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Volume 25

Managing Editor
Mahabir Singh
Editor
Anil Ahlawat
(BE, MBA)

No. 1

January 2017

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CONTENTS

Class 11
NEET | JEE Essentials

Ace Your Way CBSE

23

MPP-7

34

Brain Map

38

Class 12
Brain Map

39

NEET | JEE Essentials

40

Ace Your Way CBSE

59

Key Concept

69

MPP-7

73

Competition Edge
Physics Musing Problem Set 42

76

JEE Main Practice Paper

78

Physics Musing Solution Set 41

85

You ask We Answer

87

At a Glance

88

Crossword

89

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

 
  

Heat and Temperature

Heat is a form of energy that is transferred between


two bodies or between adjacent part of a body or
between a system and its environment at different
temperatures.
When some heat is given to a body and its state does
not change, the temperature of the body rises and if
heat is taken from a body its temperature falls i.e.,
temperature can be regarded as the effect of cause,
heat.
Temperature is that property of a body which helps
us to decide the degree of its hotness.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics : If two systems
A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with a
third system C, then A and B will be in thermal
equilibrium with each other.
Scales of Temperature : Centigrade or Celsius (C),
Fahrenheit (F) and Kelvin (K), are commonly used
temperature scales.
Relation between these scales

TC TF 32 TK 273
=
=
5
9
5
Although the temperature of a body can be raised
without limit, it cannot be lowered without limit
and theoretically limiting low temperature is taken
to be zero on the Kelvin scale.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17




















  


 




Mathematically, heat supplied to the body, or heat


released by the body.
Q = msT
Where, m = masss of the body, s = specific heat of
the body and T = change in temperature
The amount of heat required to change the state of
a body of mass m from solid to liquid at melting
point of the solid or from liquid to gas at boiling
point of the liquid is Q = mL, where L is the latent
heat of the substance.
Q
, if the substance
As Q = msT s =
mT
undergoes the change of state which occurs at
Q
constant temperature (T = 0), then s =
= .
0

Thus the specific heat of a substance when it melts


or boils at constant temperature is infinite.
Thermal or heat capacity of a body, H = ms
Thermal capacity of the body and its water
equivalent are numerically equal.
If thermal capacity of a body is expressed
in terms of mass of water, it is called water
equivalent of the body.
Heating curve of a body (state changes from solid to
liquid and liquid to gas)
 

 
 
  




















 



When two substances at different temperatures


are mixed together, heat flows from the substance
at higher temperature to the substance at lower
temperature till a common temperature is
reached. In this process, heat lost by one substance
= heat gained by the other substance, i.e.,
m1 s1 (T1) = m2 s2 (T2)
Joules mechanical equivalent of heat
J=

mechanical work done (W )


heat energy produced (H )

= 4.2 J cal1 = 4.2 107 ergs cal1


If T is rise in temperature of a body of mass m
on falling through a height h, then
mgh
gh
or T =
smT
Js
When a block of ice of mass m melts on falling
through a height h, then
J=

J=

10









 





Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion in solids is of three types


Coefficient of linear expansion
Increase in length
=
Original length Rise in temperature
L L0
= T
or LT = L0 (1 + T )
L0 T
Coefficient of area expansion
Increase in area
=
Original area Rise in temperature
A A0
= T
or AT = A0 (1 + T )
A0 T
Coefficient of volume expansion
Increase in volume
=
Original volume Rise in temperature
V V0
= T
or VT = V0 (1 + T )
V0 T
The three coefficients of thermal expansion are

related as = = .
2 3
Effect of thermal expansion
With increase in temperature volume of
substance increase while mass remains constant,
therefore density should decrease.

=
(1 ) (if <<1)
1 +
When a solid whose density is less than the
density of liquid is floating, then a fraction of it

remains immersed. This fraction is f = s .


l
When temperature is increased, s and l
both will decrease. Hence, fraction may
increase, decrease or remain same. At higher
temperature,
1 + l
f= f
; = increase in temperature
1 + s

mgh
JL
or h =
mL
g

When a bullet of mass m moving with velocity


v is suddenly stopped, the entire KE of bullet is
converted into heat, then
1 2
mv
v2
J=2
or T =
smT
2 Js
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

If l > s then f > f or immersed fraction will


increase.
When a solid whose density is more than the
density of liquid is immersed completely, then
upthrust will act on 100% volume of solid and
apparent weight appears less than the actual
weight.
Wapp = W FB

Here, FB = Vsl g
With increase in temperature, Vs will increase and
l will decrease, while g will remain unchanged.
Therefore upthrust may increase, decrease or
remain same.
With increase in temperature, length of
pendulum will increase. Therefore time period
will increase. A pendulum clock will become
slow and it loses the time.
At some higher temperature,
1
1

T = T(1 + )2 or T T 1 + (if << 1)


2

1
T = (T T ) = T
2
T
t
Time lost during time interval t is t =
T
If temperature of a rod fixed at both ends is
increased, then thermal stresses are developed
in the rod.
Thermal stress = Y; Y = Youngs modulus of rod

1 x1 x2 x3
1
=
+
+
K K1 K 2 K 3 (x1 + x2 + x3 )
In general, K =

Rate of flow of heat across the material of a solid


block between parallel face is
dQ
dT
= KA
dx
dt
Where A is area of cross-section of slab,
dT
= temperature gradient and K = coefficient of
dx
thermal conductivity of the solid.
KA(T1 T2 )
t
In steady state, heat flow Q =
x
Rate of heat flow = Heat current
dQ Temperature difference

=
Thermal resistance
dt
T T2
x
Thermal resistance, R = 1
=
Th
dQ / dt KA
Conducting slabs in series
T1

Q=

12

x1

x2

x3

K1

K2

K3

A(T1 T2 )t
x1 x2 x3
+
+
K1 K 2 K 3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

T2
(T1 > T2)

( x i )
xi
K
i

Conducting slabs in parallel

T T
Q = (K1 A1 + K 2 A2 + K 3 A3 ) 1 2 t
x
Equivalent thermal conductivity
K A + K 2 + A2 + K 3 A3
K1, A1
K= 1 1
A1 + A2 + A3
T1

K2, A2

T2

(K i Ai )
K3, A3
In general, K =
x
Ai
Time taken in growth of ice layer (from thickness
L 2
x1 to x2) on water surface is t =
(x 2 x21);
2KT
T = temperature of atmosphere.

Heat Transfer

Equivalent thermal conductivity (K)

The time interval to change the thickness from


0 to x, from x to 2x and so on will be in the ratio
t1 : t2 : t3 : : 1 : 3 : 5.

Radiation

All objects emit radiations simply because their


temperature is above absolute zero, and all objects
absorb some of radiations.
The intensity of radiation is inversely proportional
to the square of distance of point of observation
form the source (i.e., I 1/d2).
When a body is heated, all radiations having
wavelengths from zero to infinity are emitted.
Radiations of longer wavelengths are predominant
at lower temperature.
energy absorbed
Absorptive power a =
energy incident
a < 1 for ordinary body
a = 1 for perfectly black body
Spectral absorptive power a = absorptive power of
wavelength .
a < 1 for ordinary body
a = 1 for perfectly black body
Emissive power : Energy radiated per unit area per
unit time is called emissive power of a body.
Stefans law : Emissive power of a body is given by,
E = eT4
Here e = emissivity
e 1 and e = 1 for a perfectly black body

Total energy radiated by a body,


Q = eT 4At
Here, A = surface area of body, T = temperature
of body, t = time = Stefans constant.
Net emissive power of a body
E = emissive power absorptive power
= e(T4 T04)
Kirchhoff s law : If different bodies (including a
perfectly black body) are kept at same temperature,
then emissive power is proportional to the
absorptive power.
e
e a or = constant
a

or

e
e
e
=
=
a
a Body-2 a Perfectly black body
Body-1

Good absorbers of a particular wavelength


are also good emitters of same wavelength.
At a given temperature, ratio of e and a for
any body is constant. This ratio is equal to e of
perfectly black body at that temperature.
Wiens Displacement law

T1 + T2

T1 T2
t = k 2 T0 .

L


L

1
m or mT = Constant = Wiens constant (b)
T
Here, b = 2.89 103 mK
Further, area of this graph will give total emissive
power which is proportional to T 4.
Cooling of a body by radiation
Rate of cooling
dT eA 4
dT

=
(T T04 ) or
(T 4 T04 )
dt
ms
dt

Newtons law of cooling : If temperature


difference of a body with atmosphere is small,
then rate of cooling is proportional to the
temperature difference.
If body cools by radiation according to this
law, then temperature of body decreases
exponentially.
In the figure,
Ti = initial temperature of 

body
T0 = temperature of 
surrounding.

Temperature at any time t
can be written as,
T = T0 + (Ti T0 )e kt ; k = constant
If body is cooling according to this law then to
find temperature of a body at any time t, we will
have to calculate e t . To avoid this, you can use
a shortcut approximate formula given below

If ln(T T0) be plotted against


t, then the equation assumes
the form y = mx + c; where
m = k and C = ln(T1 T0)

ln( 0)

This is a straight line with negative slope.


If Qemission > Qabsorption temperature of body
decreases and consequently the body appears
colder.
If Qemission < Qabsorption temperature of body
increases and it appears hotter.
If Qemission = Qabsorption temperature of body
remains constant (thermal equilibrium).

Gas Laws
Name of law
Boyles law

Charles law

14

Constant terms
Basic concept
(i) Mass of gas PV = constant
(ii) Temperature V 1/P
P1V1 = P2V2
(i) Mass of gas
(ii) Pressure

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Graph





V/T = constant; V T
V1 V2
=
T1 T2

Vt =V0(1 + t)

( volume expansion coefficient = 1/273 C1)


slope = 0A
(K)

273C

(C)

Gay-Lussacs law (i) Mass of gas


(ii)Volume

P/T = constant; P T
P1 P2
=
T1 T2
Pt =P0(1 + t)

Avogadros law : At same temperature and pressure


equal volumes of all gases contains equal number
of molecules.
N1 = N2 ; if P, V and T are same.
Daltons law : According to this law, the pressure
exerted by a mixture of several gases equals the sum
of the pressure exerted by each component of gas
present in the mixture i.e., Pmix = P1 + P2 + P3 ......
RT
P=
n Pmix n
V

slope = 0B
(K)

 (C)

273C

( pressure expansion coefficient = 1/273 C1)

Average speed
vav =

RT
(n + n + n + .......)
V 1 2 3
Grahms law of diffusion : According to this law, at
same temperature and pressure, the rate of diffusion
of gases inversely proportional to the square root of
the density of gas i.e.,
1
Rate of diffusion rd

1
Also, vrms
so vrms rd
;

8P
8 RT
8 kT
=
=

M
m

Kinetic energy of gas (internal energy)

Translatory kinetic energy


1
3
2
ET = Nm vrms
= PV
2
2
Total internal energy of an ideal gas is kinetic.

Energy per unit volume or energy density (EV)

Total Energy

E 1 2
3
= vrms = P
Volume
V 2
2
Molar K.E. or Mean Molar K.E. (E) : K.E. of N
molecules
3
3
(R = Nk)
E = RT = NkT
2
2
Molecular kinetic energy or mean molecular
K.E.(E ) : K.E. of a gas molecule
EV =

Pmix =

E=

E
3 RT
3
or E =
E = kT
N
2 N
2

Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas

Degree of Freedom

The number of independent ways in which a


molecule or an atom can exhibit motion is called
its degrees of freedom.

The number of independent coordinates required


to specify the dynamical state of a system is called
its degrees of freedom.

The degrees of freedom are of three types :

Pressure of an ideal gas inside the container


1 mN 2
1 2
P=
vrms = vrms
3 V
3
Where, m = mass of each molecule, N = total
number of molecules, V = volume of container or
total volume of gas, = density of gas, vrms = root
mean square speed of the gas.
Various types of speeds of gas molecules

Root mean square speed,


3P
3RT
3kT
=
=

M
m
Here, M = molar mass of the gas

Translational degree of freedom : Maximum


three degree of freedom are there corresponding
to translational motion.

Rotational degree of freedom : The number of


degrees of freedom in this case depends on the
structure of the molecule.

Vibrational degree of freedom : It exhibits at


high temperature.

vrms =

Most probable speed


vmp =

2P
2RT
2kT
=
=

M
m

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

15

Degree of freedom for different gases depends on atomicity of gas.


Atomicity of gas

Translational

Rotational

Monatomic
e.g., He, Ar, Ne, Ideal gas etc

Vibrational Total
0

Graphically

Diatomic
e.g., H2, O2, Cl2, N2 etc

Triatomic
or
Polyatomic

(linear)
e.g., CO2, C2H2




O=C=O

Triangular
(non-linear)
e.g., H2O, O3 etc

Relation between degree of freedom and specific


heat of gas.
Energy of one mole of gas related with each
degree of freedom = RT/2
Energy of one mole of gas related with all
degrees of freedom = fRT/2
Energy of each molecule of gas related with all
degrees of freedom = fkT/2

Mixture of Non Reactive Gases

n = n1 + n2
U = U1 + U2

CV =

f
U
R

f
; CV = R =
; CP = CV + R = + 1 R
2
T
2
1
CP
R
2
2
CP =
;=
= 1+ ; = 1+
CV
f
f
1

Van der waals equation :

n2 a
P
+
(V nb) = nRT [for n - mole]

V 2
where a and b are Van der waals constant
Critical parameter :(Pc , Vc , Tc)
a
8 a
Pc =
, Tc =
, V = 3nb
2
27 Rb c
27b
Approximate ideal gas law
PV = nRT = NkT

16

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

n1CV1 + n2CV2

P = P1 + P2
U = U1 + U2
CP =

n1CP1 + n2CP2

n1 + n2
n1 + n2
n1
n2
CP
n
=
or
=
+
CV
1 1 1 2 1
n M +n M
M= 1 1 2 2
n1 + n2

= CV + R

Thermodynamic System and Process

Real Gas Equation

Here, n = number of moles, N = number of


molecules, k = R/NA

CV =

Internal energy of one mole of ideal gas (total


KE) U = fRT/2
(U = fRT/2)

A thermodynamic system can be described by


specifying its pressure (P), volume (V), temperature
(T), internal energy (U) and the number of moles
(n).
The relation between the thermodynamic variables
(P, V, T) of the system is called equation of state.
For n moles of an ideal gas, equation of state is
PV = nRT
Thermodynamics system may be of three types :
Open system : It exchanges both energy and
matter with the surroundings.
Closed system : It exchanges only energy (not
matter) with the surroundings.

Isolated system : It exchanges neither energy


nor matter with the surroundings.

Work Done

Mathematical method : W = PV

V2

W = PdV
V1

If P constant, W = P(V2 V1) = nR(T2 T1)


If V constant, W = 0
If T constant, W = 2.303 n RT log10(V2/ V1)
= 2.303 nRT log10(P1/P2)
If Q constant, W = nR(T1 T2)/ 1
= (P1V1 P2V2)/ 1


Graphical method :

Work done = Area

enclosed between P - V
 
 
curve on V axis

Sign concept for work done :
If V dV = + ve expansion of gas
W = (+ve) work done by the system.

If V dV = ve Compression of gas
W = (ve) work done on the system.
Sign concept for heat :
If heat given to system or heat absorbed by
the system Q = +ve
If heat rejected by system or heat evolved
by the system Q = ve
Sign concept for internal energy : Obtained by
difference of (Q W)
If dU (+ve) then U
If dU (ve) then U
First law of thermodynamic is based on energy
conservation, Q = W + dU
Heat and work both are path dependent so they
called unexact differential parameter.
Internal energy is a point function or state function,
Internal energy only depends on initial and final
state of system so it is called exact differential
parameter.

Different types of thermodynamics processes


Basic Point
Isochoric
Isobaric
Isothermal
Constant
Volume
Pressure
Temperature
parameter
Equation of state P T
PV = constant
VT
Work done

W = zero

W = P V
= nRT

W = 2.303nRT log10

Adiabatic
Heat
PV = constant, TV l = constant
P1T = constant, P = constant,
PV
V2
nR(T1 T2 ) PV
= 1 1 2 2
W =
V1
1
1

Applied to first
Q 0,
U = 0, Q = W
Q = dU
law of thermodyW 0,
= nCVT
namics
U 0
Q = CPT,
dU = CVT

P-V diagram
Q  o 


Q = 0, W= U = nCVT

  



Slope of PV graph Slope =


dP/dV =
Specific condition Closed
container

Slope =
dP/dV = 0
Constant
pressure
(Open
container)

Slope = dP/dV = P/V

Slope = dP/dV = P/V

(i) Conductive vessel


(ii) slowly process

(i) Non-conductive vessel/insulated


vessel
(ii) Rapidly/fast/sudden process

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Kelvin Planks statement : It state that in cyclic


process total heat can not be converted into
mechanical work.

Claussius statement : It is impossible to have net


heat flow from a low temperature body to a high
temperature body.
Carnots theorem : This theorem states that
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

17

efficiency of any irreversible heat engine can not


be greater than or equal to efficiency of a reversible
heat engine provided both work between same heat
source and sink.
Heat engine : Main elements of heat engine
Heat source at temperature T1 = Heat reservoir
Working substance
Sink at low temperature T2 = Cold reservoir
  

   

Q
T
= 1 2 100% = 1 2 100%
Q1
T1
Refrigerator : It is just opposite to a heat engine.
In refrigerator, heat is absorbed from a cold
body and some external work is to be done
on refrigerant and the total heat is given out at
higher temperature source.
The coefficient of performance (C.O.P.) is
reciprocal of efficiency and for refrigerator it is
better to work out with its C.O.P.

  !" 
  


  
  
 
  

 
    

Q1 = Q2 + W
W Q1 Q2 T1 T2
Efficiency =
=
=
Q1
Q1
T1

18

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

C.O.P.() =

Q2 (Heat absorbed from cold body)

W (Mechanical work on refrigerator)


Q2
T2
C.O.P. =
=
Q1 Q2 T1 T2

1. A cylindrical metallic rod in thermal contact with two


reservoirs of heat at its two ends conducts an amount
of heat Q in time t. The metallic rod is melted and the
material is formed into a rod of half the radius of the
original rod. What is the amount of heat conducted
by the new rod, when placed in the same thermal
contact with the two reservoir in time t ?
Q
Q
Q
(a)
(b)
(c) 2 Q
(d)
4
16
2
2. A piece of blue glass heated to a high temperature
and a piece of red glass at room temperature, are
taken inside a dimly lit room, then
(a) the blue piece will look blue and red will look
as usual
(b) red looks brighter red and blue looks ordinary
blue
(c) blue shines like brighter red compared to the
red piece
(d) both the pieces will look equally red.
3. A steel scale measures the length of a copper rod as
80 cm when both are at 20C, the calibration
temperature for the scale. The scale read for the length
of the rod when both are at 40C is (Given, for
steel = 11 106 C1 and for copper = 17 106 C1.)
(a) 97.096 cm
(b) 80.0096 cm
(c) 89.0096 cm
(d) 92.23 cm
4. If the ratio of specific heat of a gas at constant
pressure to that at constant volume is , the change
in internal energy of a mass of the gas, when the
volume changes from V to 2 V at constant pressure
P, is
PV
R
PV
(a)
(b) PV (c)
(d)
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
5. A reversible engine converts (1/6)th of the heat into
work. When the temperature of the sink is reduced
by 62 K, the efficiency of the engine is doubled. The
temperatures of the source and sink respectively are
(a) 95C and 47C (b) 80C and 37C
(c) 99C and 37C (d) 90C and 47C
6. A thermally insulated vessel contains an ideal gas
of molecular mass M and ratio of specific heats . It
is moving with speed v and is suddenly brought to

rest. Assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings,


its temperature increases by
( 1)
( 1)
Mv 2 (b)
Mv 2
(a)
2 ( + 2) R
2 R
Mv 2
( 1)
Mv 2
(c)
(d)
2R
2R
7. The average translational energy and the rms speed
of molecules in a sample of oxygen gas at 300 K
are 6.21 1021 J and 484 m s1 respectively. The
corresponding values at 600 K are nearly
(a) 12.42 1021 J and 968 m s1
(b) 8.78 1021 J and 684 m s1
(c) 6.21 1021 J and 968 m s1
(d) 12.42 1021 J and 684 m s1
8. The Wiens displacement law express relation between
(a) wavelength corresponding to maximum energy
and temperature
(b) radiation energy and wavelength
(c) temperature and wavelength
(d) colour of light and temperature.
9. At what temperature is (1/2)kBT equal to minimum
rotational energy permitted for a hydrogen molecule?
(a) 87 K
(b) 92 K (c) 82 K
(d) 98 K
10. A polyatomic gas with n degrees of freedom has a
mean energy per molecule given by
nkT
nkT
nkT
3kT
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
N
2
2
2N
11. 10 g of ice cubes at 0C are released in a tumbler
(water equivalent 55 g) at 40C. Assuming that
negligible heat is taken from the surroundings, the
temperature of water in the tumbler becomes nearly
(L = 80 cal g1)
(a) 31C (b) 22C (c) 19C (d) 15C
12. A piece of lead is dropped from an aeroplane at a
height of 200 m. If 60% of the striking energy is
converted into heat, then the rise in temperature is
(specific heat for lead is 127.7 J kg1 K1)
(a) 9.2 K (b) 9.8 K (c) 12.7 K (d) 11.4 K
13. The molecules of a given mass of a gas have rms
velocity of 200 m s1 at 27C and 1.0 105 N m2
pressure. When the temperature and pressure of the
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

19

gas are respectively, 127C and 0.05 105 N m2,


the rms velocity of its molecules in m s1 is
(a)

100 2
100
(b)
3
3

(c) 100 2 (d)

400

3
[NEET Phase I 2016]

14. Two identical bodies are made of a material for


which the heat capacity increases with temperature.
One of these is at 100 C, while the other one is at
0 C. If the two bodies are brought into contact,
then, assuming no heat loss, the final common
temperature is
(a) 50 C
(b) more than 50 C
(c) less than 50 C but greater than 0 C
[NEET Phase II 2016]
(d) 0 C
15. A body cools from a temperature 3T to 2T in
10 minutes. The room temperature is T. Assume
that Newtons law of cooling is applicable. The
temperature of the body at the end of next
10 minutes will be
7
3
4
(a)
T
(b)
T
(c)
T
(d) T
4
2
3
[NEET Phase II 2016]
16. The temperature inside a refrigerator is t2 C and
the room temperature is t1 C. The amount of heat
delivered to the room for each joule of electrical
energy consumed ideally will be
t1
t + 273
(a)
(b) 1
t1 t2
t1 t2
t2 + 273
t1 + t2
(c)
(d)
t1 t2
t1 + 273
[NEET Phase II 2016]
17. A pendulum clock loses 12 s a day if the temperature
is 40C and gains 4 s a day if the temperature is
20 C. The temperature at which the clock will
show correct time, and the co-efficient of linear
expansion () of the metal of the pendulum shaft
are respectively
(a) 25C; = 1.85 105 C1
(b) 60C; = 1.85 104 C1
(c) 30C; = 1.85 103 C1
(d) 55C; = 1.85 102 C1
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
18. An ideal gas undergoes a quasi static, reversible
process in which its molar heat capacity C remains
constant. If during this process the relation of
pressure P and volume V is given by PVn = constant,
then n is given by (Here CP and CV are molar specific
20

heat at constant pressure and constant volume,


respectively)
C CP
C
(a) n = P
(b) n =
C CV
CV
C C
C CV
(c) n = P
(d) n =
C CV
C CP

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

[JEE Main Offline 2016]


19. n moles of an ideal gas
undergoes a process
A B as shown in the
figure. The maximum
temperature of the gas
during the process will
be
9P0V0
3P0V0
9P0V0
9P0V0
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
4nR
2nR
2nR
nR
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
20. 200 g water is heated from 40 C to 60C. Ignoring
the slight expansion of water, the change in its
internal energy is close to (Given specific heat of
water = 4184 J kg1 K1)
(a) 167.4 kJ (b) 8.4 kJ (c) 4.2 kJ (d) 16.7 kJ
[JEE Main Online 2016]
1.

