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A

PRACTICAL
1

'

HEBREW GRAMMAR
Mill

HI

BISSELL

1111111111111111111

presented

to

Gbe Xibrat^
of tbe

Wniver0it of Toronto
bs

Professor James Frederick Mc Curdy

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2010 with funding from


University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/practicalintrodOObiss

PRACTICAL

INTRODUCTORY HEBREW GRAMMAR

Errata.

P.

of Vocab., read c for 2.


and sin-'ah. P. 7, 1. 11, road i-P'-sith.
under :>, (TV. 31. 1. it. 4.
P. Hi, ?, Great Zaqeph
not a._
P. 27, in 1. 5 of notes under Vocab., put mark of tone on penult of
P. 50, 9. I. 2
HiS ?take out dot from S in the second word from the right. !'. 68, I. 11, 'first word on left
strike out lower dot in the S' wa. 1'. 71, 1. 11, put mark of tone on second word
from

P. 15,

add

6, col. 2

'

to Item,

i:

the

left.

1'.

in the third

7S.

I.

word,

11, first col.,


fiftli

col.

the dot
1'.

is

on the wrong side of X.


1'.
fourth col. of words, change

S4, in the

82, restore S-w.i

to ft.

p.

85,

place of " the Ho. and the Q. Pert." read "inQ., Ho. 1'erf., Hi. Impf."
P. 93, I. is.
change semicolon to period, and in place of what follows read: The contracted form
given above occurs only as KHhtbh: Gen. xxvii. 29. P. 119, in third col. of words,
in

change

from bottom, put a dot in the p of the first word on


Swa under X in fifth word from the left.
P. 126,
under pa in Vocab., insert fix m. strength. P. 134, under Words to / Distinguished,
read
(in.)
for
(rstr.)
1.
2,
and in second col., near noddle, transpose subs.,
pX
|ty
adj. and just below change Xfti to HftX.
"I

to

"J. P.

the left; and in line

125, third line

4.

strike out

would respectfully suggest to teachers that after the Grammar proper has been
and its vocabularies ami forms thoroughly mastered, the student be given at
once, and continuously, sight-reading in the Bible in connection with the regular lesson;
and that what is found on pp. 123-134 be taken up in occasional lessons, or after a review
1

finished,

of the

Grammar.
E. C. B.

Hartford,

1891,

HARTFORD, CONN.
THE HARTFORD THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
1891

PRACTICAL

INTRODUCTORY HEBREW GRAMMAR

EDWIN CONE BISSELL


PROPE8SOR in Hartford Theological Seminary

jXo

(,7373
IV,

HARTFORD, CONN.
THE HARTFORD THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
1891

II

COPYRIGHT,

1890,

By EDWIN CONE BISSELL.

Printed by

J. S.

Gushing &

Co.,

Boston.

PREFACE.

This Grammar differs from other primary Hebrew Grammars chiefly


attained, it is believed, without
two respects its compactness of form
and the facilities it offers for acquiring, during
loss of important matter
the study of the grammatical principles, a choice Hebrew vocabulary. All
words used in the Hebrew Bible over fifty times, the most of those used
between twenty-five and fifty times, and not a few of those, of connected
roots, used less than twenty-five times are here found, and they are the only
Hebrew words employed in the book. Seven hundred of them are made
use of in Parts 1 and 2, and three hundred in the additional Exercises
in

(pp. 123-130).

It

special effort to
is

is,

of course, to be expected that the student will

memorize these words

confidently hoped, will be

as they occur

greatly facilitated

make

but the process,

it

by the structure of the

Grammar itself. 1. The words are arranged in the several Vocabularies


under their respective root-forms. 2. They are very generally accompanied
by notes and mnemonics for the purpose of calling special attention to them
and fixing them in mind. 3. They are used in the illustrations of principles in the various tables of inflected forms
and, all of them, in the Exer;

cises for translation.

4.

Attention

system of cross references.

repeatedly called to them by a careful


alphabetical list is given (pp. 118-120)

is

An

to serve as a test of the student's acquaintance with the Vocabularies already


gone over, as well as for general reference. 6. The Exercises for translating

Hebrew into English are purposely placed apart from the Vocabularies in
order to encourage independence of them. 7. And, finally, in Ap. ii. (A)
about six hundred of the words are associated together in the form of synoand (B) three hundred of similar form or sound are discriminated
from one another. Among many advantages of this method, it has been
found that, without any considerable increase of the time required to master

nyms

Grammar, the

the principles of the

a fair beginning in the

and synonomy

him

and,

much

still

better, acquired a

to read at sight in the historical

monics

is

vocabulary sufficient to enable


books of the Bible. The use of mne-

simply incidental to the general plan

ridiculous as

some

made
Hebrew etymology

student, while so engaged, has also

neglected departments of

of the suggestions are

but, far-fetched

acknowledged to

and even
have

be, they

proved, after an experience of some years, very effective for their purpose.
The only other systematic attempt of the kind with which I am acquainted
is that of Stier (Hebrciisches Vocabularium, Leipz.,
1871), who, however, used
the system to a very limited extent.

PREFACE.

11

In the arrangement of material, especially of 14-37, I have aimed to


be practical rather than strictly scientific. A smaller type has often been
made use of for subordinate matter but very little has been inserted in the
;

body

work

mere reference.
In the Exercises and in the illustrations of rules, I have sought to confine
myself to strictly Biblical expressions. Large use has been made throughout
of the inductive principle in the form of presentation.
In treating of the Accents, on the basis of the well-known works of Professor
"VVickes (Oxford, 1887, 1881), the subject, it is hoped, has been somewhat clarified and simplified.
This section, however, might well be omitted until the
of the

rest of the

for

Grammar

has been learned.

The slight changes made in the nomenclature and classification


Verb are in harmony with the expressed opinions, if not with the
practice of

The

some

of the best recent

references

by numbers,

ularies,

and

stood.

The absence

of the

actual

grammarians.

and Word-list, to the Vocabappended notes, will be readily underperhaps, be less keenly felt, in view of

in the Exercises

in the Vocabularies to the

of an index will,

the unusually full Table of Contents, which,

it is

thought, will serve impor-

tant practical uses both of the student and the teacher.

A chapter,

to conclude the work, on the formation of

Hebrew words was

begun, but subsequently abandoned on reading Strack's notice of the investigations of Professor Barth of Berlin, still in progress, in this department

They seem likely to make necwhat has hitherto been thought and

(see TJieol. Liter aturblatt, 1890, Nr. 18).

essary an entire reconstruction of

written on the subject.


It is doubtless too

me

much

to expect that other instructors in

Hebrew

will

what has here been said or purposely left unsaid,


especially touching points on which they fail to agree with one another.
Those most familiar with recent Hebrew grammatical literature will readily
discover that I have been much influenced by the grammars of GeseniusKautzsch (25th ed., Leipz., 1889), Kbnig (Leipz., 1881) and Strack (3d ed.,
always agree with

Berlin, 1890),

my

in

large indebtedness to

I wish, also, to give expression to a

colleagues, who, having received

materially aided

me

whom

warm

I gladly

acknowledge.

sense of gratitude to numerous

advanced sheets of

my

grammar, have

with friendly criticisms and valuable suggestions.

EDWIN CONE
Hartford, March

2, 1891.

BISSELL.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

1.
letters

letters B ghadhk phath


consists
The Alphabet: of what
pronunciation of certain other letters division of letters according to
e

final

it

the organs of speech used in pronouncing

them

exercise

pp.

1,

the three primary their modifications in tabular form


use of circumflex accent " vowel letters " and what they severally represent
table of class, character, name, sound, and quantity of the vowels remark on
the character e on means of distinguishing Qamec from Qamec, hatuph
other ambiguous signs for vowels where the vowels are written exceptions
S wa and the Hatephs vocabulary with notes exercises
pp. 3-6
beginning
3. The Syllable: number in a word beginning device
with two consonants "vocal" S wa, what and where found exception to
rule for syllable to that for
wa end of a syllable a final one an audible
consonant and
at the end of a syllable not final final Kaph or two audible
consonants ending a word meaning of " audible " a shut, doubly shut and
sharpened syllable an open syllable vowel of an open syllable of a shut
sylsyllable half-open syllables how distinguished vowel of a shut
lable with the tone of a shut penultimate syllable a toneless sharpened
syllable the tone how marked Methegh what and where found with the
conjunction vocabulary and notes exercise
pp. 0-0
Other Characters used in the Hebrew text Daghes lene when used

the dot sometimes found in


and ^ D. after a disjunctive accent or

at the beginning of a new sentence D. forte how distinguished from D.


2.

The Vowels

if

tS e

2?

final

4.

final Jl

1.

1.

different kinds of D. forte


Kaphe original and present use Maqqeph Q re and Kthibh further use
a perpetual Q re special dots (Puncta extraordinaria') end of
of the
a verse how marked vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 10-12
the guttural
of ^ of
5. The gutturals and quiescent
when not imare peculiar
implied with what
H in what
plied changes required
of vowels favored
and u how changed
vowels short and long with a
guttural Pathah furtive and the tone or with
accretions gutturals and S wa character of the Hateph the vowel preceding a Hateph peculiarity of ^ of
losing consonantal force
X
when and are used as consonants
lowing a
S wa the
vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 12-14
Vowels: causes working to produce them how far pos6. Changes
immutable vowels a tone long vowel in a shut or loosely shut syllable
in a sharpened syllable vowels a shut syllable be opened
of
Pause on a short vowel as to an original or a dropped vowel on the tone
on vowels
the tone be moved forward one syllable difference
nouns

when used with

the

ghadhk cphath

letters

circle

letters

letters:

all

letters

1). f.

class

final

final

its

silent

letter""}

*|

fol-

*<

in

sible

of

effect

if

if it

effects

in

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

IV

removal of the tone


another syllable vocabu exercise
pp. 14-K!
The Accents table of no., names, form and position of prose accents
derivation of names accents where found rule not on tone syllable
on what their power depends accents marking highest, high and low tones
meaning of disjunctive and conjunctive accent closing a verse general law
governing accentual division object primarily aimed at main accents where
placed accents as marks of punctuation accents used to mark the main dichotomy the minor dichotomy in the Silluq clause in Athnah clause order
of the conjunctives of an occasional double system of accentuation form of
Paseq and
use poetic accents where found and their use law governing
them in the major dichotomy in the minor dichotomy
pp. 16-21
The Personal Pronoun: table of forms the form of HDK DK
13X original form of 2d pers. sing, and Daghes in
oblique cases of pronoun how indicated vocabulary with notes exand verbs

in this respect

still

lary with notes


7.

if

its

8.

pi.

13113

fcfcin

nttl"!

|"J3n

ercise

The

9.

Article

table of forms for what original

p.

form accounts

22

Art.

in the second syllable from the tone and when not lengthened
original force of when found with
Q^J, T^IX
before a
having S wa vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 23, 24
Demonstrative and Relative Pronoun: table of dem. pronoun that

for the remote object Daghes in the 7 of |"HX other use of


an(
7X the form HlTTl position of dem. pronoun as an adjective
with another adjective the adjective as predicate when qualifying
the
subst. be definite the Eel. pronoun contracted form uses as a sign of
relation a conjunction vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 24, 25
11. The Interrogative Pronouns and Particles: forms table showing
use of and respectively the Daghes following
pointing of
the interrog. pronoun as Genitive
before adjectives and verbs other uses
the interrog. particles pointing of when used
of
and
tion to
when an alternative suggested i^ without a pronom. suffix
with other adverbs an interrog. pronoun or particle unnecessary to a ques with ^7 vocabulary with notes
tion the D. forte following
before gutturals
to Qamec,

art.

""in,

*"]2,

letter

10.

fll

etc

|"ft

Its IT

if

ifo

,*JJ3

fift

}"[J2

|"[

ifo

)"|2

its rela-

,*7

is

Qfc$

|"|

|"|

pp. 25-27

exercise

The Inseparable Prepositions :


their pointing
meaning of 2, 7 'D
two Se was coming together at the beginning of a syllable
independent form of
these prepositions and when used
pointing before miT'
vocabulary with
12.

notes

exercise

The Preposition

13.

1ft

and

the case of gutturals following, or

Waw
*"|

Copulative:

with

|"|

and

how
before

pp.

