis of doped impurity extrinsic

semiconductors are of two types

n-type

semiconductor :

Extrinsic

semiconductor doped with pentavalent

impurity like As, Sb, Bi, etc. in which negatively

1.

called n-type semiconductor. Every pentavalent

impurity atom donate one electron in the

crystal, therefore it is called a donor atom.

p-type semiconductor : Extrinsic semiconductor

doped with trivalent impurity like Al, B, etc. in

which positively charged holes work as charge

carriers, is called p-type semiconductor. Every

trivalent impurity atom have a tendency to

accept one electron, therefore it is called an

acceptor atom.

Intrinsic Semiconductors

n-type Semiconductor

p-type Semiconductor

3.

4.

ne = nh

5.

I = Ie + Ih

6.

Entirely neutral

Entirely neutral

Ie

Ih

Entirely neutral

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

41

nh are the number density of electrons and holes

and ni is number density of intrinsic carriers, i.e.,

electrons or holes.

Electrical conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor

is given by

= 1/ = e(nee + nh h)

Where is resistivity, e and h are mobility of

electrons and holes respectively.

concentration difference, holes from p-side try to

diffuse n-side, produces diffusion current.

Drift current : Because of barrier potential,

minority charge carriers force to move and such

movement produces drift current.

Forward-biased

Depletion width decreases.

Low resistance offered at junction.

High current flows through the circuit.

Reverse-biased

Depletion width increases.

High resistance offered at junction.

Low current flows through the circuit.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

$'

"

(

&

(

%

!

"#

$

"

I-V characteristics

Unbiased

p(n) region has majority carrier holes (electrons)

and minority carrier electrons (holes).

The layer of immobile positive and negative ions,

which have no free electrons and holes is called

depletion layer.

42

p -n Junction

I = I0 [e(eV /nkT ) 1]

potential difference across the diode,

1 for Ge

n = constant =

2 for Si

V

Dynamic resistance of p-n junction, rd =

I

V

Static or dc resistance, r =

z

dc

1

For an ideal diode,

In reverse bias

In forward bias

ON switch

r=0

OFF switch

r=

43

Diode as a Rectier

m

Im =

(r f + RL )

I

Ripple factor = ac = 0.48

I dc

Pdc

Efficiency =

= 81.2%

Pac

(double the efficiency of the half wave rectifier)

Output frequency = 2 Input frequency

The pulsating dc obtained in both the rectifiers can

be further rectified by using filter circuits.

current into direct current. There are two types of

rectifiers .

Half wave rectifier

Junction diode

+

Output

voltage

Input

voltage

Output

voltage

Time

Time

operated in reverse bias.

Zener voltage remains constant, even though

current through the zener diode varies over a

wide range.

Peak current through load

m

Im =

(r f + RL )

rf = forward resistance of the diode ; RL = load

resistance ; m = peak of ac voltage.

Ripple factor

rms value of ac component

=

= 1.21

dc component in the rectifier circcuit

Efficiency

dc output power of half wave rectifier

=

= 40.6%

ac power supplied to the reectifier

increase (decrease) in the input voltage results

in, increase (decrease) of voltage drop across Rs

without any change in voltage across the zener

diode.

44

fabricated with a transparent window to allow light to

fall on the diode. It is operated under reverse bias.

When it is illuminated with light of photon

energy greater than the energy gap of the

semiconductor, electron-hole pairs are

generated in near depletion region, hence

reverse current increases.

junction.

It converts solar energy into electrical energy.

It works on the same principle (photovoltaic

effect) as the photodiode, except that no

external bias is applied and the junction area is

kept large.

figure.

junction which emits spontaneous radiation under

forward bias.

It converts electrical energy into light energy.

The symbol of a LED is shown in the figure.

Junction Transistor

that of Si junction diode. But the threshold

voltages are much higher and slightly different

for each colour. The reverse breakdown voltages

of LEDs are very low, typically around 5 V.

The semiconductor used for fabrication of

visible LEDs must have minimum band gap of

1.8 eV.

The compound semiconductor gallium arsenide

phosphide (GaAsP) is used for making LEDs of

different colours.

GaAs is used for making infrared LED.

Solar cell : It is basically a p-n junction which

growing either a very thin layer of n-type (p-type)

crystal between two much thicker p-type (n-type)

layers.

It is a current operated device, i.e., action of

transistor is controlled by the motion of charge

carriers, i.e., current.

Emitter : Supply a large number of majority

charge carriers for the flow of current through

the transistor. It is heavily doped and medium

in size.

Base : Control the flow of majority charge

carriers from emitter to collector. It is lightly

doped and very thin in size.

Collector : Collects a major portion of the

majority carriers supplied by emitters for the

circuit operation. It is moderately doped and

has large size.

C ommon Collector(CC)

45

Action : In general (active

region), emitter base is

forward biased and base

collector is reverse biased

IE = IB + IC , (IC >> IB)

Input characteristic

Input resistance,

V

ri = BE

I B V

CE

R

R

= AV = C = 2 C

R

RB

B

Transistor as a switch : Operated in cut off region

or saturation region.

VCC = ICRC + VCE

VCE = VCC ICRC

When Vi = 0

or < 0.7 V, IB = 0

Hence IC = 0

VCE = VCC

(open circuit (switch))

When Vi > 0.7 V,

then this is similar

to a closed circuit

(switch).

Transistor as an oscillator : An oscillator works on

positive feedback.

A

Voltage gain with feedback A f =

1 A

A open voltage gain

Output characteristic

V

Output resistance, ro = CE

IC I

B

Transistor parameters : and

Current amplification factor,

I

I

I

ac = C

and dc = C ; dc = C ,

IB

IE

I B VCE

=

and =

1

1+

Transistor as an amplifier (CE-configuration) : To

use transistor as an amplifier it is being operated

somewhere in the middle of its active region.

V0 IC RC

R

=

= C

Voltage gain, AV =

Vi I B RB

RB

46

Logic Gates

feedback factor

Barkhausen criterion for sustained oscillation,

A = 1

certain logical relationship between the input and

the output voltage of the circuit.

The operation of a logic gate is indicated in a table,

known as truth table. This table contains all possible

combination of inputs and corresponding outputs.

Name

of gate

OR

Symbol

Truth

table

A B Y

0

Boolean

expression

Y=A+B

JANUARY 17

JANUARY 17

AND

Y=AB

message signal so as to make it suitable for

transmission through a channel and subsequent

reception.

Receiver : Extract the desired message signals from

the received signals at the channel output.

Attenuation : The loss of strength of a signal while

propagating through a medium.

Amplification : Process of increasing the strength

of a signal using an amplifier.

Range : The largest distance between a source and

a destination up to which the signal is received with

sufficient strength.

Bandwidth : The frequency range over which an

equipment operates or the portion of spectrum

occupied by the signal.

Modulation : The process of superposing a low

frequency message signal on a high frequency wave

(carries wave).

Demodulation : The process of retrieval of

information from the carrier wave at the receiver.

Repeater : Picks up the signal from the transmitter,

amplifies and retransmits it to the receiver

sometimes with a change in carrier frequency.

B Y

0 0

1 0

0 0

1 1

1

A

0

B Y

0 1

1 1

0 1

1

A

1 0

B Y

0 1

1 0

0 0

1 0

XOR

B Y

(also

0 0

called

exclusive

OR gate)

1 1

0 1

1 0

B Y

0 1

1 0

0 0

1 1

NOT

NAND

NOR

XNOR

Y=A

Y = AB

Y = A+B

Y = AB + AB

Y = AB + AB

Communication Systems

the transmitting antenna propagate along the surface

of the earth, to reach the receiving antenna.

energy into another form.

Signal : Information converted in electrical form

and suitable for transmission is called a signal.

Signal can be either analog or digital.

Noise : The unwanted signals that tend to disturb

the transmission and processing of the message

signals in a communication system.

frequency (i.e., less than 2 MHz)

Uses : Local broadcasting (ship communication,

radio navigation).

Sky wave propagation : The radiowaves from the

transmitting antenna propagate through sky to reach

the receiving antenna, after the reflection through

ionosphere.

The ionospheric layer acts as a reflector for a

51

Critical frequency : Maximum frequency of

radiowave reflected from ionosphere.

C = 9 Nmax

ionosphere.

Space wave (Line of Sight) propagation

The radiowaves from the transmitting antenna

propagate along the space surrounding the

earth to reach the receiving antenna either

directly or after reflection from the ground.

Range of a transmitting antenna dT = 2Rh T

Modulation

surface = Maximum line of sight distance

between two antennas (receiving and

transmitting)

dM = dT + dR = 2RhT + 2RhR

Amplitude modulation

The modulated signal cm(t) can be written as

Am

sinmt) sin ct

Ac

= Acsinct + Ac sinmt sinct

cm(t) = Ac(1 +

52

distances. Therefore, they are superimposed on a

high frequency carrier signal by a process known

as modulation.

In modulation, some characteristic of the carrier

signal like amplitude, frequency or phase varies

in accordance with the modulating or message

signal. Correspondingly, they are called Amplitude

Modulated (AM), Frequency Modulated (FM) or

Phase Modulated (PM) waves.

Pulse modulation could be classified as : Pulse Width

Modulation (PAM), Pulse Duration Modulation

(PDM) or Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and

Pulse Position Modulated (PPM).

Need for modulation

Size of antenna or aerial wavelength of the

signal (atleast /4 in dimension)

2

Effective power radiated by an antenna (l/) .

For a good transmission we need high powers,

i.e., should be small.

up of signals from different

Mixing

transmitters.

= Acsinct +

Ac

A

cos(c m)t c cos(c + m)t

2

2

to the maximum is called the carrier swing.

Carrier swing = 2

number of side frequency components on each side

of the carrier frequency c, c m, c 2m,.......

Am

Ac

1 to avoid distortion.

Modulation index in terms of amplitude of AM

wave,

A

Amin

= max

Amax + Amin

Optical Fibres

Power in AM wave

Modulation index, =

A2

For carrier wave, Pc = c , R is the resistance of

2R

antenna

2

Ac 1 Ac 1 2

=

+

P

2 2R 2 2R 2 c

2

Ps

2

=

Pt (2 + 2 )

If several modulating signals are present in AM

Frequency modulation

Modulation factor (index),

f =

angle c is given by

12 22

2

sin c =

or cos c =

1

1

2

2

2

wave then total = 1 + 2 + 3 + .....

1 and a cladding of refractive index 2 such that

2 < 1. The light is restricted to travel within the

fibre by the process of total internal reflection.

Optical fibres are used for transmitting optical

frequencies.

where sin a =

12 22

0

Numerical aperture,

NA = 0 sin a = 12 22

=

Modulation frequency

m

Numerical aperture is measure of light gathering

power of the fibre.

!

!

!

!

53

germanium diode is 250 mA m2 at 300 K. The

voltage that would have to be applied across the

junction to cause a forward current density of

105 A m2 to flow is

(a) 0.33 V

(b) 0.50 V

(c) 0.66 V

(d) 0.99 V.

waves with modulation indices m1, m2, m3.... . The

total modulation index (m) of the wave is

(a) m1 + m2 + m3 + ...

(b) m1 m2 + m3 + ...

.

n

7. Choose only false statement from the following.

(a) Substances with energy gap of the order of 10 eV

are insulators.

(b) The conductivity of semiconductor increases

with increase in temperature.

(c) In conductors, the valence and conduction

bands may overlap.

(d) The resistivity of a semiconductor increases

with increase in temperature.

and hence current flows from A to B

(b) D2 is forward biased and D1 is reverse biased

and hence no current flows from B to A and

vice versa

(c) D1 and D2 are both forward biased and hence

current flows from A to B

(d) D1 and D2 are both reverse biased and hence

no current flows from A to B and vice versa.

3. A transmitter radiates 10 kW power with only

carrier and 11.2 kW power with modulated carrier.