2.

3.

4.

SOLUTIONS
(b) : A = A/4 and l = 4l
Q
A l 1 1 1
Q
=
= = , Q =
Q
A l 4 4 16
16
(c) : According to Stefans law, E T4
As the temperature of blue glass is more than that of
red glass, so it will appear brighter than red glass.
(b) : 1 cm length of steel scale at 40C
= 1 cm + 1 (11 106)(40 20) cm = 1.00022 cm
Length of copper rod at 40C
= 80 cm + (80 17 106) (40 20) cm = 80.0272 cm
Number of division on the steel scale
80.0272 cm
80.0096
=
1.00022 cm
Length of the rod = 80.0096 cm
CP CV
CP
(a) : As
=
=1
CV
CV
C CV
R
=
or CV = P
1
1
nRT
Now U = nCVT=
( PV = nRT)
1
P V P (2V V ) PV
U =
=
=
1
1
1

T 1
T
6
5. (c) : As = 1 2 , = 1 2 ; T1 = T2
T1 6
T1
5
T2
1 1
Also, = 2 = = 1
T1
6 3
or

6.

7.

8.

9.

(T 62)
1
=1 2
T1
3

or

(T 62)
1
=1 2
(6/5)T2
3

Hence, T2 = 310 K = 37C


6
6
Also, T1 = T2 = 310 K = 372 K = 99C
5
5
1
(d) : Loss in KE of the gas = mv2
2
Heat gained by gas = nCVT
1 2
m R

mv = nCVT =

T
2
M 1
( 1)
Mv 2
or T =
2R
(d) : Average translational energy temperature.
Thus, when temperature is doubled, average translational
energy becomes double, i.e., 12.42 1021 J.
Further, as vrms T ; when T becomes 2 times
of its previous value, vrms becomes 2 times of its
previous value, i.e.,
2 484 m s1 = 684 m s1
(a) : Wiens displacement law states that the product
of absolute temperature and the wavelength at
which the emissive power is maximum is constant
i.e. max T = constant. Therefore it expresses relation
between wavelength corresponding to maximum
energy and temperature.
1
(a) : Kinetic energy of rotation = I2
2
(I )2 L2
=
=
(as L = I)
2I
2I
1
For kBT to be equal to minimum rotational energy,
2
L2
L2
1
kBT = min or T = min
...(i)
kB I
2
2I
From quantum mechanics,
h
10 34 kg m2 s 1
L2min =
...(ii)
2
In case of hydrogen molecule
I = 2mR2, m = 1.67 1027 kg, R 5 1011 m
Thus, I = 2(1.67 1027)(5 1011)2 kg m2
= 8.3 1048 kg m2
...(iii)
From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),
T=

(10 34 )2
(1.38 10 23 )(8.3 10 48 )

87 K

10. (c) : According to law of equipartition of energy,


1
the energy per degree of freedom is kT . For a
2
polyatomic gas with n degrees of freedom, the mean
1
energy per molecule = nkT .
2
11. (b) : Let the final temperature be T.
Heat required by ice = mL + m s (T 0)
= 10 80 + 10 1 T
Heat lost by water = 55 (40 T)
By using law of calorimetry,
heat gained = heat lost; 800 + 10T = 55 (40 T)
T = 21.54C = 22C
12. (a) : We are given, h = 200 m, c = 127.7 J kg1 K1
Let m be the mass of the piece of lead.
Potential energy of the lead piece = mgh
Since 60% of the potential energy is converted into
heat, heat produced = (60/100) mgh = 0.6 mgh.
If T is the rise in temperature, then
heat gained by the piece = mcT
Assuming that there is no loss of heat,
heat gained = heat produced
or mcT = 0.6 mgh
0.6 gh 0.6 9.8 200
=
= 9. 2 K
or T =
c
127.7
13. (d)
14. (b) : Since, heat capacity of material increases with
increase in temperature so, body at 100 C has
more heat capacity than body at 0 C. Hence, final
common temperature of the system will be closer to
100 C.
Tc > 50 C
15. (b) : According to Newtons law of cooling,
dT
= K (T Ts)
dt
dT
dT
For two cases, 1 = K (T1 Ts) and 2 = K (T2 Ts)
dt
dt
3T + 2T
Here, Ts = T, T1 =
= 2. 5 T
2
dT1 3T 2T T
and
=
=
dt
10
10
dT
2T + T
2T T
T2 =
and 2 =
dt
2
10
T
So,
...(i)
= K (2.5T T )
10
2T T
2T + T

...(ii)
=K
T
2

10
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

21

Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get


T
(2.5T T )
=
2T T 2T + T

2
3
T = 3(2T T) or, 4T = 6T T = T
2
16. (b) : Temperature inside refrigerator = t2 C
Room temperature = t1 C
For refrigerator,
Heat given to higher temperature (Q1 )
T
= 1
Heat taken from lower temperature (Q2 ) T2
Q1 t1 + 273
=
Q2 t2 + 273
Q1
t + 273
t t
W
= 1
or,
= 1 2

Q1 W t 2 + 273
Q1 t1 + 273
The amount of heat delivered to the room for each
joule of electrical energy (W = 1 J)
t + 273
Q1 = 1
t1 t2
17. (a) : Time period of the pendulum clock at
temperature is given by
1

l (1 + )
l
l
T = 2 = 2 0
= 2 0 (1 + ) 2
g
g
g
1
T T0 1 +
2

...(i)

Assume pendulum clock gives correct time at


temperature 0

T = T0 1 + 0
0
2

...(ii)

At = 40C > 0 as clock loses time.


1

T40 = T0 1 + 40
2

At = 20C < 0 as clock gains time.


1

T20 = T0 1 + 20
2

...(iii)

...(iv)

From equations (ii) and (iii), we get


T40 T
1
0
= (40 0 )
T0
2
or 12 s = (40 0) (12 h)
From equations (ii) and (iv), we get
T T20 1
0
= (0 20)
T0
2
or, 4 s = (0 20)(12 h)
22

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

..(v)

...(vi)

From equations (v) and (vi), we get


3(0 20) = (40 0)
30 + 0 = 40 + 60
100
0 =
= 25C
4
From equation (vi), 4 s = (25 20)(12 3600 s)
4
=
= 1.85 105 C 1
5 12 3600
18. (b) : Here, PVn = constant
or, PnVn1 dV + Vn dP = 0
or, nPdV = V dP
Also, from ideal gas equation PV = nRT
PdV + VdP = nR dT or PdV nPdV = nRdT
nRdT
or, PdV =
(1 n)
Also, dQ = dU + dW nC dT = nCVdT + PdV
nRdT
nCdT = nCV dT +
(1 n)
R
R
or, C = CV +
or, (1 n) =
C CV
(1 n)
C (CV + R) C CP
R
or, n = 1
=
=
C CV
C CV
C CV
19. (a) : Equation of line AB is given by
y y
y y1 = 2 1 (x x1 )
x2 x1
2P P
P P0 = 0 0 (V 2V0 )
V0 2V0
P0
P
or P = V + 3P0 or, PV = 0 V 2 + 3P0V
V0
V0
P0 2
or nRT = V + 3P0V
V0

1 P0 2
or T =
V + 3P0V
...(i)

nR V0

For maximum value of T, dT = 0


dV
P
3
or 0 (2V ) + 3P0 = 0 V = V0
V0
2
So, from equation (i)
9 P0V0
1 P0 9 2 9
Tmax =
V + PV =
nR V0 4 0 2 0 0 4 nR
20. (d) : For isochoric process, U = Q = ms T
Here, m = 200 g = 0.2 kg, s = 4184 J kg1 K1
T = 60C 40C = 20 C = 20 K
U = 0.2 4184 20 = 16736 J = 16.7 kJ

CLASS XI Series 7


Oscillations and Waves

Time Allowed : 3 hours


Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)

All questions are compulsory.

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv)

Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v)

Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

(vi)

Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed.

SECTION-A

1. What change in mass is required to double the


frequency of a harmonic oscillator?
2. Why is a loud sound heard at resonance?

vibrates in its fundamental mode with a frequency


of 45 Hz. The mass of the wire is 3.5 102 kg and
its linear mass density is 4.0 102 kg m1. What is
(a) the speed of a transverse wave on the string, and
(b) the tension in the string?

3. If an explosion takes place at the bottom of a lake,


will the shock waves in water be longitudinal or
transverse?

9. What are the differences between stationary waves


and progressive waves?

4. How does the frequency of a tuning fork change,


when the temperature is increased?

OR
Why is a tuning fork used as a standard oscillator? On
what factors does the pitch of a tuning fork depend?

5. The length of a string tied to two rigid supports is


40 cm. What is the maximum wavelength of the
stationary wave produced in it?
SECTION-B

6. Show that the motion of a particle represented by


y = sin t cos t is simple harmonic with a time
period of 2/.
7. The length of a seconds pendulum on the surface of
earth is 1 m. What will be the length of a seconds
pendulum on the moon?
8. A wire stretched between two rigid supports

10. A body of mass m is situated in a potential field


U(x) = U0 (1 cos x) where U0 and are constants.
Find the time period of small oscillations.
SECTION-C

11. Figure (a) shows a spring of force constant k clamped


rigidly at one end and a mass m attached to its free
end. A force F applied at the free end stretches the
spring. Figure (b) shows the same spring with both
ends free and attached to mass m at either end.
Each end of the spring in figure (b) is stretched by
the same force F.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

23

(i) is independent of pressure,


(ii) increases with temperature,
(iii) increases with humidity.

17. State the principle of superposition of waves.


Distinguish between conditions for the production
of stationary waves and beats.










(i) What is the maximum extension of the spring


in the two cases?
(ii) If the mass in figure (a) and the two masses in
figure (b) are released, what is the period of
oscillation in each case?
12. A pipe 20 cm long is closed at one end. Which
harmonic mode of the pipe is resonantly excited
by a 430 Hz source? Will the same source be in
resonance with the pipe if both ends are open?
(Speed of sound in air is 340 m s1).
13. A train, standing at the outer signal of a railway
station blows a whistle of frequency 400 Hz in still
air. The speed of sound in still air can be taken as
340 m s1.
(i) What is the frequency of the whistle for a
platform observer when the train
(a) approaches the platform with a speed of
10 m s1?
(b) recedes from the platform with a speed of
10 m s1?
(ii) What is the speed of sound in each case?
14. Two simple harmonic motions are represented by
the equations:

y1 = 10 sin (12t + 1), y2 = 5(sin 3t + 3 cos 3t)


4
Here y1 and y2 are in cm and t is in second.
Find the ratio of their amplitudes. What are time
periods of the two motions?
15. A simple pendulum is hung in a stationary lift and
its periodic time is T. What will be the effect on its
periodic time T if
(i) the lift goes up with uniform velocity v,
(ii) the lift goes up with uniform acceleration a, and
(iii) the lift comes down with uniform acceleration a?
16. Use the formula v =
of sound in air
24

P
to explain why the speed

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

18. Show that for small oscillations the motion of a


simple pendulum is simple harmonic. Derive an
expression for its time period. Does it depend on
the mass of the bob?
19. On a quiet day, two persons A and B, each sounding
a note of frequency 580 Hz, are standing a few
metres apart. Calculate the number of beats heard
by each in one second when A moves towards B
with a velocity of 4 m s1.
(Speed of sound in air = 330 m s1.)
20. A spring balance has a scale that reads from 0 to
50 kg. The length of the scale is 20 cm. A body
suspended from this balance, when displaced and
released, oscillates with a period of 0.6 s. What is
the weight of the body?
21. The patterns of standing waves formed on a stretched
string at two instants of time are shown in figure.
The velocity of two waves superimposing to form
stationary waves is 360 m s1 and their frequencies
are 256 Hz.








 

  

 

  

 

(i) Calculate the time at which the second curve is


plotted.
(ii) Mark nodes and antinodes on the curve.
(iii) Calculate the distance between A and C.
OR
A horizontal spring block system of mass M executes
simple harmonic motion. When the block is passing
through its equilibrium position, an object of mass
m is put on it and the two move together. Find the
new amplitude and frequency of vibration.
22. Discuss first three modes of vibration of a closed
organ pipe.

SECTION-D

23. Rohit was a good football player. But since last few
days he was getting pain in his stomach. His parents
took him to a doctor who examined him and asked
him to get an ultrasound done to detect the exact
cause. Rohit was afraid of ultrasound scanner
and refused to get it done. His parents made him
understand that the scanner uses ultrasonic rays
which go inside and detect any problem inside the
body. So he got it done and the scanner showed that
he has small tumour in his stomach and that has
to be operated as early as possible. Doctor operated
him off the tumour and after a month he became
fine again.
Answer the following questions based on above
information :
(i) What are the values shown by Rohit's parents?
(ii) On which principle does the ultrasonic scanner
work?
(iii) If the ultrasound uses the operating frequency
of 4.2 MHz, the speed of sound in the tissue is
1.7 km s1. What is the wavelength of the sound
in tissue?
SECTION-E

24. A cylindrical piece of cork of base area A and


height h floats in a liquid of density 1. The cork is
depressed slightly and then released. Show that the
cork oscillates up and down simple harmonically
with a period
T = 2

h
1 g

where is the density of cork. (Ignore damping due


to viscosity of the liquid).
OR
A mass attached to a spring is free to oscillate, with
angular velocity , in a horizontal plane without
friction or damping. It is pulled to a distance x0
and pushed towards the centre with a velocity v0 at
time t = 0. Determine the amplitude of the resulting
oscillations in terms of the parameters , x0 and v0.
25. Find the total energy of the particle executing
SHM and show graphically the variation of potential
energy and kinetic energy with displacement in SHM.
OR
Explain the formation of beats analytically. Prove
that the beat frequency is equal to the difference in
frequencies of the two superposing waves.

26. Derive Newton's formula for the speed of sound


in a gas. Why and what correction was applied by
Laplace in this formula?
OR
Explain why (or how) :
(i) in a sound wave, a displacement node is a
pressure antinode and vice versa,
(ii) bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature
and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,
(iii) a violin note and sitar note may have the same
frequency, yet we can distinguish between the
two notes,
(iv) solids can support both longitudinal and
transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves
can propagate in gases, and
(v) the shape of a pulse gets distorted during
propagation in a dispersive medium.
SOLUTIONS

1. The time period (T) of a harmonic oscillator


(a mass attached to a spring) is given by T = 2 m/k ,
where k is the force constant of the spring. If is the
frequency of the harmonic oscillator,
=

1
1 k
=
or 1/ m
T 2 m

Thus, to double the frequency of the oscillator, the


mass should be reduced to (1/4)th of its original
value.
2. At resonance, a compression falls on a compression
and a rarefaction falls on a rarefaction. On account
of this, the amplitude of the vibrating particles
increases. Since the intensity of sound is directly
proportional to the square of the amplitude of the
vibrating particles, hence maximum sound is heard
at resonance position.
3. An explosion in a lake generates shock waves in
water thereby resulting in a tremendous increase
in pressure in the medium (water). A shock wave
is thus a longitudinal wave travelling at a speed
which is greater than that of a longitudinal wave of
ordinary intensity.
4. As the temperature increases, the length of the
prong of the tuning fork increases. This increases
the wavelength of the stationary waves set up in the
tuning fork. As frequency, 1/, so frequency of
the tuning fork decreases.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

25

5. When the string vibrates in one segment, L =

= 2 L = 2 40 cm = 80 cm
6. Given, y = sin t cos t
1

1
sin t
cos t
= 2
2

= 2 cos sin t sin cos t

4
4

y = 2 sin t

4
Hence, (sin t cos t) represents SHM.
Again,

y = 2 sin t = 2 sin t + 2

4
4

2
= 2 sin (t + )
4

Hence, time period of SHM is 2/.


7. For seconds pendulum, T = 2 s
l
l
l
1
2 = 2
=
= constant
g
g
g 2
l
l
moon = earth
g moon g earth

T = 2

g
1 1
lmoon = learth moon = 1 = m
6 6
g
earth

8. Here, = 45 Hz, M = 3.5 102 kg ;


mass/length = = 4.0 102 kg m1

l=

M 3.5 10 2 7
= m
=
4.0 10 2 8

As wire vibrates in its fundamental mode

7
=l=
2
8

7
m = 1.75 m
4

The speed of the transverse wave, v =


= 45 1.75 = 78.75 m s1
(b) As, v = T

T = v2 = (78.75)2 4.0 102 = 248.06 N


9. Difference between stationary and progressive
waves
(i)

26

Stationary waves
The disturbance
remains confined to
a particular region,
and there is no
onward motion.

Progressive waves
The disturbance
travels forward,
being handed over
from one particle to
the neighbouring
particles.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

(ii)

There is no transfer
of energy in the
medium.

Energy is
transferred in the
medium along the
waves.
(iii) The amplitude of
The amplitude of
vibration of particles vibration of each
varies from zero at
particle is same.
nodes to maximum
at antinodes.

OR
When a tuning fork is struck lightly against a rubber
pad, it produces only fundamental tone. If it is struck
forcefully, it produces overtones which soon dies out.
So a tuning fork can be used as a source of standard
frequency.
Factors on which the pitch of a tuning fork depends :
(i) It is inversely proportional to the square of the
length of its prongs.
(ii) It is directly proportional to the thickness of the
fork.
(iii) It is directly proportional to the square root of the
Young's modulus of elasticity of its material.
(iv) It is inversely proportional to the square root of
the density of its material.
Hence low frequency tuning forks are long and thin
while high frequency tuning forks are short and thick.
10. Given, U(x) = U0(1 cos x)
Differentiating both sides with respect to x
dU (x )
= U 0 (0 + sin x ) = U 0 sin x
dx
dU (x )
F=
= U 0 sin x
dx
For small oscillations, sin
sin x x

F = U0 (x) = U02x
Also,
F = kx
From equations (i) and (ii)
k = U02
m
m
= 2
T = 2
Thus,
k
U 02

...(i)
...(ii)

11. (i) Maximum extension of the spring :


(a) Suppose the maximum extension produced in
the spring is y. Then,
F=ky
(in magnitude)
or
y = F/k
(b) In this case, force F on each mass acts as the
force of reaction developed due to force F on

the other mass. Therefore, in this case also,


maximum extension is given by y = F/k
(ii) Period of oscillation:
If T1 is the time period in case (a), then
m
T1 = 2
k
In case (b), the time period of oscillation of a two
body oscillator (two bodies of mass m1 and m2
connected at the ends of a spring of spring constant
k) is given by

T2 = 2
k
where is called the reduced mass of the system
defined as
m1m2
=
m1 + m2
In the present case, m1 = m2 = m. So,
mm m
=
=
m+m 2
m/2
m
= 2
k
2k
12. Here, L = 20 cm = 0.2 m, n = 430 Hz, v = 340 m s1
The frequency of nth normal mode of vibration of
closed pipe is
v
340
n = (2n 1)
430 = (2n 1)
4L
4 0.2
430 4 0.2
or 2n 1 =
= 1.01
340
2n = 2.01 or n 1
Hence, it will excite the lst normal mode of vibration.
In a pipe, open at both ends, we have
v
n 340
430 2 0.2
= 430 n =
n = n

= 0.5
340
2L
2 0.2
As n has to be an integer, therefore, open organ pipe
cannot be in resonance with the source.

Thus, T2= 2

13. Here, frequency of source of sound,


= 400 Hz; speed of sound, v = 340 m s1
speed of source, vs = 10 m s1
(i) (a) When the train approaches the platform, the
apparent frequency as heard by the observer on
the platform will be
340
v
=
=
400
340 10
v vs
340
=
400 = 412.1 Hz
330
(b) When the train recedes from the platform, the
apparent frequency as heard by the observer
will be :

340
v
340
=
400 =
400
340 + 10
v + vs
350
= 388.6 Hz 389 Hz
(ii) The speed of sound in each case remains same
i.e., 340 m s1.
=

14. y1 = 10 sin (12t + 1) = 10 sin 3t +


...(i)

4
4
y2 = 5(sin 3t + 3 cos 3t)

= 10 sin 3t 1 + cos 3t 3

2
2

= 10 sin 3t cos + cos 3t sin

3
3

or y2 = 10 sin 3t +
...(ii)

3
The general equation for SHM is
y = A sin (t + 0 ) = A sin 2 t + 0 ...(iii)
T

Comparing equations (i) and (ii) with (iii), we get


2 2
A1 = 10 cm, A2 = 10 cm,
=
= 3
T1 T2
2
A1

= 1; T1 = T2 = s
3
A2

15. (i) When the lift goes up


a
a
figure (a) with uniform
a
velocity v, tension in
 


the string, T = mg.
The value of g remains



unaffected.



The period T remains same as that in stationary lift,
l
i.e., T = 2
g
(ii) When the lift goes up with acceleration a as
shown in figure (b), the net upward force on the
bob is T mg = ma T = m(g + a)
The effective value of g is (g + a) and the time period is
T1 = 2

l
g +a

Clearly, T1 < T, i.e., time period decreases.