Ifc is

pj

27,28

written

letters

in

having

before before JTliT how the conjunction


pointed before a
the labials or a
having 8 wa before the tone syllable, espewith words associated
pairs before excepting HIIT vocabulary with
notes exercise
pp. 28, 29
weak
The Strong Verb: roots of words how verbs are
verbs origin of names of weak verbs examples why verbs having gutturals
are
as strong verbs table of Perfect of strong verb how formed
origin of the several pronominal fragments endings not taking the tone the
vowels
syllable before
5 in
beginning with a vowel and having
the tone vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 20-31
S e wa

"|

"J

guttural

letter

cially

in

14.

classified

classified

a, e,

is

final

affixes

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

table of each what the two


abs. the syllable formed
ground- form of Imp. the endings the Imp. how
prefixing y to
vowel in
used a command in the third person with a negative the
iSj2p lengthened form of Imp. vocabulary with notes exercise
pp.
The Imperfect and Participles: table of the Impf. why there are
origin of them the terms Perf and Impf. the
prefixes as well as
former how used the latter table of Parts. whence the Part. pass. how
the Parts, are used time indicated original forms and how changed
based on what other form vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 33-35
Intransitive verbs: principal vowel of a verb distinction between
indicate inflection of verbs middle
trans, and intrans. verbs what the
not always taking a in the second syllable of
Imp. and Impf.
with a
inflection of verbs middle 5 forms following the Perf. the
ending middle a verb taking a in second syllable of Impf. vocabulary with
notes exercise
pp. 35, 36
Lengthened form of the Imperfect and Waw Consecutive analogy of
found
Imp. followed formation of Cohortative tone where Cohortative
force the vowel before ah peculiar sequence of Perf. and Impf. in
and
Hebrew how indicated original form of this wiiw how joined to the verbs
how preceded form of Waw with Impf. and the tone before
tone in 1st Pers.
sometimes joined to Cohorof 1st Pers. before
with the Perf. and the tone uses of projection of tone
tative form of Wiiw
vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 30-39
Voices of the Verb: ground-form of verb name Qal form
lexicons how translated represented as the root of the word
found
Denominatives derived stems "conjugations" or Voices how formed
of nomenclature and how changed
whence their usual names
voices vocabulary with notes
40
verbs not found in
pp.
The Niqtal partial table of forms the voice how formed original
appears the
and related
of vowel of 1st syllable where prefix
parts use of aspirate n characteristic signs of the Ni. the tone some forms of
Abs. on what based
times retracted vowel of Impf.
inflection of Ni. and Qal meaning of Ni. vocabulary with notes
15.

are

The

and Imperative

Infinitive

vowels of

each

Inf. cstr.

Int'x.

how used

Inf.

by.

Inf. cstr.

first
.

-'-V-'>

16.

affixes

17.

latter

Inf. cstr.

Inf.

18.

fern,

is

its

it

affects

c.

sing.

J$

c.

19.

in

infelicity

all

all

20.

39,

Inf. cstr.

1.

sing.

exercise

Inf.

pp. 40-41

most characteristic mark of these


and Hithqattel :
the one common to the first two
vowel of 1. syl. of Qi.
original
voices
original vowel of Inf.
vowel of 2. syl. where appearing and where become e
prefix of Parts, here and in following voices
three verbs taking e in last
abs.
further charsyl. of Perf.
where D. forte is dropped from middle radical
21.

The

Qittel, Quttal

formation of Hithq. syncopation of change required


force of voice of Qu. of
1st radical be a sibilant
Hithq. vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 42, 43
The
and Hoqtal partial table of forms characteristic mark
of these voices original vowels of Hi. Perf. and how changed
and
related parts
vowel of
Abs. the Ho. Part. shortened forms of the
Imp. and Impf. in the Hi. of strong verbs same with inflectional or other additions use of the Jussive analogy of form with that of waw
meaning of
Hi. with and without a personal object meaning of Ho. vocabulary with
notes exercise
pp. 44, 45

acterization of Qu.
if

|"|

if

22.

Iliqtll

]"|,

*[,

fa

('t- c -

Qi.

Inf. cstr.

final

Inf.

c.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

VI

An Initial Guttural: what guttural verbs are


23. Guttural Verbs
points of difference
table of an inflected guttural verb
former rules recalled
from an ordinary strong verb as to S e wa a performative letter whether closely
the vowel
or loosely joined to it; the initial guttural, if doubling be called for
why some forms of pf |f are given why the Qi. and Qu. are
i of the Q. Imp.
exercise
vocabulary with notes
omitted
pp. 45-47

Verbs with a Medial Guttural table of forms additional changes


used in
and derivative voices the vowel heightened
required why "pO
through omission of D. forte the letter 1 before syllables beginning with ^
and having the tone vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 48, 49.
a Final Guttural: table of forms characteristics of
25. Verbs
24.

Qi.

is

zoith

most widely exhibited

gutturals

Pathah

furtive

a instead of o and of

no special peculiarities in the Qu.,


Hithq. and Ho. voices vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 49-51
26. Nouns. Gender and Number: the two genders objects regarded
as neuter in other languages form of masc. nouns in the sing. endings of
nouns in sing. how nouns of common gender are indicated what the
in nouns following a consonant
often represents the ending
ending

of
ending
of masc.
of
numbers of nouns
gender of Adjectives
used table of forms how the several endings of the
du. how the last
are added to the noun changes required in changeable vowels nouns with a
origin of ending D uses of
in the
ending in sing, having Q^
vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 51-53
27. Ancient case endings The Construct State original forms for
found how used and name how
Nom. and Gen. case form for Accus.
ending when appended to words ending in H_ Heb.
distinguished from
mode of representing the Gen.
use of prepositions instead of case endings
on changeable vowels of word in the construct table of forms
relation
in |"7_ other
change in terminations of and du. in |"|_ of the

notes
exercise
occurrences of the construct vocabulary with
pp. 53-55
28. The Noun with Pronominal Suffixes table of suffixes for a
to 3 in 2d pers. of pronoun the other fragmentary
and du. noun change of
endings nouns ending in a consonant and those ending in a vowel the " conand
and du. forms the
in
necting" vowel original form of
the "heavy" suffixes poetic forms of certain endings the
the
of Pause table of noun with suffixes has here an immutable vowel
nouns other endings
form of fem. fem. of
what the suffixes denote
pers. vocabulary with
than those of table Omission of Daghes in the 3 of
notes exercise
pp. 55-57
29. First Class of Nouns how nouns with mutable vowels are divided
class includes to what the
relation to tone table of forms what the
terminations are added words beginning or ending with a guttural eminines
of the form ,1/113 words of the form "^ or *22 vocabulary with notes

helping vowel in Perf.

of all voices

s. 2. f.

fern,

j"|

|"|

fern.

pi.

pi.

is

pi.

fern,

pi.

still

fern,

its

effect

fern.

pi.

sing., pi.

J"|

cstr.

2.

pi.

sing. 1. c.

pi.

f.

effect

cstr.

pi.

2.

first

t:

pp. 57, 58

exercise
30.

of the

Second Class of Nouns

form

of

El ^
1

with a mutable a
flection

t-

ne

table

law of inflection of words


an( Ho. Parts, so inflected monosyllables
law of
of ^X same as Q. Part.

what

^L Q u

of forms

it

includes

act.

monosyllables words form


vocabulary with notes exercise

inflection

in e

of

JTl'n

cstr

in-

an d their law of
pp. 59, 60

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Vll

what includes table of forms of "Q^


iTIIT included
words of the form in
class peculiar form of some words when additions are taken table of forms
of a fem. of this class ending
|"|_ to what the endings are added and the law
of vocal changes form of the du. vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 60-62
Fourth Class of Nouns were originally monosyllabic their vowels
device for pronouncing origin of name "Segholate" change in Seghoof the a class of the
and u classes absolute form of words in

two classes
monosyllabic form sometimes retained table of forms of *T712
characteristic vowel of the inflected forms
law of inflection the
of words of the u (or o) class exceptional
forms how
actually
formed vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 62, 63
Fourth Class of Nouns (continued) table of words with gutturals

helping vowel of Segholates having a guttural for


second or third
exception to second part of rule case of
of the u class those of the
class
whose
a guttural table of feminines formed from masc.
by the
what they are
addition of H
and rule of inflection table of proper fem.
and how inflected double form of some nouns vocabulary with notes
Third Class of Nouns

31.

it

when a

is

thinned to

in this

cstr.

Try\

in

32.

lates

first

cstr. sing.

cstr. pi. is

pi.

33.

letter

its

S.

first letter is

S.

S.

pp. 64-66

exercise
34.

Nouns

of Peculiar Formation

their peculiarities

and "P3?

other

why

nouns

D^flS. TflSl

table of such nouns explanation of

ending of HiPIX

in preceding vocabularies

in

niHttS

"hs

notes

pp. 66, 67

exercise
35.

pl of

vocabulary with

The Cardinal Numbers:

vowels

CrUT numeral

of first syllable of

word

for one

for two parts of speech and


for one an
table of various card, numbers those from to
19 how formed the form Tl^^ the two perpetual Q res num. for 20
those from 30 to 90 position of those from 2 to 10 as
respects the noun
use of fem. du. of a cardinal the ordinals
to 10 above 10 "fourth"
the

Daghes

in

adj.

gender of those from 3 to 10

11

it

pp. 67-69

idiomatic expressions

those of the Inf. cstr. and Part, exThe Strong Verb with Suffixes :
cepting 1st Pers.
what the "verbal" suffix always denotes
the nominal
the verbal suffix with the Part.
vowels of the verb how affected by suffixes
the Inf. with the suffixes "H, Q3,
that of the form 7t2p
table of the Perf.
J5
36.

two ways of expressing the Accus. after a verb suffixes generally those of the noun union vowel in the Perf. exception in the Impf
and Imp. changes in the verb before receiving suffixes changes produced by
suffixes the tone verbs ending in a vowel contracted forms reflexive
action how expressed the Hi. with suffixes the Qi. and Hithq. Intrans.
verbs how different vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 69-71
Strong Verb with Suffixes (continued) those of the Impf. and Imp.
in tabular form forms ending in a vowel
o of Impf. before % Q^- ??

of the Imp. how union vowel


origin
changed
Demonstrative
and how
forms verbs having a in
syllable of Impf. and Imp.
the Hi. and Qi. Impf. vocabulary with notes exercise
73
pp.
Particles with Suffixes Adverbs table of forms in some cases
suffixes generally those of noun, but may havj
typical, in others, including
with suffixes

37.

final

is

it

affects

its

last

72,

38.

all

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

viii

demonstrative

include
some

adverbs having

the copula

of

excepting *|^ have a


suffixes vocabulary

cstr.

nominal

the

form

with

other

notes

pp. 73, 74

exercise
Particles with Suffixes

39.

Prepositions such Prepositions


:

in tabular

with and
form forms
VQ difference between
(fllX) with
C9 former "p, "^ an idiomatic phrase pleonastic use ^
and why in poetry other Prepositions actually
form
72?
76
taking a
form vocabulary with notes exercise
pp.
Hebrew how the CoinDegrees of Comparison no special forms
various ways which the idea of
expressed other uses of
par, degree
77
expressed vocabulary with notes exercise
superlativeness
pp.
41. Weak Verbs Verbs X"S distinction previously noted verbs
radical table of a X"S verD in the Impf their charhaving ^ as their
of these verbs conveniently arranged for remembering two
analogy vocabulary and notes
other verbs occasionally following
of

F|{$

suffixes

J"|J<

of

like

like

of 7J<,

in pi.

*"[;?>

75,

pi.