The depth of modulation is

(a) 24.5%

(b) 36.5%

(c) 49.0%

(d) 53.4%.

4. What is the ratio of critical frequency for reflection

of radiowaves from E, F1 and F2 layers in ionosphere

if their electron densities are 2 1011, 3 1011 and

8 1011 m3 respectively?

(a) 1 : 1.5 : 3

(b) 1 : 1.22 : 2

(c) 2 : 3 : 8

(d) 1 : 1.5 : 4

5. In an n-p-n transistor circuit, the collector current

is 10 mA. If 90% of the electrons emitted reach the

collector,

(a) the emitter current will be 9 mA

(b) the base current will be 1 A

(c) the emitter current will be 11 mA

(d) the base current will be 1 mA.

54

(c)

(d)

antenna of height 45 m are separated by a distance

of 40 km for satisfactory communication in

line-of-sight mode. Then the value of h is (given

radius of the earth is 6400 km)

(a) 15 m (b) 20 m (c) 30 m (d) 25 m.

9. The output current of an 80% modulating amplitude

modulated generator is 1.8 A. To what value will

the current rise if the generator is additionally

modulated by another audiowave of modulation

index 0.6 ?

(a) 1.71 A (b) 1.81 A (c) 1.91 A (d) 2.01 A

10. Figure shows a modified biasing circuit where the

base resistor RB is connected to the collector instead

of connecting it to the battery VCC. The value of IB is

not given by

(VCC IC RC ) VBE

(a) I B =

(RC + RB )

(b)

IB =

(VCE VBE )

(RC + RB )

(d) VCC = VCE (IC + IB)RB.

55

6 MHz transmitted from a ground transmitter at

a height of 500 m located at a distance of 100 km.

If radius of the earth is 6 . 4 106 m; maximum

number density of electrons in ionosphere is

1012 m3, the signal is coming via

(a) ground wave

(b) space wave

(c) sky wave

(d) none of these.

power gain of the amplifier will respectively be

(a) 4, 4

(b) 4, 3.69

(c) 4, 3.84

(d) 3.69, 3.84.

[NEET Phase I 2016]

17. Identify the semiconductor devices whose

characteristics are given below, in the order (i), (ii),

(iii), (iv)

can detect if output circuit consists of R = 2 M and

C = 1 pF ?

(a) fc >> 20 MHz

(b) fc >> 0.2 MHz

(c) fc = 0.5 MHz

(d) fc >> 0.5 MHz

13. For CE transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage

across the collector resistance of 2 k is 4 V. If

the current amplification factor of the transistor is

100 and the base resistance is 1 k, then the input

signal voltage is

(a) 10 mV (b) 20 mV (c) 30 mV (d) 15 mV.

[NEET Phase II 2016]

14. The given circuit has two ideal diodes connected as

shown in the figure. The current flowing through

the resistance R1 will be

(a) 2.5 A

(c) 1.43 A

(b) 10.0 A

(d) 3.13 A.

[NEET Phase II 2016]

all the three inputs A, B, C are first 0 and then 1 ?

(a) 0, 1

(b) 0, 0

(c) 1, 0

(d) 1, 1

[NEET Phase II 2016]

configuration in a given amplifier. A load resistance

of 800 is connected in the collector circuit and

the voltage drop across it is 0.8 V. If the current

amplification factor is 0.96 and the input resistance

56

dependent resistance

(b) Zener diode, Simple diode, Light dependent

resistance, Solar cell

(c) Solar cell, Light dependent resistance, Zener

diode, Simple diode

(d) Zener diode, Solar cell, Simple diode, Light

dependent resistance.

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

18. An experiment is performed to determine the

I -V characteristics of a Zener diode, which has a

protective resistance of R = 100 , and a maximum

power of dissipation rating of 1 W. The minimum

voltage range of the dc source in the circuit is

(a) 0 5 V

(b) 0 24 V

(c) 0 12 V

(d) 0 8 V.

[JEE Main Online 2016]

19. Choose the correct statement.

(a) In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the

high frequency carrier wave is made to vary

in proportion to the amplitude of the audio

signal.

(b) In amplitude modulation the frequency of the

high frequency carrier wave is made to vary

in proportion to the amplitude of the audio

signal.

high frequency carrier wave is made to vary

in proportion to the amplitude of the audio

signal.

(d) In frequency modulation the amplitude of the

high frequency carrier wave is made to vary

in proportion to the frequency of the audio

signal.

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

20. A modulated signal Cm(t) has the form

Cm(t) = 30 sin 300t + 10 (cos 200t cos 400t).

The carrier frequency fc , the modulating frequency

(message frequency) f, and the modulation index

are respectively given by

1

(a) fc = 200 Hz; f = 50 Hz; =

2

2

(b) fc = 150 Hz; f = 50 Hz; =

3

1

(c) fc = 150 Hz; f = 30 Hz; =

3

1

(d) fc = 200 Hz; f = 30 Hz; = .

2

[JEE Main Online 2016]

SOLUTIONS

1. (a) : Here, forward current density, J = 105 A m2

Saturation current density, J0 = 250 103 A m2

As I = I0[exp(eV/kBT) 1]

or J = J0[exp(eV/kBT) 1]

105

or exp(eV/kBT) 1 = J =

= 4 105

3

J 0 250 10

eV

or

ln(4 105 ) = 12.9

kBT

or V = 0.33 V

2. (b) : Diode D1 is reverse biased as p-side is connected

to negative potential and n-side is grounded.

Diode D2 is forward biased as p-side is grounded

and n-side is at negative potential.

3. (c) : Here, Pc = 10 kW ; Pt = 11.2 kW

Depth of modulation,

P

11.2

m = 2 t 1 = 2

1 0.49 = 49%

10

Pc

4. (b) : Critical frequency, C = 9 N max

CE : CF : CF

1

= 2 10 : 3 10 : 8 1011 = 2 : 3 : 8

11

11

= 1 : 3 / 2 : 8 / 2 = 1 : 1.22 : 2

Base current, Ib = 10% of Ic = (10/100) 10 = 1 mA

Emitter current, Ie = Ib + Ic = (1 + 10) mA = 11 mA.

6. (c)

7. (d)

8. (b) : Here, hR = 45 m, d = 40 km

Since, d = 2RhT + 2RhR

40 1000 = 2 6.4 106 h + 2 6.4 106 45

40 103 =

or

[(40 24)103 ]2

= 20 m

2 6.4 106

80

9. (c) : Here, It = 1.8 A ; m1 =

= 0.80 ; m2 = 0.6

100

2

It = I c 1 + m1 / 2

h=

or

Ic =

It

1+ m / 2

2

1

It = I c 1 +

=

1. 8

1.32

1. 8

1 + (0.8) / 2

2

1. 8

1.32

m12 m22

+

2

2

1+

(0.8)2 (0.6)2

+

= 1.91 A

2

2

10. (d) : VCC = RC (IC + IB) + IBRB + VBE

= RCIC + (RC + RB)IB + VBE

(V I R ) VBE

or I B = CC C C

(RC + RB )

VCE = VCC (IC + IB) RC

(VCC ICRC)

(as IB << IC)

V VBE

Thus, I B = CE

(RC + RB )

11. (c) : Maximum distance covered by space wave,

= 80 103 m = 80 km

Since the distance between transmitter and receiver

is 100 km, hence for the given frequency signal of

6 MHz, the propagation is not possible via space wave.

MPP-7 CLASS XI

1.

6.

11.

16.

20.

24.

29.

(d)

2.

(c)

7.

(a)

12.

(c)

17.

(a, b, c, d)

(1)

25.

(d)

30.

(a)

(d)

(c)

(a)

(1)

(c)

3.

8.

13.

18.

21.

26.

ANSWER KEY

(c)

(d)

(b)

(a)

(a, d)

(4)

4.

9.

14.

19.

22.

27.

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(a, b)

(b)

5. (c)

10. (b)

15. (b)

23. (a, c)

28. (a)

57

C = 9 (N max ) = 9 1012 = 9 106 Hz = 9 MHz

of frequency 6 MHz is possible via sky wave.

12. (d) : Here, RC = (2 106) (1012) = 2 106 s

For demodulation,

1

1

<< RC or c >>

RC

c

1

= 0.5 106 Hz = 0.5 MHz

2 106 s

Therefore, c >> 0.5 MHz

i.e., c >>

= 100, RB = 1 k = 1000 , Vi = ?

R

2000

Voltage gain, A = C = 100

= 200

1000

RB

V

V

2

4

Also, A = 0 or Vi = 0 =

=

V = 20 mV

A 200 100

Vi

14. (a) : Diode D1 is reverse

biased so, it will

block the current and

diode D2 is forward

biased so, it will pass

the current.

Hence, equivalent circuit becomes as shown in the

figure.

Current in the circuit= Current flowing through the

10

resistance R1 =

= 2.5 A

2+2

15. (c)

16. (c) : Here, load resistance, R0 = 800 ,

input resistance, Ri = 192 and current gain, = 0.96

Voltage gain = Current gain Resistance gain

800

=4

192

Power gain = (Current gain) (Voltage gain)

= 0.96 4 = 3.84

= 0.96

17. (a)

18. (b) : Potential drop across Zener diode

VZ = V IR = V 100 I

Power, P = VZIZ

= (V 100 I) I

But P = 1 W (given)

(V 100 I) I = 1

or 100 I2 VI + 1 = 0

58

or V 20 V

19. (a) : Carrier wave : yc = Ac sin ct

Message signal : ym = Am sin mt

Amplitude modulated carrier wave :

y = (Ac + Am sin mt) sin ct

20. (b) : Here,

Cm(t) = 30 sin (300t) + 10(cos(200t) cos(400t))

Compare this equation with standard equation of

amplitude modulated wave,

Ac

Cm (t ) = Ac sin 2 fc t +

2

( cos 2( fc f )t cos 2(fc + f)t)

2fc = 300 fc = 150 Hz

and fc f = 100 Hz

f = 150 100 = 50 Hz

and

Ac

= 10, Ac = 30 V

10 2

=

15 3

CLASS XII

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section E

contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to aempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

SECTION-A

SECTION-B

adjacent conductors carrying the same charge?

initially present in the ratio of 1:4. The half lives

of A and B are respectively 100 years and 50 years.

Find the time after which the amounts of A and B

become equal.

same or less than that for blue light?

3. A 10 V battery of negligible internal resistance is

connected across a 200 V battery and a resistance

of 38 as shown in the figure. Find the value of the

current in circuit.

Identify the nature of the magnetic material and

write its relation to magnetic susceptibility.

5. Explain the function of a repeater in a communication

system.

a height of 36 m and the height of the receiving

antenna is 49 m. What is maximum distance

between them, for satisfactory communication in

the LOS mode? (Radius of earth = 6400 km)

8. Two students X and Y

preform an experiment

on

potentiometer

separately using the

given circuit. Keeping

other

parameters

unchanged, how will

the position of the null

point be affected if

+

1

+

2

59

set-up by keeping the key K1 closed and the

key K2 open ?

(ii) Y decreases the value of resistance R in the

set-up, while the key K2 remains open and the

key K1 is closed ?

9. An object AB is kept in front of a concave mirror as

(i) Complete the ray diagram

showing

the

image

formation of the object.

(ii) How will the position and intensity of the

image be affected if the lower half of the

mirrors reflecting surface is painted black?

OR

Figure shows a ray of light passing through a

prism. If the refracted ray QR is parallel to the

base BC, show that

(i) r1 = r2 = A/2,

(ii) angle of minimum deviation, m = 2i A.

associated with

(i) protons, accelerated through a potential of

128 V, and

(ii) -particles, accelerated through a potential

of 64 V.

SECTION-C

4 104 m s1 enters a region of uniform magnetic field

of 105 T acting vertically downward as

shown in the figure. Draw its

trajectory and find out the time it

takes to come out of the region of

magnetic field.