(iii) When lift comes down with acceleration a
figure (c), the net downward force on the bob is
mg T = ma
T = m(g a)
The effective value of g becomes (g a) and the time
period is
l
T2 = 2
g a
Clearly, T2 > T, i.e., time period increases.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

27

16. (i) Effect of pressure: The speed of sound in a gas is


given by, v =

At constant temperature, PV = constant;


Pm
= constant

P
Since m is constant, so
= constant

i.e., when pressure changes, density also changes


P
in the same ratio so that the factor
remains

unchanged. Hence the pressure has no effect on the


speed of sound in a gas for a given temperature.
(ii) Effect of temperature : We know that
nRT
PV = nRT or P =
V
P
nRT
RT
Also v =
=
=
M

V
where M = molecular weight of the gas
As , R and M are constants, so v T ,
i.e., velocity of sound in a gas is directly proportional
to the square root of its temperature, hence we
conclude that the velocity of sound in air increases
with increase in temperature.
(iii) Effect of humidity: As v = P , i.e., v 1

The density of water vapours is less than that


of dry air. Since the speed of sound is inversely
proportional to the square root of density, so sound
travels faster in moist air than in dry air.
17. Principle of superposition of waves states that
when a number of waves travel through a medium
simultaneously, the resultant displacement of any
particle of the medium at any given time is equal to
the algebraic sum of the displacements due to the
individual waves. Mathematically,
y = y1 + y2 + y3 + ..... + yn
(i) When two waves of same frequency moving
with the same speed in the opposite directions
in a medium superpose on each other, they
produce stationary waves.
(ii) When two waves of slightly different frequencies
moving with the same speed in the same
direction in a medium superpose on each other
they produce beats.
18. Suppose at any instant during oscillation, the bob
of a simple pendulum lies at position A when its
displacement is OA = x and the thread makes angle
28

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17


   
with the vertical. The forces
acting on the bob are
Q
(i) Weight mg of the

bob acting vertically

downwards.

  Q
(ii) Tension T along the

Q
  Q
  Q
string.
Thus, the restoring force is

F = mg sin
3
5

= mg + .....
3! 5!

However, if is so small that its higher powers can


be neglected, then, F = mg
If l is the length of the simple pendulum, then
x
arc
(rad) =
=
radius l
x

F = mg
l
mg
g
x or a = x = 2 x
or ma=
l
l
Hence for small oscillations, the motion of the bob
is simple harmonic. Its time period is
2
2
l
or T = 2
T=
=

g
g /l
Obviously, the time period of a simple pendulum
depends on its length l and acceleration due to
gravity g but is independent of the mass m of the bob.

19. In one case, A can be regarded as a source of sound


moving towards observer B.
vs = + 4 m s1, vo = 0
v vo
330 0

=
580
=
330 4
v vs
330
=
580 = 587 Hz
326







 

In another case, A can be regarded as observer


moving towards stationary source B.








 

vo = 4 m s1, vs = 0
v vo
330 + 4

=
580
=
330 0
v vs
334
=
580 = 587 Hz
330
Number of beats heard per second by A
= = 587 580 = 7
Number of beats heard per second by B
= = 587 580 = 7

v = Velocity of mass M when passing through


mean position.
Maximum kinetic energy = Total energy
1
1
or
Mv 2 = kA2
2
2
k
A
M
When mass m is put on the system,

v=

total mass = (M + m). If v is the velocity of the


combination in equilibrium position, then by the
conservation of linear momentum,
Mv
Mv = (M + m)v or v =
M+m
If A is the new amplitude, then
1
1
( M + m)v 2 = kA2
2
2

M +m
v =
k

A =

M +m
Mv

k
M +m

M +m
M
k

A=
k
M+m
M

New frequency, =

M
A
M +m

1
k
2 M + m

22. (i) First mode of vibration : In this mode of


vibration, there is only one node at the closed end
and one antinode at the open end. If L is the length
of the organ pipe, then






 

L=
Frequency,
1 =



1
4

or 1 = 4L

v
v
= (say)
=
1 4 L

This frequency is called first harmonic or


fundamental frequency.
(ii) Second mode of vibration : In this mode of
vibration, there is one node and one antinode
between a node at the closed end and an antinode
at the open end.


21. (i) Here, v = 360 m s1, = 256 Hz


v 360
= =
= 1.406 m
256
1.406
AA = =
= 0.3516 m
4
4
Time (t) at which the second curve is plotted
AA 0.3516
=
= 9.8 10 4 s
v
360
(ii) Nodes : A, B, C, D, E
Antinodes : A, C
(iii) Distance between A and C
= = 1.406 m = 1.41 m
OR
Original frequency,
1 k
=
2 M
Let A =Initial amplitude of oscillation

or







 





L=
Frequency,

3 2
4

or 2 =

4L
3

v
3v
=3
=
2 4 L
This frequency is called first overtone or third
harmonic.
(iii) Third mode of vibration : In this mode of
vibration, there are two nodes and two antinodes
between a node at the closed end and an antinode
at the open end.

2 =

20. Here, Maximum mass, m = 50 kg,


Maximum extension, y = 20 0 = 20 cm = 0.2 m
Maximum force, F = mg = 50 9.8 = 490 N
Spring constant,
F 490
= 2450 N m 1
k= =
y 0. 2
When a body of mass M is suspended from the
spring balance, it oscillates with a period of 0.6 s.
M
M
Time period, T = 2
or T 2 = 4 2
k
k
T 2 k (0.6)2 2450
M= 2 =
4
4 (3.14)2
M = 22.36 kg
Weight of the body,
W = Mg = 22.36 9.8 = 219.1 N


 


















5
L= 3
4

or 3 =

4L
5

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

29

v
5v
=5
=
3 4 L
Hence different frequencies produced in a closed
organ pipe are in the ratio 1 : 3 : 5 : 7 : ...... i.e., only
odd harmonics are present in a closed organ pipe.

Frequency, 3 =

23. (i) Sense of responsibility, concern for their son and


awareness about technology.
(ii) An ultrasonic scanner works on the principle of
reflection of ultrasonic waves from a region where
there is a change in tissue density.
1
1.7 103 m s 1
v 1.7 km s
(iii) Wavelength, = =
=
4.2 MHz
4.2 106 s 1
= 404.76 m
24. Let X be the equilibrium position of a cylinder
floating in a given liquid. Assume
V = volume of cork = Ah
m = mass of cork = Ah.












l = length of the cylindrical piece of cork dipped in


the liquid upto point P in position X.
W = weight of the cylindrical cork.
W1 = weight of the liquid displaced by the cork.
W= mg = (Ah)g

W1 = Area of cross-section of cork length


of cylinder dipped in liquid density of liquid g
= Al1g
According to the law of flotation,
W = W1 or Ahg = Al1g
l
or
h= 1

Let the cylinder be pushed into the liquid through


a small distance y from equilibrium. Since W = W1
then the restoring force acting on the cylinder is
given by
F = weight of the liquid displaced by the
length y of the cylindrical cork
= ( Ay )1 g = ( A1 g ) y = ky
where k = A1g is the force constant.
If a be the acceleration produced in the cylindrical
piece of the cork, then
F
F A1 gy
= =
a=
mass of cork m
Ah
1 g
y
a=
or
h
30

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Now as the acceleration of the cylindrical cork


is directly proportional to its displacement
from equilibrium position and acts towards the
equilibrium position, so the motion of the bob is
simple harmonic having time period (T) given by
y
displacement
= 2
acceleration
1 g
y
h
h
T = 2
1 g
T = 2

or

OR
Let the displacement of the particle at any time t be
represented by
x = A cos(t + 0)
...(i)
where A = amplitude, 0 = initial phase
If v be the velocity of the particle at time t, Then
dx
d
=
v=
Acos(t + 0 )
dt
dt
= Asin(t + 0 )
...(ii)
At t = 0, x = x0 and v = v0
By putting t = 0 in equations (i) and (ii), we get
x0 = Acos0, v0 = Asin0
or
or

v0 = ( A sin 0 )2 = A2 (1 cos2 0 )
= A2 x02

...(iii)

Equation (iii) shows that initial velocity is negative.


Squaring on both sides of equation (iii), we get
v2
v02 = 2 ( A2 x02 ); A2 x02 = 02

2
2

v
v
A2 = x02 + 02 ; A = x02 + 02


25. The energy of a harmonic oscillator is partly kinetic
and partly potential. When a body is displaced
from its equilibrium position by doing work upon
it, it acquires potential energy. When the body is
released, it begins to move back to equilibrium
position, thus acquires kinetic energy.
At any instant, the displacement of a particle
executing SHM is given by
x = A cos(t + 0)
dx
Velocity, v =
= A sin(t + 0)
dt
Hence, kinetic energy of the particle at any time t
is given by
1
1
K = mv2 = m2 A2 sin2(t + 0)
2
2

But A2 sin2(t + 0) = A2[1 cos2(t + 0)]


= A2 A2 cos2 (t + 0) = A2 x2
1
1
or
K = m2 (A2 x2) = k(A2 x2)
2
2
When the displacement of a particle from its
equilibrium position is x, the restoring force acting
on it is
F = kx
If we displace the particle further through a small
distance dx, then work done against the restoring
force is given by
dW = Fdx = + kxdx
The total work done in moving the particle from
mean position (x = 0) to displacement x is given by
x

2
1
W = dW = kxdx = k x = kx 2
2 0 2
0
The work done against the restoring force is stored as
the potential energy of the particle. Hence potential
energy of a particle at displacement x is given by
1
1
1
U = kx2 = m2x2 = m2 A2 cos2(t + 0)
2
2
2
At any displacement x, the total energy of a
harmonic oscillator is given by
1
1
E = K + U = k(A2 x2) + kx2
2
2
1 2 1
or E = kA = m2A2 = 22m2A2
2
2
( = 2)

Thus the total mechanical energy of a harmonic


oscillator is independent of time or displacement.
At the mean position, x = 0
1
1
Kinetic energy, K = k(A2 02) = kA2
2
2
1
Potential energy, U = k(02) = 0
2
Hence at the mean

position, particle has
 
only kinetic energy.

At the extreme positions,
x=A

Kinetic energy,
1
 = 

 = +
K = k(A2 A2) = 0
2
1
Potential energy, U = kA2
2
Hence at the two extreme positions particle has
only potential energy.

OR
Consider two harmonic waves of frequencies 1
and 2 (1 being slightly greater than 2) and each
of amplitude A travelling in a medium in the same
direction. The displacements due to the two waves
at a given observation point may be represented by
y1 = A sin1 t = A sin2 1 t
y2 = A sin2 t = A sin2 2 t
By the principle of superposition, the resultant
displacement at the given point will be
y = y1 + y2 = A sin2 1 t + A sin2 2 t

+
= 2 A cos 2 1 2 t sin 2 1 2 t
2
2
If we write

+
mod = 1 2 and av = 1 2
2
2
then
y = 2A cos (2 mod t) sin (2 av t)

or

y = R sin(2 av t)

where R = 2A cos(2 mod t) is the amplitude of the


resultant wave.
The amplitude R of the resultant wave will be
maximum, when
cos 2 mod t = 1
or
2 mod t = n
where n = 0, 1, 2, ...
(1 2)t = n
1
2
n
= 0,
,
, .....
or t =
1 2
1 2 1 2
Time interval between two successive maxima
1
=
1 2
Similarly, the amplitude R will be minimum, when
cos 2 mod t = 0
or
2 mod t = (2n + 1)/2 where n = 0, 1, 2, ...

or

(1 2)t = (2n + 1)/2


(2n + 1)
1
3
5
or t =
=
,
,
, ...
2(1 2 ) 1 2 2(1 2 ) (2 1 2 )
The time interval between successive minima
1
=
1 2
Clearly, both maxima and minima of intensity
occur alternately. Hence the time interval between
two successive beats
1
tbeat =
1 2
The number of beats produced per second is called
beat frequency.
or

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

31

beat =

1
t beat

or beat = 1 2

26. Newton assumed that sound waves travel through


a gas under isothermal conditions. Thus the
temperature of gas remains constant. If Biso is the
bulk modulus of the gas at constant temperature,
then the speed of sound in the gas will be
v=

Biso

For an isothermal change,


PV = constant
(Boyle's law)
Differentiating both sides, we get
PdV + VdP = 0
VdP
dP
or P =
=
dV
dV /V
Change in pressure (dP )
=
= Biso
Change in volume (dV )/Original volume (V )
Hence the Newton's formula for the speed of sound
in a gas is
P
v=

Speed of sound in air at STP,


1.013 105

280 m s1
1.293
This value is about 16% less than the experimental
value (331 m s1) of the speed of sound in air at STP.
Hence Newton's formula is not acceptable.
The French scientist Laplace pointed out that sound
travels through a gas under adiabatic conditions not
under isothermal conditions.
So, when sound travels through a gas, the
temperature does not remain constant. The pressure
and volume variations are adiabatic. If Badia is the
adiabatic bulk modulus of the gas, then the formula
for the speed of sound in the gas would be
v=

v=

Badia

For an adiabatic change, PV = constant


Differentiating both sides, we get
PV 1 dV + V dP = 0
or
PV 1 dV = V dP
dP
P=
= Badia
dV /V
where = CP/CV, is the ratio of two specific heats.
Hence the Laplace formula for the speed of sound
in a gas is
32

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

v=

This modification of Newton's formula is known as


Laplace correction.
For air = 7/5, so speed of sound in air at STP will
be
P
7
v=
=
280 m s1 = 331.3 m s1

5
OR
(i) In a sound wave, a node is a point where the
displacement is zero as here a compression and a
rarefaction meet and the pressure is maximum,
so it is also called pressure antinode.
While an antinode is a point where the amplitude
displacement is maximum but pressure is
minimum. So this point is also called pressure
node.
Hence displacement node is a pressure
antinode and displacement antinode is pressure
node.
(ii) Bats emit ultrasonic waves of large frequencies
(small wavelength) when they fly. These
ultrasonic waves are received by them after
reflection from the obstacle. Their ears are so
sensitive and trained that they can not only get
the information of the distance of the obstacle
but also the nature of the reflecting surface.
(iii) The quality of the sound produced by an
instrument depends upon the number of
overtones. Since the number of overtones is
different in the cases of sounds produced by
violin and sitar therefore we can distinguish
through them.
(iv) Solids possess both the volume elasticity and
the shear elasticity. Therefore they can support
both longitudinal and transverse waves.
On the other hand, gases have only the volume
elasticity and no shear elasticity, so only
longitudinal waves can propagate in gases.
(v) A sound pulse is a combination of waves of
different wavelengths. In a dispersive medium,
the waves of different wavelengths travel with
different speeds in different directions, i.e.,
with different velocities. So the shape of the
pulse gets distorted, i.e., a plane wavefront in a
non-dispersive medium does not remain a
plane wavefront in a dispersive medium.



Class XI

his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Thermodynamics
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Total Marks : 120

Time Taken : 60 min

NEET / AIIMS / PMTs


Only One Option Correct Type

(c)

1. Let v , vrms and vp respectively denote the mean


speed, the root mean square speed and the most
probable speed of the molecules in an ideal
monatomic gas at absolute temperature T. The mass
of a molecule is m. Then,
(a) No molecules can have speed greater than vrms.
v
(b) No molecule can have speed less than p .
2
(c) v p < v > vrms .
(d) The average kinetic energy of a molecule is
3 2
mv .
4 p
2. Figure shows graph of 

pressure versus density for an

ideal gas at two temperatures
T1 and T2.
R

(a) T1 > T2
(c) T1 < T2

(b) T1 = T2
(d) None of these

3. A cyclic process is shown on the


PT diagram.
Which of the curves show the
same process on a VT diagram?

(a)

34

(b)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17




(d)











4. A Carnot engine is designed to operate between


480 K and 300 K. If the engine actually produces 1.2 J
of mechanical energy per calorie of heat absorbed,
then the ratio of actual efficiency to theoretical
efficiency is
(a) 16/21 (b) 21/16 (c) 5/16 (d) 16/5
5. A gas at pressure P is adiabatically compressed so
that its density becomes twice that of initial value.
Given that = CP /CV = 7/5, what will be the final
pressure of the gas?
(a) 2 P

(b) 1.4 P

(c) 2.64 P (d) P

6. The root mean square velocity of the molecules in


a sample of helium is (5/7)th that of the molecules
in a sample of hydrogen. If the temperature of
the hydrogen gas is 0 C, that of helium sample is
about
(a) 0 C
(b) 4 C
(c) 273 C (d) 100 C
7. One mole of an ideal gas requires 207 J heat to raise
the temperature by 10 K when heated at constant
pressure. If the same gas is heated at constant
volume to raise the temperature by the same 10 K,
the heat required is
(Given the gas constant R = 8.3 J mol1 K1)
(a) 198.7 J (b) 290 J (c) 215.3 J (d) 124 J

8. At what frequency would the wavelength of sound


be of the order of the mean free path in nitrogen at
1.02 atm pressure and 18.0 C? Take the diameter
of the nitrogen molecule to be 315 pm and speed of
sound to be 343 m s1.
(a) 5.36 109 Hz
(b) 7.38 108 Hz
8
(c) 2.88 10 Hz
(d) 3.88 109 Hz
9. A thermodynamic process is 


shown in the figure. The pressure
and volumes corresponding to
some points in the figure are



PA = 3 104 Pa; VA = 2 103 m3; 
PB = 8 104 Pa; VD = 5 103 m3.
In the process AB, 600 J of heat is added to the
system and in process BC, 200 J of heat is added
to the system. The change in internal energy of the
system in process AC would be
(a) 560 J (b) 800 J (c) 600 J (d) 640 J
10. The internal energy of a monatomic ideal gas is 1.5
nRT. One mole of helium is kept in a cylinder of
cross section 8.5 cm2. The cylinder is closed by a
light frictionless piston. The gas is heated slowly in
a process during which a total of 42 J heat is given
to the gas. If the temperature rises through 2 C,
find the distance moved by the piston. Atmospheric
pressure = 100 kPa.
(a) 10 cm (b) 20 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 40 cm
11. A gas is expanded from volume V0 to 2V0
under three different processes is shown in figure.
Process 1 is isobaric, process 2 is isothermal and
process 3 is adiabatic. Let U1, U2 and U3 be the
change in internal energy of the gas in these three
processes. Then








(a) U1 > U2 > U3


(c) U2 < U1 < U3



(b) U1 < U2 < U3


(d) U2 < U3 < U1

12. If the pressure of n mole of an ideal gas varies


according to the law, P = P0 aV2, where P0 and
a are constant, the highest temperature of the gas
attained is

(a)

P0 P0 1/2

nR 3a

(b)

2P0 P0 1/2

nR 3a

(c)

2 P0 P0 1/2

3 nR 3a

(d)

P0 P0 1/2

3 nR 3a

Assertion & Reason Type

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of


assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the correct
choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the
correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
13. Assertion : All molecular motion ceases at 273C.
Reason : Temperature below 273C cannot be
attained.
14. Assertion : A refrigerator transfers heat from lower
temperature to higher temperature.
Reason : Heat cannot be transferred from lower
temperature to higher temperature normally.
15. Assertion : The total translational kinetic energy of
all the molecules of a given mass of an ideal gas is 1.5
times the product of its pressure and its volume.
Reason : The molecules of a gas collide with each
other and the velocities of the molecules change
due to collision.
JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs
Only One Option Correct Type

16. Two identical containers A and B have frictionless


pistons. They contain the same volume of an ideal
gas at the same temperature. The mass of the gas in
A is mA and that in B is mB. The gas in each cylinder
is now allowed to expand isothermally to double the
initial volume. If the changes in the pressure in A and
B are found to be P and 1.5 P respectively then
(a) 4mA = 9mB
(b) 2mA = 3mB
(c) 3mA = 2mB
(d) 9mA = 4mB
17. A smooth vertical tube having
two different cross sections is
open from both the ends but
closed by two sliding pistons
as shown in figure and tied
with an inextensible string.
One mole of an ideal gas is
enclosed between the piston.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17



35

The difference in cross-sectional areas of the two


pistons is given S. The masses of pistons are m1
and m2 for larger and smaller one, respectively.
Find the temperature by which the gas is raised so
that the pistons will be displaced by a distance l.
Take atmospheric pressure equal to P0.
l
(a) [P0S + (m1 + m2)g]
R
l
(b) [P0S + (m1 m2)g]
R
P0 S l
(m1 m2 ) gl
(c)
(d)
R
R
18. Figure shows a process 
ABCA performed on an

ideal gas. The net heat 

given to the system during 

the process will be



V2

(a) nR T2 ln (T2 T1 )
V1

(b) nR T2 ln 2 (T1 + T2 )
V1

(c) nR T1 ln 1 + (T1 T2 )
V2

(d) nR T1 ln 1 (T2 T1 )
V2

19. Assume that the temperature remains essentially


constant in the upper part of the atmosphere. The
mean molecular weight of air is M. An expression
for the variation in pressure in the upper atmosphere
with height h is (P0 is the pressure at h = 0)
(a) P = 2P0 eMgh/RT

(b) P = P0 eMgh/RT

(c) P = P0 eMgh/2RT

(d) P = P0 e2Mgh/RT

More than One Options Correct Type

20. A gas may expand either adiabatically or


isothermally. A number of PV curves are drawn
for the two processes over different ranges of
pressure and volume at different temperatures. It
will be found that
(a) two adiabatic curves do not intersect
(b) two isothermal curves do not intersect
(c) an adiabatic curve and an isothermal curve
may intersect
(d) the magnitude of the slope of an adiabatic curve
is greater than the magnitude of the slope of an
isothermal curve for the same value of pressure
and volume.
36

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

21. An ideal gas enclosed in a vertical cylindrical


container supports a freely moving piston of
mass m. The piston and the cylinder have equal
cross-sectional area A. When the piston is in
equilibrium, the volume of the gas is V0 and its
pressure is P0. The piston is slightly displaced
from the equilibrium position and released. Then
(Assuming that the system is completely isolated
from its surrounding.)
(a) Piston will execute SHM.
(b) Motion of the piston will be periodic only.
2 A P0
.
(c) Frequency of motion is
mV0
(d) Frequency of motion is

A P0
.
2 mV0

22. An ideal gas whose adiabatic exponent equals is


expanded according to the law P = V, where is
a constant. The initial volume of the gas is equal to
V0. As a result of expansion the volume of the gas
increases times. Then
(a) the increment of the internal energy of the gas
(2 1)
is V02
.
( 1)
(b) the work performed by the gas is 0.5 V20 (2 1).
(c) the molar heat capacity of the gas in the process
( + 1)
R
.
( 1)
(d) Both (b) and (c).
23. The speeds of ten particles in m s1 are 0, 1.0, 2.0,
3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 4.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0.
(a) The average speed is 3.1 m s1.
(b) The root mean square speed is 3.75 m s1.
(c) The most probable speed of these particle is 3 m s1.
(d) Mean square speed is 17 m2 s2.
Integer Answer Type

24. A vessel has 6 g of hydrogen at pressure P and


temperature 500 K. A small hole is made in it so
that hydrogen leaks out. If the final pressure is P/2
and the temperature falls to 300 K, the mass of
hydrogen (in g) that leaks out is
25. A vessel contains a mixture of 1 mole of oxygen
and 2 moles of nitrogen at 300 K. Find the ratio of
average rotational kinetic energies per O2 molecule
to per N2 molecule.