40.

in

is

in

Ifo

76,

is

'

first

acteristic

list

this

exercise

pp. 78, 79

closing a
preform, syllable and having a S wa when assimilation does not take place
others, a or o vowel of
class having a in Q. Impf. and
other verbs of
the sharpened syllable of the Ho. m the Q. of some verbs at the beginning of
the verb Hp7 jrD m
a syllable with S wa further change in the
assimilating
before
or another the
the Q.
inflected as Segholate noun of the
class
vowel of Imp. and Impf.
vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 79-81
verbs charac43. Verbs ^"Q table of forms the three classes of
radical
dropped
Impf.
of
class what takes place when the
retained the eight verbs regularly dropping
and related forms when
in the Imp. in verbs originally VS how
radical the three retaining
and Qu. voices
treated when not
as a consonant, as a vowel the
frequent form of Imp. in these verbs the verb 'Ty> ^^ the second class of
these verbs (originally 1") the analogy they follow their inflection how
*") characterized (Q.
distinguished from verbs }" third class of verbs
and Hi.) Ni. and Ho. voices number of verbs in the class vocabulary with
notes exercise
pp. 81-84
table of forms main irregularity original and present
44. Verbs
and pass. Perf.
form of the Q. Perf.
and Imp. Impf. Part.
and Part, of intrans. verbs Ni. Perf. and Part. Hi. Perf. and Part. em.
beginning with
and change of
forms of Imp. change before the
tone
a change of vowels in some parts of Ni. alternative form in Hi.
Impf. and Imp. of ni3 tone in these verbs intrans. verbs middle b verbs
having b in the
and related forms peculiarity of the Jussive and waw
forms in Q. and Hi. of these verbs vocabulary with notes exercise. pp. 84-86
and the Intensive Voices: table of forms characteristic
45. Verbs v
change
on some forms how inflected in the Q.
the other voices
class most used Q. and Hi. Impf. probability as to the original
words of
middle radical as second radical in the Q. Perf. the intensive voices of
secured vocabulary with notes
these verbs how the intensive
42.

Verbs 3"

.'

the

forms of such verb tabulated

inflected

this

still

Inf. cstr.

its final }

Perf., Inf. cstr.

final

]"1

Inf. cstr.

teristic

''"S

first

first

in

is

first

it is

initial

is

Qi.

(orig.,

*['"$ :

Inf. cstr.

act.

affixes

71

pi.

effects

Inf.

c.

'2?

in

effect

this

effect is

exercise

pp. 86, 87

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

IX

table of forms chief irregularity


on the vowels
vowels of preformatives in open syllables
difference from
Impf.
a,nd the original a use of a helping vowel (Perf.
verbs y^J basis of rule for Ho. device for showing this class of verbs when
there
forms the intensive stems their
no afformative Jussive and waw
names nouns from verbs yy v
and ^"^ vocabulary with notes
Verbs ^"^

46.

why

effect

as stem vowel in Hi. Perf.

e)

o,

is

c.

'27)

pp. 88-90

exercise

table of forms what these verbs really are where the


uniform principles of inflection respecting ending of
ending of
the original disappearance of
Perf.
m. and
of ground- form of Imp., of Impfs. and Parts. before the ending
the Hithq. voice the Cohortative vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 90-92
48. Verbs H"7 (continued) table of apocopated forms a peculiarity of
Qi. Imp.
H" / verbs respecting apocopation forms apocopated and
Hi. Imp. Q. Impf. Ni. and Qi. Impf. Hi. Impf. forms of Q. and Hi.
apoc. forms of ("pH and
the
radical be a guttural the verb
other forms of the same peculiarities of the verb rtHt^
when
apocopated vocabulary with notes exercise
pp. 92-94
49. Verbs X"7 table of forms origin of peculiarity in the inflection
forms ending in ^ Q. Imp. and Impf.
other forms where ^ ends a sylVerbs ,1"^
third radical appears
47.

'

fern.

3. s.

Inf. cstrs.

["[

|"|J

effect

if

first

|"p)-[

|-|X*1

effect

'

all

lable

before affirmatives beginning with a consonant

beginning with a vowel

intransitive verbs the Hithq. voice further likeness to verbs


ulary with notes exercise

,T'"J

vocabpp. 94-96

Table (in
of the Weak verb Dp, pp. 100, 101.
102. exercises in translation (Hebrew into

Paradigms, Exercises in Translation, and List of Words

full)

of the Strong verb ^ftp, pp. 98, 99.

of

the

English),

arranged,

Weak

verb

^2D?

P-

of words found in vocabularies, alphabetically


pp. 118-120. abstract of notes to vocabularies, pp. 121, 122.
pp. 103-117.

Appendix

I.

list

Additional exercises in translation, with vocabulary, pp. 123-

130.

Appendix

II.

(^4)

List of

Synonyms.

form) to be distinguished, pp. 131-134.

(J5)

Words

(of similar

sound or

PART

I.

CHARACTERS

AND SOUNDS.

:>^

THE ALPHABET.

1.

Name.

Form.

Equivalent.

Numerical
Value.

'Aleph

Beth

1
bh,

Gimel

gh, g

Daleth

dh,

He

Waw

Zayin

n
b

Heth

Teth

Yddh

10

Kaph

kh,

Lamedh

30

Mem

40

Nun

50

Samekh

60

J3

and

b
fo

and

and

20

'Ayin

and

^and

5"|

P
n
t^ or

it is

70

Pe

ph, p

80

Qadhe

90

Qdph

100

Res

200

Sin or Sin

s,

Taw

th, t

s (sh)

300
400

Rem.
The perpendicular stroke is used everywhere to mark the tone when
on the penult. Rules for the vowel sounds are given in 2.

THE ALPHABET.

Z
1.

The Hebrew alphabet

the language

is

consists of twenty-two consonants,

written from, right to

and

left.

Five letters have two characters each to represent them, the


when the letter is at the end of a word. Such
secondary forms are called " final letters." A convenient mnemonic
2.

second being used

for the letters having final forms is

Kam-n e-phag (T^^3)-

Six letters have a two-fold pronunciation, a hard and a soft

3.

the former

;.

= b, ^ = bh). These
when a dot is found in them
commonly known as the B -cjhadh-k e -phath (71 3 "1^3)
e

letters are
letters.

represented
4. The letter ^ (h) is pronounced like ch in loch.
fc$,
by a smooth breathing, is silent like the h in hour. ft at the end
or a word, is silent, being used simply as an accompaniment and
sign of the preceding vowel.

It generally occurs as a final letter in

words whose third radical

(ft

has consonantal value a dot

is

represented by a rough breathing,

common usage from

When

does not appear.

*\)

,*,

placed in

it

The sound

(p]).

of

it
JJ,

scarcely to be distinguished in

is

pronounced much as ts
has a pronunciation
f^
similar to that of ^, but the sound is formed further back in the
mouth. The same is true of ^ as compared with ft

would be

5.

in the

that of . a

same

The Hebrew

(c) is

The

position.

letter

letters are divided, according to the organs of

speech used in pronouncing them, into

Palatals

($,
H, K)5
(p, $, \ J));
Dentals or Sibilants (j, ?, ^, Q, ])
6.

\ \ H, n,

(*m.

"Caleb").

], ],

nm

Zbl),

ritifc,

The remaining

^,

ft,

ft,

"],

-|);

2).

jrm

D3,

ft ^, ^, J, ft, ^, w>
"Ethan," "Moses," and

letters are called "radicals."

t2,

D to

are

*<*.

& %> D> 2> 3> % 1 & %


n b> a, n, a, & s, p, ^
v
*[tr?nn, Dip.

d, h, z, r, bh, h, t, k, s,
c

J,

and Labials (,

They

Exercise.
*,

Gutturals.

Letters used as prefixes or suffixes in the formation and inflec-

tion of words are called "serviles."

(*])

classes

five

Linguals (ft

im

*1>

ft

a,

-ibd,

s, s, _!_, 9, _1_,

to

il> rf?

ttf

fi> fi>

dedph, q, t

m, km, r, rq, swbh, bmdhbr, 'wph, mspdh,


yn, 'rq, kwkhbhym, nws.

'm, lhn,

ytlir,

gclhl r

two sounds of ^ approached that of |-| tne other that


sound before it ( r r/). The word HI3?? 'Azzah, was transby the LXX. as r^'a Gen. x. 19.

Originally one of the

of g with a slight r
literated

H>

dsb* tv,

THE VOWELS.

From

1.

ee,

THE VOWELS.

2.

the three primary vowel sounds,

remaining vowels arose.

oo), the

a, i, u (pronounced ah>
Their various modifications,

taking place in Hebrew, are shown in the following table.

having no mark above

From

represents

it

its

e (see

next table)

e (see

next table)

(by deflection or the

a.

came

(=a+a)

a (lengthened by tone)

u
o
5
o

form)

e (shorter
e

(= u + u or u + w)
(= a + u or a + w)
(heightened by tone)

(by deflection)
6 (shorter form)
e (shortest
form)

shortening of e)

(by thinning)
a (shorter form)
e (shortest form)
i

vowel

From u came

From

i came
(=i + i or i + y)
(= a + i or a + y)
(heightened by tone)

a,

short sound.

(shortest form)

Of these vowels those marked with the circumflex accent


being long either by nature or contraction, are no longer
The rest are subject to the changes noted.
changeable.
2.

(a,

i,

e, u, 6),

^Sp

yam.

mah,

melt, molt.

\J lu, lo, *fo mi, me.


Hebrew had no characters to represent the vowel
There were four weak consonants, however, which served
sounds.
the purpose to a limited extent (%
and are generally known
J"], ^),
3-

Originally the

*\,

"vowel

as

letters."

J<$

stood for any vowel, but generally repre-

sented the a sound in the midst of a word. 1


stood for any vowel sound except
o,

and

and u 2

[^ at the

while

or e either in the midst or at the

*\

end of a word

represented u or

end of a word. 3

These

characters being found ambiguous and insufficient by later Jewish


scholars, a

system of vocalization was invented (a.d. 600-800) for

the purpose of fixing and preserving the traditional pronunciation.

On

introducing this change the use of the so-called vowel letters was

The new system


was simply combined, as far as possible, with the old. A vowel
represented both by a vowel letter and one of the new characters
was said to be fully, by the latter only, defectively written. The
characters adopted, with their names, sounds, and quantity, were as
not discarded, nor the consonantal text disturbed.

follows (see

1. r.)

THE VOWELS.

Name.

CHABACTEK.

CLA8S.

Sound.

Qamec,

a,

Hateph-pathah

"

"

S e wa

e in

below

a in fat

Hireq

-=-

Pathah

a or a

a in father

it

T
-=-

Quantity.

(but shorter)

in pin

in ravine

gere

e in

prey

Sgh61

e in

met

and (sometimes)

and (sometimes)

"i

e in

there

Hateph-s eghol

e in

met (but

Se wa

e in

below

Siireq

Qibbuc,

u in put

u and (often) u

Holeni

o in note

o and (often) 6

Qamec-hatuph

"t"

Rem.

1.

say,

Hateph-qamec,

"

"

e in

below

It

is

it

will

in the

be found
e,

Rem.

2.

of

syllable

sufficient for practical

yigh-leh, is really equiva-

purposes to represent

me-lek,

and

of

as that in the

all

first

QD*! 1 yedh-khem, compounded

of

as well as the form from or


The character will be seen, stands both for Qamec, and Qameci

Many
when

e.

it

times they are distinguishable only after one has become familiar
In general,

it

may

be said that the sign

was originally o. The following rules cover


the cases of its occurrence. The sign = o (1) in a toneless closed
(2) before a guttural with or before another n
(11X23)1 hokh-mdh)

o only

most

>l

including two other forms from a,

with the derivation of words.

word H^IT (= 7^)

Q3,

hatuph.

consulting the
l

THJp (from THX2)

syllable of

By

be observed that it is represented as coming from a (others


found in such combinations as n} n 73 g e -le-ndh, rI' "13 >TT

other forms of S e ghol by

*TT and

6
e

character e will be used for *-L only.

The S e ghol

but

(but shorter)

will

it

d e -bha-re-kha.
it

S e wa

ay).

lent to

6 and (rarely) 6

o in on

The

u and (rarely) u

"

TT

former table

e
e

in true

"

b(

shorter)

the vowel concerned

C7!?n ho-'d-madh, ^1S2>M ho-'om-dhu) excepting the

article

(3) in the

two

THK VOWELS.

D^lp

abnormal plural forms


(o)

There

is

(_1_

come

of the syllable
1

M.

Y -hd-wah.

of ambiguity,

_)

j_

_1_

it

'!

will practically disappear

when

the laws

to be understood.

IS

'<>,

"JTIJTt

pn hoq,
K3'ttf

*?.

few

']

Tlt7

signs, except in a

:1

{ttw.

JK^

The vowel

In No.

(Zo-ra-slm).

might have been expected.

(__)

be noticed, attaching to several other

will

it

but

O^^tT

(qo-dhd-shn),

(6), for which, in turn,

some degree

characters

4.

used for

is

= wo,

not

5.

nl.T

s6-dhedh, fcjfifi **f*5.


7

cases, are written directly

under

the consonants to which they belong and after which they are pro-

nounced. 1
is

true of

Sureq

Qamec

is

always found in the bosom of

or S e wa with a final

Kaph

^ (^).