12. Define electric dipole moment. Is it a scalar or

a vector quantity? Derive the expression for the

electric field of a dipole at a point on the equatorial

plane of the dipole.

60

across a variable load resistor R. Draw the plots of

the terminal voltage V versus

(i) resistance R and

(ii) the current I.

It is found that when R = 4 , the current is

1 A and when R is increased to 9 , the current

reduces to 0.5 A. Find the values of the emf and

internal resistance r.

14. A rectangular loop of wire of

size 2.5 cm 4 cm carries

a steady current of 1 A. A

long straight wire carrying

2 A current is kept near the

loop as shown in figure. If

the loop and the wire are

coplanar, find the

(i) torque acting on the loop and

(ii) the magnitude and direction of the force on

the loop due to the current carrying wire.

15. Write any four characteristics of electromagnetic

waves. Give two uses each of

(ii) Microwaves

(i) Radiowaves

16. A photon of energy 12.5 eV is used to bombard

gaseous hydrogen at room temperature. Upto which

energy level the hydrogen atoms would be excited?

Calculate the wavelengths of the first member of

Lyman and first member of Balmer series.

17. Draw V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode.

Answer the following questions, giving reasons.

(i) Why is the current under reverse bias almost

independent of the applied potential upto a

critical voltage?

(ii) Why does the reverse current show a sudden

increase at the critical voltage?

Name any semiconductor device which

operates under the reverse bias in the

breakdown region.

18. You are given a circuit below. Hence, identify the

logic operation carried out by this circuit. Draw

the logic symbol of the gate corresponds to it. Also,

write its truth table.

Explain the process of amplitude modulation.

Draw a schematic sketch showing how amplitude

modulated signal is obtained by superposing a

modulating signal over a sinusoidal carrier wave.

20. A rectangular wire loop of sides 8 cm and

2 cm with a small cut is moving out of a

region of uniform magnetic field of magnitude

0.3 T directed normal to the loop. What is

the emf developed across the cut if velocity of

loop is 1 cm s1 in a direction normal to the

(i) longer side (ii) shorter side of the loop?

For how long does the induced voltage last in each

case?

21. In a plot of photoelectric current versus anode

potential, how does

(i) the saturation current vary with anode potential

for incident radiations of different frequencies

but same intensity?

(ii) the stopping potential vary for incident

radiations of different intensities but same

frequency?

(iii) photoelectric current vary for different

intensities but same frequency of incident

radiations? Justify your answer in each

case.

22. State the necessary conditions for producing total

internal reflection of light. Draw ray diagram to

show how specially designed prisms make use of

total internal reflection to obtain inverted image of

the object by deviating rays

(i) through 90 and (ii) through 180.

OR

A parallel beam of monochromatic light of

wavelength 500 nm falls normally on a narrow slit

and the resulting diffraction pattern is obtained

on a screen 1 m away. It is observed that the first

minimum is at a distance of 2.5 mm from the centre

of the screen. Find

(i) the width of the slit.

(ii) the distance of the second maximum from the

centre of the screen.

(iii) the width of the central maximum.

SECTION-D

to his mother Kamla that due to shortage and heavy

cost of LPG, she must utilize other sources that

discussed with his younger brother that the oil and

gas companies are trying their best to meet out the

demand for LPG and that a good citizen must use

other sources wherever feasible.

The purchased induction stove

have a value of 7 H inductor

and the flow of current changes

from 10 A to 7 A in a time of

9 102 s.

Answer the following questions

based on above information :

(i) What qualities do you find in Vishal?

(ii) What is the advantage of using induction stove

over LPG?

(iii) Calculate the induced emf in the induction

stove when connected to the source?

SECTION-E

diagram, the basic working principle of an ac

generator. In an ac generator, coil of N turns and

area A is rotated at revolutions per second

in a uniform magnetic field B. Derive the

expression for the emf produced.

(ii) A 100-turn coil of area 0.1 m2 rotates at half

a revolution per second. It is placed in a

magnetic field 0.01 T perpendicular to the axis

of rotation of the coil. Calculate the maximum

voltage generated in the coil.

OR

(i) An alternating voltage = 0 sin t applied to

a series LCR circuit drives a current given by

I =I0 sin (t + ). Deduce an expression for the

average power dissipated over a cycle.

(ii) For circuits used for transporting electric

power, a low power factor implies large power

loss in transmission. Explain.

(iii) Determine the current and quality factor

at resonance for a series LCR circuit with

L = 1.00 mH, C = 1.00 nF and R =100

connected to an ac source having peak voltage

of 100 V.

25. (i) A beam of unpolarised light is incident on the

boundary between two transparent media.

If the reflected light is completely plane

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

61

direction of the corresponding refracted light?

Define Brewsters angle. Obtain the relation

between this angle and the refractive index for

the given pair of media.

(ii) Why does light from a clear blue portion of

the sky show a rise and fall of intensity when

viewed through a polaroid which is rotated?

Explain by drawing the necessary diagram.

190 V

=

= 5A

R 38

4. The relative permeability is an intrinsic property

of a magnetic material. A related quantity is the

magnetic susceptibility, denoted by m.

r = 1 + m

[& r = 0.5]

OR

Derive the expression for the total magnification of a

compound microscope with labelled ray diagram.

a transmitter which picks up the signal from

the transmitter, amplifies and retransmits it to

the receiver sometimes with a change in carrier

frequency.

of a compound microscope must have short focal

lengths.

26. State Gausss theorem in electrostatics and express

it mathematically. Using it, derive an expression

for electric field at a point near a thin infinite plane

sheet of electric charge. How does this electric field

change for a uniformly thick sheet of charge?

OR

Derive the expression for capacitance of a parallel

plate capacitor with a dielectric medium of dielectric

constant k between its plates, thickness of slab is

less than the spacing between the plates. Obtain

the expression for the energy stored in a charged

capacitor.

SOLUTIONS

Q

, therefore potential difference between

C

two adjacent conductors can exist if their capacities

are different or their sizes are different because

capacitance depends on the size of conductor.

1. Since V =

1

1

1

= ( 1)

f

R

R

1

2

We know that b > r

fb < fr

that for blue light.

3. Since, the positive terminal of the batteries are

connected together, so the equivalent emf of the

batteries is given by = 200 V 10 V = 190 V.

Hence, the current in the circuit is given by

62

I=

Here,

r < 1 (m negative), so the material is

termed diamagnetic.

6. We have, N = N0 et

For radioisotopes A and B, we can write

N A = N 0e At A , N B = 4 N 0e

B tB

t t

N 0e At = 4 N 0e Bt 4 = e B A

loge4 = (Bt At) loge e

log 2 log 2

log e 2

e

e

2 log e 2 =

t =

TA

T1/2

TB1/2

1/ 2

1

1

2=

t t = 200 years

50 100

7. Here, hT = 36 m, hR = 49 m

and R = 6400 km = 6400000 = 64 105 m

Maximum line-of-sight (LOS) distance dM

between the two antennae is

dM = 2RhT + 2RhR

dM = 2 64 105 36 + 2 64 105 49

= 48 102 20 + 56 102 20

= 208 2.236 100 = 46.51 km

8. (i) By increasing resistance R, the current through

AB decreases, so potential gradient decreases.

Hence a greater length of wire would be needed

for balancing the same potential difference. So

the null point would shift towards B.

(ii) By decreasing resistance R, the current through

AB remains the same, potential gradient does

not change. As K2 is open so there is no effect

of R on the null point.

9. (i)

intensity of image will decrease.

OR

(i) When QR is parallel to the base BC, we have

i = e r1 = r2 = r

We know that, r1 + r2 = A r + r = A

r = A/2

(ii) Also, we have

A+=i+e

Substituting, = m and i = e

A + m = i + i

m = 2i A

10. The de Broglie wavelength =

p =

h

2mqV

and =

electric dipole moment, whose magnitude is equal

to product of magnitude of either charge and

separation between the two charges, i.e.,

p = q 2a

and is directed from

negative to positive

charge, along the line

joining the two charges.

Its SI unit is C m. Consider a dipole consisting of

two electric charges +q and q between a small

distance AB = 2a with centre O.

h

2mqV

h

2m q V

m q V

mqV

As per question, m = 4m, q = e, q = 2e, V = 128 V,

V = 64 V

p

4m 2e 64

=

m e 128

Required ratio = 2 : 1

p : =

the region of magnetic field be t.

Velocity of the electron,

v = 4 104 m s1

Magnetic field, B = 105 T

Mass of the electron,

m = 9 1031 kg

r

We know t =

v

mv

where r =

qB

m

3.14 9 1031

=

Now, t =

Bq 105 1.6 1019

t = 17.66 107 s = 1.77 s

Thus, the time taken by the electron to come out of

the region of magnetic field is 1.77 s.

to the two charges +q and q are given by

q

1

E+ q =

, directed along BP

4 0 x 2 + a2

q

1

, directed along PA

and Eq =

4 0 x 2 + a2

E+q = Eq

The directions of E+q and Eq are as shown in the

figure. The components normal to the dipole axis

cancel away. The components along the dipole axis

add up.

Therefore, the resultant electric field at point P is

given as; E = (E+q + Eq) cos

...(i)

Where the negative sign shows that the field is

opposite to the dipole moment of the dipole.

a

From figure cos = 2 2 1/2

(x + a )

Putting the values of E+q, Eq and cos in eqn (i),

we get

E=

=

q 1

1

a

+

2

2

2

2

4 0 x + a

x + a ( x 2 + a2 )

2qa

4 0 (x 2 + a2 )3/2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

63

the dipole, the above expression reduces to

p

2qa

p

E=

E=

=

4 0 x 3

4 x 3 4 x 3

0

in figure

I=

r+R

Terminal voltage,

V = Ir

R

=

r=

r+R

r+R

(ii) V versus I,

(i) V versus R,

V = E Ir

When R = 4 , then I1 = 1 A

;r+4=

(i)

1=

r+4

1

When R = 9 , then I = 0.5 A = A

2

1

r+4

[Using eqn. (i)]

=

=

2 r +9 r +9

r + 9 = 2r + 8; r = 1

From eqn. (i)

emf, = 1 + 4 = 5 V

carrying wires,

II l

F= 0 1 2

2 r

Force on arm AB,

2 1 4 102

FAB = 0

2 2 102

2

(Attractive, towards the wire)

= 0N

2 1 4 102

FCD = 0

2 4.5 102

8

(Repulsive, away from the wire)

= 0N

9

Force on arms BC and DA are equal and opposite.

So, they cancel out each other.

Net force on the loop is F = FAB FCD

64

8 10 0 10 4 10 7

= 0 2 =

=

9

9

9

= 4.44 107 N

(a) Electromagnetic waves do not require any

medium for their propagation.

(b) These waves travel in free space with speed

3 108 m s1. It is given by the relation

1

c=

0 0

(c) The energy in electromagnetic waves is divided

equally between electric field and magnetic

field.

(d) Electromagnetic waves are produced by

accelerated charged particles.

(i) Uses of radiowaves :

(a) In radio and television communication

system.

(b) In radio astronomy

(ii) Uses of microwaves :

(a) In radar system for aircraft navigation.

(b) In microwave ovens.

16. Here, E = 12.5 eV

Energy of an electron in nth orbit of hydrogen atom is,

13.6

En =

eV

n2

In ground state, n = 1; E1 = 13.6 eV

Energy of an electron in the excited state after

absorbing a photon of 12.5 eV energy will be

En = 13.6 + 12.5 = 1.1 eV

13.6 13.6

n2 =

=

= 12.36 n = 3.5

En

1.1

Here, state of electron cannot be fraction.

So, n = 3 (2nd exited state).