26. n moles of a gas in a cylinder 


under a piston are transferred 
infinitely slowly from a state
with a volume of V0 and a 
pressure 3P0 to another state
with 3V0 and a pressure P0



as shown in figure.
If the maximum temperature that the gas will reach
x P0V0
, what is the value of x?
in this process is
nR
Comprehension Type



A container of volume 4V0 made of a perfectly


non-conducting material is divided into two equal parts
by a fixed rigid wall whose lower half is non-conducting
and upper half is purely conducting. The right side of the
wall is divided into equal parts (initially) by means of a
massless non-conducting piston free to move as shown.
Section A contains 2 mol of a gas while the section B
and C contain 1 mol each of the same gas ( = 1.5) at
pressure P0. The heater in left part is switched on till the
final pressure in section C becomes 125/27 P0.











Matrix Match Type



29. One mole of a
monatomic
ideal  
gas is taken along
two cyclic processes
E F G E and 



E F H E


as shown in the
PV diagram. The processes involved are purely
isochoric, isobaric, isothermal or adiabatic.
Match the paths in column I with the magnitudes of
the work done in column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) G E
(P) 160 P0V0 ln2
(B) G H
(Q) 36 P0V0
(C) F H
(R) 24 P0V0
(D) F G
(S) 31 P0V0
A
B
C
D
(a) Q
R
S
P
(b) P
Q
S
R
(c) S
Q
P
R
(d) S
R
Q
P

30. Heat given to process


is positive, match
the following option
of column I with
the corresponding
option of column II.



27. Final temperature in part C is


PV
5P0V0
(b)
(a) 0 0
R
3R
P0V0
5P0V0
(c)
(d)
R
3R
28. The heat supplied by the heater is
368
113
P0V0
(b)
PV
(a)
9
5 0 0
316
405
(c)
P0V0
(d)
PV
9
8 0 0

Column I
(A) JK
(B) KL
(C) LM
(D) MJ
A
B
(a) Q, S
S
(b) P
Q, R
(c) Q
P, S
(d) P
Q








Column II
(P) W > 0
(Q) Q < 0
(R) W < 0
(S) Q > 0
C
D
P
Q
Q
P, R
S
Q, R
P, S
R

Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

Check your score! If your score is


> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.

No. of questions attempted

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

You can score good in the nal exam.

No. of questions correct

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

You need to score more next time.

Marks scored in percentage

< 60%

NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

37

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Energy Bands in Solids

Range of energy possessed by electron in a solid is


known as energy bands.
There are two types of energy band
Valence band : Range of energy possessed by
valence electron is known as valence band. These
electrons are bounded and not responsible for
flow of current.
Conduction band : Range of energy possessed
by free electron is known as conduction band.
These electrons are responsible for flow of
current.

Width of forbidden
energy gap depends
upon the nature of
substance.

 





If width is more then valence electrons are


strongly attached with nucleus.
As temperature increases, forbidden energy gap
decreases (very slightly).

According to energy band theory there are three types of solids.


Property

40

Forbidden energy gap (Eg) : It is the energy gap


between the bottom of the conduction band and
top of the valence band. No electron exist in this
gap.
  

Conductors

Semiconductors

Insulators

1.

Electrical conductivity Very high,


and its value
102 108 S m1

Between those of conductors Negligible,


and insulators 105 106 S m1 1011 1019 S m1

2.

Resistivity
value

Between those of conductors Very high,


and insulators 105 106 m 1011 1019 m

3.

Energy gap and its Zero or very small


value

More than that in conductors Very large


but less than that in insulators For diamond,
For Ge, Eg = 0.72 eV; for Si, Eg Eg = 7 eV
= 1.1 eV; for GaAs, Eg = 1.3 eV

4.

Current carriers

Free electrons and holes

and

its Negligible
102 108 m

Free electrons

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Free electrons

5.

Number of current
carriers (electrons
or holes) at ordinary
temperature
6. Temperature
coefficient of
resistivity ()
7. Effect of temperature
on conductivity
8. On increasing
temperature the
number of current
carriers
9. On mixing impurities
their resistance
10. Current flow in these
takes place
11. Examples

Very high

Very low

Negligible

Positive

Negative

Negative

Conductivity decreases

Conductivity increases

Unaffected

Increases

Conductivity
increases
Increases

Increases

Decreases

Remains unchanged

Easily

Very slow

Does not take place

Cu, Ag, Au, Na, Pt, Hg


etc.

Ge, Si, Ga, As etc.

Wood, plastic, mica,


diamond, glass etc.

Classication of Semiconductor

A semiconductor in its pure state is called intrinsic


semiconductor.
A semiconductor doped with suitable impurity
to increase its conductivity, is called extrinsic
semiconductor.
On the basis of doped impurity extrinsic
semiconductors are of two types
n-type
semiconductor :
Extrinsic
semiconductor doped with pentavalent
impurity like As, Sb, Bi, etc. in which negatively

1.

charged electrons works as charge carriers, is


called n-type semiconductor. Every pentavalent
impurity atom donate one electron in the
crystal, therefore it is called a donor atom.
p-type semiconductor : Extrinsic semiconductor
doped with trivalent impurity like Al, B, etc. in
which positively charged holes work as charge
carriers, is called p-type semiconductor. Every
trivalent impurity atom have a tendency to
accept one electron, therefore it is called an
acceptor atom.

Intrinsic Semiconductors

n-type Semiconductor

p-type Semiconductor





 



   







 

 
 




 
  






   

3.

Current due to electrons and holes

Mainly due to electrons

Mainly due to holes

4.

ne = nh

nh << ne (nD ne)

nh >> ne (nA nh)

5.

I = Ie + Ih

6.

Entirely neutral

Entirely neutral

Ie

Ih

Entirely neutral
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

41

In a doped semiconductor ne nh = n2i where ne and


nh are the number density of electrons and holes
and ni is number density of intrinsic carriers, i.e.,
electrons or holes.
Electrical conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor
is given by
= 1/ = e(nee + nh h)
Where is resistivity, e and h are mobility of
electrons and holes respectively.

Diffusion current : Because of high carrier


concentration difference, holes from p-side try to
diffuse n-side, produces diffusion current.
Drift current : Because of barrier potential,
minority charge carriers force to move and such
movement produces drift current.

 

Forward-biased


 

Effective barrier potential decreases.


Depletion width decreases.
Low resistance offered at junction.
High current flows through the circuit.
Reverse-biased



Effective barrier potential increases.


Depletion width increases.
High resistance offered at junction.
Low current flows through the circuit.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

$ '

"




 (











 


  
&  
 
    


   
(
   
 %

 
  
! 

 
"#




 
$


 
"






 

I-V characteristics



Unbiased


It is a basic unit of all semiconductor devices.


p(n) region has majority carrier holes (electrons)
and minority carrier electrons (holes).
The layer of immobile positive and negative ions,
which have no free electrons and holes is called
depletion layer.



Biasing of p-n junction

42

p -n Junction

Current flowing through the diode,

I = I0 [e(eV /nkT ) 1]

where I0 is reverse saturation current and V is


potential difference across the diode,
1 for Ge
n = constant =
2 for Si
V
Dynamic resistance of p-n junction, rd =
I
V
Static or dc resistance, r =
z
dc
1
For an ideal diode,
In reverse bias
In forward bias
ON switch
r=0

OFF switch
r=

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

43

Diode as a Rectier

Peak current through the load


m
Im =
(r f + RL )
I
Ripple factor = ac = 0.48
I dc
Pdc
Efficiency =
= 81.2%
Pac
(double the efficiency of the half wave rectifier)
Output frequency = 2 Input frequency
The pulsating dc obtained in both the rectifiers can
be further rectified by using filter circuits.

It is a device which is used for converting alternating


current into direct current. There are two types of
rectifiers .
Half wave rectifier
Junction diode



+
 Output
voltage

Special Purpose Diode


Input
voltage

Output
voltage

Time

Time

Zener diode : It is heavily doped p-n junction and


operated in reverse bias.
Zener voltage remains constant, even though
current through the zener diode varies over a
wide range.
 

 



Output frequency = Input frequency


Peak current through load
m
Im =
(r f + RL )
rf = forward resistance of the diode ; RL = load
resistance ; m = peak of ac voltage.
Ripple factor
rms value of ac component
=
= 1.21
dc component in the rectifier circcuit
Efficiency
dc output power of half wave rectifier
=
= 40.6%
ac power supplied to the reectifier

 

 


 
 

Zener diode as a voltage regulator : Any


increase (decrease) in the input voltage results
in, increase (decrease) of voltage drop across Rs
without any change in voltage across the zener
diode.

     

Full wave rectifier



 
  








44

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17


  

Photodiode : It is a special type p-n junction diode


fabricated with a transparent window to allow light to
fall on the diode. It is operated under reverse bias.
When it is illuminated with light of photon
energy greater than the energy gap of the
semiconductor, electron-hole pairs are
generated in near depletion region, hence
reverse current increases.

generates emf when solar radiation falls on the p-n


junction.
It converts solar energy into electrical energy.
It works on the same principle (photovoltaic
effect) as the photodiode, except that no
external bias is applied and the junction area is
kept large.

The symbol of a photodiode is shown in the


figure.

Light emitting diode : It is a heavily doped p-n


junction which emits spontaneous radiation under
forward bias.
It converts electrical energy into light energy.
The symbol of a LED is shown in the figure.

Junction Transistor

The I-V characteristics of a LED is similar to


that of Si junction diode. But the threshold
voltages are much higher and slightly different
for each colour. The reverse breakdown voltages
of LEDs are very low, typically around 5 V.
The semiconductor used for fabrication of
visible LEDs must have minimum band gap of
1.8 eV.
The compound semiconductor gallium arsenide
phosphide (GaAsP) is used for making LEDs of
different colours.
GaAs is used for making infrared LED.
Solar cell : It is basically a p-n junction which

A semiconductor device which is obtained by


growing either a very thin layer of n-type (p-type)
crystal between two much thicker p-type (n-type)
layers.
It is a current operated device, i.e., action of
transistor is controlled by the motion of charge
carriers, i.e., current.
Emitter : Supply a large number of majority
charge carriers for the flow of current through
the transistor. It is heavily doped and medium
in size.
Base : Control the flow of majority charge
carriers from emitter to collector. It is lightly
doped and very thin in size.
Collector : Collects a major portion of the
majority carriers supplied by emitters for the
circuit operation. It is moderately doped and
has large size.

 
 
  


 



 







 

 


 



 


Bas ic Transistor Congur ation

C ommon Emi tter (CE)











C ommon Base (CB)















C ommon Collector(CC)



















PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

45


Action : In general (active
region), emitter base is
forward biased and base
collector is reverse biased 
IE = IB + IC , (IC >> IB)








Transistor characteristics : n-p-n transistor as CE mode

Input characteristic
Input resistance,

V
ri = BE
I B V

CE

Power gain = current gain voltage gain


R
R
= AV = C = 2 C
R
RB
B
Transistor as a switch : Operated in cut off region
or saturation region.

VCC = ICRC + VCE


VCE = VCC ICRC
When Vi = 0

or < 0.7 V, IB = 0

Hence IC = 0



VCE = VCC

(open circuit (switch))
 
When Vi > 0.7 V,
then this is similar
to a closed circuit
(switch).
Transistor as an oscillator : An oscillator works on
positive feedback.
A
Voltage gain with feedback A f =
1 A
A open voltage gain

Output characteristic

V
Output resistance, ro = CE
IC I
B
Transistor parameters : and
Current amplification factor,
I
I
I
ac = C
and dc = C ; dc = C ,
IB
IE
I B VCE

Relation between and ,

=
and =
1
1+
Transistor as an amplifier (CE-configuration) : To
use transistor as an amplifier it is being operated
somewhere in the middle of its active region.
V0 IC RC
R
=
= C
Voltage gain, AV =
Vi I B RB
RB





46



 

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17



















Logic Gates

feedback factor
Barkhausen criterion for sustained oscillation,
A = 1

A logic gate is a digital circuit which is based on


certain logical relationship between the input and
the output voltage of the circuit.
The operation of a logic gate is indicated in a table,
known as truth table. This table contains all possible
combination of inputs and corresponding outputs.

Name
of gate
OR

Symbol

Truth
table
A B Y
0

Boolean
expression
Y=A+B

JANUARY 17





JANUARY 17

AND

Y=AB

Transmitter : A transmitter processes the incoming


message signal so as to make it suitable for
transmission through a channel and subsequent
reception.
Receiver : Extract the desired message signals from
the received signals at the channel output.
Attenuation : The loss of strength of a signal while
propagating through a medium.
Amplification : Process of increasing the strength
of a signal using an amplifier.
Range : The largest distance between a source and
a destination up to which the signal is received with
sufficient strength.
Bandwidth : The frequency range over which an
equipment operates or the portion of spectrum
occupied by the signal.
Modulation : The process of superposing a low
frequency message signal on a high frequency wave
(carries wave).
Demodulation : The process of retrieval of
information from the carrier wave at the receiver.
Repeater : Picks up the signal from the transmitter,
amplifies and retransmits it to the receiver
sometimes with a change in carrier frequency.

B Y

0 0

1 0

0 0

1 1

1
A

0
B Y

0 1

1 1

0 1

1
A

1 0
B Y

0 1

1 0

0 0

1 0

XOR

B Y

(also

0 0

called
exclusive
OR gate)

Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

1 1

0 1

1 0

B Y

0 1

1 0

0 0

1 1

NOT

NAND

NOR

XNOR

Y=A

Y = AB

Y = A+B

Y = AB + AB

Y = AB + AB

Basic Terminology used in Electronic


Communication Systems

Ground wave propagation : The radiowaves from


the transmitting antenna propagate along the surface
of the earth, to reach the receiving antenna.

Transducer : It is a device that converts one form of


energy into another form.
Signal : Information converted in electrical form
and suitable for transmission is called a signal.
Signal can be either analog or digital.
Noise : The unwanted signals that tend to disturb
the transmission and processing of the message
signals in a communication system.

It is suitable for low frequency and medium


frequency (i.e., less than 2 MHz)
Uses : Local broadcasting (ship communication,
radio navigation).
Sky wave propagation : The radiowaves from the
transmitting antenna propagate through sky to reach
the receiving antenna, after the reflection through
ionosphere.
The ionospheric layer acts as a reflector for a

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

51

certain range of frequencies (3 to 30 MHz).


Critical frequency : Maximum frequency of
radiowave reflected from ionosphere.
C = 9 Nmax

Here, Nmax = Maximum electron density of


ionosphere.
Space wave (Line of Sight) propagation
The radiowaves from the transmitting antenna
propagate along the space surrounding the
earth to reach the receiving antenna either
directly or after reflection from the ground.
Range of a transmitting antenna dT = 2Rh T

Modulation

Range of space wave propagation on earths


surface = Maximum line of sight distance
between two antennas (receiving and
transmitting)
dM = dT + dR = 2RhT + 2RhR

Amplitude modulation
The modulated signal cm(t) can be written as
Am
sinmt) sin ct
Ac
= Acsinct + Ac sinmt sinct

cm(t) = Ac(1 +

52

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Low frequencies cannot be transmitted to long


distances. Therefore, they are superimposed on a
high frequency carrier signal by a process known
as modulation.
In modulation, some characteristic of the carrier
signal like amplitude, frequency or phase varies
in accordance with the modulating or message
signal. Correspondingly, they are called Amplitude
Modulated (AM), Frequency Modulated (FM) or
Phase Modulated (PM) waves.
Pulse modulation could be classified as : Pulse Width
Modulation (PAM), Pulse Duration Modulation
(PDM) or Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and
Pulse Position Modulated (PPM).
Need for modulation
Size of antenna or aerial wavelength of the
signal (atleast /4 in dimension)
2
Effective power radiated by an antenna (l/) .
For a good transmission we need high powers,
i.e., should be small.
up of signals from different
Mixing
transmitters.

= Acsinct +

Ac
A
cos(c m)t c cos(c + m)t
2
2

The total variation in frequency from the minimum


to the maximum is called the carrier swing.
Carrier swing = 2

Frequency modulated wave consists of an infinite


number of side frequency components on each side
of the carrier frequency c, c m, c 2m,.......

Am
Ac
1 to avoid distortion.
Modulation index in terms of amplitude of AM
wave,
A
Amin
= max
Amax + Amin

Optical Fibres

Power in AM wave

Modulation index, =

A2
For carrier wave, Pc = c , R is the resistance of
2R
antenna
2

Ac 1 Ac 1 2
=
+
P
2 2R 2 2R 2 c

For side bands, Ps =

Total power of AM wave, Pt = Pc 1 +


2

Fraction of total power carried by side bands,


Ps
2
=
Pt (2 + 2 )
If several modulating signals are present in AM

Frequency modulation
Modulation factor (index),
f =

For TIR in an optical fibre, i > c where critical


angle c is given by
12 22
2
sin c =
or cos c =
1
1

2
2
2
wave then total = 1 + 2 + 3 + .....

Optical fibres have an inner core of refractive index


1 and a cladding of refractive index 2 such that
2 < 1. The light is restricted to travel within the
fibre by the process of total internal reflection.
Optical fibres are used for transmitting optical
frequencies.

Acceptance angle for optical fibre is a


where sin a =

12 22

0
Numerical aperture,
NA = 0 sin a = 12 22

Maximum frequency deviation


=
Modulation frequency
m

Here = max c = c min

Here, 0 is refractive index of surroundings.


Numerical aperture is measure of light gathering
power of the fibre.

   




 !

   




 !

   


!

 !

   
  


      

   




 


  

 

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

53

1. The saturation current density of a p-n junction


germanium diode is 250 mA m2 at 300 K. The
voltage that would have to be applied across the
junction to cause a forward current density of
105 A m2 to flow is
(a) 0.33 V
(b) 0.50 V
(c) 0.66 V
(d) 0.99 V.

6. A carrier wave is modulated by a number of sine


waves with modulation indices m1, m2, m3.... . The
total modulation index (m) of the wave is
(a) m1 + m2 + m3 + ...
(b) m1 m2 + m3 + ...

2. In figure, assuming the diodes to be ideal,

m12 + m22 + m32 + ...


.
n
7. Choose only false statement from the following.
(a) Substances with energy gap of the order of 10 eV
are insulators.
(b) The conductivity of semiconductor increases
with increase in temperature.
(c) In conductors, the valence and conduction
bands may overlap.
(d) The resistivity of a semiconductor increases
with increase in temperature.

 






(a) D1 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased


and hence current flows from A to B
(b) D2 is forward biased and D1 is reverse biased
and hence no current flows from B to A and
vice versa
(c) D1 and D2 are both forward biased and hence
current flows from A to B
(d) D1 and D2 are both reverse biased and hence
no current flows from A to B and vice versa.
3. A transmitter radiates 10 kW power with only
carrier and 11.2 kW power with modulated carrier.
The depth of modulation is
(a) 24.5%
(b) 36.5%
(c) 49.0%
(d) 53.4%.
4. What is the ratio of critical frequency for reflection
of radiowaves from E, F1 and F2 layers in ionosphere
if their electron densities are 2 1011, 3 1011 and
8 1011 m3 respectively?
(a) 1 : 1.5 : 3
(b) 1 : 1.22 : 2
(c) 2 : 3 : 8
(d) 1 : 1.5 : 4
5. In an n-p-n transistor circuit, the collector current
is 10 mA. If 90% of the electrons emitted reach the
collector,
(a) the emitter current will be 9 mA
(b) the base current will be 1 A
(c) the emitter current will be 11 mA
(d) the base current will be 1 mA.
54

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

(c)

m12 + m22 + m32 + ...

(d)

8. A transmitting antenna of height h and the receiving


antenna of height 45 m are separated by a distance
of 40 km for satisfactory communication in
line-of-sight mode. Then the value of h is (given
radius of the earth is 6400 km)
(a) 15 m (b) 20 m (c) 30 m (d) 25 m.
9. The output current of an 80% modulating amplitude
modulated generator is 1.8 A. To what value will
the current rise if the generator is additionally
modulated by another audiowave of modulation
index 0.6 ?
(a) 1.71 A (b) 1.81 A (c) 1.91 A (d) 2.01 A
10. Figure shows a modified biasing circuit where the
base resistor RB is connected to the collector instead
of connecting it to the battery VCC. The value of IB is
not given by

(VCC IC RC ) VBE
(a) I B =

(RC + RB )
(b)

IB =

(VCE VBE )
(RC + RB )

(c) VCE = VCC (IC + IB)RC


(d) VCC = VCE (IC + IB)RB.



PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

55

11. A ground receiving station receiving a signal at


6 MHz transmitted from a ground transmitter at
a height of 500 m located at a distance of 100 km.
If radius of the earth is 6 . 4 106 m; maximum
number density of electrons in ionosphere is
1012 m3, the signal is coming via
(a) ground wave
(b) space wave
(c) sky wave
(d) none of these.

of the circuit is 192 , the voltage gain and the


power gain of the amplifier will respectively be
(a) 4, 4
(b) 4, 3.69
(c) 4, 3.84
(d) 3.69, 3.84.
[NEET Phase I 2016]
17. Identify the semiconductor devices whose
characteristics are given below, in the order (i), (ii),
(iii), (iv)

12. What is the carrier frequency, that a diode detector


can detect if output circuit consists of R = 2 M and
C = 1 pF ?
(a) fc >> 20 MHz
(b) fc >> 0.2 MHz
(c) fc = 0.5 MHz
(d) fc >> 0.5 MHz
13. For CE transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage
across the collector resistance of 2 k is 4 V. If
the current amplification factor of the transistor is
100 and the base resistance is 1 k, then the input
signal voltage is
(a) 10 mV (b) 20 mV (c) 30 mV (d) 15 mV.
[NEET Phase II 2016]
14. The given circuit has two ideal diodes connected as
shown in the figure. The current flowing through
the resistance R1 will be






(a) 2.5 A
(c) 1.43 A










(b) 10.0 A
(d) 3.13 A.
[NEET Phase II 2016]

15. What is the output Y in the following circuit, when


all the three inputs A, B, C are first 0 and then 1 ?