The same

H6leni when

(^T, *S).

as a vowel letter, should be found over its right


accompanied by
side when without ], it is placed over the left of the letter with
which it is pronounced, or over the right of the following letter. 2
When 1 is a consonant and Hdlem is used with it, it should be
will be o-w if the preplaced over its left side. 3 The character
being used as a
ceding consonant have no other vowel and
consonant
have a vowel under it. 4 In some texts, when ^ is a
consonant and Hdlem is used just before it, it is placed over the left
of the preceding letter to which it really belongs. 5 With the letters
'^, ^, a defectively written Hdlem may coincide with the dot
("diacritical point") of these letters respectively.
It is then
dropped, the one point answering both purposes. 6 When the vowel
in this form is used in connection with these letters and does not
coincide with the diacritical point, it is placed over the right or left
limb, as may be required. 7 Still another exception will be found to
the rule that vowels are placed under the consonants after which
they are pronounced in Pathah furtive ( 5).
"],

"j

*\

1
-

^'IK
t

DVtbX

'A-dho-nay,

-:

sign

(simple

will be

it

^H

'E-lo-hlm,

v:

e wa),

observed,

Each

three principal vowel sounds.

is

]""'- J >-

Tlie

t:

common

the

to

vowels has also a


as " composite S e wa," being compounded
class of

Hateph, otherwise known


of a simple S e wa and one of the vowels
are chiefly used, instead of simple

!S

The Hatephs

wa, with guttural

letters,"

The Hatephs ( T: - only) are found with other letters than gutturals (1)
the same consonant is written twice in the midst of a word, and the first
would naturally receive a vocal Sewa (2) sometimes with ^ and *) after long
vowels and just before the tone (3) with the sibilants directly after the con

when

junction

(4) occasionally after

?,

, o

(Baer, Gen. xxxii. 18) under a sibilant,

liquid or p.
Hateph- qamec, when used with other letters than gutturals, is
chiefly found with the sibilants or the emphatic consonants ti, p.

THE SYLLABLE.

and second syllables before the tone, to give


sound and facilitate their pronunciation. 1

especially in the first

them

more

distinct vocal

^7tf 'A-dhS-

|1"1K 'a-dhon, m. lord.

pJ7

adv. or.

HibS!

713

m. God

'E-16-afe,

pi.

U*fh&

or;

^S conj.

DX 3
2

optat. particle)

that,

if,

when, because.

7HI7

,"1717
T

jKSC

77^7
- T
t

Tl

hu-li,

m. force

adv. very,

flock (of sheep or goats).

sd-nt, hate.

1J

njO'ttJt sin'-dh,

Sd-dhadh, be strong, to deso7*? *

late.

i^pf

whole

all,

hate.

street.

ha-ldh, be weak, sick,

8
9

definite accus.

on the

kol) m. every,

m -'odh,

"

Xj'vI?

odv. without,

b^fpH huq-qlm.

exceedingly.

(~J7X) prep- with; also sign of

pi.

f. statute.

but, unless, except.

,,

flS>

("73

7Nft
and

(interrog.

statute;

huq-qah,

adv. wholly.

'E-lo-him.

Q^

171517

nay, Lord.
"IX

tI?Sn

w. force, violence.

td-phas, seize, hold, set (in),

overlay with.

m. sickness.

sound is that of the first letter of or. 2 Its last letter is equivalent to the
two of with. 3 Pronounced nearly like the pi. of coot. 4 Suggests cholera,
from x *^- 5 H as nearly the sound of Coke, the famous English jurist. 6 Corresponds partly in pronunciation with whole. " Approaches in sound and sense
my oath. s Sheep are not found in the frigid zone. 9 Begins with a hissing
*
10
Gen. xvii. 1. n Associate
letter.
Is the root of *^$ Sad-day, a title of God
1

Its

last

with topaz often

Exercise.

set in gold.

'e-meth,

bath,

d e-muth,

dam,

ben,

ha-ldm, tobh, hoq, huq-qim, beq, dor,


min, im, 9ur, yo-'o-madh, le-klia.

sir,

yes,

liii',

yom, kaph,

in

Rem.
In
Hebrew.

this exercise the circumflex accent represents a fully written

3.

1.

ipn. *f?K

ha-ldm.

THE SYLLABLE.
3

-^

7S^ ^-oclh.
Hebrew word has as many syllables
'e-leph.

vowel

vowels, the S e was and Pathah furtive

( 5)

ye->6r,

Qi^fl

as there are full

not being regarded as such. 1

and may begin with two. 2


If a syllable begin with two consonants, the first will have under it
the latter with gutturals
to aid in
a simple or composite S e \va
the pronunciation. 3 Simple S e wa in this place is said to be "vocal"

Every

syllable begins with a consonant,

"

The

the sign

sign * attached to a
t

that

it is

used

less

word indicates that it is used less than


than twenty-five times, in the Bible.

fifty times,

THE SYLLABLE.
to distinguish
syllable only

from

it

and

is

that begin a
Rem.

which

silent S e wa,

first of

found at the end of a


is always found and

is

Vocal S e wa

not sounded.

only found under the

two consonants

other than a guttural

syllable.

the
The conjunction when pointed with a in bosom
with a consonant.
An exception to the rule for vocal S wa the numeral VlttJ two

1.

clot

its

(1) is

sole exception to the rule that every syllable begins

Rem.
(for

1H3>

*?[t2lD
5

2.

T!^X)i Gen.
-

iv.

DK-

where the S e wa

^hf2 malk

sa-makh,

rWK*l

19,

J^^T

s
-

dalt

re-slth (contracted

is

is silent.

nPll\p sim-hah,
form

(original

from fTt^X")

may end

Sa-ma'^nH.

*|35Jjpttf

of

de-leth).

rip"!

e -e-slth).

syllable

Only a final syllable


either with a vowel or a consonant.
can end with two consonants, and the last one, if sounded, must

be a strong letter (one of the

B -ghadh-k

audible vowelless consonant, and

other than the final


is

true of f final

is

Kaph and

-phath or H, tO)- 2
An
generally ^, ending a syllable
e

The same
provided with a silent S
two audible consonants ending
e \va. 3

of each of

a word. 4 " " Audible" consonants are so named to distinguish them


from the vowel letters (%
which, as already noted, generally
J"!, ft)
become silent after homogeneous vowel sounds. 5
"|,

3.

1-7i

yadh,

Q5H

ha-kham.

^"^

^.

Fl^X

'e-leph,

sim-hah,
HPl^'lt?
T

Q* } ^
1

sin-na-yim.

ma-yim, ^[f2D sa-makh,

syllable ending in a consonant

is

m,
H,
T

HI^X

'im-rah,

said to be shut;

doubly shut if that consonant be immediately followed by another


consonant in the same word; sharpened, if these two consonants

same letter repeated (seldom), or the same letter doubled


by a dot in it, known as Daghes forte ( 4).
A syllable ending in
a vowel
as also "J, and J$ except in certain verbs whose first
2
root letter it is
is said to be open.
The vowel of an open
syllable must be long unless it have the tone, and a toneless syllable
with a long vowel is open. 36 The vowel of a shut syllable must
are the

a There
are a few instances where a silent S e wa stands under a single final
consonant but they are mostly those where one of the original consonants has
been dropped fix for F|]tf. In Baer's text the final fl of the 2d sing. fern. perf.
;

whose last root letter is J< or [~| has it.


b
The only open syllables having short vowels, even with the tone, are those
which were originally doubly closed and have been opened by means of a short
helping vowel (Tv?*! de-leth, from an original phi dalt) and the verbal suffix
*}_ a-nl.
of verbs

THE SYLLABLE.

8
be short unless

vowel

is

^^T

4.

have the tone, and a toneless syllable with a short

it

shut. 4

yedh-khem (your hand),

open and shut

syllables,

there

open, or intermediate,

known

is

as the

half-

has a short, toneless vowel,

It

syllable."

Besides

H*lS?3 na-'a-rah.

what

is

consonant a S e \va, simple or composite. This S e w& is


neither silent nor vocal, though approaching the latter, and is called
medial.
It need not be confounded with vocal S e wa, since the syl-

and

its final

lable

when

which

And

(partly) closes has a short, toneless vowel.

it

B ghadhk phath

need not be confounded with a silent S e wa, since the dot (Daghes lene, 4. 1) which
is found in these letters when following a silent S e wa is omitted
followed by the

letters, it

after a medial one. 1

Rem.

shut final syllable, with the tone,

may have any

vowel

(i is

found

only in |, DX> D2?i and certain apocopated verbal forms) a shut penultimate
In a toneless sharpened
syllable, with the tone, has only a, e, and a, e, o.
;

syllable only the vowels a,

i,

u can stand,

5.

The

^^S-

principal tone

in

Hebrew words must be on

one of the last two syllables, and is generally found on the last
syllable. 6
In this book, as heretofore, whenever the tone syllable
is

not final

penult.
6.

will be indicated

it

line over the

by a perpendicular

was wise,

she rejoiced.

Sin^'tT
T

M^$ your
v

,t

Hft^n
t
t

wisdom.

i^HH

(meaning

bridle.)

is

t:

eyes.

JIMPI
T

|"

the sickness.

she

it

Methegh

,v

a small perpendicular line placed beneath a

a vowel, to indicate a kind of lighter,


found (1) with the second syllable before
the tone, if open; or on the third or fourth open syllable, if the
second be shut 2 (2) with a long vowel just before a pretonic vocal
S e wa (useful for distinguishing Qauiec from Qamec-hatuph in this

word, usually on the

secondary tone. 1

left of

It is

a Half-open syllables arise from the dropping of vowels through inflectional


and other changes the preference of gutturals for the Hatephs the omission
copulative and the composition of
of Daghes forte, as with the article and
words with particles or fragments of words affixed or prefixed, though not 7
;

"|

with the

infinitive.

the tone on the penult are for the most part (1) those whose
has simply a helping vowel (2) those having the local ending |"|_,
meaning towards or into a place
(3) those having certain light verbal and
nominal suffixes (4) those whose tone has been changed through the influence
of 1 consecutive ( 18) or the Pause ( 6)
(5) those in which the tone syllable,
b

Words taking

last syllable

if final,

would be immediately followed by another tone

syllable.

THE SYLLABLE.

4
with any vowel before composite S e wa

and (3) in
numerous other cases when it is desired to indicate the distinct
The conjunction ] and is not
pronunciation of a vowel sound.
subject to the first and second of these rules.

position) 5

^h'k

JT3

',

ox

thousand.

pi-

>

rP2) m. house

2 (cstr.

pZ.

DTQ

X3T

battlm. a
3
SD3
- T

recompense, perfect.

now

pray

7fc3

c.
|"<3J

DlTTl
,li

QDHT

wise.
/

$ wise.
rtS

hand

/.

eye, fountain

w. mouth

head;

pZ.

du.

CtTS"!)/.

rn27X"l

beginning,

first,

former.

JTrlfo*/- praise.

(shut).

da.

former.

( for

adj. foremost,

pti'K"!

(mostly) the Nile.

Q^S, Hl'2-

D^SI

j>Z.

dream.

hand (open), palm,


;

(csfr*. ''S)

'X"1
-

|-|T stretch, throw out, praise.

foot)

p)

wisdom!

w*. river,

/.

{cstr.

door (which swings).

nib:?n*

pp

come

T T

DDPI 4 he

""lX

.pari,

72) m. water.

"TTJ2Q* 7 support, intrans. lean.

camel.

nS*l

(csZr.

D'VS

sole

PlfctP
-

(of

nPlttti? / joy.

rejoice.

CSS.

jtt?

c.

tooth

dM.

U*j$-

i The letter
has the form of a bullock's head, especially in Phoenician.
Mn. "cattle on a thousand hills": Ps. 1. 10. 2 Good mnemonics for this and
most of the other words of this list will be the respective letters of the alphabet
3>
% 3: S3? D> 37, > "1, U- The form of the letter as well as its sound is
3 The camel was so called because so comto be especially noted in each case.
plete and perfect an animal. 4 The wisdom literature of the Bible is often called
the hokhmah literature. 5 Suggests, though somewhat remotely, hal-lacination.
e
6 Suggests
' Put here because it sounds like
T|D joy supports.
y oar.