The wavelength of the first member of Lyman

series is given by

1 1 3

1

= R = R

12 22 4

4

4

=

= 1.215 107 m

=

3R 3 1.097 107

= 121 109 m = 121 nm

The wavelength of the first member of the Balmer

series is given by

1

1

1 5

= R = R

2

2

32 36

36

36

=

5R 5 1.097 107

17. V-I characteristics of a p n junction diode

Amplitude modulation : Amplitude modulation is

produced by varying the amplitude of the carrier

waves in accordance with the modulating wave.

Let the carrier wave be c(t) = Ac sinct

and the modulating signal be m(t) = Am sinmt,

where m = 2m is the angular frequency of the

message signal.

Modulated signal cm(t) is

cm(t) = (Ac + Am sin mt)sinct

A

= Ac 1 + m sin mt sin c t

Ac

charge carriers and even a small voltage is

sufficient to sweep the minority carriers from

one side of the junction to the other side of the

junction. Here the current is not limited by the

magnitude of the applied voltage but is limited

due to the concentration of the minority carrier

on either side of the junction.

(ii) At critical voltage/breakdown voltage, a large

number of covalent bonds break resulting in

availability of large number of charge carriers.

Zener diode operates under the reverse bias in

the breakdown region.

18. Here, X = A, Y = B , Z = X + Y

Z = A+B

The output Z of the given combination of gates

is, Z = A B = A B

Hence, the equivalent gate is AND gate.

Logic symbol :

A

= Ac sin c t + c (cos(c m )t cos(c + m )t )

2

Am

where =

is the modulation index.

Ac

c m and c + m are the lower side band and

upper side band, respectively.

Production of amplitude modulated wave :

Amplitude modulated signal is obtained by

superposing a modulating signal over a sinusoidal

carrier wave as shown in the figure.

Truth table :

Input

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

Output

Z=AB

0

0

0

1

(i) Point-to-point communication

66

v = 1 cm s1 = 102 m s1, = ?

proportional to the number of photoelectrons

emitted per second.

(i) When velocity is normal to longer side of the loop

l = 8 cm = 8 102 m

= Blv = 0.3 8 102 102 = 2.4 104 V

Time, t =

distance 2 102

=

=2 s

velocity

102

l = 2 cm = 2 102 m

= Blv = 0.3 2 102 102 = 0.6 104 V

Time, t =

reflection :

(a) Light should travel from a denser medium

to a rarer medium.

(b) Angle of incidence in denser medium

should be greater than the critical angle

for the pair of media in contact.

(ii) (a) To deviate a ray of light through 90 :

distance 8 102

=

=8 s

velocity

102

the saturation current depends upon intensity

of incident radiation.

the path of the ray of light through 90.

(b) To deviate a ray of light through 180 :

When the ray of light comes to meet the

hypotenuse face BC at right angles to it, it

is refracted out of prism as such along the

path RS. The path of the ray of light has

been turned through 180 due to two total

internal reflections.

upon the frequency of incident radiation.

OR

Given, = 500 nm = 5 107 m, D = 1 m,

y1 = 2.5 mm = 2.5 103 m

(iii) At constant frequency and anode potential,

photoelectric current is directly proportional

to the intensity of light.

sin 1 =

a

y1

For small 1, sin 1 =

D

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

67

y1

=

D a

D 5 107 1

=

= 2 104 m

or a =

y1

2.5 103

= 0.2 mm

1 D

2 a

For second maximum n = 2

1 1 5 107

( y2 )max = 2 +

2 2 104

= 6.25 103 m = 6.25 mm

2D

(iii) Width of central maximum, =

a

= Separation between first minima on either

side of centre of screen = 2.5 + 2.5 = 5 mm

concern for the nation, cost economic attitude,

promptness to use latest technology, sharing

attitude.

(ii) LPG is costly and it is difficult to carry heavy

gas cylinders. Also, availability of LPG is

limited. On the other hand induction stove

uses cheap and easily available electricity and

is also easy to carry.

7 (7 10)

= 233.3 V

(iii) = L dI/dt =

9 102

24. (i) Refer to point 4.8(2) page no. 275 (MTG Excel

in Physics)

(ii) Given, N = 100, A = 0.1 m2, B = 0.01 T

1

= revolution per sec = 0.5 rps

2

Maximum voltage generated 0 = NBA

= NBA(2)

or 0 = 100 0.01 0.1 2

OR

22

0.5 = 0.314 V

7

in Physics)

(ii) The power is P = rms Irms cos. cos is small,

then current considerably increases when

voltage is constant. Power loss is I2R. Hence

power loss increases.

(iii) Given, L = 1.00 mH = 1 103 H,

C = 1.00 nF = 1 109 F, R = 100 , 0 = 100 V

At resonance Z = R

68

100

I0 = 0 =

I0 = 1 A

R 100

I

1

Irms = 0 =

= 0.707 A

2

2

Q=

1 L

1 1.0 103

=

= 10

R C 100 1.0 109

in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 6.15(10) page no. 455 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

OR

Refer to point 6.9 (1(iv)) page no. 381 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

26.

Physics)

OR

Refer to point 1.11(6, 9) page no. 16 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

ON

R-C Circuit

Er. Sandip Prasad

Calculation of Instantaneous Charge on the Capacitor

Carrying some Charge Before being Connected to the

Battery :

Consider the basic RC

circuit shown in figure,

the capacitor carries a

charge Q before the key K

is closed.If now the key K

is closed, charge on

the capacitor goes on

increasing until it attains steady state.

The circuit is similar to simple charging RC circuit but

at t = 0 charge on the capacitor is Q instead of zero.

By Kirchhoff s voltage law,

q

dq

1

q

dq C q

=

dt ;

IR + = ;

=

;

C q

RC

C

dt

RC

Q

O

C q

t

ln

=

C Q

RC

q =C(1 et/RC) + Qet/RC

q = q0 (1 et/) + Qet/

Here, q0 = C and = RC

If C > Q, then the

charging of capacitor

takes place and

the capacitor will

attain final charge

C and current

becomes finally zero.

If C < Q, then the

discharging

of

capacitor takes place

and the capacitor

will attain final charge

q0 = C and current

becomes finally zero.

Method-II: When the key K is closed at t = 0, the circuit

can be treated as the combination of a charging and a

discharging circuit.

q1 = q0 (1 et/)

and charge on the capacitor of circuit 2

q2 = Qet/

Net charge on the capacitor

q = q1 + q2 = q0 (1 et/) + Qet/

Method-III: (Short-Cut Method) When we deal with

the R-C circuit in which a capacitor has initial charge,

then we can use a very simple method to solve this type

of problems quickly. Let us consider a resistor and a

capacitor having some initial charges q0 is connected

with a battery of e.m.f .

+0 0

When key is closed two

situation arise, one in

which capacitor is in

charging condition and

another in which it is in

discharging condition.

To know whether the capacitor is in charging or in

discharging condition , compare the voltage across the

capacitor and e.m.f of the battery.

q

If > 0 , then the charging

C

of capacitor takes place

and the capacitor will

attain a final charge

q = C and current finally

becomes zero.

Sandip Physics Classes, Girish Park-1/1 Shiv Krishna Daw Lane, Kolkata-700007

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

69

instantaneous value of charge i.e the value of charge

on the capacitor at time t,

q = initial charge + (amplitude of the curve )(1 et/)

Where, amplitude of the curve

Q = Final charge initial charge = C q0

and = Req C

charge on the capacitor at time t,

q = q0 + (C q0) (1 et/)

q

If < 0 , then the discharging

C

of capacitor takes place and the

capacitor will attain a final charge

q = C and current finally

becomes zero.

From the graph, we can write the value of

instantaneous value of charge i.e. the value of

charge on the capacitor at time t,

q = Final charge + (amplitude of the curve) et/

Where, amplitude of the curve

Q = initial charge Final charge = q0 C and = ReqC

charge on the capacitor at time t,

q = q0 + (q0 C) et/

Example-1: In the circuit

shown capacitor is initially

connected to a 3 V cell. At

t =0 switch is thrown to

B. Find the charge on the

capacitor at time t.

Soln.: The capacitor is charged to 3CV initially i.e. ,at

t=0 charge on the capacitor is +3CV . Now battery of

emf V cannot pull out electrons from positive plate of

capacitor as potential difference across the capacitor is

3 V . Instead of electrons move from negative plate of

capacitor towards positive plate through battery.

+3 3

By Kirchhoff s laws,

q

V + 2iR = 0;

electrons motion

C

q

V = 2iR

C

dq

(i = , here charge on the plate decreases with time)

dt

dq

1

q

dq

=

dt

V = 2 R or,

V q / C 2R

dt

C

Integrating both side ;

q

or,

3CV

70

dq

1

=

dt q = CV + 2 CV et/2RC

V q /C

2R

can be treated as the combination of a charging and a

discharging circuit.

2 +3 3

2

2 +3 3

1

= ReqC = 2RC

Charge on the capacitor of the circuit 1

q1 = CV (1 et/2RC )

and charge on the capacitor of the circuit 2

q2 = 3CV et/2RC)

Net charge on the capacitor

q = q1 + q2 = CV (1 et/2RC) + 3CV et/2RC

q = CV + 2CV et/2RC

Method-III: The capacitor is charged to 3 CV initially i.e.,

at t=0 charge on the capacitor is +3CV . Now battery

of emf V cannot pull out electrons from positive plate

of capacitor as potential difference across the capacitor

is 3V. Instead of electrons move from negative plate of

capacitor towards positive plate through battery.

Step:I Firstly, check

2

+3 3

the R-C circuit

whether it is in

charging condition

or discharging

condition.

Initial voltage across the capacitor i.e when switch is

3CV

just closed i.e at t = 0, is VC =

= 3V

C

And the voltage applied by the battery is V.

Here initial voltage across capacitor i.e. voltage across

capacitor at t = 0(when switch S is just closed) is greater

than that of the voltage of the cell, hence after t > 0

capacitor gets discharged. So, in the given R-C circuit

is in discharging condition.

Step:II Next draw a graph of

instantaneous charge versus

time of the above circuit.

Step:III From graph obtained

from step II , we can write the

equation of the instantaneous

charge.

q = Final charge + (amplitude of the curve ) et/

Here, initial charge on the capacitor q0 = 3CV

Amplitude of the curve

= initial charge - Final charge

= 3CV CV = 2CV

Again, time constant , = ReqC = 2RC

Hence, q =CV + 2CV et/2RC

Example 2 : A capacitor

hav i ng i n it i a l charge

C

is connected to a

q0 =

2

cell of e.m.f through a

resistor R as shown in the

figure. Find the charge on

the capacitor at time t .

the R-C circuit whether it

is in charging condition

or discharging condition.

Initial voltage across the

capacitor i.e when switch

is just closed i.e at t=0, is

q

C

/C =

VC = 0 =

C

2

2

And the voltage applied by the battery is V =

Here initial voltage across capacitor i.e. voltage across

capacitor at t = 0(when switch S is just closed) is less

than that of the voltage of the cell, hence after t >0

capacitor gets charged. So, in the given R-C circuit is

in charging condition.

Step:II Next draw a graph

of instantaneous charge

versus time of the circuit.

Step:III From graph

obtained from step II ,

we can write the equation

of the instantaneous charge.

Hence, the charge on the capacitor at time t is ,

q = initial charge + (amplitude of the curve ) (1 et/)

C

Here, initial charge on the capacitor q0 =

2

Amplitude of the curve Q = Final charge initial charge

C C

= C

=

2

2

Again , time constant , = ReqC = RC

C C

Hence, q =

+ (1 e t /RC )

2

2

in a R - C circuit without battery

Consider a circuit in which

a resistor of resistance R is

+

2

connected in series with two 1 1

capacitors of capacitance C1

and C2.