(a) 0, 1

(b) 0, 0

(c) 1, 0
(d) 1, 1
[NEET Phase II 2016]

16. A n-p-n transistor is connected in common emitter


configuration in a given amplifier. A load resistance
of 800 is connected in the collector circuit and
the voltage drop across it is 0.8 V. If the current
amplification factor is 0.96 and the input resistance
56

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

(a) Simple diode, Zener diode, Solar cell, Light


dependent resistance
(b) Zener diode, Simple diode, Light dependent
resistance, Solar cell
(c) Solar cell, Light dependent resistance, Zener
diode, Simple diode
(d) Zener diode, Solar cell, Simple diode, Light
dependent resistance.
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
18. An experiment is performed to determine the
I -V characteristics of a Zener diode, which has a
protective resistance of R = 100 , and a maximum
power of dissipation rating of 1 W. The minimum
voltage range of the dc source in the circuit is
(a) 0 5 V
(b) 0 24 V
(c) 0 12 V
(d) 0 8 V.
[JEE Main Online 2016]
19. Choose the correct statement.
(a) In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the amplitude of the audio
signal.
(b) In amplitude modulation the frequency of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the amplitude of the audio
signal.

(c) In frequency modulation the amplitude of the


high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the amplitude of the audio
signal.
(d) In frequency modulation the amplitude of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the frequency of the audio
signal.
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
20. A modulated signal Cm(t) has the form
Cm(t) = 30 sin 300t + 10 (cos 200t cos 400t).
The carrier frequency fc , the modulating frequency
(message frequency) f, and the modulation index
are respectively given by
1
(a) fc = 200 Hz; f = 50 Hz; =
2
2
(b) fc = 150 Hz; f = 50 Hz; =
3
1
(c) fc = 150 Hz; f = 30 Hz; =
3
1
(d) fc = 200 Hz; f = 30 Hz; = .
2
[JEE Main Online 2016]
SOLUTIONS
1. (a) : Here, forward current density, J = 105 A m2
Saturation current density, J0 = 250 103 A m2
As I = I0[exp(eV/kBT) 1]
or J = J0[exp(eV/kBT) 1]
105
or exp(eV/kBT) 1 = J =
= 4 105
3
J 0 250 10
eV
or
ln(4 105 ) = 12.9
kBT
or V = 0.33 V
2. (b) : Diode D1 is reverse biased as p-side is connected
to negative potential and n-side is grounded.
Diode D2 is forward biased as p-side is grounded
and n-side is at negative potential.
3. (c) : Here, Pc = 10 kW ; Pt = 11.2 kW
Depth of modulation,
P

11.2
m = 2 t 1 = 2
1 0.49 = 49%
10

Pc
4. (b) : Critical frequency, C = 9 N max
CE : CF : CF
1

= 2 10 : 3 10 : 8 1011 = 2 : 3 : 8
11

11

= 1 : 3 / 2 : 8 / 2 = 1 : 1.22 : 2

5. (c) : For collector current, Ic = 10 mA


Base current, Ib = 10% of Ic = (10/100) 10 = 1 mA
Emitter current, Ie = Ib + Ic = (1 + 10) mA = 11 mA.
6. (c)
7. (d)
8. (b) : Here, hR = 45 m, d = 40 km
Since, d = 2RhT + 2RhR
40 1000 = 2 6.4 106 h + 2 6.4 106 45

2 6.4 106 h + 24 103

40 103 =

or

[(40 24)103 ]2
= 20 m
2 6.4 106
80
9. (c) : Here, It = 1.8 A ; m1 =
= 0.80 ; m2 = 0.6
100
2
It = I c 1 + m1 / 2
h=

or

Ic =

It
1+ m / 2
2
1

It = I c 1 +
=

1. 8
1.32

1. 8

1 + (0.8) / 2
2

1. 8
1.32

m12 m22
+
2
2

1+

(0.8)2 (0.6)2
+
= 1.91 A
2
2


10. (d) : VCC = RC (IC + IB) + IBRB + VBE
  
= RCIC + (RC + RB)IB + VBE


(V I R ) VBE

or I B = CC C C



(RC + RB )


VCE = VCC (IC + IB) RC

(VCC ICRC)
(as IB << IC)
 

V VBE
Thus, I B = CE
(RC + RB )
11. (c) : Maximum distance covered by space wave,

d = 2Rh = 2 (6.4 106 ) 500


= 80 103 m = 80 km
Since the distance between transmitter and receiver
is 100 km, hence for the given frequency signal of
6 MHz, the propagation is not possible via space wave.

MPP-7 CLASS XI
1.
6.
11.
16.
20.
24.
29.

(d)
2.
(c)
7.
(a)
12.
(c)
17.
(a, b, c, d)
(1)
25.
(d)
30.

(a)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(1)
(c)

3.
8.
13.
18.
21.
26.

ANSWER KEY
(c)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(a, d)
(4)

4.
9.
14.
19.
22.
27.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(a, b)
(b)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

5. (c)
10. (b)
15. (b)
23. (a, c)
28. (a)

57

For sky wave propagation, the critical frequency,


C = 9 (N max ) = 9 1012 = 9 106 Hz = 9 MHz

Since 6 MHz < 9 MHz, so the propagation of signal


of frequency 6 MHz is possible via sky wave.
12. (d) : Here, RC = (2 106) (1012) = 2 106 s
For demodulation,

1
1
<< RC or c >>
RC
c

1
= 0.5 106 Hz = 0.5 MHz
2 106 s
Therefore, c >> 0.5 MHz
i.e., c >>

13. (b) : Here, RC = 2 k = 2000 , V0 = 4 V


= 100, RB = 1 k = 1000 , Vi = ?
R
2000
Voltage gain, A = C = 100
= 200
1000
RB
V
V
2
4
Also, A = 0 or Vi = 0 =
=
V = 20 mV
A 200 100
Vi
14. (a) : Diode D1 is reverse

biased so, it will


block the current and


diode D2 is forward
  
biased so, it will pass
the current.
Hence, equivalent circuit becomes as shown in the
figure.
Current in the circuit= Current flowing through the
10
resistance R1 =
= 2.5 A
2+2
15. (c)
16. (c) : Here, load resistance, R0 = 800 ,
input resistance, Ri = 192 and current gain, = 0.96
Voltage gain = Current gain Resistance gain
800
=4
192
Power gain = (Current gain) (Voltage gain)
= 0.96 4 = 3.84
= 0.96

17. (a)
18. (b) : Potential drop across Zener diode
VZ = V IR = V 100 I
 
Power, P = VZIZ

= (V 100 I) I

But P = 1 W (given)
(V 100 I) I = 1

or 100 I2 VI + 1 = 0
58

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

For I to be real, V2 4 100 1 0


or V 20 V
19. (a) : Carrier wave : yc = Ac sin ct
Message signal : ym = Am sin mt
Amplitude modulated carrier wave :
y = (Ac + Am sin mt) sin ct
20. (b) : Here,
Cm(t) = 30 sin (300t) + 10(cos(200t) cos(400t))
Compare this equation with standard equation of
amplitude modulated wave,
Ac
Cm (t ) = Ac sin 2 fc t +
2
( cos 2( fc f )t cos 2(fc + f)t)
2fc = 300 fc = 150 Hz
and fc f = 100 Hz
f = 150 100 = 50 Hz
and

Ac

= 10, Ac = 30 V
10 2
=
15 3

CLASS XII



Practice Paper 2017

Time Allowed : 3 hours


Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.
(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section E
contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to aempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

SECTION-A

SECTION-B

1. Can there be a potential difference between two


adjacent conductors carrying the same charge?

6. In a given sample two radioisotopes A and B are


initially present in the ratio of 1:4. The half lives
of A and B are respectively 100 years and 50 years.
Find the time after which the amounts of A and B
become equal.

2. Will the focal length of a lens for red light be more,


same or less than that for blue light?
3. A 10 V battery of negligible internal resistance is
connected across a 200 V battery and a resistance
of 38 as shown in the figure. Find the value of the
current in circuit.


 



4. Relative permeability of a material is r = 0.5.


Identify the nature of the magnetic material and
write its relation to magnetic susceptibility.
5. Explain the function of a repeater in a communication
system.

7. A transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has


a height of 36 m and the height of the receiving
antenna is 49 m. What is maximum distance
between them, for satisfactory communication in
the LOS mode? (Radius of earth = 6400 km)
8. Two students X and Y
preform an experiment
on
potentiometer
separately using the
given circuit. Keeping
other
parameters
unchanged, how will
the position of the null
point be affected if

+ 



1



+






2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

59

(i) X increases the value of resistance R in the


set-up by keeping the key K1 closed and the
key K2 open ?
(ii) Y decreases the value of resistance R in the
set-up, while the key K2 remains open and the
key K1 is closed ?
9. An object AB is kept in front of a concave mirror as


shown in the figure.


(i) Complete the ray diagram
showing
the
image 


formation of the object.
(ii) How will the position and intensity of the
image be affected if the lower half of the
mirrors reflecting surface is painted black?
OR
Figure shows a ray of light passing through a
prism. If the refracted ray QR is parallel to the
base BC, show that
(i) r1 = r2 = A/2,
(ii) angle of minimum deviation, m = 2i A.


 




10. Find the ratio of the de Broglie wavelengths,


associated with
(i) protons, accelerated through a potential of
128 V, and
(ii) -particles, accelerated through a potential
of 64 V.
SECTION-C






11. An electron moving horizontally with a velocity of


4 104 m s1 enters a region of uniform magnetic field
of 105 T acting vertically downward as

shown in the figure. Draw its


trajectory and find out the time it
takes to come out of the region of
magnetic field.
12. Define electric dipole moment. Is it a scalar or
a vector quantity? Derive the expression for the
electric field of a dipole at a point on the equatorial
plane of the dipole.
60

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

13. A cell of emf and internal resistance r is connected


across a variable load resistor R. Draw the plots of
the terminal voltage V versus
(i) resistance R and
(ii) the current I.
It is found that when R = 4 , the current is
1 A and when R is increased to 9 , the current
reduces to 0.5 A. Find the values of the emf and
internal resistance r.
14. A rectangular loop of wire of
size 2.5 cm 4 cm carries
a steady current of 1 A. A
long straight wire carrying
2 A current is kept near the
loop as shown in figure. If
the loop and the wire are
coplanar, find the
(i) torque acting on the loop and
(ii) the magnitude and direction of the force on
the loop due to the current carrying wire.
15. Write any four characteristics of electromagnetic
waves. Give two uses each of
(ii) Microwaves
(i) Radiowaves
16. A photon of energy 12.5 eV is used to bombard
gaseous hydrogen at room temperature. Upto which
energy level the hydrogen atoms would be excited?
Calculate the wavelengths of the first member of
Lyman and first member of Balmer series.
17. Draw V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode.
Answer the following questions, giving reasons.
(i) Why is the current under reverse bias almost
independent of the applied potential upto a
critical voltage?
(ii) Why does the reverse current show a sudden
increase at the critical voltage?
Name any semiconductor device which
operates under the reverse bias in the
breakdown region.
18. You are given a circuit below. Hence, identify the
logic operation carried out by this circuit. Draw
the logic symbol of the gate corresponds to it. Also,
write its truth table.

19. Write two basic modes of communication.


Explain the process of amplitude modulation.
Draw a schematic sketch showing how amplitude
modulated signal is obtained by superposing a
modulating signal over a sinusoidal carrier wave.
20. A rectangular wire loop of sides 8 cm and
2 cm with a small cut is moving out of a
region of uniform magnetic field of magnitude
0.3 T directed normal to the loop. What is
the emf developed across the cut if velocity of
loop is 1 cm s1 in a direction normal to the
(i) longer side (ii) shorter side of the loop?
For how long does the induced voltage last in each
case?
21. In a plot of photoelectric current versus anode
potential, how does
(i) the saturation current vary with anode potential
for incident radiations of different frequencies
but same intensity?
(ii) the stopping potential vary for incident
radiations of different intensities but same
frequency?
(iii) photoelectric current vary for different
intensities but same frequency of incident
radiations? Justify your answer in each
case.
22. State the necessary conditions for producing total
internal reflection of light. Draw ray diagram to
show how specially designed prisms make use of
total internal reflection to obtain inverted image of
the object by deviating rays
(i) through 90 and (ii) through 180.
OR
A parallel beam of monochromatic light of
wavelength 500 nm falls normally on a narrow slit
and the resulting diffraction pattern is obtained
on a screen 1 m away. It is observed that the first
minimum is at a distance of 2.5 mm from the centre
of the screen. Find
(i) the width of the slit.
(ii) the distance of the second maximum from the
centre of the screen.
(iii) the width of the central maximum.
SECTION-D

23. Vishal purchased an induction stove and explained


to his mother Kamla that due to shortage and heavy
cost of LPG, she must utilize other sources that

are available to produce heat energy; Vishal also


discussed with his younger brother that the oil and
gas companies are trying their best to meet out the
demand for LPG and that a good citizen must use
other sources wherever feasible.
The purchased induction stove
have a value of 7 H inductor
and the flow of current changes
from 10 A to 7 A in a time of
9 102 s.
Answer the following questions
based on above information :
(i) What qualities do you find in Vishal?
(ii) What is the advantage of using induction stove
over LPG?
(iii) Calculate the induced emf in the induction
stove when connected to the source?
SECTION-E

24. (i) Explain briefly, with the help of a labelled


diagram, the basic working principle of an ac
generator. In an ac generator, coil of N turns and
area A is rotated at revolutions per second
in a uniform magnetic field B. Derive the
expression for the emf produced.
(ii) A 100-turn coil of area 0.1 m2 rotates at half
a revolution per second. It is placed in a
magnetic field 0.01 T perpendicular to the axis
of rotation of the coil. Calculate the maximum
voltage generated in the coil.
OR
(i) An alternating voltage = 0 sin t applied to
a series LCR circuit drives a current given by
I =I0 sin (t + ). Deduce an expression for the
average power dissipated over a cycle.
(ii) For circuits used for transporting electric
power, a low power factor implies large power
loss in transmission. Explain.
(iii) Determine the current and quality factor
at resonance for a series LCR circuit with
L = 1.00 mH, C = 1.00 nF and R =100
connected to an ac source having peak voltage
of 100 V.
25. (i) A beam of unpolarised light is incident on the
boundary between two transparent media.
If the reflected light is completely plane
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

61

polarised, how is its direction related to the


direction of the corresponding refracted light?
Define Brewsters angle. Obtain the relation
between this angle and the refractive index for
the given pair of media.
(ii) Why does light from a clear blue portion of
the sky show a rise and fall of intensity when
viewed through a polaroid which is rotated?
Explain by drawing the necessary diagram.

190 V
=
= 5A
R 38
4. The relative permeability is an intrinsic property
of a magnetic material. A related quantity is the
magnetic susceptibility, denoted by m.
r = 1 + m
[& r = 0.5]

OR
Derive the expression for the total magnification of a
compound microscope with labelled ray diagram.

5. A repeater is a combination of a receiver and


a transmitter which picks up the signal from
the transmitter, amplifies and retransmits it to
the receiver sometimes with a change in carrier
frequency.

Explain why both the objective and the eyepiece


of a compound microscope must have short focal
lengths.
26. State Gausss theorem in electrostatics and express
it mathematically. Using it, derive an expression
for electric field at a point near a thin infinite plane
sheet of electric charge. How does this electric field
change for a uniformly thick sheet of charge?
OR
Derive the expression for capacitance of a parallel
plate capacitor with a dielectric medium of dielectric
constant k between its plates, thickness of slab is
less than the spacing between the plates. Obtain
the expression for the energy stored in a charged
capacitor.
SOLUTIONS

Q
, therefore potential difference between
C
two adjacent conductors can exist if their capacities
are different or their sizes are different because
capacitance depends on the size of conductor.

1. Since V =

2. According to lens makers formula


1
1
1
= ( 1)
f
R
R
1
2
We know that b > r

fb < fr

Focal length of a lens for red light is more than


that for blue light.
3. Since, the positive terminal of the batteries are
connected together, so the equivalent emf of the
batteries is given by = 200 V 10 V = 190 V.
Hence, the current in the circuit is given by
62

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

I=

Here,
r < 1 (m negative), so the material is
termed diamagnetic.

6. We have, N = N0 et
For radioisotopes A and B, we can write
N A = N 0e At A , N B = 4 N 0e

B tB

Let t be the time after which NA = NB


t t

N 0e At = 4 N 0e Bt 4 = e B A
loge4 = (Bt At) loge e
log 2 log 2

log e 2
e
e

2 log e 2 =
t =
TA
T1/2

TB1/2
1/ 2
1
1
2=
t t = 200 years
50 100

7. Here, hT = 36 m, hR = 49 m
and R = 6400 km = 6400000 = 64 105 m
Maximum line-of-sight (LOS) distance dM
between the two antennae is
dM = 2RhT + 2RhR
dM = 2 64 105 36 + 2 64 105 49
= 48 102 20 + 56 102 20
= 208 2.236 100 = 46.51 km
8. (i) By increasing resistance R, the current through
AB decreases, so potential gradient decreases.
Hence a greater length of wire would be needed
for balancing the same potential difference. So
the null point would shift towards B.
(ii) By decreasing resistance R, the current through
AB remains the same, potential gradient does
not change. As K2 is open so there is no effect
of R on the null point.

9. (i)









(ii) Position of image will remain same and


intensity of image will decrease.
OR
(i) When QR is parallel to the base BC, we have
i = e r1 = r2 = r
We know that, r1 + r2 = A r + r = A
r = A/2
(ii) Also, we have
A+=i+e
Substituting, = m and i = e
A + m = i + i
m = 2i A
10. The de Broglie wavelength =

p =

h
2mqV

and =

12. Strength of an electric dipole is measured by its


electric dipole moment, whose magnitude is equal
to product of magnitude of either charge and
separation between the two charges, i.e.,
p = q 2a
and is directed from
negative to positive
charge, along the line
joining the two charges.
Its SI unit is C m. Consider a dipole consisting of
two electric charges +q and q between a small
distance AB = 2a with centre O.

h
2mqV
h
2m q V

m q V
mqV
As per question, m = 4m, q = e, q = 2e, V = 128 V,
V = 64 V
p
4m 2e 64
=

m e 128
Required ratio = 2 : 1
p : =

11. Let the time taken by the electron to come out of


the region of magnetic field be t.
Velocity of the electron,
v = 4 104 m s1
Magnetic field, B = 105 T
Mass of the electron,
m = 9 1031 kg
r
We know t =
v
mv
where r =
qB
m
3.14 9 1031
=
Now, t =
Bq 105 1.6 1019
t = 17.66 107 s = 1.77 s
Thus, the time taken by the electron to come out of
the region of magnetic field is 1.77 s.

The magnitudes of the electric field at point P due


to the two charges +q and q are given by
q
1
E+ q =
, directed along BP
4 0 x 2 + a2
q
1
, directed along PA
and Eq =
4 0 x 2 + a2
E+q = Eq
The directions of E+q and Eq are as shown in the
figure. The components normal to the dipole axis
cancel away. The components along the dipole axis
add up.
Therefore, the resultant electric field at point P is
given as; E = (E+q + Eq) cos
...(i)
Where the negative sign shows that the field is
opposite to the dipole moment of the dipole.
a
From figure cos = 2 2 1/2
(x + a )
Putting the values of E+q, Eq and cos in eqn (i),
we get
E=
=

q 1
1
a
+

2
2
2
2
4 0 x + a
x + a ( x 2 + a2 )
2qa
4 0 (x 2 + a2 )3/2
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

63

When point P lies at a large distance (x >> a) from


the dipole, the above expression reduces to
p
2qa
p
E=
E=
=
4 0 x 3
4 x 3 4 x 3
0

13. Given situation is shown


in figure

I=
r+R
Terminal voltage,
V = Ir

R
=
r=
r+R
r+R

(ii) V versus I,




(i) V versus R,



 

 

V = E Ir
When R = 4 , then I1 = 1 A

;r+4=
(i)
1=
r+4
1
When R = 9 , then I = 0.5 A = A
2
1

r+4
[Using eqn. (i)]
=
=
2 r +9 r +9
r + 9 = 2r + 8; r = 1
From eqn. (i)
emf, = 1 + 4 = 5 V

14. Force between two current


carrying wires,
II l
F= 0 1 2
2 r
Force on arm AB,
2 1 4 102
FAB = 0
2 2 102
2
(Attractive, towards the wire)
= 0N

Force on arm CD,


2 1 4 102
FCD = 0
2 4.5 102
8
(Repulsive, away from the wire)
= 0N
9
Force on arms BC and DA are equal and opposite.
So, they cancel out each other.
Net force on the loop is F = FAB FCD
64

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17


8 10 0 10 4 10 7
= 0 2 =
=
9
9

9

= 4.44 107 N

(Attractive, towards the wire)

15. Four characteristics of electromagnetic waves are :


(a) Electromagnetic waves do not require any
medium for their propagation.
(b) These waves travel in free space with speed
3 108 m s1. It is given by the relation
1
c=
0 0
(c) The energy in electromagnetic waves is divided
equally between electric field and magnetic
field.
(d) Electromagnetic waves are produced by
accelerated charged particles.
(i) Uses of radiowaves :
(a) In radio and television communication
system.
(b) In radio astronomy
(ii) Uses of microwaves :
(a) In radar system for aircraft navigation.
(b) In microwave ovens.
16. Here, E = 12.5 eV
Energy of an electron in nth orbit of hydrogen atom is,
13.6
En =
eV
n2
In ground state, n = 1; E1 = 13.6 eV
Energy of an electron in the excited state after
absorbing a photon of 12.5 eV energy will be
En = 13.6 + 12.5 = 1.1 eV
13.6 13.6
n2 =
=
= 12.36 n = 3.5
En
1.1
Here, state of electron cannot be fraction.
So, n = 3 (2nd exited state).
The wavelength of the first member of Lyman
series is given by
1 1 3
1
= R = R
12 22 4

4
4
=
= 1.215 107 m
=
3R 3 1.097 107
= 121 109 m = 121 nm
The wavelength of the first member of the Balmer
series is given by
1
1
1 5
= R = R
2
2

32 36

36
36
=
5R 5 1.097 107

= 6.56 107 m = 656 109 m = 656 nm


17. V-I characteristics of a p n junction diode

(ii) Broadcast communication


Amplitude modulation : Amplitude modulation is
produced by varying the amplitude of the carrier
waves in accordance with the modulating wave.
Let the carrier wave be c(t) = Ac sinct
and the modulating signal be m(t) = Am sinmt,
where m = 2m is the angular frequency of the
message signal.
Modulated signal cm(t) is
cm(t) = (Ac + Am sin mt)sinct
A

= Ac 1 + m sin mt sin c t
Ac

(i) The reverse current is mainly due to minority


charge carriers and even a small voltage is
sufficient to sweep the minority carriers from
one side of the junction to the other side of the
junction. Here the current is not limited by the
magnitude of the applied voltage but is limited
due to the concentration of the minority carrier
on either side of the junction.
(ii) At critical voltage/breakdown voltage, a large
number of covalent bonds break resulting in
availability of large number of charge carriers.
Zener diode operates under the reverse bias in
the breakdown region.
18. Here, X = A, Y = B , Z = X + Y
Z = A+B
The output Z of the given combination of gates
is, Z = A B = A B
Hence, the equivalent gate is AND gate.
Logic symbol :

cm(t) = Ac sinct + Ac sinmt sinct


A
= Ac sin c t + c (cos(c m )t cos(c + m )t )
2
Am
where =
is the modulation index.
Ac
c m and c + m are the lower side band and
upper side band, respectively.
Production of amplitude modulated wave :
Amplitude modulated signal is obtained by
superposing a modulating signal over a sinusoidal
carrier wave as shown in the figure.
 