Q %

Exercise.

im, 'eth,

16, hue,

yhowali, 'Eloliim, halah,

'odh, wayyar', maQa'tha,


kathabhta, yaronnu, yest,
dibber, huqqim, simhah, sebha', 'alekha, na'ar, na'arah,
samayim, dabhrah, kullo, taphas, malkhehem, idyamim,
sadhadh, ha'adham, 'enekhem, 'abhraham, sane', kan-

phehem.
Rem.

The

principles,

it

quantity of a vowel

should be known.

not always given where, from foregoing

is

The

exercise will be useful also for placing the

S e was and Methegh, and distinguishing the half-open or medial syllable.


same letter repeated indicates a sharpened syllable.

The Daghes

exceptional.
lene, which,

forte in the second letter of

DTQ

is

characteristic ( 4. 2)

The

and

Others would write the word bathn, making the Daghes a Daghes

however, would be equally abnormal (

4. 1).

OTHER CHARACTERS.

10

OTHER CHARACTERS USED WITH THE HEBREW TEXT.

4.

1.

PS3*I 53.

ner wisdom.

DDP! wisdom, Hft3P!

lene is the

name

put in the

B gliadlik phath

Daghes

which is
used when-

given to a point already referred to ( 1),


e

harden them.

letters to

It is

ever these letters do not immediately follow a vowel, a vocal or

composite S e wa, or a half-open syllable; in short, the least vowel


sound. 1 The dot sometimes found in final jf ( 1. 4), a few times
Ezra
also with fc$ (Gen. xliii. 26 Lev. xxiii. 17 Job xxxiii. 21
viii. 18), giving them consonantal power, is properly a Daghes lene,
;

although

it is

commonly

called Mappiq. 2

Rem.
In the case of a disjunctive accent on the preceding word ( 7), or
any other sufficient pause just before them, like the end of a chapter, section,
or verse, these letters cannot be said to follow immediately a vowel sound.
2.

Except D^JHS

2l

( 3. foot-note).

"]23

kikkar, not kikhkhdr.

the
Daghes forte is a dot of the same kind placed in letters
B eghadhk epliath included which are to be doubled in pronunciation. 6
It is easily distinguished from Daghes lene in that it mostly imme1
When it is used with
diately follows a full, though a short, vowel.
2
e
e
the B ghadhk phath letters, it hardens as well as doubles them.
Rem. Daghes forte is called compensative when it doubles the same consonant or assimilates two that are unlike characteristic when it characterizes a

grammatical form, whether the doubling be original or inflectional conjunctive


when it is placed in the first letter of a word for the purpose of joining it to the
emphatic when it is used to give strength to the
last vowel of a preceding word
tone syllable (mostly the penult) firmative when it is used with liquids to pre;

vent a too slight pronunciation of the preceding vowel separative when it is


used in a letter having a vocal S e wa in order to render the latter more audible.
;

Cases will be noted under each head as they


3.

D' ?i^
l

,T

to ivaters,

letter.

Q^^,

(see preceding note).

over a

not

|T

may

with a Daghes forte firmative

Baphe (J"[H

soft) is a horizontal line placed

was originally intended

It

In Baer's text the rule

is

occur.

for every letter destitute

usually followed that a Daghes lene should be put

in every consonant after a guttural with a silent S e wa, as also in one which,

beginning a word,

The
6

is

the

same as that with which the word next preceding

been generally accepted.


omitted from a final vowelless consonant (except

ends.

principle, however, has not

DagheS

forte

is

often from certain consonants

mostly

p,

], ft, *?,

"],

and the

F|fc$>

r]J"l3);

sibilants

in

word with only a vocal S e wa under them from the gutturals


(generally including *"|), in some of which the Daghes is then implied (possible in
X, , frequent in fj, H), or compensation takes place by heightening the prethe middle of a

ceding vowel ( 5).

OTHER CHARACTERS.
of the kind of hardness indicated
present, however,

is

it

by a Dagh.es (or Mappiq). At


show that the dot has

principally used to

been intentionally omitted. 1


x

4.

11

DS~' 3> ~nS> /3>


,

Maqqeph

"??

is

a horizontal line

placed between words, closely related in sense, in order to

them one word


J

5.

as

it

make

respects pronunciation and tone. 1

rP^K"Q m

Q e re and

tne ) beginning.

usual HebreAv text attention

is

In the

KHltibh.

by means

called to different readings

The suggested reading

of a small circle placed over a word. 1

is

found at the bottom of the page. The vowels of the word placed
there, however, are used with the original word still found in" the
e
text.
This original word is called the
thibh, i.e., what is written.
The word at the bottom of the page, the Q e re, i.e., what is (suggested

The

used to call attention to any critical


In the case of a few words of very
frequent occurrence, the word in the margin
whose vowels have
been used with a word in the text
has been omitted. This is
to be) read.

circle is also

remarks made in the margin.

Q e re. a

called a perpetual
J

6.

^"O^

The second

between thee.

is

superfluous.

Special

dots (Puncta extraordinaria) are found above certain words in fifteen

passages (ten in the Pent., as in Gen. xvi. 5). 1 In some cases they
indicate that the letter or letters of a word over which they stand
are to be omitted

meaning

in others, their

dots

"123 l f2

cover.

Hp3

or
(

X33)

G
X21
T t

m- stool,

write.
call,

mp*/. city.
t

:l

(causative)

let

sink, let go.

Kip*
1

clear.

soften, mitigate, heal.

US*!* 7 sm k down,

throne.

21*12

no longer

5
(and snp) meet.
JTlp
tI t
tit

circuit, plain, talent, loaf.

HD2

is

The end of a verse is marked in the Hebrew Bible by two


() called Sdph Pasitq (i.e., end of the verse).

7.

read, proclaim.

pi*"

m. sackcloth.

R. "1*12 (*"I2) t0 g around. The meanings of the noun are all closely
2 Suggests
It suggests car.
case, in-case.
The throne

related to this idea.

is

The examples of perpetual Q e re are (1)


X1H ( in Pent, only), for which XT"i
read (as in Gen. ii. 12)
(2) HliT* for which ^IH is read, unless the two
;

words are found together, when the vowels of D\""HX are given to the former
as far as applicable (as in Gen.
for
is

which JT123

is

read (as in Josh.

xxx. 18)

ii.

4)

(3) "-^J (in Pent, only as feminine),

read (as in Gen. xxiv. 14)


x. 1)

and apparently

(5)

(6) the

'"l2t*"'"X"'

1
,

for

(4)

numerals D" *^

are respectively read (as in Ex. xxviii. 21).

D^IT,

which ^'"Z""

DTl"^

for

for
is

which D^tT'lT
read (as in Gen.

which *yp and iRt>

GUTTURALS AND QUIESCENT LETTERS.

12
was so

called probably

from

its

associated with the preceding,

"

Rephaim" (vphd'hn,

ir.

canopy.

whose form

Mn. K'thlbh.

4
6

often takes.

it

Mn. Q e re. 5 To be
Mn. Baphe. ' Mn.

pi. of |"|p*l)? tne stretched out, lifeless (in Sheol).

bayit,

kap, peh, gamal, kol, kol, 'aclon,


mispat, btok, helqka, yest, mamleket,
ykatteb, tclabber, mdubbar, sabbat, wayyinnagpii, lipne,
Exercise.

hakam,
hittah,

'ak,

'et,

lamayim.

Rem. The

pupil

is

expected to determine for himself, in this exercise, the

quantity of some of the vowels, where S e wa

phath

letter

5.

1-

is

required,

and whether a B e ghadhk e-

should be hard or aspirated.

THE GUTTURALS AND QUIESCENT LETTERS.

^hri

"7H13 not

(for

^Wftft)

TH3> ^"13

the darkness.

not *-H2.

|Tj^

Of the guttural

not

F^XH,

letters ($,

|-|,

&

hut firmer; and so


H> X)> *? represents a sound similar to that of
with respect to ft. The last two letters are stronger gutturals than
the former two. All are peculiar, first, in that they cannot be doubled
by receiving a Daghes forte. It may be implied, however, i.e., simply
This occurs
left out without producing any change in the word.
often with p, ft, less often with $, and sometimes with X- 1 When
ft

letters and it
compensation made for the omission. The
short vowel preceding the guttural is heightened (a to a, i to e,
u to 6). In other words, such vowels come to stand in an open,
instead of a sharpened, syllable, and are accordingly changed to the

Daghes forte would naturally be called for in these

is

not implied, there

is

corresponding tone long vowel. 2


2.

^otHISJtt, ftfoVft hut ^23, ftfoSft (hoomadh).

TVy
v
T

hut

plftttfj
T

not

HibS

hut

is

Not

second peculiarity

v:

v:

of the gutturals (^, ft, ft)


about them and require

HibS-

that they prefer the a class of vowels

when final. Hence (a), before


and u are generally changed to e and o,
1
with
(b) Any short vowel but
and, less frequently, after them.
And (c) after any long
these gutturals when final is changed to
the vowel
steals in (Pathah
vowel with a final guttural except
Such Pathah cannot
furtive), to be sounded before the guttural.
these gutturals not

final,

or

take the tone, and, of course, disappears


to the word. 2

when

additions are

made

GUTTUKALS AND QUIESCENT LETTERS.


3.

HOJJ

'Dibtl;

not

*I?J-

2Not

DibD5

13

DibfQ

but

third peculiarity of gutturals is that they require in


a dream.
place of a simple S e wa (vocal) a composite one, chiefly Pathah.

They may take a simple S e wa silent but here too, in many cases, a
Hateph is preferred. If a Hateph betaken in place of a silent >S e wa,
;

homogeneous with the preceding short vowel (^- correi.e., o), and the syllable in which
,
to
to
1
On the same principle, if a letter preit stands will be half open.
ceding a Hateph is to be supplied with a vowel, it will take a short
one corresponding with the Hateph. 2 From this fact is derived the
rule found in some grammars that a guttural letter points itself and
For the pointing of a
the letter next preceding, and vice versa.
consonant before a guttural with o, see 2. 3. r. 2.
it

will be

sponding to

'DS-

*0-

The

gone forth.

bDXb
v:

^nX^

to eat.

or

letter J$ has consonantal

power (and

treated

is

At

the end of

first letter is

a guttural

1
as a guttural) only at the beginning of a syllable.

a syllable 2 (except in certain verbs whose

have

TllT
T T

T T

|V

and when protected by a Hateph in a half-open syllable 3 ) it


coalesces with the vowel next preceding, making it long and the
syllable an open one.
Occasionally the fc$ in such cases disappears
entirely. 4

Rem. 1.
$$ may also lose its power as a consonant when following another
consonant with vocal Se wa or a Hateph, merging them in its own or a homogeneous long vowel, in which it then itself quiesces after that consonant
co'Tftrueocfe for

i^nia

for

n^xn, ~\mb

for

nb*6

or

for

D^nbsS,

silent S e wa is said to

be otiant,

\nx3).

Rem. 2.
A final ^ following a letter having
and is ignored in pronunciation (XlOn het').

'^KIH

not

letter ]

nbsb, Dvib*6

ttfkin
-

the head

she
i""D"Q
T
-:

approaches the gutturals in some of

The

blessed.

its peculiarities.

It

takes Daghes forte only exceptionally, compensation being almost


exclusively by heightening the preceding vowel

prefers the vowel


a about it, especially before it; and sometimes takes a Hateph
pathah instead of a simple vocal S e wa. J
6.

11

waw; TOSUS

9&-y nation;

"'IS

pass. part, of

^XHS gd'rm-y my
Hebrew months ^^n

cd*nd(i/)w his flocks,

If Zivo one of the

H^5HT T

has already been noted ( 2) that

flocks

halu-y,
*\

and

*>

ordinarily lose their value as consonants at the end of a syllable,


1 becoming
homogeneous vowel sounds (1 becoming 1 and
*, ^ ) and that with the heterogeneous a vowel they often
unite to form diphthongal long vowels (1 with a becoming 6, ^ with

after

"j,

CHANGES IN VOWELS.

14
a becoming

Occasionally, however, these characters retain at

e).

the end of a syllable their consonantal power after


1
do after other heterogeneous vowels.

IftK

rrpx
Sx3

8BP[

n&X

speak/

- word.

4
I

j^

word.

sin.

From

KtpPT*

May

Yachts

the

m. darkness.

g0 forth, rise (of the sun)

KJTifc

m. going-forth, utterance.

redeem.

button)
1

(i) x

as they always

a,

sin.

(cstr.

flXlSPl / sin.

same root Emir

be associated with hate.

go forth.