Initially the capacitor C1 is charged to potential V1 and

then at t = 0, the switch S is closed as shown. When

switch S is closed at t = 0, the circuit is completed and

discharging of C1 and charging of C2 takes place. The

voltage across capacitor C1 does not rise instantaneously

but builds up exponentially and not linearly. Charging

current i is maximum at the start i.e. when capacitor

C1 has voltage V1 and charge C1V1 and capacitor C2

is uncharged, then it decreases exponentially and

finally ceases when potential difference across both

the capacitors becomes equal. Hence as charge on

capacitor C1 decreases and on capacitor C2 increases,

current i in the circuit decreases. In other words, as

the time passes, potential difference across capacitor

C1 decreases and potential difference across capacitor

C2 increases. Hence, whenever a R-C circuit having a

charged capacitor connected with uncharged capacitor

without a dc source, goes from initial state to final state

(steady state condition), it passes through a transient

state which is of short duration. In fact transient state

lies in between initial state and final state(steady state

condition).

Initial State: When switch

S is closed at t = 0, R-C

circuit is in its initial state.

In this state, current in the

circuit i is maximum

because there is no potential difference across capacitor

C2 to oppose the applied voltage by capacitor C1

i.e capacitor C2 behaves like being short circuited and

capacitor C1 behaves as a dc source having voltage V1.

If you wish to find initial current, short the terminals

of the capacitor C2 and replace the capacitor C1 with

a battery having voltage V1. Hence at t = 0 the circuit

can be redraw as shown in the figure.

V

At this instant i.e at t = 0, i = 1

R

Transient state: But as time

passes, i decreases gradually

+ 0

2 +

so does instantaneous voltage 1 0

across capacitor C 1 also

71

capacitor C2 increases gradually till it reaches at its

maximum value or steady state value i.e. when potential

difference across both the capacitors becomes equal.

Final state (Steady state):

As charging continues,

charging current i decreases

gradually and it becomes

zero at final state or steady

state, hence at condition,

the circuit appears as an open circuit (i = 0). At this

state capacitor C1 gets completely charged and the value

of charge becomes maximum i.e. when switch is closed

charge flows from capacitor C1 to capacitor C2 till both

acquire the same potential. In steady state the circuit

can be redrawn as shown in the figure.

Calculation of charge and current in the R-C circuit in

transient state

We need to find

the charge on

+

+ 0

2

1

the capacitor C1

0

as a function of

time.

Initial charge on C1 is q0 = C1 V1

Let at any time t charge on C2 is, then charge of C1 at

this instant is q0 q.

Hence current through the circuit at this time is,

dq

i=

dt

Applying KVL for circuit,

q q(C1 + C2 ) dq

q0 q

q

or 0

= R

= iR +

C1

C1C2

dt

C1

C2

q

or

0 2

or q =

or q =

dq

C q q(C

1 + C2 )

dt

RC1C2

0

C2q0

CC

t / RCeq

(1 e

) where Ceq = 1 2

C1 + C2

(C1 + C2 )

C1C2V1

t / RCeq

(1 e

) where q0 = C1V1

(C1 + C2 )

t / RC

eq

or q = CeqV1(1 e

)

Again, charge on capacitor C1 as a function of time t,

q = q0 q or q = C1V1 CeqV1(1 et/RCeq)

We can also find the instantaneous value of charge in

this case by another method.

Method-II: Initially the capacitor C 1 is charged to

potential V1 and then at t = 0, the switch S is closed

72

is completed and discharging of C1 and charging of

C2 take place.

Step-I : First of all we need to find time constant ()

of the given R-C circuit.

=Req Ceq = R

C1C2

C1 + C2

= 0

state charge Q on the

1

+

+ 1

uncharged capacitor. 1

2

2

1

Let us consider in steady

state capacitor C1 and

C2 has charge q1 and q2 respectively as shown in the

figure. Also we know that in steady state both the capacitor

has same potential difference, let V in this case.

Charge on the capacitor C1 is, q1 = C1V

Charge on the capacitor C2 is, q2 = C2V

q

C

1= 1

q2 C2

C1

C1

q , where

(q1 + q2 ) =

Hence, q1 =

C1 + C2 0

C1 + C2

q0 = C1V1 is the initial charge on capacitor C1.

C2

C2

C V =Q

q0 =

Similarly, q2 =

C1 + C2 1 1

C1 + C2

where q0 = C1V1 is the initial charge on capacitor C1.

Step-III: Putting the values of and Q in equation

q = Q (1 et/) . We can get the value of charge on the

capacitor which is under charging condition, at time t.

By differentiating the above equation w.r.t. time we can

find current through the capacitor at time t. Then by

using Kirchhoff s laws, calculate currents in different

branches of the circuit.

Also, charge on capacitor C1 having some initial charge

q0, as a function of time t is given by, q = q0 q

where, initial charge on capacitor C1 is q0 = C1V1 and

q is the value of charge on the capacitor which is under

charging condition, at time t.

Hence the charge on the capacitor at time t is given by

following equation,

As, q = Q(1 et/) q =

C1C2V1

t / RCeq

(1 e

)

(C1 + C2 )

q = q0 q or q = C1V1 CeqV1(1 e

t / RCeq

Class XII

extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Atoms and Nuclei

Total Marks : 120

NEET / AIIMS / PMTs

Only One Option Correct Type

E = (100 V m1) [sin(5 1015 s1)t + sin (8 1015 s1)t]

falls on a metal surface having work function 2.0 eV.

The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is

(a) 5.27 eV (b) 3.27 eV (c) 2.00 eV (d) 4.00 eV

2. An electron of mass m, when accelerated through a

potential difference V, has de Broglie wavelength .

The de Broglie wavelength associated with a proton

of mass M accelerated through the same potential

difference, will be

M

m

M

m

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

m

M

m

M

117

3. In a fission reaction, 236

X + 117Y + n + n,

92U

the binding energy per nucleon of X and Y is 8.5 MeV

whereas that of 236

92U is 7.6 MeV. The total energy

liberated will be about

(a) 200 keV

(b) 2 MeV

(c) 200 MeV

(d) 2000 MeV

4. A radioactive nucleus emits 3-particles and

5-particles. The ratio of number of neutrons to

that of protons will be

A Z 12

AZ

(b)

(a)

Z 6

Z 1

A Z 11

A Z 11

(c)

(d)

Z 6

Z 1

5. Let nr and nb be respectively the number of photons

emitted by a red bulb and a blue bulb of equal power

in a given time. Then,

(b) nr < nb

(a) nr = nb

(c) nr > nb

(d) None of these

Brackett series of hydrogen spectra is

25

17

9

4

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

9

6

5

3

7. According to Einsteins photoelectric equation, the

graph between the kinetic energy of photoelectrons

ejected and the frequency of incident radiation is

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

state is a0. The radius of a muonic hydrogen atom

in which the electron is replaced by an identically

charged muon with mass 207 times that of an

electron, is a equal to

a

a0

(a) 207a0 (b) 0

(c)

(d) a0 207

207

207

9. A proton moving with u m s1 strikes a stationary

nucleus of mass A. The ratio of final to initial kinetic

energy of proton is

(1 A)2

A2

(b)

(a)

( A 1)2

(1 + A)2

2

2

(1 A) (1 u )

A2 (1 + u2 )

(c)

(d)

( A + 1)2 (1 u2 )

(1 + A)2 (1 + u)

10. A nuclear reactor delivers a power of 10 W. Find fuel

consumed by the reactor per hour, if its efficiency is

20%. (Given, c = 3 108 m s1)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

73

(a) 2 106 g h1

(b) 9 1012 g h1

9

1

(c) 8 10 g h

(d) 2 109 g h1

11. Electrons with de-Broglie wavelength fall on the

target in an X-ray tube. The cut-off wavelength of

the emitted X-rays is

2mc2

2h

(b) 0 =

(a) 0 =

h

mc

2m2c 2 3

(c) 0 =

(d) 0 =

h2

12. When the electron in hydrogen atom is excited from

the 4th stationary orbit to the 5th stationary orbit, the

change in the angular momentum of the electron is

(Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s)

(a) 4.16 1034 J s

(b) 3.32 1034 J s

34

(c) 1.05 10 J s

(d) 2.08 1034 J s

Assertion & Reason Type

irecti

In the following questions, a statement of

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the correct

choice as :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the

correct explanation of assertion.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the

correct explanation of assertion.

(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

13. Assertion : The de Broglie wavelength of a molecule

varies inversely as the square root of temperature.

Reason : The root mean square velocity of the

molecule depends on the temperature.

14. Assertion : The binding energy per nucleon, for

nuclei with atomic mass number A > 100, decreases

with A.

Reason : The nuclear force is weak for heavier nuclei.

15. Assertion : When an electron beam strikes the

target in an X-ray tube, part of the kinetic energy is

converted into X-ray energy.

Reason : If the accelerating potential in an X-ray tube

is increased, the wavelengths of the characteristic

X-rays do not change.

JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs

Only One Option Correct Type

work function 2.0 eV and placed in a magnetic

field B. The most energetic electrons emitted

perpendicular to the field are bent in circular arcs

of radius 20 cm. Then value of B is

(a) 1.46 105 T

(b) 2.92 105 T

6

(c) 1.46 10 T

(c) 2.92 106 T

17. An alpha particle of energy 5 MeV is scattered

through 180 by a fixed uranium nucleus. The

distance of closest approach is of the order of

74

(a) 1

(b) 1010 cm

12

(c) 10 cm

(d) 1015 cm

18. The electric potential between a proton and an

r

electron is given by V V0 ln where r0 is a

r

0

write variation of rn with n, where n being the

principal quantum number.

1

1

(a) rn n (b) rn (c) rn n2 (d) rn 2

n

n

19. A radioactive isotope A with a half life of

1.25 1010 years decays into B which is stable. A

sample of rock from a planet is found to contain

both A and B present in the ratio 1 : 15. The age of

the rock is

(a) 9.6 1010 years

(b) 4.2 1010 years

10

(c) 5 10 years

(d) 1.95 1010 years

More than One Options Correct Type

are independent of the principal quantum number

n? The symbols have their usual meanings.

(a) vn

(b) Er

(c) En

(d) vr

21. Let , and denote the wavelengths of the

X-rays of the K , K and L lines in the characteristic

X-rays for a metal. Then

(a) > >

(b) > >

1

1

1

1

1

1

(c)

=

+

(d)

=

+

nucleus, the nucleus recoils. A 5.00 MeV particle

has a head-on elastic collision with a gold nucleus,

initially at rest. The mass of the particle may be

taken to be 4.00 u and that of the gold nucleus to be

197 u. Then

(a) the kinetic energy of the recoiling nucleus is

0.390 MeV.

(b) the kinetic energy of the rebounding particle

is 5.64 MeV.

(c) the particle will be stop.

(d) the kinetic energy of rebounding particle is

4.61 MeV.

23. A large electric generating station is powered by

a pressurized water nuclear reactor. The thermal

power in the reactor core is 3400 MW and

1100 MW of electricity is generated. The fuel consists

of 86,000 kg of uranium, in the form of 110 tons of

uranium oxide, distributed among 57,000 fuel rods.

The uranium is enriched to 3.0% 235U. Then

(The average energy released per fission event is

200 MeV.)

(b) fission events occur in the reactor core at the

rate of 1.06 1020 fissions per second

(c) the fuel supply will last after 580 days

(d) the mass being lost in the reactor core at the rate of

4.5 kg per day.

Integer Answer Type

emits a photon in going from n = 5 state to n = 1 state is

25. Hydrogen atom in its ground state is excited by

means of monochromatic radiation of wavelength

970.6 . How many different wavelengths are

possible in the resulting emission spectrum?

26. An -particle and a proton are accelerated from rest

by a potential difference of 100 V. After this, their

de Broglie wavelengths are and p respectively.

p

, to the nearest integer, is

The ratio

Comprehension Type

atom is the quantization of angular momentum when an

electron is revolving around a proton. We will extend this

to a general rotational motion to find quantized rotational

energy of a diatomic molecule assuming it to be rigid.