 



Truth table :
Input
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

Output
Z=AB
0
0
0
1

19. The two basic modes of communication are


(i) Point-to-point communication
66

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17



20. Here, A = 8 2 = 16 cm2 = 16 104 m2, B = 0.3 T,


v = 1 cm s1 = 102 m s1, = ?

It is so because photoelectric current is directly


proportional to the number of photoelectrons
emitted per second.
(i) When velocity is normal to longer side of the loop
l = 8 cm = 8 102 m
= Blv = 0.3 8 102 102 = 2.4 104 V
Time, t =

distance 2 102
=
=2 s
velocity
102

(ii) When velocity is normal to shorter side of the top,


l = 2 cm = 2 102 m
= Blv = 0.3 2 102 102 = 0.6 104 V
Time, t =

22. (i) Necessary conditions for total internal


reflection :
(a) Light should travel from a denser medium
to a rarer medium.
(b) Angle of incidence in denser medium
should be greater than the critical angle
for the pair of media in contact.
(ii) (a) To deviate a ray of light through 90 :


distance 8 102
=
=8 s
velocity
102

21. (i) The saturation current remains same because


the saturation current depends upon intensity
of incident radiation.



 









A totally reflecting prism is used to deviate


the path of the ray of light through 90.
(b) To deviate a ray of light through 180 :
When the ray of light comes to meet the
hypotenuse face BC at right angles to it, it
is refracted out of prism as such along the
path RS. The path of the ray of light has
been turned through 180 due to two total
internal reflections.


(ii) Stopping potential remains same. It depends


upon the frequency of incident radiation.















OR
Given, = 500 nm = 5 107 m, D = 1 m,
y1 = 2.5 mm = 2.5 103 m
(iii) At constant frequency and anode potential,
photoelectric current is directly proportional
to the intensity of light.

(i) If a is width of slit, then for first minimum

sin 1 =
a
y1
For small 1, sin 1 =
D
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

67

y1
=
D a
D 5 107 1
=
= 2 104 m
or a =
y1
2.5 103
= 0.2 mm
1 D

(ii) Position of nth maximum, yn = n +

2 a
For second maximum n = 2
1 1 5 107
( y2 )max = 2 +
2 2 104
= 6.25 103 m = 6.25 mm
2D
(iii) Width of central maximum, =

a
= Separation between first minima on either
side of centre of screen = 2.5 + 2.5 = 5 mm

23. (i) Vishal has the qualities of responsibility,


concern for the nation, cost economic attitude,
promptness to use latest technology, sharing
attitude.
(ii) LPG is costly and it is difficult to carry heavy
gas cylinders. Also, availability of LPG is
limited. On the other hand induction stove
uses cheap and easily available electricity and
is also easy to carry.
7 (7 10)
= 233.3 V
(iii) = L dI/dt =
9 102
24. (i) Refer to point 4.8(2) page no. 275 (MTG Excel
in Physics)
(ii) Given, N = 100, A = 0.1 m2, B = 0.01 T
1
= revolution per sec = 0.5 rps
2
Maximum voltage generated 0 = NBA
= NBA(2)
or 0 = 100 0.01 0.1 2
OR

22
0.5 = 0.314 V
7

(i) Refer to point 4.6(9) page no. 271 (MTG Excel


in Physics)
(ii) The power is P = rms Irms cos. cos is small,
then current considerably increases when
voltage is constant. Power loss is I2R. Hence
power loss increases.
(iii) Given, L = 1.00 mH = 1 103 H,
C = 1.00 nF = 1 109 F, R = 100 , 0 = 100 V
At resonance Z = R
68

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

100
I0 = 0 =
I0 = 1 A
R 100
I
1
Irms = 0 =
= 0.707 A
2
2
Q=

1 L
1 1.0 103
=
= 10
R C 100 1.0 109

25. (i) Refer to point 6.15(9) page no. 455(MTG Excel


in Physics)
(ii) Refer to point 6.15(10) page no. 455 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
OR
Refer to point 6.9 (1(iv)) page no. 381 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
26.

Refer to point 1.8 page no. 11 (MTG Excel in


Physics)
OR
Refer to point 1.11(6, 9) page no. 16 (MTG
Excel in Physics)

ON

R-C Circuit
Er. Sandip Prasad
Calculation of Instantaneous Charge on the Capacitor
Carrying some Charge Before being Connected to the
Battery :

Consider the basic RC

circuit shown in figure,

the capacitor carries a
charge Q before the key K
is closed.If now the key K
is closed, charge on


the capacitor goes on
increasing until it attains steady state.
The circuit is similar to simple charging RC circuit but
at t = 0 charge on the capacitor is Q instead of zero.
By Kirchhoff s voltage law,
q

dq
1
q
dq C q
=
dt ;
IR + = ;
=
;
C q
RC
C
dt
RC
Q
O
C q
t
ln
=
C Q
RC
q =C(1 et/RC) + Qet/RC
q = q0 (1 et/) + Qet/
Here, q0 = C and = RC
If C > Q, then the

charging of capacitor 
takes place and
the capacitor will
attain final charge

C and current


becomes finally zero.
If C < Q, then the

discharging
of

capacitor takes place
and the capacitor
will attain final charge

q0 = C and current


becomes finally zero.
Method-II: When the key K is closed at t = 0, the circuit
can be treated as the combination of a charging and a
discharging circuit.










Charge on the capacitor of circuit 1


q1 = q0 (1 et/)
and charge on the capacitor of circuit 2
q2 = Qet/
Net charge on the capacitor
q = q1 + q2 = q0 (1 et/) + Qet/
Method-III: (Short-Cut Method) When we deal with
the R-C circuit in which a capacitor has initial charge,
then we can use a very simple method to solve this type
of problems quickly. Let us consider a resistor and a
capacitor having some initial charges q0 is connected
with a battery of e.m.f .

+0 0
When key is closed two

situation arise, one in
which capacitor is in
charging condition and


another in which it is in
discharging condition.
To know whether the capacitor is in charging or in
discharging condition , compare the voltage across the
capacitor and e.m.f of the battery.
q
If > 0 , then the charging
C
of capacitor takes place
and the capacitor will
attain a final charge
q = C and current finally
becomes zero.

Sandip Physics Classes, Girish Park-1/1 Shiv Krishna Daw Lane, Kolkata-700007
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

69

From the graph, we can write the value of


instantaneous value of charge i.e the value of charge
on the capacitor at time t,
q = initial charge + (amplitude of the curve )(1 et/)
Where, amplitude of the curve
Q = Final charge initial charge = C q0
and = Req C
charge on the capacitor at time t,
q = q0 + (C q0) (1 et/)
q
If < 0 , then the discharging
C
of capacitor takes place and the
capacitor will attain a final charge
q = C and current finally
becomes zero.
From the graph, we can write the value of
instantaneous value of charge i.e. the value of
charge on the capacitor at time t,
q = Final charge + (amplitude of the curve) et/
Where, amplitude of the curve
Q = initial charge Final charge = q0 C and = ReqC
charge on the capacitor at time t,
q = q0 + (q0 C) et/
Example-1: In the circuit

shown capacitor is initially

connected to a 3 V cell. At



t =0 switch is thrown to
B. Find the charge on the


capacitor at time t.
Soln.: The capacitor is charged to 3CV initially i.e. ,at
t=0 charge on the capacitor is +3CV . Now battery of
emf V cannot pull out electrons from positive plate of
capacitor as potential difference across the capacitor is
3 V . Instead of electrons move from negative plate of
capacitor towards positive plate through battery.
+3 3 
By Kirchhoff s laws,
q

V + 2iR = 0;
electrons motion
C
q

V = 2iR


C
dq
(i = , here charge on the plate decreases with time)
dt
dq
1
q
dq
=
dt
V = 2 R or,
V q / C 2R
dt
C
Integrating both side ;
q

or,

3CV

70

dq
1
=
dt q = CV + 2 CV et/2RC
V q /C
2R

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Method-II: When the key K is closed at t = 0, the circuit


can be treated as the combination of a charging and a
discharging circuit.
2 +3 3


2


2 +3 3



1

Here, time constant of the given R-C circuit is


= ReqC = 2RC
Charge on the capacitor of the circuit 1
q1 = CV (1 et/2RC )
and charge on the capacitor of the circuit 2
q2 = 3CV et/2RC)
Net charge on the capacitor
q = q1 + q2 = CV (1 et/2RC) + 3CV et/2RC
q = CV + 2CV et/2RC
Method-III: The capacitor is charged to 3 CV initially i.e.,
at t=0 charge on the capacitor is +3CV . Now battery
of emf V cannot pull out electrons from positive plate
of capacitor as potential difference across the capacitor
is 3V. Instead of electrons move from negative plate of
capacitor towards positive plate through battery.
Step:I Firstly, check
2
+3 3
the R-C circuit
whether it is in
charging condition

or discharging
condition.
Initial voltage across the capacitor i.e when switch is
3CV
just closed i.e at t = 0, is VC =
= 3V
C
And the voltage applied by the battery is V.
Here initial voltage across capacitor i.e. voltage across
capacitor at t = 0(when switch S is just closed) is greater
than that of the voltage of the cell, hence after t > 0
capacitor gets discharged. So, in the given R-C circuit
is in discharging condition.

Step:II Next draw a graph of

instantaneous charge versus
time of the above circuit.
Step:III From graph obtained
from step II , we can write the 
equation of the instantaneous


charge.

Hence, the charge on the capacitor at time t is ,


q = Final charge + (amplitude of the curve ) et/
Here, initial charge on the capacitor q0 = 3CV
Amplitude of the curve
= initial charge - Final charge
= 3CV CV = 2CV
Again, time constant , = ReqC = 2RC
Hence, q =CV + 2CV et/2RC
Example 2 : A capacitor
hav i ng i n it i a l charge
C
is connected to a
q0 =
2
cell of e.m.f through a
resistor R as shown in the
figure. Find the charge on
the capacitor at time t .







Soln.: Step:I Firstly, check





the R-C circuit whether it

is in charging condition
or discharging condition.

Initial voltage across the

capacitor i.e when switch
is just closed i.e at t=0, is
q
C

/C =
VC = 0 =
C
2
2
And the voltage applied by the battery is V =
Here initial voltage across capacitor i.e. voltage across
capacitor at t = 0(when switch S is just closed) is less
than that of the voltage of the cell, hence after t >0
capacitor gets charged. So, in the given R-C circuit is
in charging condition.
Step:II Next draw a graph 
of instantaneous charge 
versus time of the circuit.
Step:III From graph
obtained from step II ,

we can write the equation 


of the instantaneous charge.
Hence, the charge on the capacitor at time t is ,
q = initial charge + (amplitude of the curve ) (1 et/)
C
Here, initial charge on the capacitor q0 =
2
Amplitude of the curve Q = Final charge initial charge
C C
= C
=
2
2
Again , time constant , = ReqC = RC
C C
Hence, q =
+ (1 e t /RC )
2
2

Simultaneous Charging and Discharging of Capacitors


in a R - C circuit without battery

Consider a circuit in which
a resistor of resistance R is
 +
2
connected in series with two 1 1

capacitors of capacitance C1
and C2.
Initially the capacitor C1 is charged to potential V1 and
then at t = 0, the switch S is closed as shown. When
switch S is closed at t = 0, the circuit is completed and
discharging of C1 and charging of C2 takes place. The
voltage across capacitor C1 does not rise instantaneously
but builds up exponentially and not linearly. Charging
current i is maximum at the start i.e. when capacitor
C1 has voltage V1 and charge C1V1 and capacitor C2
is uncharged, then it decreases exponentially and
finally ceases when potential difference across both
the capacitors becomes equal. Hence as charge on
capacitor C1 decreases and on capacitor C2 increases,
current i in the circuit decreases. In other words, as
the time passes, potential difference across capacitor
C1 decreases and potential difference across capacitor
C2 increases. Hence, whenever a R-C circuit having a
charged capacitor connected with uncharged capacitor
without a dc source, goes from initial state to final state
(steady state condition), it passes through a transient
state which is of short duration. In fact transient state
lies in between initial state and final state(steady state
condition).

Initial State: When switch
  
S is closed at t = 0, R-C 
circuit is in its initial state. 

In this state, current in the
circuit i is maximum
 
because there is no potential difference across capacitor
C2 to oppose the applied voltage by capacitor C1
i.e capacitor C2 behaves like being short circuited and
capacitor C1 behaves as a dc source having voltage V1.
If you wish to find initial current, short the terminals
of the capacitor C2 and replace the capacitor C1 with
a battery having voltage V1. Hence at t = 0 the circuit
can be redraw as shown in the figure.
V
At this instant i.e at t = 0, i = 1
R
Transient state: But as time

passes, i decreases gradually



+ 0
2 +

so does instantaneous voltage 1 0 

across capacitor C 1 also


PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

71

decreases gradually, but instantaneous voltage cross


capacitor C2 increases gradually till it reaches at its
maximum value or steady state value i.e. when potential
difference across both the capacitors becomes equal.
Final state (Steady state):


As charging continues,
charging current i decreases 

gradually and it becomes

zero at final state or steady
state, hence at condition,
the circuit appears as an open circuit (i = 0). At this
state capacitor C1 gets completely charged and the value
of charge becomes maximum i.e. when switch is closed
charge flows from capacitor C1 to capacitor C2 till both
acquire the same potential. In steady state the circuit
can be redrawn as shown in the figure.
Calculation of charge and current in the R-C circuit in
transient state

We need to find
the charge on
+
+ 0 
2
1
the capacitor C1

 
0
as a function of

time.

Initial charge on C1 is q0 = C1 V1
Let at any time t charge on C2 is, then charge of C1 at
this instant is q0 q.
Hence current through the circuit at this time is,
dq
i=
dt
Applying KVL for circuit,
q q(C1 + C2 ) dq
q0 q
q
or 0
= R
= iR +
C1
C1C2
dt
C1
C2
q

or

0 2

or q =
or q =

dq

C q q(C

1 + C2 )

dt
RC1C2
0

C2q0
CC
t / RCeq
(1 e
) where Ceq = 1 2
C1 + C2
(C1 + C2 )

C1C2V1
t / RCeq
(1 e
) where q0 = C1V1
(C1 + C2 )
t / RC

eq
or q = CeqV1(1 e
)
Again, charge on capacitor C1 as a function of time t,
q = q0 q or q = C1V1 CeqV1(1 et/RCeq)
We can also find the instantaneous value of charge in
this case by another method.
Method-II: Initially the capacitor C 1 is charged to
potential V1 and then at t = 0, the switch S is closed

72

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

as shown. When switch S is closed at t = 0, the circuit


is completed and discharging of C1 and charging of
C2 take place.
Step-I : First of all we need to find time constant ()
of the given R-C circuit.
=Req Ceq = R

C1C2
C1 + C2

Step-II: Find the steady



= 0
state charge Q on the

1
+
+ 1
uncharged capacitor. 1 
  2
2
1
Let us consider in steady

state capacitor C1 and
C2 has charge q1 and q2 respectively as shown in the
figure. Also we know that in steady state both the capacitor
has same potential difference, let V in this case.
Charge on the capacitor C1 is, q1 = C1V
Charge on the capacitor C2 is, q2 = C2V
q
C
1= 1
q2 C2
C1
C1
q , where
(q1 + q2 ) =
Hence, q1 =
C1 + C2 0
C1 + C2
q0 = C1V1 is the initial charge on capacitor C1.
C2
C2
C V =Q
q0 =
Similarly, q2 =
C1 + C2 1 1
C1 + C2
where q0 = C1V1 is the initial charge on capacitor C1.
Step-III: Putting the values of and Q in equation
q = Q (1 et/) . We can get the value of charge on the
capacitor which is under charging condition, at time t.
By differentiating the above equation w.r.t. time we can
find current through the capacitor at time t. Then by
using Kirchhoff s laws, calculate currents in different
branches of the circuit.
Also, charge on capacitor C1 having some initial charge
q0, as a function of time t is given by, q = q0 q
where, initial charge on capacitor C1 is q0 = C1V1 and
q is the value of charge on the capacitor which is under
charging condition, at time t.
Hence the charge on the capacitor at time t is given by
following equation,
As, q = Q(1 et/) q =

C1C2V1
t / RCeq
(1 e
)
(C1 + C2 )

Again, charge on capacitor C1 as a function of time t,


q = q0 q or q = C1V1 CeqV1(1 e

t / RCeq



Class XII

his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter


Atoms and Nuclei
Total Marks : 120
NEET / AIIMS / PMTs
Only One Option Correct Type

1. Light described at a place by the equation


E = (100 V m1) [sin(5 1015 s1)t + sin (8 1015 s1)t]
falls on a metal surface having work function 2.0 eV.
The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is
(a) 5.27 eV (b) 3.27 eV (c) 2.00 eV (d) 4.00 eV
2. An electron of mass m, when accelerated through a
potential difference V, has de Broglie wavelength .
The de Broglie wavelength associated with a proton
of mass M accelerated through the same potential
difference, will be
M
m
M
m
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
m
M
m
M
117
3. In a fission reaction, 236
X + 117Y + n + n,
92U
the binding energy per nucleon of X and Y is 8.5 MeV
whereas that of 236
92U is 7.6 MeV. The total energy
liberated will be about
(a) 200 keV
(b) 2 MeV
(c) 200 MeV
(d) 2000 MeV
4. A radioactive nucleus emits 3-particles and
5-particles. The ratio of number of neutrons to
that of protons will be
A Z 12
AZ
(b)
(a)
Z 6
Z 1
A Z 11
A Z 11
(c)
(d)
Z 6
Z 1
5. Let nr and nb be respectively the number of photons
emitted by a red bulb and a blue bulb of equal power
in a given time. Then,
(b) nr < nb
(a) nr = nb
(c) nr > nb
(d) None of these

Time Taken : 60 min

6. The ratio of the longest and shortest wavelengths in


Brackett series of hydrogen spectra is
25
17
9
4
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
9
6
5
3
7. According to Einsteins photoelectric equation, the
graph between the kinetic energy of photoelectrons
ejected and the frequency of incident radiation is
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8. The radius of the hydrogen atom in its ground


state is a0. The radius of a muonic hydrogen atom
in which the electron is replaced by an identically
charged muon with mass 207 times that of an
electron, is a equal to
a
a0
(a) 207a0 (b) 0
(c)
(d) a0 207
207
207
9. A proton moving with u m s1 strikes a stationary
nucleus of mass A. The ratio of final to initial kinetic
energy of proton is
(1 A)2
A2
(b)
(a)
( A 1)2
(1 + A)2
2
2
(1 A) (1 u )
A2 (1 + u2 )
(c)
(d)
( A + 1)2 (1 u2 )
(1 + A)2 (1 + u)
10. A nuclear reactor delivers a power of 10 W. Find fuel
consumed by the reactor per hour, if its efficiency is
20%. (Given, c = 3 108 m s1)
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

73

(a) 2 106 g h1
(b) 9 1012 g h1
9
1
(c) 8 10 g h
(d) 2 109 g h1
11. Electrons with de-Broglie wavelength fall on the
target in an X-ray tube. The cut-off wavelength of
the emitted X-rays is
2mc2
2h
(b) 0 =
(a) 0 =
h
mc
2m2c 2 3
(c) 0 =
(d) 0 =
h2
12. When the electron in hydrogen atom is excited from
the 4th stationary orbit to the 5th stationary orbit, the
change in the angular momentum of the electron is
(Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s)
(a) 4.16 1034 J s
(b) 3.32 1034 J s
34
(c) 1.05 10 J s
(d) 2.08 1034 J s
Assertion & Reason Type

irecti
In the following questions, a statement of
assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the correct
choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the
correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
13. Assertion : The de Broglie wavelength of a molecule
varies inversely as the square root of temperature.
Reason : The root mean square velocity of the
molecule depends on the temperature.
14. Assertion : The binding energy per nucleon, for
nuclei with atomic mass number A > 100, decreases
with A.
Reason : The nuclear force is weak for heavier nuclei.
15. Assertion : When an electron beam strikes the
target in an X-ray tube, part of the kinetic energy is
converted into X-ray energy.
Reason : If the accelerating potential in an X-ray tube
is increased, the wavelengths of the characteristic
X-rays do not change.
JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs
Only One Option Correct Type

16. A beam of 450 nm light is incident on a metal having


work function 2.0 eV and placed in a magnetic
field B. The most energetic electrons emitted
perpendicular to the field are bent in circular arcs
of radius 20 cm. Then value of B is
(a) 1.46 105 T
(b) 2.92 105 T
6
(c) 1.46 10 T
(c) 2.92 106 T
17. An alpha particle of energy 5 MeV is scattered
through 180 by a fixed uranium nucleus. The
distance of closest approach is of the order of
74

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

(a) 1
(b) 1010 cm
12
(c) 10 cm
(d) 1015 cm
18. The electric potential between a proton and an
r
electron is given by V V0 ln where r0 is a
r
0

constant. Assuming Bohrs model to be applicable,


write variation of rn with n, where n being the
principal quantum number.
1
1
(a) rn n (b) rn (c) rn n2 (d) rn 2
n
n
19. A radioactive isotope A with a half life of
1.25 1010 years decays into B which is stable. A
sample of rock from a planet is found to contain
both A and B present in the ratio 1 : 15. The age of
the rock is
(a) 9.6 1010 years
(b) 4.2 1010 years
10
(c) 5 10 years
(d) 1.95 1010 years
More than One Options Correct Type

20. Which of the following products in a hydrogen atom


are independent of the principal quantum number
n? The symbols have their usual meanings.
(a) vn
(b) Er
(c) En
(d) vr
21. Let , and denote the wavelengths of the
X-rays of the K , K and L lines in the characteristic
X-rays for a metal. Then
(a) > >
(b) > >
1
1
1
1
1
1
(c)
=
+
(d)
=
+

22. When an particle collides elastically with a


nucleus, the nucleus recoils. A 5.00 MeV particle
has a head-on elastic collision with a gold nucleus,
initially at rest. The mass of the particle may be
taken to be 4.00 u and that of the gold nucleus to be
197 u. Then
(a) the kinetic energy of the recoiling nucleus is
0.390 MeV.
(b) the kinetic energy of the rebounding particle
is 5.64 MeV.
(c) the particle will be stop.
(d) the kinetic energy of rebounding particle is
4.61 MeV.
23. A large electric generating station is powered by
a pressurized water nuclear reactor. The thermal
power in the reactor core is 3400 MW and
1100 MW of electricity is generated. The fuel consists
of 86,000 kg of uranium, in the form of 110 tons of
uranium oxide, distributed among 57,000 fuel rods.
The uranium is enriched to 3.0% 235U. Then
(The average energy released per fission event is
200 MeV.)