112$ 6 stand, stand

KttPl, J*-

(or
i

_^nn.

Ameer),

i.e.

its

out, remain, stand

pillar.

speaker, commander.

Cf. rDtt? forget,

Might link

*P03J m.

still.

i.e.,

Cf. Gaol.

have darkness of memory.

second meaning with

second syllable.

its

Drn&?> )Ri 4b
Dibn, oibre* ntjty nbty mtfptt mb# safe ip,
^a, nejj, n&jw* $} noyfji ( 2 * 2 rnwj. toj*
Exercise.

n*??>

tyijspfr

r em

in

tone prefers

-, :

this exercise
;

6.

1.

The

each word requires correction. Initial X in the prefrom the tone, generally - (though not in DTPS)-

at a distance

CHANGES IN VOWELS.

several causes

working

to produce

changes in the character of a syllable


different consonant or another

vowel

vowel changes are

the contact of a vowel with a

the shortening or lengthening

These causes
do not act independently of one another, but one change is likely to
carry with it one or more of the others.
of a

2.

word and the consequent

ttfKn,n*or#8TT-

shifting of the tone.

^vnr\-

Dpn-

nrit2'y,

vowei

changes in Hebrew are possible within the limits already stated


( 2), the vowels represented by a, e, i, u, 6, being immutable under

any circumstances.

They

are generally distinguishable

by being

Other immutable vowels are (a) such as are made


1
long by way of compensation before a guttural or "|; (b) a short
2
and (c)
vowel before a guttural in which Daghes forte is implied
3
the rule, in
a short vowel in a doubly closed or sharpened syllable
each of these cases, holding good as Jong as the conditions are
fully written.

unaltered.

CHANGES IN VOWELS.
lh

DDT; bb

T< but

3.

-^3;

but

15
but (generally) -j$.

5'n bu ^ D^i^ri- ^ n addition to the principles already given under


the head of the syllable ( 3. 3. 4), it may be said that a vowel
which has been made long by the tone, whether in an open or a shut
syllable, will be changed to its own short form, or deflected to some
homogeneous short vowel, if that syllable becomes a toneless shut,
or loosely shut, syllable ( becoming a or e, e becoming e or i,
sometimes a; b becoming o, and rarely xi)} If the change be to a
sharpened syllable, there is a corresponding reduction of the vowel
2
(e to i, and o generally to u).
i^5sj

4.

of

cstr.

-Ql,

but pi,

En^li HS

^V&om ^fc

^Hpfrom'^p;

^>

^T^"Q be was blessed, *?T^Q he blessed.

SSP

from

1[T3,

not

fr$2V

19$

instead of
If a shut

become open by the loss of its final consonant (including


the gutturals and ^, 5. 1. 5), either by its being joined to the following syllable, 1 or, being a quiescent letter (% 1, ft), by losing its consonantal quality and coalescing with the preceding vowel, its vowel
is lengthened
or deflected
(a to a, e, i and e to e, u and o to o).Eem. The effect may here be noted which is produced on vowels by what is
known as the Pause; i.e., some one of the heavy disjunctive accents (7) which,
syllable

was put at the end of a sentence or main


under such an accent is said to be in Pause. The effect
is to heighten a short vowel to its corresponding tone long ( however, sometimes becomes, and vice versa)
restore an original vowel (_, j_> sometimes
becoming
Qamec,) or a dropped vowel (_ before T\ becoming 4-) giving it,
in each case, the form required by the tone and, frequently, to shift the tone,
mostly from the ultimate to the penultimate syllable, but sometimes the reverse.
for rhythmical

and

division of

A vowel

it.

liturgical purposes,

t t

ye have spoken.

If the tone of a

word be

.:--:

carried forward one

syllable or become weakened (by the construct state or otherwise),


a changeable vowel standing before it will be volatilized (become
vocal or medial S e wa) or be dropped (leaving silent S e wa), according
to the nature of the syllable that

may

result. 1

Rem. There

is an important distinction between nouns and verbs in this


Verbs generally volatilize a, e, o, in the last syllable, when the tone is
moved forward a place nouns, a and e in the penultimate syllable (IT1I2!? she
stood, from ^fty but C^D*! words, from ""O^).

respect.

6-

,I

D1D'

"0*? y ourwordSj DiTvft;!


!

their camels.

If the tone

be carried forward two places, of two changeable vowels coming


before it, the one nearest to it will be dropped; while the other,
now standing in a (loosely) shut syllable at a distance from it, will
be correspondingly shortened or thinned (a often being changed to i). 1

THE ACCENTS.

16

THS

'

kneel, bless.

"Q"! 2 speak.

Jinn 3 / blessing.

n3n word. nsnft

T
T
T T
m. place of pasturage, wilderness,
:

desert.
1

n3"l

Pass. part,

hi.

is

3 be
ttHD
-It

trip)

ttf1"P (and

apart, holy.

It

adj. holy.

t#"Tp w- holiness.

w^nptt w. sanctuary.

pestilence.

TITHS

"Deborah" (nnlnn)

bee.

"Baruch," (blessed)

scribe of Jeremiah.

Mn.

R. means drive, pour forth (as words from the

hence n3l!3 a drive or range (for cattle), like the Germ. Trift from
3 Mn. Qadhes ("Kadesh").
There is an apparent play on the word
in Num. xx. 1, 13, when Israel, being in "Kadesh," Jehovah is said to have
been "sanctified" CCHp Kadeshed) in them.

mouth)

treiben.

'

THE ACCENTS.

7.

A.

THE

PROSE ACCENTS.
THE CONJUNCTIVES.

THE DISJUNCTIVES.
Form and

1^
IT

Form and Position

Position.

Miinah

Silluq
-T

nnnT

M huppakh

S e gh61t:l

nnn.

Mere kha

Salseleth ....

nnn-

Double Merekha.

-D1

Great Zaqeph

nnn

Darga

nnnT
n3n

Little

nnn.

'Azlii

Tiphha

nnnT T

Little

n3n

R e bhia'

nnnV T T

Galgal

nnn

Zarqa

'Athnah

<.T

nnnT
T

Zaqeph

T e lisa

May ela,

(always

with Silluq or

nanT

Pasta

11

"fit

Ynhibh

12

nnn
jT T

T e bhir

10

'Athnah).

is

It

properly a

Tiphha, but in

13

nnn

15

nnn

Geres

Pazer

qp
16

nnn
T

Great Pazer

it

has

the above name.

Double Geres

14

this place

T e lisa

17

nan

Great

18

nnn

L e ;harmeh

THE ACCENTS.
The names

1.

others,

Hebrew.

of the accents are, in

They

17

some

cases,

Aramaic

in

are based on their form, position, pausal or

musical value.

Each word, or the last word of a series connected by Maqqeph,


As a rule, it is found on the tone syllable. When

2.

has an accent.

this is not the case, the principle requires that

on the tone syllable


it

but, in

most

it

should be repeated

texts, this is carried out only as

respects Pasta.

The usual

3.

division of the accents into "emperors," "kings,"

power of each accent varies


The accents marking
the highest tones in cantillation were those of the Disjunctives
numbered (4), 13-16; those marking the next higher tones were
those marking low, sustained tones were 1, 2, 5-7.
8, 9, (3), 12, 18
4. The names of the two general classes of accents suggest their
third principal use to indicate where there were to be pauses in
the recitation, or cantillation, and where there was to be none. The
Disjunctive accents, accordingly, have reference to what precedes
them the Conjunctive, to what follows.
"dukes,"

etc.,

is

inexact,

since the

greatly according to its position in the verse.

Final.

~T

(ir)

Third
Word.

Second
Word.

First

Word.

-x

(-)

IT

("*-)

Fourth
Word.

Word.

Word.

~7T

~7T

7T

Fifth

Sixth

Every verse closes with the accent


nowhere else. It is followed, as we
have seen ( 4. 7), by two dots resembling the colon, called S6ph
Pasuq. The great law governing the accentual subdivisions of the
5.

Silluq,

The 3fain Division.

and

this accent is used

i.e., the use of the remaining Disjunctives, is that of dichotomy.


If the verse is long enough to allow it, it is divided into
two parts, usually by 'Athndh and, if the same condition holds
respecting them, each of these parts, in turn, is divided into two
parts, and so on, as long as the words of the verse hold out.
These
parts are not, necessarily, of equal length.
The primary object
aimed at in the division was musical effect in the public recitation
of the Scriptures, combined with the desire so to mark the several
parts of the verse as to bring out its thought to the best advantage.
The general principle of the divisions seems to have been to put
the main ones after the more important statements, or after words
or clauses seeming to call for special emphasis.
In this way, not

verse,

THE ACCENTS.

18

infrequently, the logical and syntactical connection

is given a subMoreover, by this plan of division it was often


needful, as has been noted, to mark pauses of equal value by accents
Hence we are not able to say that a
of unequal pausal value.

ordinate place.

certain accent always implies a pause equivalent to the

Words and

semicolon, and so on.

comma, the

clauses receive one accent rather

than another simply because of their position in the verse.


6. The law governing the main dichotomy of the verse as represented in the table was as follows. The main dichotomy, if falling
in the first word before Silluq, is generally marked by Tiphha, but
it may be 'Athnah
if on the second word, it is more ^Likely to be
'Athnah but may be either Tiphha or Zaqeph if on the third word,
;

it

will generally be 'Athnah,

though Zaqeph

fourth or any preceding word,

Clause.

Second
Word.

FlBST

Final.

WOED.

~7T

T~

is

possible

if

on the

will be invariably 'Athnah.

it

THIRD

ForRTII

Fifth

WOK1J.

Word.

Word.

Word.

-Mv)

__(_*_)

*"(-)

"M")

Sixth

Silluq

'Athnah

7.
The First Minor Division. The main division of the verse
having been thus effected, the next question concerned the division
of each of these halves, i.e., the Silluq clause and the 'Athnah clause,,
which remained. The principle is set forth in the table. In the
Silluq clause, if the first minor dichotomy fall on the first word
from it, it will be marked by Tiphha if on the second, by Tiphha
;

Zaqeph if on the third, or any preceding word, by Zaqeph only.


In the 'Athnah clause, if the first minor dichotomy fall on the first
word before it, it will be Tiphha if on the second, the same or
Zaqeph and so on, as shown the more remote the position in a
given accentual clause the heavier the accent, and the more remote
the same accent the greater its disjunctive power.
or

Rem.

The

general principle governing the use of the Disjunctive prose

accents having thus heen shown,


further in this

may have

Grammar.

a clause of its
a continuous dichotomy.

Let

it

it

seems unnecessary to pursue the subject

suffice to

own which

is

say that each of the Disjunctives

entitled to subdivision

under the rules of

THE ACCENTS.

Clause.

DlSJ.

First

Second

Conj.

Conj.

T
~

Silluq
~T~

'Athnah
~7T

Zaqeph
S egholta

Tiphha

Order of

8.

the

19

~J~

~j~

~J~

~j~

"j"

"s~

The Conjunctives have influence,


between two Disjunctives,

Conjunctives.

severally, only within the limited space

and, as already remarked,

In general,

follows.

it is

it is in the direction of the one that


only closely connected words (a noun and

genitive, or adjective, etc.) that are joined together

by a Conshows which Conjunctives are found


with the principal Disjunctives and in case there is more than one
required, what one is found in the second place.
With Silluq there
will never be found any other Conjunctive than Mer e kha
with
'Athnah, Munah.
So with all the remaining Disjunctives there is a
uniform law respecting the Conjunctives that shall precede them in
its

junctive accent.

The

table

the sentence.

A double system of

Rem.

is found in certain passages


as in
a more rapid reading of the words so accentuated and in the Decalogue (Ex. xx. 2-17 Deut. v. 0-18), where the object
is to reduce the twelve verses to ten, i.e., to the number of the commandments.

accentuation

Gen. xxxv. 22 b where the object


,

There are

also, occasionally, single

(Lev. x. 4; 2 Kings xvii. 13; Ezek.

is

HXH

words which have two (alternative) accents


xlviii.

10; Zeph.

ii.

15).

The Use ofPfyeq- P&?eq (= cutting

perpendicular line found between words.

ordinary and extraordinary.