The rule to be applied is Bohrs quantization condition.

27. A diatomic molecule has moment of inertia I. By

Bohrs quantization condition, its rotational energy

in the nth level (n = 0 is not allowed) is

1 h2

1 h2

(a) 2 2

(b) 2

n 8 I

n 8 I

h2

h2

(c) n 2

(d) n2 2

8 I

8 I

28. It is found that the excitation frequency from

ground to the first excited state of rotation for the

4

CO molecule is close to

1011 Hz. Then the

of mass is close to (Take h = 2 1034 J s)

(a) 2.76 1046 kg m2 (b) 1.87 1046 kg m2

(c) 4.67 1047 kg m2 (d) 1.17 1047 kg m2

photoelectric effect, intensity of radiation (I),

frequency of radiation (), work function (0) of

the photosensitive emitter, distance between emitter

and collector (d) are changed or kept constant.

Match the changes given in column I to their effects

given in column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) 0 is decreased,

(P) Saturation photoelectric

keeping and I

current increases

constant

(B) d is increased,

(Q) Stopping potential (V0)

keeping I, , 0

increases

constant

(C) is increased,

(R) Maximum kinetic

keeping I, 0, d

energy (Kmax) of

constant

photoelectrons increases

(D) I is increased,

(S) Stopping potential

keeping , 0

remains the same

and d constant

A

B

C

D

(a) Q, R

S

Q, R

P, S

(b) Q, R, S

S, P

P, R

S, Q

(c) P

S

R, Q

S, P

(d) Q, R

S

P, S

Q, R

30. Some laws/processes are given in column I.

Match these with the physical phenomena given in

column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) Transition between (P) Characteristic X-rays

two atomic energy

levels

(B) Electron emission (Q) Photoelectric effect

from a material

(C) Mosleys law

(R) Hydrogen spectrum

(D) Change of photon (S) -decay

energy into kinetic

energy of electrons

A

B

C

D

(a) P, R

P

S

Q, S

(b) P, R

Q, S

P

Q

(c) Q, S

P

R, S

Q

(d) P

S

Q

P, R

> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

< 60%

75

P

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / NEET / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

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send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

1. A particle moves in the x-y plane with velocity

3

^

^

the magnitude of

v = i + t j . At t =

are

3

(a)

and (b) ,

and

,

2

2

2 2

(c)

2,

plane of inclination with horizontal with zero

intial velocity. The coefficient of friction between

the block and the plane is with > tan1(). The

rate of work done by the force of friction at time t is

(a) mg2tsin

(b) mg2t(sin cos)

(c) mg2tcos(sin cos)

(d) mg2tcos

3. The minimum speed v with which a small ball

should be pushed inside a smooth vertical circular

tube of radius R from a height h such that it may

reach the top of the tube is

(a)

2 g (h + 2R)

mg/

2mg/

3mg/

6mg/

5

gR

2

(c) g (5R 2h)

2 g (2R h)

a rough surface as shown in the figure. The friction

coefficient between block B and ground is /2 and

between blocks A and B is . Now a variable force

F = t is applied on A at t = 0. The mass of block B is m.

Find the value of time till they move together.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

the ceiling and a block of mass M is attached to

its lower end. The mass is released with the spring

initially unstretched. Then the maximum extension

in the spring is

2Mg

4Mg

Mg

Mg

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

k

2k

k

k

6. A particle of mass m1 is fastened to one end of a

massless string and another particle of mass m2 is

fastened to the middle point of the same string. The

other end of the string being fastened to a fixed point

on a smooth horizontal table. The particles are then

projected, so that the two particles and the string

Exam Alert!!

Exam Date: 2nd April 2017 (Pen & Paper Based Examination)

8th & 9th April 2017 (Computer Based Examination)

Last Date for applying online: 2nd January 2017

Last Date for fee payment: 3rd January 2017

Result Declaration: 27th April 2017

JEE Advanced

Exam Date: 21st May 2017

Online registration begins: 28th April 2017

Online registration closes: 2nd May 2017

Result Declaration: 11th June 2017

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PACE, Mumbai.

76

JEE Main

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

horizontal circles. Then, the ratio of tensions in the

two parts of the string is

m1

m + m2

(a)

(b) 1

(m1 + m2 )

m1

(c)

2m1 + m2

2m1

(d)

2m1

m1 + m2

force and normal reaction on the particle at any

point on the surface of bowl varies with respect

to as

(a)

acceleration of the particle is given by at = 2t m s2. The

radius of the circle described is 4 m. The particle is

initially at rest. Time after which total acceleration

of the particle makes 45 with radial acceleration is

(a) 1 s

(b) 2 s

(c) 3 s

(d) 4 s

8. A small body of mass m can slide without friction

along a trough bent which is in the form of a

semi-circular arc of radius R. At what height h will

the body be rest with respect to the trough, if the

trough rotates with uniform angular velocity

about a vertical axis.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a) R

2g

(c) R + 2

2g

(b) R 2

g

(d) R 2

along the curved circular path

as shown in the figure, with

tangential acceleration a. Then

acceleration of the particle at

point B in magnitude is

s Himani Bankoti, Kanpur

(a) 2a 1 + 2

(b) a 1 + 2

(c) a 2 1

2

(d) a 1 +

m is released from rest

from point A inside a

smooth hemispherical

bowl of radius R as

shown in the figure.

s 6ANSH!GARWAL$ELHI

s 2AJNI3INGH"IHAR

SET-41

3URBHI!GARWAL0UNE

3. Raman Reddy, Karnataka

77

Exam Dates

OFFLINE : 2nd April

ONLINE : 8th & 9th April

a liquid, the two arms are

maintained

at

different

temperatures T1 and T2. The

liquid columns in the two

arms have heights l1 and l2,

respectively. The coefficient of

volume expansion of the liquid is equal to

l1 l2

l1 l2

(a)

(b)

l2T1 l1T2

l1T1 l2T2

(c)

l1 + l2

l2T1 + l1T2

(d)

l1 + l2

l1T1 + l2T2

around the Earth. A second satellite is launched

into an orbit of radius 1.01 R. The period of second

satellite is larger than that of the first one by

approximately

(a) 0.5

(b) 1.0% (c) 1.5% (d) 3.0%

3. An object is placed at f/2

away from first focus of a

convex lens where f is the

focal length of the lens.

Its image is formed at a

distance 3f/2 in a slab of

refractive index 3/2, from the face of the slab facing

the lens. Find the distance of this face of the slab

from the second focus of the lens.

(a) f/2

(b) 3f/2 (c) 2f

(d) f

4. Pushing force making an angle with the horizontal

is applied on a block of weight W placed on a

horizontal table. If the angle of friction is , the

magnitude of force required to move the body is

equal to

W cos

cos( )

W tan

(c)

sin( )

(a)

78

W sin

cos( + )

W sin

(d)

tan( )

(b)

correct on the basis of kinetic theory of gases.

(I) Energy of one molecule at absolute temperature

is zero.

(II) The rms speeds of different gases are same at

same temperature.

(III)For one gram of all ideal gases, kinetic energy

is same at same temperature.

(IV) For one mole of all ideal gases, kinetic energy

is same at same temperature.

(a) All are correct

(b) I and IV are correct

(c) IV is correct

(d) None of these

6. A particle is moving on a straight line. Its acceleration

100

as a function of displacement is a = 2 + 2 m s 2.

s

If the velocity of particle is 5 ms1 at s = 10 m, then

the velocity of the particle at s = 25 m is

(a) 9.8 m s1

(b) 10 m s1

1

(c) 20 m s

(d) 8 m s1

7. The pressure and density of a diatomic gas

7

5

d

P

(P, d). If

= 32 then

is

d

P

1

(a)

(b) 32

(c) 128 (d) 256

128

8. Carbon monoxide is carried around a closed cyclic

process abc, in which bc is an isothermal process, as

shown in the given figure. The gas absorbs 7000 J of

heat as its temperature is

increased from 300 K to 1000 K in

going from a to b. The quantity

of heat ejected by the gas during

the process ca is

(a) 4200 J

(b) 500 J

(c) 9000 J

(d) 9800 J

magnetic flux of 2.4 105 Wb in an iron bar of

cross-sectional area 0.2 cm2. The susceptibility of an

iron bar is

(a) 298

(b) 596

(c) 1192 (d) 1788

10. A projectile can have the same range R for two

angles of projection. If t1 and t2 are the time of

flights in the two cases, then the product of the two

time of flights is proportional to

1

1

(a) R2

(b) 2

(c)

(d) R

R

R

11. In the figure, the velocity v3 will be

of the earth)

n

n

(b)

(a)

mgR

mgR

n + 1

n 1

mgR

(c) nmgR

(d)

n

16. A 220 V input is supplied to a transformer.

The output circuit draws a current of 2.0 A at

440 V. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%,

the current drawn by the primary windings of the

transformer is

(a) 3.6 A

(b) 2.8 A

(c) 2.5 A

(d) 5.0 A

17. Two solid spheres of same metal but of mass M and

8M fall simultaneously on a viscous liquid and their

terminal velocities are v and nv, then value of n is

(a) 16

(b) 8

(c) 4

(d) 2

(a) zero

(c) 1 m s1

(b) 4 m s1

(d) 3 m s1

mirror of focal length 15 cm are placed facing each

other 40 cm apart. A point object is placed between

the mirrors, on their common axis and 15 cm from

the concave mirror. Find the position and nature

of the image produced by successive reflections,

first at the concave mirror and then at the convex

mirror.

(a) 12 cm behind convex mirror, real

(b) 9 cm behind convex mirror, real

(c) 6 cm behind convex mirror, virtual

(d) 3 cm behind convex mirror, virtual

13. The reading on the ammeter in the

following figure will be

(a) 0.8 A

(b) 0.6 A

(c) 0.4 A

(d) 0.2 A

accelerates along a straight path at 2 m s2. At the

starting point of the motorcycle, there is a stationary

electric siren. How far has the motorcycle gone

when the driver hears the frequency of the siren at

94% of its value when the motorcycle was at rest?

(Speed of sound = 330 m s1)

(a) 49 m (b) 98 m (c) 147 m (d) 196 m

15. The change in the gravitational potential energy

when a body of mass m is raised to a height nR

equal width, let be the fringe width and I0 be the

maximum intensity. At a distance x from the central

bright fringe, the intensity will be

2x

x

(a) I0 cos

(b) I0 cos2

I

x

x

(c) I0 cos2

(d) 0 cos2

of a metal A the ejected photoelectrons have a

maximum kinetic energy EA eV and de Broglie

wavelength A. The maximum kinetic energy of

photoelectrons liberated from another metal B by

photons of energy 4.70 eV is EB = (EA 1.50) eV. If

the de Broglie wavelength of these photoelectrons

is B = 2A, then

(a) the work function of A is 2.25 eV

(b) the work function of B is 4.20 eV

(c) EA = 2.0 eV

(d) All of these

20. One end of a long metallic wire of length L is tied to

the ceiling. The other end is tied to a massless spring

of spring constant k. A mass m hangs freely from

the free end of the spring. The area of cross-section

and the Youngs modulus of the wire are A and Y

respectively. If the mass is slightly pulled down and

released, it will oscillate with a time period T equal

to

m(YA + kL)

m

(a) 2

(b) 2

k

YAk

(c) 2 mYA

kL

(d) 2 mL

YA

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

79

statements is not correct?

(b) When S is open, charge on C2 is 36 C.

(c) When S is closed, charges on both C1 and C2

change.

(d) When S is closed, the charges on both C1 and

C2 do not change.

22. The fundamental frequency of an open organ pipe

is 300 Hz. The first overtone of this pipe has same

frequency as first overtone of a closed organ pipe.