(a) the plant efficiency is 32%


(b) fission events occur in the reactor core at the
rate of 1.06 1020 fissions per second
(c) the fuel supply will last after 580 days
(d) the mass being lost in the reactor core at the rate of
4.5 kg per day.
Integer Answer Type

24. The recoil speed (in m s1) of a hydrogen atom after it


emits a photon in going from n = 5 state to n = 1 state is
25. Hydrogen atom in its ground state is excited by
means of monochromatic radiation of wavelength
970.6 . How many different wavelengths are
possible in the resulting emission spectrum?
26. An -particle and a proton are accelerated from rest
by a potential difference of 100 V. After this, their
de Broglie wavelengths are and p respectively.
p
, to the nearest integer, is
The ratio

Comprehension Type

The key feature of Bohrs theory of spectrum of hydrogen


atom is the quantization of angular momentum when an
electron is revolving around a proton. We will extend this
to a general rotational motion to find quantized rotational
energy of a diatomic molecule assuming it to be rigid.
The rule to be applied is Bohrs quantization condition.
27. A diatomic molecule has moment of inertia I. By
Bohrs quantization condition, its rotational energy
in the nth level (n = 0 is not allowed) is
1 h2
1 h2
(a) 2 2
(b) 2
n 8 I
n 8 I
h2
h2
(c) n 2
(d) n2 2
8 I
8 I
28. It is found that the excitation frequency from
ground to the first excited state of rotation for the
4
CO molecule is close to
1011 Hz. Then the

moment of inertia of CO molecule about its centre


of mass is close to (Take h = 2 1034 J s)
(a) 2.76 1046 kg m2 (b) 1.87 1046 kg m2
(c) 4.67 1047 kg m2 (d) 1.17 1047 kg m2

Matrix Match Type

29. In performing photoelectric experiment to study


photoelectric effect, intensity of radiation (I),
frequency of radiation (), work function (0) of
the photosensitive emitter, distance between emitter
and collector (d) are changed or kept constant.
Match the changes given in column I to their effects
given in column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) 0 is decreased,
(P) Saturation photoelectric
keeping and I
current increases
constant
(B) d is increased,
(Q) Stopping potential (V0)
keeping I, , 0
increases
constant
(C) is increased,
(R) Maximum kinetic
keeping I, 0, d
energy (Kmax) of
constant
photoelectrons increases
(D) I is increased,
(S) Stopping potential
keeping , 0
remains the same
and d constant
A
B
C
D
(a) Q, R
S
Q, R
P, S
(b) Q, R, S
S, P
P, R
S, Q
(c) P
S
R, Q
S, P
(d) Q, R
S
P, S
Q, R
30. Some laws/processes are given in column I.
Match these with the physical phenomena given in
column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) Transition between (P) Characteristic X-rays
two atomic energy
levels
(B) Electron emission (Q) Photoelectric effect
from a material
(C) Mosleys law
(R) Hydrogen spectrum
(D) Change of photon (S) -decay
energy into kinetic
energy of electrons
A
B
C
D
(a) P, R
P
S
Q, S
(b) P, R
Q, S
P
Q
(c) Q, S
P
R, S
Q
(d) P
S
Q
P, R

Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

Check your score! If your score is


> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.

No. of questions attempted

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

You can score good in the nal exam.

No. of questions correct

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

You need to score more next time.

Marks scored in percentage

< 60%

NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

75

 


P

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / NEET / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.


1. A particle moves in the x-y plane with velocity
3
^
^
the magnitude of
v = i + t j . At t =

tangential, normal and total accelerations respectively


are
3

(a)
and (b) ,
and
,
2
2
2 2
(c)

2,

2 and (d) None of the above

2. A block of mass m slides down on a rough inclined


plane of inclination with horizontal with zero
intial velocity. The coefficient of friction between
the block and the plane is with > tan1(). The
rate of work done by the force of friction at time t is
(a) mg2tsin
(b) mg2t(sin cos)
(c) mg2tcos(sin cos)
(d) mg2tcos
3. The minimum speed v with which a small ball
should be pushed inside a smooth vertical circular
tube of radius R from a height h such that it may
reach the top of the tube is
(a)

2 g (h + 2R)

mg/
2mg/
3mg/
6mg/




5
gR
2
(c) g (5R 2h)




2 g (2R h)

4. Two block A and B having mass ratio 2 : 1 are lying on


a rough surface as shown in the figure. The friction
coefficient between block B and ground is /2 and
between blocks A and B is . Now a variable force
F = t is applied on A at t = 0. The mass of block B is m.
Find the value of time till they move together.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

 

5. An ideal spring with spring constant k is hung from


the ceiling and a block of mass M is attached to
its lower end. The mass is released with the spring
initially unstretched. Then the maximum extension
in the spring is
2Mg
4Mg
Mg
Mg
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
k
2k
k
k
6. A particle of mass m1 is fastened to one end of a
massless string and another particle of mass m2 is
fastened to the middle point of the same string. The
other end of the string being fastened to a fixed point
on a smooth horizontal table. The particles are then
projected, so that the two particles and the string

Exam Alert!!
Exam Date: 2nd April 2017 (Pen & Paper Based Examination)
8th & 9th April 2017 (Computer Based Examination)
Last Date for applying online: 2nd January 2017
Last Date for fee payment: 3rd January 2017
Result Declaration: 27th April 2017

JEE Advanced
Exam Date: 21st May 2017
Online registration begins: 28th April 2017
Online registration closes: 2nd May 2017
Result Declaration: 11th June 2017

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PACE, Mumbai.

76

JEE Main

(b)

(d)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

are always in the same straight line and describe


horizontal circles. Then, the ratio of tensions in the
two parts of the string is
m1
m + m2
(a)
(b) 1
(m1 + m2 )
m1
(c)

2m1 + m2
2m1

(d)

2m1
m1 + m2

The ratio (x) of magnitude of centripetal


force and normal reaction on the particle at any
point on the surface of bowl varies with respect
to as


(a)

7. In a circular motion of a particle, the tangential


acceleration of the particle is given by at = 2t m s2. The
radius of the circle described is 4 m. The particle is
initially at rest. Time after which total acceleration
of the particle makes 45 with radial acceleration is
(a) 1 s
(b) 2 s
(c) 3 s
(d) 4 s
8. A small body of mass m can slide without friction
along a trough bent which is in the form of a
semi-circular arc of radius R. At what height h will
the body be rest with respect to the trough, if the
trough rotates with uniform angular velocity
about a vertical axis.

(b)


(c)

(d)


SOLUTION OF DECEMBER 2016 CROSSWORD

(a) R
2g
(c) R + 2

2g
(b) R 2

g
(d) R 2

9. If a particle starts from point A


along the curved circular path
as shown in the figure, with
tangential acceleration a. Then
acceleration of the particle at
point B in magnitude is

Winner (December 2016)


s Himani Bankoti, Kanpur

Solution Sender (November 2016)

(a) 2a 1 + 2

(b) a 1 + 2

(c) a 2 1

2
(d) a 1 +

10. A small particle of mass



m is released from rest
from point A inside a

smooth hemispherical
bowl of radius R as
shown in the figure.

s 6ANSH!GARWAL $ELHI

Solution Senders of Physics Musing




s 2AJNI3INGH "IHAR

SET-41

1. Ravindar Negi, Jaipur


 3URBHI!GARWAL 0UNE
3. Raman Reddy, Karnataka

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

77

Exam Dates
OFFLINE : 2nd April
ONLINE : 8th & 9th April

1. In a vertical U-tube containing


a liquid, the two arms are
maintained
at
different

temperatures T1 and T2. The
liquid columns in the two

arms have heights l1 and l2,
respectively. The coefficient of
volume expansion of the liquid is equal to
l1 l2
l1 l2
(a)
(b)
l2T1 l1T2
l1T1 l2T2
(c)

l1 + l2
l2T1 + l1T2

(d)




l1 + l2
l1T1 + l2T2

2. A satellite is launched into a circular orbit of radius R


around the Earth. A second satellite is launched
into an orbit of radius 1.01 R. The period of second
satellite is larger than that of the first one by
approximately
(a) 0.5
(b) 1.0% (c) 1.5% (d) 3.0%
3. An object is placed at f/2
away from first focus of a
convex lens where f is the
focal length of the lens.
Its image is formed at a
distance 3f/2 in a slab of
refractive index 3/2, from the face of the slab facing
the lens. Find the distance of this face of the slab
from the second focus of the lens.
(a) f/2
(b) 3f/2 (c) 2f
(d) f
4. Pushing force making an angle with the horizontal
is applied on a block of weight W placed on a
horizontal table. If the angle of friction is , the
magnitude of force required to move the body is
equal to
W cos
cos( )
W tan
(c)
sin( )
(a)

78

W sin
cos( + )
W sin
(d)
tan( )
(b)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

5. Read the given statements and decide which is/are


correct on the basis of kinetic theory of gases.
(I) Energy of one molecule at absolute temperature
is zero.
(II) The rms speeds of different gases are same at
same temperature.
(III)For one gram of all ideal gases, kinetic energy
is same at same temperature.
(IV) For one mole of all ideal gases, kinetic energy
is same at same temperature.
(a) All are correct
(b) I and IV are correct
(c) IV is correct
(d) None of these
6. A particle is moving on a straight line. Its acceleration
100
as a function of displacement is a = 2 + 2 m s 2.

s
If the velocity of particle is 5 ms1 at s = 10 m, then
the velocity of the particle at s = 25 m is
(a) 9.8 m s1
(b) 10 m s1
1
(c) 20 m s
(d) 8 m s1
7. The pressure and density of a diatomic gas
7

= change adiabatically from (P, d) to


5
d
P
(P, d). If
= 32 then
is
d
P
1
(a)
(b) 32
(c) 128 (d) 256
128
8. Carbon monoxide is carried around a closed cyclic
process abc, in which bc is an isothermal process, as
shown in the given figure. The gas absorbs 7000 J of
heat as its temperature is
increased from 300 K to 1000 K in
going from a to b. The quantity
of heat ejected by the gas during
the process ca is
(a) 4200 J
(b) 500 J
(c) 9000 J
(d) 9800 J

9. A magnetising field of 1600 A m1 produces a


magnetic flux of 2.4 105 Wb in an iron bar of
cross-sectional area 0.2 cm2. The susceptibility of an
iron bar is
(a) 298
(b) 596
(c) 1192 (d) 1788
10. A projectile can have the same range R for two
angles of projection. If t1 and t2 are the time of
flights in the two cases, then the product of the two
time of flights is proportional to
1
1
(a) R2
(b) 2
(c)
(d) R
R
R
11. In the figure, the velocity v3 will be

above the surface of the earth is (here R is the radius


of the earth)
n
n
(b)
(a)
mgR
mgR

n + 1
n 1
mgR
(c) nmgR
(d)
n
16. A 220 V input is supplied to a transformer.
The output circuit draws a current of 2.0 A at
440 V. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%,
the current drawn by the primary windings of the
transformer is
(a) 3.6 A
(b) 2.8 A
(c) 2.5 A
(d) 5.0 A
17. Two solid spheres of same metal but of mass M and
8M fall simultaneously on a viscous liquid and their
terminal velocities are v and nv, then value of n is
(a) 16
(b) 8
(c) 4
(d) 2

(a) zero
(c) 1 m s1

(b) 4 m s1
(d) 3 m s1

12. A concave mirror of focal length 10 cm and a convex


mirror of focal length 15 cm are placed facing each
other 40 cm apart. A point object is placed between
the mirrors, on their common axis and 15 cm from
the concave mirror. Find the position and nature
of the image produced by successive reflections,
first at the concave mirror and then at the convex
mirror.
(a) 12 cm behind convex mirror, real
(b) 9 cm behind convex mirror, real
(c) 6 cm behind convex mirror, virtual
(d) 3 cm behind convex mirror, virtual
13. The reading on the ammeter in the
following figure will be
(a) 0.8 A
(b) 0.6 A
(c) 0.4 A

(d) 0.2 A

14. A motorcycle starts from rest and


accelerates along a straight path at 2 m s2. At the
starting point of the motorcycle, there is a stationary
electric siren. How far has the motorcycle gone
when the driver hears the frequency of the siren at
94% of its value when the motorcycle was at rest?
(Speed of sound = 330 m s1)
(a) 49 m (b) 98 m (c) 147 m (d) 196 m
15. The change in the gravitational potential energy
when a body of mass m is raised to a height nR

18. In Young's double slit experiment having slits of


equal width, let be the fringe width and I0 be the
maximum intensity. At a distance x from the central
bright fringe, the intensity will be
2x
x
(a) I0 cos
(b) I0 cos2

I
x
x
(c) I0 cos2
(d) 0 cos2

19. When photons of energy 4.25 eV strike the surface


of a metal A the ejected photoelectrons have a
maximum kinetic energy EA eV and de Broglie
wavelength A. The maximum kinetic energy of
photoelectrons liberated from another metal B by
photons of energy 4.70 eV is EB = (EA 1.50) eV. If
the de Broglie wavelength of these photoelectrons
is B = 2A, then
(a) the work function of A is 2.25 eV
(b) the work function of B is 4.20 eV
(c) EA = 2.0 eV
(d) All of these
20. One end of a long metallic wire of length L is tied to
the ceiling. The other end is tied to a massless spring
of spring constant k. A mass m hangs freely from
the free end of the spring. The area of cross-section
and the Youngs modulus of the wire are A and Y
respectively. If the mass is slightly pulled down and
released, it will oscillate with a time period T equal
to
m(YA + kL)
m
(a) 2
(b) 2
k
YAk
(c) 2 mYA
kL

(d) 2 mL
YA
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

79

21. In the circuit shown, which of the following


statements is not correct?

(a) When S is open, charge on C1 is 36 C.


(b) When S is open, charge on C2 is 36 C.
(c) When S is closed, charges on both C1 and C2
change.
(d) When S is closed, the charges on both C1 and
C2 do not change.
22. The fundamental frequency of an open organ pipe
is 300 Hz. The first overtone of this pipe has same
frequency as first overtone of a closed organ pipe.
If speed of sound is 330 m s1, then the length of
closed organ pipe is approximately
(a) 41 cm (b) 37 cm (c) 31 cm (d) 80 cm
23. Two wires AO and OC carry

equal current i as shown in


figure. One end of both the wire

A
extends to infinity. Angle AOC 

is . The magnitude of magnetic
field at a point P on the bisector of these two wires
at a distance r from point O is :
0 i
i

cot
(b) 0 cot

2 r
4 r
2
2

1 + cos
0 i
2 (d) 0 i sin
(c)

2 r sin
4 r
2
2
24 . A point mass oscillates along the X-axis according
to the law x = x0 cos (t /4). If the acceleration of
the particle is written as a = A (cos t + ), then:
(a) A = x02, = 3/4 (b) A = x0, = /4
(c) A = x02, = (d) A = x02, = /4
(a)

25. A radioactive material of half-life T was produced in


a nuclear reactor at different instants, the quantity
produced second time was twice of that produced
first time. If now their present activities are A1 and
A2 respectively then their age difference equals :

80

(a)

2A
T
ln 1
A2
ln 2

A
(b) T ln 1
A2

(c)

A
T
ln 2
ln 2 2A1

(d) T ln

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

A2
2A1

26. A block of mass m is on an inclined



plane of angle . The coefficient
of friction between the block
and the plane is and tan > .
The block is held stationary by applying a force F
parallel to the plane. The direction of force pointing
up the plane is taken to be positive. As F is varied from
F1 = mg(sin cos) to F2 = mg(sin + cos), the
frictional force f versus F graph will look like

(a)

(c)







(b)

(d)









27. Gravitational acceleration on the surface of a planet


6
g, where g is the gravitational acceleration on
is
11
the surface of the earth. The average mass density of
2
the planet is times that of the earth. If the escape
3
speed on the surface of the earth is taken to be
11 km s1, the escape speed on the surface of the
planet will be
(a) 1.5 km s1
(b) 2 km s1
(c) 3.0 km s1
(d) 2.5 km s1
28. If the time period (T) of vibration of a liquid drop
depends on density () of the liquid, radius (r) of the
drop and surface tension (S), then the expression of
T is
(where k is a dimensionless constant.)
(a) T = k
(c) T = k

r 3
S
r 3
1/2

(b) T = k

1/2r 3
S

(d) T = k

r
S

S
29. Two identical metal plates are given positive
charges Q1 and Q2 (<Q1) respectively. If they are
now brought close together to form a parallel
plate capacitor with capacitance C, the potential
difference between them is:
(a) (Q1 + Q2)/2C
(b) (Q1 + Q2)/C
(c) (Q1 Q2)/C
(d) (Q1 Q2)/2C

30. A non conducting ring having charge q uniformly


distributed over its circumference is placed on a
rough horizontal surface. A vertical time varying
magnetic field B = 4t2 is switched on at time t = 0.
Mass of the ring is m and radius is R. The ring starts
rotating after 2 s. The coefficient of friction between
the ring and the table is :
4qmR
2qmR
8qR
qR
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
g
g
mg
2mg
SOLUTIONS

1. (a) : Suppose, height


of liquid in each arm before
rising the temperature is l.
With temperature rises,
height of liquid in each
arm increases i.e., l 1 > l
and l2 < l.
l1
l2
Also, l =
=
1 + T1 1 + T2

T r
2. (c): As 2 = 2
T1 r1
3/2

= (1.01)

3/2

Here, = tan =


l1 + l1T2 = l2 + l2T1 =

3/2






l1 l2
l2T1 l1T2

1.01 R
=
R

1
= 1 +
100

3/2

3 1
.
= 1 +
2 100

T2 3 1
= 1 +
...(i)

T1 2 100
Percentage increase in period (from eqn (i)
T T
T

= 2 1 100 = 2 1 100 = 1.5%


T
T
1
1

3f
f
3. (d) : u = f + =

2
2
3
f.
2
Distance of image formed due to convex lens from face
3
(3/2) f

of the slab =
=f
=
2

Distance of final image from one face of the slab is

Let F2S = x
v = 2f + x
1 1 1
From =
v u f
1
1
1

=
(x + 2 f ) (3 f /2) f
x = f.

4. (b) : The various forces acting on the block are


shown in figure.

f
R

or f = R tan
...(i)
The condition for the block just to move is
Fcos = f = R tan
...(ii)
and Fsin + W = R
or R = W + Fsin
...(iii)
From equations (ii) and (iii), we get
Fcos = (W + Fsin) tan = Wtan + Fsin tan
sin W sin
=
or F cos F sin
cos
cos
or F(cos cos sin sin) = Wsin
or Fcos( + ) = Wsin
W sin
or F =
.
cos( + )
5. (c): If the gas is not ideal then its molecule will
possess potential energy. Hence statement (I) is wrong.
At same temperature rms speed of different gases
1

depends on its molecular weight vrms


. Hence

M
statement (II) is also wrong.
Kinetic energy of one gram gas depends on the
1
molecular weight Egm . Hence statement (III)

M
is also wrong.
But kinetic energy of one mole of ideal gas does not
3
depend on the molecular weight E = RT . Hence

2
(IV) is correct.
100
6. (a) : a = 2 + 2
s
dv
100
or v = 2 + 2
ds
s
v

25

25 100
ds
2

or

5 v dv = 10 2 ds + 10

or

2+1
1 2v
25
[v ]5 = 2[s]10
+ 100 s

2
2 + 1 10

or

v 2 25
5 2
= 30 + 100
2
2
50

25

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

81

100 3
= 36
50
or v2 = 72 + 25 v2 = 97

Magnetic susceptibility, =

= 30 +

v=

97 = 9.8 m s1

(7.5 104 Wb A1 m1)


(4 107 Wb A1 m1)

P1V1 = P2V2

P2 V1 d2
= =
P1 V2 d1
7 /5

...(i)

t 1t 2 =

=
= 1.2 Wb m2
A 0.2 10 4 m2
B
Magnetic permeability, =
H
2
1.2 Wb m
=
= 7.5 104 Wb A1 m1
1600 A m1
B=

82

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

...(i)
...(ii)

t 1t 2 =
t 1t 2 =

4u2 sin cos


g2
2u2 sin 2
g2

2
2 u sin 2

g
g

u2 sin 2
R =

2R
g

t 1t 2 R

11. (c): According to steady flow,


A 1v 1 = A 2v 2 + A 3v 3
or A3v3 = A1v1 A2v2
1
or v3 =
[A v A2v2]
A3 1 1
1
[0.2 4 0.2 2] = 1 m s 1
=
0. 4
 = 10
 = +15
12. (c) :



Negative sign shows that heat is ejected.