The former

It is of
is

off) is a

short

two kinds, the

used before any Dis-

some extent, words otherwise bound tothe latter, only before certain Disjunctives, to provide a
means of marking a minor dichotomy where the usual accents fail
junctive, to separate, to

gether

to do so (Gen.

i. 5, 8;
xviii. 15; Deut. ix. 4; xxv. 19; 2 Sam. xxiv.
Of the ordinary Paseqs there are the follow13; 1 Kings xxi. 2).
ing classes
(1) that distinguishing words as to sense (Gen. xviii.
:

emphasis (Ex. xv. 18)


(3) that found between
words repeated (Gen. xxii. 11) (4) that separating words, one of
which ends in the same letter with which the following one begins
15)

(2)

as to

(Cant.

iv. 12).

THE ACCENTS.

20

THE

POETIC ACCENTS.

THE DISJUNCTIVES.
Fobm and

No.

THE CONJUNCTIVES.

Name.

Position.

FOKM AND P081TION.

131T

Silluq

13^

'Ole-w e y6redh

131
AT

Athnah

131

131
T T

Il e bhia' (little)

131

131
131T^

"131

Name.

IT

"131

"131

T
e bhia'

(great)

-T T

"111

mughras

<T T

131T

Calo-al

1l.
T T

Salseleth (little)

"131

Qinnorith

VT

e hi

131

10

nil

Salseleth

11

1131
T T

Azla.

12

H31
^T

M huppakh

Pazer

..

(pretouic)

The use

gharmeh

of Poetic Accents is confined to the

They

Psalms, and Proverbs.

much

serve

omy, naturally,

is

not carried as

D^^H"^^
omy

in poetry

-:

Ps

*H1i1
is

as follows

three words from Silluq,

it

*?ptf

viii

%,

T'Timb
j-

The

ir

iri'rjj
_
:

ins ntfa
<v

3i

will be

on any one of the first


marked by 'Athnah (2) if on
;

I"

i.

3.

J*

The

\^sr^

(3)

if

on

latter only.

rrbr. rrysm^jj
bSi
"1
Ps.

<t

(1) If it be

n*ti
jt

-:

mrr

main dichot-

rule for the

the fourth or fifth words, by 'Athnah or '6le-w ey6redh

any previous word, by the

divided on

is

here, the dichot-

far.

iwrntf*
pan-baa
vat
jt
:

verse

though

Books of Job,

the same purpose in

The

poetry as the Prose Accents do in prose.


the principle of a continuous dichotomy

2.

M huppa.kh

"131

1.

'Hluy

c bhia'

Tarha

i.

bw
A

bmtf
f 23 rfm
v

t t

*6 irfw insn
j

:v.

,:

w
I

principles governing the consecution of accents in the

minor dichotomy it will be sufficient to illustrate in the clause


closed by Silluq. If '6le-w e y6redh has been used to divide the verse

THE ACCENTS.

21

two halves, then 'Athnah may be expected to mark the


If 'Athnah has been used for this purpose (see
example under 2), K e bhia' mughras will mark the second division,
or, in some few cases, Salseleth.
If there is another division called
for between K e bhia mughras and Silluq, it will be marked by
e huppakh l e gharmeh.
into its

second division.

PART

WORDS

II.

AND FORMS.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN.

8.
1.

"OllK, "OK

thou

nnx,

he

ff|*|,

we

'

nx

she

Hfl

ttim una

you

DTM,

they

Dil, il&il.

The form "(DX 8 found five times without


'
seven times (KHhibh) as ^StXI *l is use(* Ior
Rem.

1.

\m, nana

'

f|X appears

2.

J"f.

XM eleven

cepted throughout the Pentateuch.

still

shorter form *|3X but once.

written with 2 after the

The

*II2?1i !l3il is

5.

pi.

a D. forte firmative (

times ex-

^113 occurs but six times in the Bible

The 2d pers.

and

sing,

pi.

was

hence the Daghes forte compensative in

forms in the

full original

4.

H3H

f.*l,

were Qin3X, pn3K-

6.

originally

f) ( 4. 2. r.).

The Daghes

in

4. 2. k.).

excepting f"|, which is


2. The Personal Pronoun in this form
is found only in the Nom. case.
The
used solely with prefixes

oblique cases are indicated by abbreviations of the


as suffixes to verbs, nouns,

2K (cstr. "OK, pi. nlSS)


12X 2 De l st perish.
l

and

m- father.

TW*

be clear, bright.

*)1XE
2*!!!*"

2*in

serve, minister.

HlX

light,

"fl^

2*1 fl

!112?

12!?

service,

"*. ser-

work.

m. skin.

HS3? m.

dust.

(1EN!

m. ashes.)

dryness, desola-

TDp

collect.

112*1*1 */ ibid.

Mn. and

from an

2 Mn. and deriv. "Abaddon,"


viii. 15).
Mn. " Horeb " with its bald summit. 2*111
"
root {stripped even to brightness and sharpness). 5 Mn. " Obed
Associate with, and discriminate from, *yiXThe skin of

derivative "

the Destroyer.
is

B.

121? 5

vant.

luminary.

e dry, desolate.

sword.
tion.

same appended

particles.

allied

(1217 servant).

Moses face shone.


1

tion of dots.

Abba" (Rom.

Suggests ore.

Mn. and

deriv. the

name

of the

vowel (_),

i.e.,

collec-

THE ARTICLE.
9.

trh'nn

THE ARTICLE.

Before ordinary consonants

Sipn

23

(rarely 3?)

Before X?

*1

(generally ')...

Before ^,
T

p
T

Before P,

Before p,

bom*

T
3

tf*an
T

msn

ten*

WD

without the tone

ddpp 5

t:

The original form of the Article was ^Jp. This accounts for the
accompanying D. forte which, placed in a following consonant,
marks the assimilation of a letter ( 4. 2. b.). 1
Before gutturals,
which do not admit of doubling, the Article undergoes certain
changes, whose law has been already indicated ( 5. 1). D. forte
may be implied; then it is simply omitted, and the vowel of the
Article remains unchanged. 2 Or there may be compensation made
for the omission, the vowel of the Article being lengthened. 3 In
the second syllable from the tone, however, 4 and in all other cases
where the vowel of the article is not lengthened to
, it is deflected

to

D. forte being implied. 5

Rem.

1.

The Article in Hebrew had originally the force of a demonstrative

pronoun, and

of

still

retains

With

Rem.

2.

jns,

are changed to

Rem.

3.

When

vowel,

full

UTK

m.

nti'X
pi.

man
/

pi.

_.

some expressions.

D1TI

this day, or to-day.

pp, p,

wife

',

J22T>

and the

first

vowel

ppp, }H$C'

frequently omitted.

is

D^X

woman,

in

the consonant following the Article

D. forte

its

it

the Article the vowels of

cstr.

cstr.

"^JK-

r^TX

',

is

not supported by a

PKVI-

PX3P* 1 sound,

roar,

Pftp

w*.

noise,

multitude, abundance.

Dtfr
T

PP'2

/. earth, land.

new.
t^pp*
T T

to.

mountain.

month.

UPfp 3

to.

new moon,

DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

24

be capacious,

^3 T

>l4

able.

Q3J

H"|S*

Q^

m. people, nation.

hffi*

with.

evening.

be

Slip*

'"IS w. fruit.

Mimetic;

hum.

R.

TlPl =

horrere, be

7ip m.

seventh Jewish month was especially the Zioty month.


5
probably an Assyr. word for great house.
R. QE^
the prep,

fulness)

Gen.

52

xli.

= bind

together.

is

Hence

" Qoheleth," the Preacher of Ecclesiastes

nSnP

Tlie

^^H

origin of

Mn. "Moil,"" to which it is in idea akin. 7 Allied


s
Mn. "Ephraim" (D^IBX double fruitcf. Erebus.
or with i*|S there, may be associated berry, pear. 9 Mn.

meaning loith.
is Erebu;

Assyrian word

The

con-

Mn. "Hor"

rigid.

stiff,

voice, cry, sound,

De associated with, but discriminated from, VJ'lp ( 6 )-

To

("lit)-

cf.

^Hp

convene.

call,

vocation.
i

^S bullock

fruitful, bear.

nnB)-

(/

toil, travail.

D|"

^IDVI
T
"

temple, palace.

(i.

Sip

1).

is

Ir0m a kindred

root'c^p).

Exercise.

The

statute.

The
The

The house. 3
The sin. 5 The
The wise. 3 Thou

flock.
3

eye.
The tooth.
The mouth.
3
4
5
wisdom.
The
The talent.
darkness.
2
She (is) the woman. I (am) God (j)l-).
(art) the man.
We (are) the people. The Nile (River). 3 The earth. The
The cow. The toil. They (are) a multitude.
bullock.
8
The skin. 8 The sword. 8
The dust.

DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

10.
1.

KV1

The Demonstrative Pronoun.


that, /. Rifli

Rem.

1.

It will

pi

is

4.

1J

HpS-

be noticed that for the demonstrative pronoun of the remote

D. forte firmative (

here, now.

HlXb P^

this, /.

dh, n&JT f-p> H3H-

c.

object the 3d pers. of the personal

H7X

nj

and

)]

pronoun

4. 2. R.).

3.

is

HI

of

sometimes used adverbially

used.
is

are each used once, and

^X is found nine times for Tlbk,


5. A form HI'tH (/ ItHtTi c- t^H)

2.

f[\

The Daghes

in the

several times for J"IXT

though but once outside the Pentateuch.


f r tlie

remote object

=.

that one yonder,

occurs a few times.


2.

wvfi nj

this

is

sinn binsn-

that s reat da y-

5l

the great day.

2in3n Dl'n

"Kino Qi s n

the day-

Dvn

that da y-

binsT g^at

is

'di*lI
the day.

The demonstrative pronoun, when

1
used as such, is placed at the head of the sentence. It may be used
the substanit
follows
adjectives,
other
then,
like
as an adjective
2
If another adjective be
tive, and both usually take the article.
used, the demonstrative adjective is placed after it, and each word
;

is

usually

made

definite

by the

article.

An

adjective,

when

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND PARTICLES.


and

predicate, ordinarily precedes the substantive,

and

When

article.

The Relative Pronoun.

3.

without the

is

qualifies a substantive, as remarked, it follows it

it

the latter be definite, the adjective

if

25

wno

"ftjJJK

>

made

is

so.

wllicll j wliat

in place of the ordinary form of the relative there is not infrequently


r em
found, though mostly in the later biblical books, $, $, or ?, the X of the origi.

nal word, as
!|1

is

H2

4.

H^K
all

most suppose, having

fallen

away, while the

*)

has been assimilated.

also used as a relative fourteen times (1. r. 4).

in

PD

it,

The

where.

"tttfK in which

pronoun

relative

Often

genders, numbers, and cases.

Dttf there

indeclinable,

is
it

Dttf

>

and used for

serves as a sign of relation,

giving a relative signification to a pronoun or adverb that follows at


1
It may also be used as a conjunction in
a greater or less distance.

the sense of

Si 3

that,

become

he,

T13X2 1

wi.

Dl"

Sitt

to.

day;

good.

2110*

/.

Q^\

pi.

0";

by day.
i

Mn. " Migdol."


3

hero.

The word "

cussions over Gen.


(DT*))j

^ie name

Exercise.
statutes.

Mn. " Tobias

Yom"

i.

for

'

name, fame (R.

to.

T\12N2

De

D"J3t& heavens.

is

good), the apocryphal

day has become somewhat familiar through

(=D*QK

high father).

dis-

Mn. "Shem"

Noah.

This

HDIIfl

there.

(rPDitD Jehovah

Mn. " Abram"

of a son of

height, high place.

high); pi. nlftE?-

daily,

Qft^
T

to.

(heave) offering, tribute.

Q"; 5

^p be good, well.

goodness.

13

DllfiJ
2

as.

Q*| 4 high, exalted.

be high.

01*1

71*13 great.

great.

tower.

3itS* be good.
to.

when, because, (with ^) according

These
day. These (are) the statutes.
9
Thou (art) a
people great and (1) high.

That
great God. 2
good name. This high mountain.
9
9
This people.
All 2 which he had made (JTP2).
land.

THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND PARTICLES.

11.
1.

The Interrogative Pronouns.

re

With D.
With
(or

who ?

J""ft

which

what

Before ordinary consonants (usually with Maqqeph).


forte implied before f]

Always before

HB

tf

and

*|,

and

(rarely)

generally before

,"J-

without Qamec.

disjunctive accents ( 7).

Before , (j|, -.
Before ordinary consonants

when without Maqqeph and

distance from the principal accent of the clause.

at a

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND PARTICLES.