If speed of sound is 330 m s1, then the length of

closed organ pipe is approximately

(a) 41 cm (b) 37 cm (c) 31 cm (d) 80 cm

23. Two wires AO and OC carry

equal current i as shown in

figure. One end of both the wire

A

extends to infinity. Angle AOC

is . The magnitude of magnetic

field at a point P on the bisector of these two wires

at a distance r from point O is :

0 i

i

cot

(b) 0 cot

2 r

4 r

2

2

1 + cos

0 i

2 (d) 0 i sin

(c)

2 r sin

4 r

2

2

24 . A point mass oscillates along the X-axis according

to the law x = x0 cos (t /4). If the acceleration of

the particle is written as a = A (cos t + ), then:

(a) A = x02, = 3/4 (b) A = x0, = /4

(c) A = x02, = (d) A = x02, = /4

(a)

a nuclear reactor at different instants, the quantity

produced second time was twice of that produced

first time. If now their present activities are A1 and

A2 respectively then their age difference equals :

80

(a)

2A

T

ln 1

A2

ln 2

A

(b) T ln 1

A2

(c)

A

T

ln 2

ln 2 2A1

(d) T ln

A2

2A1

plane of angle . The coefficient

of friction between the block

and the plane is and tan > .

The block is held stationary by applying a force F

parallel to the plane. The direction of force pointing

up the plane is taken to be positive. As F is varied from

F1 = mg(sin cos) to F2 = mg(sin + cos), the

frictional force f versus F graph will look like

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

6

g, where g is the gravitational acceleration on

is

11

the surface of the earth. The average mass density of

2

the planet is times that of the earth. If the escape

3

speed on the surface of the earth is taken to be

11 km s1, the escape speed on the surface of the

planet will be

(a) 1.5 km s1

(b) 2 km s1

(c) 3.0 km s1

(d) 2.5 km s1

28. If the time period (T) of vibration of a liquid drop

depends on density () of the liquid, radius (r) of the

drop and surface tension (S), then the expression of

T is

(where k is a dimensionless constant.)

(a) T = k

(c) T = k

r 3

S

r 3

1/2

(b) T = k

1/2r 3

S

(d) T = k

r

S

S

29. Two identical metal plates are given positive

charges Q1 and Q2 (<Q1) respectively. If they are

now brought close together to form a parallel

plate capacitor with capacitance C, the potential

difference between them is:

(a) (Q1 + Q2)/2C

(b) (Q1 + Q2)/C

(c) (Q1 Q2)/C

(d) (Q1 Q2)/2C

distributed over its circumference is placed on a

rough horizontal surface. A vertical time varying

magnetic field B = 4t2 is switched on at time t = 0.

Mass of the ring is m and radius is R. The ring starts

rotating after 2 s. The coefficient of friction between

the ring and the table is :

4qmR

2qmR

8qR

qR

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

g

g

mg

2mg

SOLUTIONS

of liquid in each arm before

rising the temperature is l.

With temperature rises,

height of liquid in each

arm increases i.e., l 1 > l

and l2 < l.

l1

l2

Also, l =

=

1 + T1 1 + T2

T r

2. (c): As 2 = 2

T1 r1

3/2

= (1.01)

3/2

Here, = tan =

l1 + l1T2 = l2 + l2T1 =

3/2

l1 l2

l2T1 l1T2

1.01 R

=

R

1

= 1 +

100

3/2

3 1

.

= 1 +

2 100

T2 3 1

= 1 +

...(i)

T1 2 100

Percentage increase in period (from eqn (i)

T T

T

T

T

1

1

3f

f

3. (d) : u = f + =

2

2

3

f.

2

Distance of image formed due to convex lens from face

3

(3/2) f

of the slab =

=f

=

2

Let F2S = x

v = 2f + x

1 1 1

From =

v u f

1

1

1

=

(x + 2 f ) (3 f /2) f

x = f.

shown in figure.

f

R

or f = R tan

...(i)

The condition for the block just to move is

Fcos = f = R tan

...(ii)

and Fsin + W = R

or R = W + Fsin

...(iii)

From equations (ii) and (iii), we get

Fcos = (W + Fsin) tan = Wtan + Fsin tan

sin W sin

=

or F cos F sin

cos

cos

or F(cos cos sin sin) = Wsin

or Fcos( + ) = Wsin

W sin

or F =

.

cos( + )

5. (c): If the gas is not ideal then its molecule will

possess potential energy. Hence statement (I) is wrong.

At same temperature rms speed of different gases

1

. Hence

M

statement (II) is also wrong.

Kinetic energy of one gram gas depends on the

1

molecular weight Egm . Hence statement (III)

M

is also wrong.

But kinetic energy of one mole of ideal gas does not

3

depend on the molecular weight E = RT . Hence

2

(IV) is correct.

100

6. (a) : a = 2 + 2

s

dv

100

or v = 2 + 2

ds

s

v

25

25 100

ds

2

or

5 v dv = 10 2 ds + 10

or

2+1

1 2v

25

[v ]5 = 2[s]10

+ 100 s

2

2 + 1 10

or

v 2 25

5 2

= 30 + 100

2

2

50

25

81

100 3

= 36

50

or v2 = 72 + 25 v2 = 97

Magnetic susceptibility, =

= 30 +

v=

97 = 9.8 m s1

(4 107 Wb A1 m1)

P1V1 = P2V2

P2 V1 d2

= =

P1 V2 d1

7 /5

...(i)

t 1t 2 =

=

= 1.2 Wb m2

A 0.2 10 4 m2

B

Magnetic permeability, =

H

2

1.2 Wb m

=

= 7.5 104 Wb A1 m1

1600 A m1

B=

82

...(i)

...(ii)

t 1t 2 =

t 1t 2 =

g2

2u2 sin 2

g2

2

2 u sin 2

g

g

u2 sin 2

R =

2R

g

t 1t 2 R

A 1v 1 = A 2v 2 + A 3v 3

or A3v3 = A1v1 A2v2

1

or v3 =

[A v A2v2]

A3 1 1

1

[0.2 4 0.2 2] = 1 m s 1

=

0. 4

= 10

= +15

12. (c) :

2.4 105 Wb

= (CV + R)700

...(ii)

For carbon monoxide:

7

=

5

R

R

5R

CV =

...(iii)

=

=

1 7 1 2

5

Hence, from eqn. (i)

20

5R

7000 = 700 or R = = 4

5

2

7

5R

R 700 = 9800 J

(Q)ca = + R 700 =

2

2

9. (b) : Here, magnetising field, H = 1600 A m1

Magnetic flux, = 2.4 105 Wb

Area, A = 0.2 cm2 = 0.2 104 m2

1 596

same range, if angles of

projection are complementary

of each other and (90 ).

(90

Q)

Q

Thus, in both cases, the time

of flights are

2u sin

t1 =

g

2u sin (90 ) 2u cos

=

and t2 =

g

g

7

7. (c): Here, = , P1 = P, d1 = d; P2 = P , d2 = d

5

For an adiabatic process

PV = constant

P d

= = (32)7/5

P d

P

= (25)7/5 = 27 = 128

P

8. (d) : (Q)ab = +7000 = Cv(1000 300)

For the process ca:

Ta = 300 K, Tc = Tb = 1000 K

(Q)ca = Cp(300 1000) = Cp 700

1

0

40 cm

2

1

15 cm

a

a

u = 15 cm and f = 10 cm

1 1

1

, i.e., v = 30 cm

+ =

v 15 10

i.e., concave mirror will

form real, inverted, and

enlarged image I 1 of

object O at a distance of

the convex mirror.

For convex mirror, the image I1 will act as an object

and so for it u = 10 cm and f = +15 cm.

1

1

1

i.e., v = +6 cm

+

=

v 10 15

So, final image I2 is formed at a distance of 6 cm behind

the convex mirror and is virtual as shown in figure.

13. (c): In the above circuit, the resistances

6 , 3 and 2 are connected in

parallel. Their effective resistance will

be

1 1 1 1 1+ 2 + 3 6

= + + =

=

6

6

Rp 6 3 2

v v0

14. (b) : As =

,

v

(source at rest, observer is moving away from the

source)

v = v v0

or

330(0.94 1) = v0

whence, v0 = 19.8 m s1

and

v 2 u2 (19.8)2

=

m = 98 m

s= 0

2a

22

(440 V) (2 A)

(440 V) (2 A) (100)

VI

Ip = s s =

=

80

(80) (220 V)

V p

(220 V)

100

=5A

17. (c)

18. (c)

h

19. (d) : de Broglie wavelength, =

2mE

where E is the kinetic energy

h

h

EA

and B =

B=

A =

A

EB

2mE A

2mEB

or

or Rp = 1

The equivalent circuit is as

shown in the figure.

The equivalent resistance of

the circuit is

Req = 1 + 4 = 5

2V

Current in the circuit, I =

= 0. 4 A

5

Hence, the reading of the ammeter is 0.4 A.

or v 1 = v0

mgR

U = Uh Us =

(mgR)

(1 + n)

mgR

1

n

=

(mgR) = mgR 1

= mgR

(1 + n)

1+n

1 + n

16. (d) : Here, Input voltage, Vp = 220 V

Output voltage, Vs = 440 V, Input current, Ip = ?

Output current, Is = 2 A

Efficiency of the transformer, = 80%

Output power

Efficiency of the transformer, =

Input power

VI

= s s

VpI p

(as u = 0)

any point at a distance r from the centre of earth is

GMm

U =

r

At the surface of earth r = R,

GM

GMm

Us =

= mgR

g = 2

R

R

At the height, h = nR from the surface of earth

r = R + h = R + nR = R(1 + n)

GMm

mgR

Uh =

=

R(1 + n)

(1 + n)

EA

EA

or 4 =

EA 1.5

EA 1.5

6

4E A 6 = EA or E A = = 2 eV

3

EB = (EA 1.5) eV = 2 eV 1.5 eV = 0.5 eV

2=

h = 0 + KEmax

where the symbols have their usual meaning

or 0 = h KEmax

A = 4.25 eV 2.00 eV = 2.25 eV

B = 4.70 eV 0.50 eV = 4.20 eV

20. (b) : For two springs in series, the equivalent force

kk

YA

constant is keq = 1 2 . Here, k1 = k and k2 =

k1 + k2

L

21. (d)

25. (c)

29. (d)

kYA

kYA

keq = L =

YA kL + YA

k+

L

m(YA + kL)

m

T = 2

= 2

keq

YAk

22.

26.

30.

(a)

(a)

(c)

23. (c)

27. (c)

24. (a)

28. (a)

83

PRESS RELEASE

FOR OVERALL PERFORMANCE

rst Indian university to get international

recognition in terms of getting a 4-star rating

for overall performance in a recently concluded

audit of Quaquarelli Symonds (QS), UK.

A certicate to this effect was handed

over to the Chancellor of University, Dr G

Viswanathan here by QS South Asia Director,

Ashwani Fernandes in presence of Minister of

State for Finance Santosh Kumar Gangwar.

Speaking on the occasion, Mr Gangwar

said that in deference to the wishes of

Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the VIT

university has gone ahead in promoting the

meaningful education with wisdom and skill

development.

VIT University, India became the rst Indian

university to receive a 4 Star rating for overall

performance in a recently concluded audit of

Quacquarelli Symonds (QS), UK.

They also became the rst Indian university to receive 5 stars category

rating in 5 different categories. The categories are Teaching, Innovation,

Facilities, Employability and Inclusiveness. VIT is the only university in

India now with 4 STAR overall rating of QS.

Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) from the UK, founded in 1990, is the worlds

leading network for top careers and education.

Selection Criteria

The core criteria for QS Star evaluation are Teaching, Employability,

Research and Internationalization. The other criteria are Innovation,

culture, access, engagement, facilities, online learning, Discipline

ranking and Accreditation. A university needs to score 550 points out

of 1000 to get 4 star rating. The prerequisites of 4 star rating is at

least 75 academic referees or must have at least 2 citations per faculty

member, another prerequisite is the university should have at least 1%

international students. However, these prerequisite are not applicable

for 3 star rating. These have made QS 4 star rating very challenging and

highly competitive.