2.4 105 Wb

From eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

= (CV + R)700
...(ii)
For carbon monoxide:
7
=
5
R
R
5R
CV =
...(iii)
=
=
1 7 1 2
5
Hence, from eqn. (i)
20
5R
7000 = 700 or R = = 4
5
2
7

5R
R 700 = 9800 J
(Q)ca = + R 700 =
2
2
9. (b) : Here, magnetising field, H = 1600 A m1
Magnetic flux, = 2.4 105 Wb
Area, A = 0.2 cm2 = 0.2 104 m2

1 596

10. (d) : A projectile can have 


same range, if angles of

projection are complementary

of each other and (90 ).
(90
Q)
Q
Thus, in both cases, the time

of flights are
2u sin
t1 =
g
2u sin (90 ) 2u cos
=
and t2 =
g
g

7
7. (c): Here, = , P1 = P, d1 = d; P2 = P , d2 = d
5
For an adiabatic process
PV = constant

P d
= = (32)7/5
P d
P
= (25)7/5 = 27 = 128
P
8. (d) : (Q)ab = +7000 = Cv(1000 300)
For the process ca:
Ta = 300 K, Tc = Tb = 1000 K
(Q)ca = Cp(300 1000) = Cp 700

1
0

40 cm

2

1

15 cm
a

a

According to given problem, for concave mirror,


u = 15 cm and f = 10 cm
1 1
1
, i.e., v = 30 cm
+ =
v 15 10
i.e., concave mirror will
form real, inverted, and
enlarged image I 1 of
object O at a distance of

30 cm from it, i.e., at a distance 40 30 = 10 cm from


the convex mirror.
For convex mirror, the image I1 will act as an object
and so for it u = 10 cm and f = +15 cm.
1
1
1
i.e., v = +6 cm
+
=
v 10 15
So, final image I2 is formed at a distance of 6 cm behind
the convex mirror and is virtual as shown in figure.
13. (c): In the above circuit, the resistances
6 , 3 and 2 are connected in
parallel. Their effective resistance will
be
1 1 1 1 1+ 2 + 3 6
= + + =
=
6
6
Rp 6 3 2

v v0
14. (b) : As =
,
v
(source at rest, observer is moving away from the
source)

v = v v0

or

330(0.94 1) = v0

whence, v0 = 19.8 m s1
and

v 2 u2 (19.8)2
=
m = 98 m
s= 0
2a
22

(440 V) (2 A)
(440 V) (2 A) (100)
VI
Ip = s s =
=
80
(80) (220 V)
V p
(220 V)

100
=5A
17. (c)
18. (c)
h
19. (d) : de Broglie wavelength, =
2mE
where E is the kinetic energy
h
h

EA
and B =
B=
A =
A
EB
2mE A
2mEB
or

or Rp = 1
The equivalent circuit is as
shown in the figure.
The equivalent resistance of
the circuit is
Req = 1 + 4 = 5
2V
Current in the circuit, I =
= 0. 4 A
5
Hence, the reading of the ammeter is 0.4 A.

or v 1 = v0

Change in gravitational potential energy is


mgR
U = Uh Us =
(mgR)
(1 + n)
mgR
1

n
=
(mgR) = mgR 1
= mgR

(1 + n)
1+n
1 + n
16. (d) : Here, Input voltage, Vp = 220 V
Output voltage, Vs = 440 V, Input current, Ip = ?
Output current, Is = 2 A
Efficiency of the transformer, = 80%
Output power
Efficiency of the transformer, =
Input power
VI
= s s
VpI p

(as u = 0)

15. (a) : Gravitational potential energy of mass m at


any point at a distance r from the centre of earth is
GMm
U =
r
At the surface of earth r = R,
GM

GMm

Us =
= mgR
g = 2
R
R
At the height, h = nR from the surface of earth
r = R + h = R + nR = R(1 + n)
GMm
mgR

Uh =
=
R(1 + n)
(1 + n)

EA
EA
or 4 =
EA 1.5
EA 1.5
6
4E A 6 = EA or E A = = 2 eV
3
EB = (EA 1.5) eV = 2 eV 1.5 eV = 0.5 eV
2=

According to Einsteins photoelectric equation


h = 0 + KEmax
where the symbols have their usual meaning
or 0 = h KEmax
A = 4.25 eV 2.00 eV = 2.25 eV
B = 4.70 eV 0.50 eV = 4.20 eV
20. (b) : For two springs in series, the equivalent force
kk
YA
constant is keq = 1 2 . Here, k1 = k and k2 =
k1 + k2
L

21. (d)
25. (c)
29. (d)

kYA
kYA
keq = L =
YA kL + YA
k+
L
m(YA + kL)
m
T = 2
= 2
keq
YAk
22.
26.
30.

(a)
(a)
(c)

23. (c)
27. (c)

24. (a)
28. (a)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

83

PRESS RELEASE

VIT VARSITY, VELLORE GETS 4-STAR RATING


FOR OVERALL PERFORMANCE

IT University, Vellore has become the


rst Indian university to get international
recognition in terms of getting a 4-star rating
for overall performance in a recently concluded
audit of Quaquarelli Symonds (QS), UK.
A certicate to this effect was handed
over to the Chancellor of University, Dr G
Viswanathan here by QS South Asia Director,
Ashwani Fernandes in presence of Minister of
State for Finance Santosh Kumar Gangwar.
Speaking on the occasion, Mr Gangwar
said that in deference to the wishes of
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the VIT
university has gone ahead in promoting the
meaningful education with wisdom and skill
development.
VIT University, India became the rst Indian
university to receive a 4 Star rating for overall
performance in a recently concluded audit of
Quacquarelli Symonds (QS), UK.
They also became the rst Indian university to receive 5 stars category
rating in 5 different categories. The categories are Teaching, Innovation,
Facilities, Employability and Inclusiveness. VIT is the only university in
India now with 4 STAR overall rating of QS.
Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) from the UK, founded in 1990, is the worlds
leading network for top careers and education.

Selection Criteria
The core criteria for QS Star evaluation are Teaching, Employability,
Research and Internationalization. The other criteria are Innovation,
culture, access, engagement, facilities, online learning, Discipline
ranking and Accreditation. A university needs to score 550 points out
of 1000 to get 4 star rating. The prerequisites of 4 star rating is at
least 75 academic referees or must have at least 2 citations per faculty
member, another prerequisite is the university should have at least 1%
international students. However, these prerequisite are not applicable
for 3 star rating. These have made QS 4 star rating very challenging and
highly competitive.
What this rating means for VIT University?
This 4 star rating is valid for 3 years. In the meantime VIT has already
started its work towards 5 star rating for subsequent evaluation by
increasing number of foreign students and also the number of faculty
citations.
VIT has increased facilities in research and approaching the Government
of India for more research funds. VIT University is also working to be
one among the Top 200 universities of the world by next 5 years.
This achievement of VIT University is a signicant milestone towards our
84

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Honourable Prime Ministers vision to upgrade 20 Indian Universities


among the Top 100 universities of the World.
About VIT University
Chancellor of VIT, Dr.G.Viswanathan expressed his joy at a press
conference held in New Delhi on November 16th saying that in 1984,
we began this institute as Vellore Engineering college with mere 180
students. With dedication and sincere efforts of faculties and students,
we emerged as an autonomous university in the year of 2004. Apart
from engineering, we offer various professional courses like catering
technology, fashion designing, law and 24 different studies. In addition
to this, we also provide post graduate courses like MCA, MBA, M.TECH
and research courses like M.Phil and P.hd. We are proud to say that
among 32000 students in our university, one third of them are female
candidates. Gaining goodwill at Vellore, we thought of expanding our
institution at Chennai and thus we established VIT campus at Chennai.
Following that, we recently established two more VIT campuses, one
at Bhopal district in Madhya Pradesh and other at Amravati district in
Andhra Pradesh. With 1682 faculties and 1100 non teaching staffs,
we offer international standard education for which we have been
accredited A+ by NAAC and have been recognized by ABET and IET
organisations from US and UK respectively.
Last year almost 2.06 lakhs of students appeared for VITs Engineering
Entrance Exam (VITEEE) which is a national level achievement and took
a prominent place in Limca Book of Records and VIT holds this position
for 3 years continuously.
During the press meet Vice Presidents Mr. Sankar Viswnathan, Dr. Sekar
Viswanathan, Mr. G.V. Selvam and Vice Chancellor Dr. Anand A Samuel
were present.

3. (a, c) : Let L1 and L3 are lengths of first and third air


column respectively.
Hence,

SOLUTION SET-41

1. (b) : Since, dV = E . dr
V =

2 0

2r

r dr = 20 [

r ]r =
2r

Now, K + U = 0
K = U = qV
1 2
q
ln 2 or v =

mv =
2
2 0

2 0

q ln 2
m0

2. (a, d) : Electric field at any point P on the axis


E=

1
4 0

Q
8Q
+
x
2
2 3/ 2
2
2 3/ 2
(9a + x )
(a + x )

For small x,
E=
=

8
Q 1
+
x

3
4 0 a
27a3
Q 19
x
4 0 27a3

F x, so motion of the particle is S.H.M.


19qQ
F
=
mx 108 a30m

Time period, T =

5
= L3 + e
4
By substracting eqn. (i) from eqn. (ii)
= L3 L1 = (82.8 15.6) cm = 67.2 cm
= 0.672 m
v = = 500 Hz 0.672 m = 336 m s1

L2 = L3 = 82.8 33.6 = 49.2 cm


2

...(ii)

4. (c) : Let a is acceleration and is angular


acceleration of sphere, then a = R.
Using net = I
2
4MgR cos 60 fR = MR 2
5
2
...(i)
2Mg f = Ma
5
As f = Ma, we get
10
10
a = g f = Mg
7
7
For pure rolling,

Negative sign shows the net electric field is towards


origin.
So the force on the particle
19qQx
F = qE =
108 a30

2 =

...(i)

and

= L1 + e
4

108 a30m
2
= 2
19qQ

= 12

a m 0
19qQ

Electric field will be zero for x given by,


5
a
(9a2 + x2)3/2 = 8(a2 + x2)3/2 x =
3
5
a , E will be in negative x direction.
For x <
3
Both options (a) and (d) are correct.

f (Mg + 4Mg)
10
Mg 5Mg

7
2
min =
7
5. (a, c) : Just after cutting the string torque on the rod,
2

= I ; Mg L = ML
2
3
3g
3g
=
aB =
2
2L
Relative acceleration between block and end B of
3g
g
g=
rod =
2
2
When rod becomes vertical, will be given by,
L 1 ML2 2
L
1 2
I = Mg ;
= Mg
2
2 2 3
2
2 3g
=
L
Tension in the rod at its mid point,
M
3L M 3g 3L 9
T = 2
=
= Mg
2
4
2 L 4 8
PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

85

6. (a, c) : Total induced charge on the sphere is zero.


kQ
= Net potential at B and D
Net potential at C,VC =
2R
Potential at B due to induced charge,
kQ kQ
VB =

2R
5R
1 1


2
5
Potential at D due to
induced charge,
kQ kQ kQ
VD =

=
2R R
2R
1

5
V
2 =
Now, D =
VB
5 2 2 5
2 5
kQ kQ
and VB VD =

R
5R
If the sphere is earthed then potential at C is zero.
Q
kQ kQ
+
= 0 Q =
2R
2
R
7. (d) : Applying conservation of momentum,
mv1 + 2mvc = mv
v1 + 2vc = v
...(i)
As collision is elastic so,
l
cos 45 v1
vc +
2
e =1=
v0
l
...(ii)
v = vc +
v1
2
=

v + v0 v v0

8. (5) : Beat frequency =


v
v
2v
4 40
22
= 0=
400 =
=5
320
v
32
9. (6) :

kQ
R

L and I show the position of lens and image


respectively.
From thin lens formula,
1
1
1
1 1 1
...(i)

+ =
y ( x ) 9
y x 9
1
1
1
1
1
1

+
= ...(ii)
( y ) ((24 x )) 9
y 24 x 9
1
1
2
Using (i) and (ii), we get, +
=
x 24 x 9
12 9 = 24x x2 or 108 = 24x x2
x2 24x + 108 = 0 x2 18x 6x + 108 = 0
x(x 18) 6 (x 18) = 0 (x 6) (x 18) = 0
x = 6, 18
Convex lens should be placed at 6 cm from the S1.
10. (6) : Charge in region R to r is
r

Q = 4r 2
R

(r 2 R2 )
2
= 2(r2 R2)

= 4

2R 2
1 Q
=
+
2

40r 2 40 r 2
r2
Since, E is constant

1
Q 2R 2
and E =
(2 ) =
2=
2
4 0
20
r
r

3
Comparing, E =
and E =
2 0
m0
We get, m = 6
E=

Applying conservation of angular momentum


about C,
2
l
l
l
= mv
mv1 + 2m

2
2
2
v1 + 2l = v
...(iii)
Solving (i), (ii) and (iii)
v
v1 =
7
v
The speed of the striking mass after collision is .
7
86

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

dr
r

(Q + Q)

MPP-7 CLASS XII


1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.

(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a, c)
(3)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.

(d)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(a, d)
(d)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.

ANSWER KEY
(c)
4.
(b)
9.
(b)
14.
(a)
19.
(a, b, c) 24.
(b)
29.

(d)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(4)
(a)

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.

(c)
(d)
(c)
(a, b)
(6)
(b)

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. How does the gas lighter produce an electrical


spark?
Harish Reddy Thalla, Hyderabad

Ans. A gas-stove lighter uses a phenomenon called


piezo-electric effect to generate an electric spark
which ignites the combustible gas from the stove
burner. Piezo-electric effect is the ability of certain
materials to generate an electric charge in response
to applied mechanical stress.

Q2. How should a parachutist land so as to lessen


the danger of injury?
Gauri Shelke, Pune

Ans. A parachutist is trained to collapse and roll by


first making contact with the balls of the feet, then
bending the knees and turning so as to come down
on the side of the leg and finally the back side of
the chest. The procedure has two advantages : it
prolongs the collision (and so it reduces the force
on the parachutist) and it spreads the force of the
collision out over a large area. If the parachutist
were to land standing up, the compression on
the bones in the ankles would likely rupture the
bones.
Q3. When a spaceship is sent to the Moon, why is
its path in the form of a distorted figure eight
instead of an ellipse that encompasses Earth
and the Moon?
Preet Gurung, Shilong

Ans. The figure eight path requires less energy by the


spaceship because for much of the trip it stays
close to the line between the centers of Earth and
the Moon on the spaceship. Since along that line
the gravitational pulls from the Earth and the
Moon compete, the net force on the spaceship
is smaller than if the spaceship is in an elliptical
orbit. So, less energy is required to overcome the
net force.
Q4. What is the difference between neutral and
ground in an electrical connection?
Mr. Sandeep Kumar Singh, Ludhiana

The gas lighter consists of a piezo-electric crystal


over which a spring loaded hammer is placed. The
hammer and spring set up is attached to a button.
When this button is pressed, the hammer is moved
away from the piezo-electric crystal. The spring
releases the hammer which hits the piezo-electric
crystal. Due to piezo-electric effect, a high voltage
is generated in the range of 700 V- 800 V. The lighter
is wired in such way that this voltage is applied in
a small air gap between two metallic points. Due
to high voltage generated, the air is ionized and
acts as a path for the discharge which creates a
spark, which when exposed to the combustible gas
(LPG and air mix) it produces flame. In home gas
lighters, piezo-electric ceramics like lead zirconate
titanate (PZT) are used due to low cost and high
sensitivity.

Ans. As its name suggests, the ground wire is connected


to the ground; the neutral is not. The ground wire
ensures that in case of a leakage, an appliance
does not acquire a voltage that might cause injury
or malfunction. It appears that there is no need
or separate identification of the live and neutral
terminals when you are dealing with a single phase
of alternating current. You just need an incoming
wire and an outgoing wire to complete the circuit.
But many homes and establishments are served by
three phases. In that case you would need three
separate pairs of electric cables, in other words a
total of six cables. On the other hand, if you make
one of the cables as a common neutral you would
need only four cables, resulting in great saving.
You would have noticed therefore that in your
switchboard serving a three-phase supply, there
are four cables coming in and one of them, called
the neutral, is connected to all your appliances
and light fixtures.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

87

PHYSICS FOR YOU 2016


MONTHS SOLVED PAPERS
(2016)

PRACTICE PAPERS
(2016-17)

BRAIN MAP

XI

MARCH

FEBRUARY

JANUARY

PMT 2016,
ACE Your Way
CBSE XII 2016,
CBSE XI 2016

APRIL

CBSE Board 2016

DECEMBER

NOVEMBER

OCTOBER

SEPTEMBER

AUGUST

JULY

JUNE

MAY

JEE Main 2016

88

CORE
JEE ACCELERATED
CONCEPT LEARNING SERIES

XII
Dual Nature of
Radiation and
Matter

XI
Superposition
of Waves

JEE Main 2016,


AIPMT 2016,
ACE Your Way
CBSE XII 2016

Atoms
Nuclei

AIPMT 2016,
JEE Main 2016,
JEE Advanced 2016,
AIPMT Model Test
Paper 2016
AIPMT 2016,
JEE Advanced 2016,
AIPMT Model Test Paper
2016,
BITSAT 2016

Semiconductor Torque
Electronics

Review I

Diffraction

Review II

Electric Flux
and Gausss
Law

Units and
Measurements

Electric
Charges and
Fields

Gravitation

Units and
Measurements

Motion in a
Straight Line

Electrostatic
Potential and
Capacitance

Electro

Kinematics

NEET Phase I 2016, PMT 2016,


Karnataka CET 2016, NEET Phase II 2016,
ACE Your Way
Kerala PET 2016
CBSE XII Series-1

ACE Your Way


CBSE XII Series-3,
CBSE XI Series-2

NEET Phase II 2016 ACE Your Way


CBSE XII Series-4,
CBSE XI Series-3

and Capacitive
Circuits

Communication Alternating
Systems
Current

JEE Advanced 2016,


PMT 2016, BITSAT 2016,
AIIMS 2016, JIPMER 2016

JEE Advanced 2016 NEET Phase II,2016,


ACE Your Way
CBSE XII Series-2,
CBSE XI Series - 1

AT A GLANCE

Motion in a
Plane

Current
Electricity

ing of
Conductors
Relative
Motion

Laws of Motion,
Work Energy and
Power

OTHERS
NEET |JEE
ESSENTIALS

XII
Electromagnetic Physics
Musing
Problem
Waves | Optics Set 30, Solution Set 29, JEE
Workouts XI, Exam Prep 2016,
Live Physics, You Ask We Answer, Crossword, Thought Provoking Problems
Physics Musing Problem Set 31,
Dual Nature
Solution Set 30, JEE Workouts
of Radiation
XII, Exam Prep 2016, You Ask
and Matter|
We Answer, Live Physics, At a
Atoms and
Glance 2015, Crossword
Nuclei
Physics Musing Problem Set 32,
Electronic
Solution Set 31, Exam Prep 2016,
Devices|
Communication Live Physics, You Ask We Answer,
Crossword
Systems
Physics Musing Problem Set 33,
Solution Set 32, AIIMS Special :
Assertion and Reason, Thought
Provoking Problems, Exam Prep
2016, Olympiad Problems, Live
Physics, You Ask We Answer,
Crossword
Physics
Musing
Problem
Set 34, Solution Set 33, Exam
Prep 2016, Olympiad Problems,
Live Physics, You Ask We
Answer, Crossword
Physics
Musing
Problem
Set 35, Solution Set 34, Exam
Prep 2016, Olympiad Problems,
Live Physics, You Ask We Answer,
Crossword
Electrostatics
Physics Musing Problem Set
36, Solution Set 35, Cracking
the JEE Advanced Exam, You
Ask We Answer,Live Physics,
Crossword, MPP-1 (XI-XII)
Current
Physics Musing Problem Set
Electricity
37, Solution Set 36, You Ask
We Answer, Live Physics,
Crossword, Exam Prep, AIIMS
Topper
Interview,
MPP-2
(XI - XII)
Musing
Problem
Magnetic Effect Physics
of Current and Set 38, Solution Set 37,
Crossword, MPP-3 (XI - XII)
Magnetism
Electromagnetic
Induction,
Alternating
Current and
Electromagnetic
Waves
Optics

ACE Your Way


CBSE XII Series-5,
CBSE XI Series - 4

Induced
Moving
Laws of
Electric
Charges
Motion
Electromagnetic and Magnetism Field
Wave

System of
Particles and
Rotational
Motion

ACE Your Way


CBSE XII Series-6,
CBSE XI Series - 5

Work, Energy
and Power

Magnetism and
Matter

Gravitation

ACE Your Way


CBSE XII Series-7,
CBSE XI Series - 6

System of
Particles and
Rotational
Motion

Electromagnetic
Induction

Dual Nature of
Mechanical
Properties of Solids Radiation and
Matter,
and Fluids
Atoms
and Nuclei

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

Physics
Musing
Problem
Set 39, Solution Set 38,
You
Ask
We
Answer,
Crossword, MPP-4 (XI - XII),
Exam Prep
Physics Musing Problem Set 40,
Solution Set 39, You Ask We
Answer, Crossword, MPP-5 (XI XII), Exam Prep, JEE Workouts
(XI - XII)
Physics Musing Problem Set 41,
Solution Set 40, Key Concept,
Olympiad Problems, You Ask
We Answer, Crossword, MPP-6
(XI - XII), JEE Workouts (XI - XII)

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ACROSS
3. An imaginary line connecting points on the earths surface
where the magnetic declination is the same. [8]
5. A thermionic valve having five grids between the cathode
and anode. [7]
7. The point in a solar orbit that is nearest to the sun. [10]
10. A device used for measuring the velocity of a fluid. [10]
11. The derived SI unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation
and of specific energy. [4]
12. Prefix denoting 1015. [5]
15. A network of fine lines dots, cross wires in the focal plane
of the eyepiece of an optical instrument. [9]
16. A device, use to receive visual and aural information using
broadcast mode of communication. [10]
19. An interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and
other ionised gases that can be observed either as a
luminous patch or as a clark region against a brighten
background. [6]
22. A dimensionless unit used for comparing two currents
entering and leaving a transmission line, almost exclusively
in telecommunication engineering. [5]
23. Frequencies of integral multiple of fundamental or lowest
tone. [8]
24. Alternate rise and fall arising by superimposing two sound waves
of slightly different frequencies travelling in same direction. [5]
25. A p-n junction between two regions of opposite polarity within
a semiconductor. [12]
26. The most common method is to measure the ionization caused
by the radiation, as in ionization chamber. [9]
27. Detection system which works on the principle of radar like
technique using continuous wave laser beams for remote
sensing. [5]
28. The outermost layer of the Earths atomosphere. (9).
29. The word used for the progressive decrease in the amplitude of
oscillation. [7]
30. The amount of potential energy stored in an elastic substance by
means of elastic deformation. [10]
31. Patterns demonstrating the presence of domains in
ferromagnetic crystal. [6, 8]
DOWN
1. A device that converts a signal in the form of one type of energy
into a signal of another form. [10]
2. The apparent motion of celestial bodies across the sky from east
to west. [7, 6]

4.

6.
8.
9.
12.
13.
14.

17.
18.
20.
21.

Component, usually used in microwave frequencies, that


reverses the phase of signals transmitted in one direction
without affecting the phase of signals transmitted in opposite
direction. [7]
An instrument designed to measure brief flow of charge.
[9, 12]
An instrument for electron amplifying and directing sound. [9]
A high-powered electron vacuum tube, that works as self-excited
microwave oscillator. [9]
A nuclide capable of undergoing fission by interaction with
slow neutrons. [7]
A substance that can sustain an electric field and acts as an
insulator. [10]
A measure of the ability of a ferromagnetic material to with stand
an external magnetic field without becoming demagnetised.
[8, 5]
A device for measuring a fluid pressure. [9]
An aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars. [6]
A technique enabling a system to bring itself into some desired
state. [9]
The fraction of incident light diffusely reflected from a
surface. [6]

PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | JANUARY 17