What this rating means for VIT University?

This 4 star rating is valid for 3 years. In the meantime VIT has already

started its work towards 5 star rating for subsequent evaluation by

increasing number of foreign students and also the number of faculty

citations.

VIT has increased facilities in research and approaching the Government

of India for more research funds. VIT University is also working to be

one among the Top 200 universities of the world by next 5 years.

This achievement of VIT University is a signicant milestone towards our

84

among the Top 100 universities of the World.

About VIT University

Chancellor of VIT, Dr.G.Viswanathan expressed his joy at a press

conference held in New Delhi on November 16th saying that in 1984,

we began this institute as Vellore Engineering college with mere 180

students. With dedication and sincere efforts of faculties and students,

we emerged as an autonomous university in the year of 2004. Apart

from engineering, we offer various professional courses like catering

technology, fashion designing, law and 24 different studies. In addition

to this, we also provide post graduate courses like MCA, MBA, M.TECH

and research courses like M.Phil and P.hd. We are proud to say that

among 32000 students in our university, one third of them are female

candidates. Gaining goodwill at Vellore, we thought of expanding our

institution at Chennai and thus we established VIT campus at Chennai.

Following that, we recently established two more VIT campuses, one

at Bhopal district in Madhya Pradesh and other at Amravati district in

Andhra Pradesh. With 1682 faculties and 1100 non teaching staffs,

we offer international standard education for which we have been

accredited A+ by NAAC and have been recognized by ABET and IET

organisations from US and UK respectively.

Last year almost 2.06 lakhs of students appeared for VITs Engineering

Entrance Exam (VITEEE) which is a national level achievement and took

a prominent place in Limca Book of Records and VIT holds this position

for 3 years continuously.

During the press meet Vice Presidents Mr. Sankar Viswnathan, Dr. Sekar

Viswanathan, Mr. G.V. Selvam and Vice Chancellor Dr. Anand A Samuel

were present.

column respectively.

Hence,

SOLUTION SET-41

1. (b) : Since, dV = E . dr

V =

2 0

2r

r dr = 20 [

r ]r =

2r

Now, K + U = 0

K = U = qV

1 2

q

ln 2 or v =

mv =

2

2 0

2 0

q ln 2

m0

E=

1

4 0

Q

8Q

+

x

2

2 3/ 2

2

2 3/ 2

(9a + x )

(a + x )

For small x,

E=

=

8

Q 1

+

x

3

4 0 a

27a3

Q 19

x

4 0 27a3

19qQ

F

=

mx 108 a30m

Time period, T =

5

= L3 + e

4

By substracting eqn. (i) from eqn. (ii)

= L3 L1 = (82.8 15.6) cm = 67.2 cm

= 0.672 m

v = = 500 Hz 0.672 m = 336 m s1

2

...(ii)

acceleration of sphere, then a = R.

Using net = I

2

4MgR cos 60 fR = MR 2

5

2

...(i)

2Mg f = Ma

5

As f = Ma, we get

10

10

a = g f = Mg

7

7

For pure rolling,

origin.

So the force on the particle

19qQx

F = qE =

108 a30

2 =

...(i)

and

= L1 + e

4

108 a30m

2

= 2

19qQ

= 12

a m 0

19qQ

5

a

(9a2 + x2)3/2 = 8(a2 + x2)3/2 x =

3

5

a , E will be in negative x direction.

For x <

3

Both options (a) and (d) are correct.

f (Mg + 4Mg)

10

Mg 5Mg

7

2

min =

7

5. (a, c) : Just after cutting the string torque on the rod,

2

= I ; Mg L = ML

2

3

3g

3g

=

aB =

2

2L

Relative acceleration between block and end B of

3g

g

g=

rod =

2

2

When rod becomes vertical, will be given by,

L 1 ML2 2

L

1 2

I = Mg ;

= Mg

2

2 2 3

2

2 3g

=

L

Tension in the rod at its mid point,

M

3L M 3g 3L 9

T = 2

=

= Mg

2

4

2 L 4 8

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

85

kQ

= Net potential at B and D

Net potential at C,VC =

2R

Potential at B due to induced charge,

kQ kQ

VB =

2R

5R

1 1

2

5

Potential at D due to

induced charge,

kQ kQ kQ

VD =

=

2R R

2R

1

5

V

2 =

Now, D =

VB

5 2 2 5

2 5

kQ kQ

and VB VD =

R

5R

If the sphere is earthed then potential at C is zero.

Q

kQ kQ

+

= 0 Q =

2R

2

R

7. (d) : Applying conservation of momentum,

mv1 + 2mvc = mv

v1 + 2vc = v

...(i)

As collision is elastic so,

l

cos 45 v1

vc +

2

e =1=

v0

l

...(ii)

v = vc +

v1

2

=

v + v0 v v0

v

v

2v

4 40

22

= 0=

400 =

=5

320

v

32

9. (6) :

kQ

R

respectively.

From thin lens formula,

1

1

1

1 1 1

...(i)

+ =

y ( x ) 9

y x 9

1

1

1

1

1

1

+

= ...(ii)

( y ) ((24 x )) 9

y 24 x 9

1

1

2

Using (i) and (ii), we get, +

=

x 24 x 9

12 9 = 24x x2 or 108 = 24x x2

x2 24x + 108 = 0 x2 18x 6x + 108 = 0

x(x 18) 6 (x 18) = 0 (x 6) (x 18) = 0

x = 6, 18

Convex lens should be placed at 6 cm from the S1.

10. (6) : Charge in region R to r is

r

Q = 4r 2

R

(r 2 R2 )

2

= 2(r2 R2)

= 4

2R 2

1 Q

=

+

2

40r 2 40 r 2

r2

Since, E is constant

1

Q 2R 2

and E =

(2 ) =

2=

2

4 0

20

r

r

3

Comparing, E =

and E =

2 0

m0

We get, m = 6

E=

about C,

2

l

l

l

= mv

mv1 + 2m

2

2

2

v1 + 2l = v

...(iii)

Solving (i), (ii) and (iii)

v

v1 =

7

v

The speed of the striking mass after collision is .

7

86

dr

r

(Q + Q)

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

(b)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a, c)

(3)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

(d)

(d)

(c)

(c)

(a, d)

(d)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

ANSWER KEY

(c)

4.

(b)

9.

(b)

14.

(a)

19.

(a, b, c) 24.

(b)

29.

(d)

(a)

(c)

(c)

(4)

(a)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

(c)

(d)

(c)

(a, b)

(6)

(b)

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just cant get

answered?

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spark?

Harish Reddy Thalla, Hyderabad

piezo-electric effect to generate an electric spark

which ignites the combustible gas from the stove

burner. Piezo-electric effect is the ability of certain

materials to generate an electric charge in response

to applied mechanical stress.

the danger of injury?

Gauri Shelke, Pune

first making contact with the balls of the feet, then

bending the knees and turning so as to come down

on the side of the leg and finally the back side of

the chest. The procedure has two advantages : it

prolongs the collision (and so it reduces the force

on the parachutist) and it spreads the force of the

collision out over a large area. If the parachutist

were to land standing up, the compression on

the bones in the ankles would likely rupture the

bones.

Q3. When a spaceship is sent to the Moon, why is

its path in the form of a distorted figure eight

instead of an ellipse that encompasses Earth

and the Moon?

Preet Gurung, Shilong

spaceship because for much of the trip it stays

close to the line between the centers of Earth and

the Moon on the spaceship. Since along that line

the gravitational pulls from the Earth and the

Moon compete, the net force on the spaceship

is smaller than if the spaceship is in an elliptical

orbit. So, less energy is required to overcome the

net force.

Q4. What is the difference between neutral and

ground in an electrical connection?

Mr. Sandeep Kumar Singh, Ludhiana

over which a spring loaded hammer is placed. The

hammer and spring set up is attached to a button.

When this button is pressed, the hammer is moved

away from the piezo-electric crystal. The spring

releases the hammer which hits the piezo-electric

crystal. Due to piezo-electric effect, a high voltage

is generated in the range of 700 V- 800 V. The lighter

is wired in such way that this voltage is applied in

a small air gap between two metallic points. Due

to high voltage generated, the air is ionized and

acts as a path for the discharge which creates a

spark, which when exposed to the combustible gas

(LPG and air mix) it produces flame. In home gas

lighters, piezo-electric ceramics like lead zirconate

titanate (PZT) are used due to low cost and high

sensitivity.

to the ground; the neutral is not. The ground wire

ensures that in case of a leakage, an appliance

does not acquire a voltage that might cause injury

or malfunction. It appears that there is no need

or separate identification of the live and neutral

terminals when you are dealing with a single phase

of alternating current. You just need an incoming

wire and an outgoing wire to complete the circuit.

But many homes and establishments are served by

three phases. In that case you would need three

separate pairs of electric cables, in other words a

total of six cables. On the other hand, if you make

one of the cables as a common neutral you would

need only four cables, resulting in great saving.

You would have noticed therefore that in your

switchboard serving a three-phase supply, there

are four cables coming in and one of them, called

the neutral, is connected to all your appliances

and light fixtures.

87

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ACROSS

3. An imaginary line connecting points on the earths surface

where the magnetic declination is the same. [8]

5. A thermionic valve having five grids between the cathode

and anode. [7]

7. The point in a solar orbit that is nearest to the sun. [10]

10. A device used for measuring the velocity of a fluid. [10]

11. The derived SI unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation

and of specific energy. [4]

12. Prefix denoting 1015. [5]

15. A network of fine lines dots, cross wires in the focal plane

of the eyepiece of an optical instrument. [9]

16. A device, use to receive visual and aural information using

broadcast mode of communication. [10]

19. An interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and

other ionised gases that can be observed either as a

luminous patch or as a clark region against a brighten

background. [6]

22. A dimensionless unit used for comparing two currents

entering and leaving a transmission line, almost exclusively

in telecommunication engineering. [5]

23. Frequencies of integral multiple of fundamental or lowest

tone. [8]

24. Alternate rise and fall arising by superimposing two sound waves

of slightly different frequencies travelling in same direction. [5]

25. A p-n junction between two regions of opposite polarity within

a semiconductor. [12]

26. The most common method is to measure the ionization caused

by the radiation, as in ionization chamber. [9]

27. Detection system which works on the principle of radar like

technique using continuous wave laser beams for remote

sensing. [5]

28. The outermost layer of the Earths atomosphere. (9).

29. The word used for the progressive decrease in the amplitude of

oscillation. [7]

30. The amount of potential energy stored in an elastic substance by

means of elastic deformation. [10]

31. Patterns demonstrating the presence of domains in

ferromagnetic crystal. [6, 8]

DOWN

1. A device that converts a signal in the form of one type of energy

into a signal of another form. [10]

2. The apparent motion of celestial bodies across the sky from east

to west. [7, 6]

4.

6.

8.

9.

12.

13.

14.

17.

18.

20.

21.

reverses the phase of signals transmitted in one direction

without affecting the phase of signals transmitted in opposite

direction. [7]

An instrument designed to measure brief flow of charge.

[9, 12]

An instrument for electron amplifying and directing sound. [9]

A high-powered electron vacuum tube, that works as self-excited

microwave oscillator. [9]

A nuclide capable of undergoing fission by interaction with

slow neutrons. [7]

A substance that can sustain an electric field and acts as an

insulator. [10]

A measure of the ability of a ferromagnetic material to with stand

an external magnetic field without becoming demagnetised.

[8, 5]

A device for measuring a fluid pressure. [9]

An aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars. [6]

A technique enabling a system to bring itself into some desired

state. [9]

The fraction of incident light diffusely reflected from a

surface. [6]

89

90

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