26
2.

^nns
T

interrogative ifo

wh

-risrnft what

thou?

art

used for persons,

is

j"^

this?

is

for things.

The

It will be

noticed that the pointing of the latter is much like that of the
The D. forte sometimes following it may be regarded as
Article.
conjunctive ( 4.

Rem.

2. r.).

The interrogative pronouns are sometimes used in the Genitive, in

1.

which case they follow the word they

Rem.

2.

How

clamatory force.

Rem.

3.

limit,

ifo

""ll^n

whose ass

may have an
3113"!"!!? how good

hefore adjectives and verhs

1"|/2

and

|-|ft

Wherefore

adverbial and ex-

are sometimes used as indefinite pronouns

whoever

(any one who), whatever.


3.

4.

my

Interrogative Particles.

ifc$

where.

Before ordinary consonants.

Before ordinary consonants with'S e wa (sometimes

Before gutturals

Before gutturals with Qamec,.

son

this?

is

ill

which? who?

H1~^

used in

implied).

(I), forte

-["I).

nnSH whether thou here (art)


( 10. r. 3).
ffi ^Htt iTrWDK whether I shall
(live) from this sickness.
^^H ^K where Abel ?

'njjl

recover
5

Q^ ^ whether,

{"J,

The inseparable

very seldom direct, questions.

alternative

is

particle

J^f

is

generally

but sometimes in indirect questions. 2

direct, 1

indirect,

is

suggested (whether

cedes, followed

by

or),

QJ$ introduces
In questions where an

pretty uniformly pre-

Qfc$ in the next, or the second clause.

found without a pronominal

suffix,

with other adverbs or pronouns,

^ when

always takes the form ^.*

it

Used

simply gives them an interroga-

tive sense. 5

Rem.
1. There may be a question asked without the use of an interrogative
pronoun or particle. 2. When a D. forte is used with ,"[ interrogative (see
Combined with the negative fcO
table) it is a D. f. separative ( 4. 2. r.).
not (fcOn)i H requires the answer yes (= nonne in Latin).
..

'21

THE INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS.


U1JX

man.

^littn

J-J32

build,

pi.

d^s)

son.

"
T

"|2

(csir.

ria

-|3

or

rpn

*b

^n o*.

,s

nri

Hfe.

ro

The family

is

Cor

Tlf2lb

up through children

built

would be 133 hence the pi.


which has the stronger |-f so

This

of a prince

Gen. xxxiii.

*Mn. "Ichabod" (TfoS

^<,

is

J -

$*h)

not.

(r PlttS) wherefore.

19.

J"Q written fully


from the following,

xvi. 2.

being.

Homer compares Ajax

Sam.

Gen.

to be discriminated

compared with

living

name

*1D,3

TiD,3

(wild) beast.

/. life,
1

rich, glorious.

meaning.

glory, wealth.

be, become.
live,

same

adj.

daughter.

iT!T2

in. ass.

*133 be heavy,

mas)

cp*.

to
5

21), inglorious.

iv.

3 Mn. "
Hamor,"
an ass (II. xi. 557).

fifth

= 'Hte

and

^=

The form HttS (and HIS?) occurs mostly before

to what, for what, wherefore.


gutturals.

Exercise.

Who

Whose daughter
these

Wherefore

me = ^)

to
Is

(p]^i Order

12.

1.

ing

to,

What

for;

thou
this

(/)

Wherefore have

I (is there

son honoreth (1331) a father. 8


9
(is) man ?
Is the people strong
?

THE INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS.

by

(for or through), with;

as, like,

according

to.

to,

unto, belong-

The pointing

of these

prepositions,

when combined with

nSD3

Before a vowel, S e wa.

"HP?

Before a S e wa, Hireq.

*TKS

Before a composite S e wa, the corresponding short vowel.

naoaaT

(are)

Is strong, etc.)

in (among),
at,

(is)

Who (art) thou


How good What

man?

that

life (pi-) ?

not this

it

(is)

(art)

other words,

Before the Article, takes

its

vowel, and

is

as follows

is

syncopated.

In the pretone often Qameg.


!

naa

and

Pause

Rem.

1.

with HIE, Pathah with DagheS


( 6. 4. r.)

When, by processes of

is

Hireq ("H3 as

fruit).

but

inflection or composition,

together at the beginning of a syllable, a

vowel

HEQ, HI33

in

and before X-

new

two S e was come


whose

(half open) syllable arises,

PREPOSITION

28
Rem.

2.

These

= (112))

IttT': 1X3

several prepositions have independent forms (i23, 1123?


>

3.

COPULATIVE.

Dut excepting 1)25, they are only used in poetry.

Before

Rem.

WAW

AND

Jft

HlITi "which generally has the vowels of "O^X (4.

by the Hateph

these prepositions take the pointing required

(Pathah), and the following S e wa disappears OntfS,

pIK

ark (of testimony)

6-

"HX" m.
n!"!3,
"
T

3 m.

lion.

*")D
/.

beast, (domestic) cattle.


t

|i"13
1

tread, walk.

way, walk.

money.

hwij 8

ask.

letter.

*1SD!2

*")SD 0)
number.

^iKir "Sheol."

priest.

May

(Sx'HX
c

T^HX "Aaron" who

be associated with
lion of

R.

God )4

hippopotamus).
etc.

"TPl"! c.

silver,

Of. 5. 4. r. 1.

write, count, recount.

m. hook,

THI 4

HUTS).

5. n.),

the latter

of

FpD

->

its

T(d)rack.

Cf.

means

Mn

cut; so 5"|p3 properly apiece (of money).

split,
8

be associated with cipher.

2 Mn. "Ariel"
kept it.
"Behemoth"
Job
xl. 15 = the
(DlftrD
P
5 Origin
of the names "Kohen," "Cohen,"
l ->

The word

and so would mean the place that

is

^"JXttJ

^y some derived from

always demanding.

More

"May
this

likely its

r.

r.

is

7!?tt% tue derivative meaning the sunken place.

To

the number.
To the woman. 9 By wisAmong cattle. In the palace. 9 In a dream. 3 In
dom.
In the land. 9 Like an ass. 11 As the dust. 8
the dream.
According to all. 2 According to the number. Like (the)
10
9
For (2)
people, so (= like the) priest. On (in) that day.
Exercise.
3

In Jehovah.

silver.

THE PREPOSITION

13.

from, out

7^

of.

is

Jft

AND

WAW

COPULATIVE.

generally found independently written with

and often in poetry. 1 In other cases it is


with
the
word to which it is prefixed, the final 7
wont to coalesce
including
being assimilated ( 4. 2. r.). 2 In the case of gutturals
and *"],
the article when j is not connected with it by Maqqeph
words having the

article,

which a Daghes cannot stand, there is compensation made for


by heightening the vowel. 3 With J^ and *7,
however, D. forte is sometimes implied ( 5. I). 4

in

the omission of Daghes

Rem.
"HS19

1.

In

of fruit

Rem.

2.

letters

having S e wa the

forte

I),

may

be omitted

( 9. r. 3).

If

the word with which

the latter to form


implied.

5. 4. a. 1.

"Ifo

coalesces begins with

rniiTJp from Judah

it

unites with

but ffi,Tjj th e word ^'fX being

THE STRONG VERB.


2

'p&OT

(but, or, etc.).

"tyjj

^iii,

The conjunction

20

te^ ^:^
4

as copulative

*]

D ^'

and
1

ordinarily pointed

is

with S e wa; but before a guttural with a Hateph, with the corresponding short vowel 2 before the labials or another simple S e wa,
with a dot in its bosom; 3 immediately before the tone syllable,
;

when connecting words associated in


cud of a clause, with Qamec. 4
especially

Placed before words beginning with \

Rem.
"H

(rRUTl and Judah)

unites with the latter to form

excepting with HliTi where

and at the

pairs,

becomes \

it

harmony

in

with principles already noticed.

THD reign,
robp-

become

THJ? 1

king.

rvoSfc

npSaa

/.

Hp*l2C

Mn.

" Melchizedek "

Exercise.

,>T

right-

J2

the house. 3

From

tree.

(i)

righteousness.

w-

righteousness.

De

before.

CID

(&>

""IP

xiv. 18).

The

before

pi. is

used for sticks

From
From

the land. 9

From
From

without. 2

1.

The

^t05-

Bread
cattle.

12

earth.

THE STRONG VERB.

14.

form

m. the

said to have brought the original

is

From a kingdom. And I.


And righteousness (/.). And

The heavens 10 and the

eastward.

Jerusalem (D^^hT.).
(DPI7) and water.

m. east

-It

nftlp*

east,

(plir'obfc Gen.
Kd5fj.os, who

From

'Adhonay.

wind.

3
wood, timber, etc.
Mn.
Greek alphabet from the east.

of

3
D*1p*
-It

niS^tt) / kingdom.
VV 2 (/-"flXS) tree, wood.
p*T2 be just, righteous.

p !^

eous.

(/

(or

roots

from which Hebrew words in their present

derived consist almost invariably of three (unpointed)

are

consonants

although there are a few words having four or five

(quadriliterals, quincpieliterals) ."

"T

~T

Verbs are

the radicals they contain.

more of the following

~ T

classified as strong or

weak according

Weak

TT

to the nature of

verbs are such as have one or

letters as radicals

ff \

1,

J"[>

or re P e &t

a Words
composed of more than three root letters have been generally formed
from pre-existing triliterals just as many triliteral roots may be referred to
;

original biliterals.

THE STRONG VERB.

30

The names given

2
the second radical letter as a third.

kinds of weak verbs are derived from the verb ^^iS

different

which was formerly used in

(to do),

letter is J is called a

^^S-

whose middle

letters

accordingly,

Rem.

In

is

is

''"ft;

and

is

They

while

KiSD
TT

an(^ PIT5 )! are

TT

it is

compared with other strong

true, as

but they do not, like the weak verbs,

3. c

root.

Plus.

Sing.

Pluk.

m.

3. /.

verbs,

call for

Perfect.

Sing.

3.

named,

changes in the consonants themselves which make up the

The

^ ne

verbs having gutturals as radicals are classified as

require,

certain changes in vocalization

3.

in

g}

called a

Jf' ?.

Grammar

this

^"^

strong verbs.

standing in the place of

letter

S"J^
4
One whose second
% an y'JJ or i"^.
The verb
are the same is called an $'"$?

respectively,

A verb whose first

inflection.

letter is ^ or

and third root

-T

3"/ the

wnose nrs t

vei'b

A-

^TK

to the

n_

Stpp he

TO.
.

iSpp

3 c

killed

she killed

they killed

DflSlDp ye

3. /

nStpp

2. to.

D^tDp thou

killedst

2. /.

VlSpp

riStbp thou

killedst

I.e..

.$&&& we

2. to.

killed

m.

nn

... T\

2.

2. /.

2.

/..... Jfl

2. /.

i.e.

...VI

1. e.

2.

The
to

JPl

i. c

ye killed
killed

I killed

VlbtDp

formed by appending
stem the above shortened forms of the Personal

so-called Perfect of the strong verb is

the simple

Pronoun (8).
Rem.

1.

The

The

obvious.

immediate origin of most of these pronominal fragments

ending J"J_ i I0r

always takes when other


ending VI

is,

at one time

an

most

|*|

found Deut.

Rem.
;

2.

It will

viii. 3,

16

3.

As

here recalled.

The ending

it

is

Isa. xxvi. 16),

P\,
T

however, the tone

letter,

The ending

be noticed that the endings

in all other cases,

Rem.

4),

which

on the

is

indeed, the verb

and sometimes without them.

in "Ojtf.

old plural ending of masculine nouns.

tone

The

seems to have been

and

originally una,

from ^flj.
and
!)3 do not take the
Vl,
13 is

final syllable.

respects vocal changes, certain earlier statements should be

The vowels

a, e, u, in the final syllable of the verb, are volatilized


beginning with a vowel, and having the tone ( 6. 5. e.).
few cases, to be hereafter noted, are excepted from this rule.

immediately before

suffixes are added,

likely, for

(still

H_

1-

affixes

THE INFINITIVES AND IMPERATIVE.


pS distinguish, perceive, understand.
P3 between. Hi"-!*/- understand1

n^nri*/- same.

ing-

uncover, reveal.

strip,

ilhi"

,"1713*
T

T T

3 sit,

m.
1

dwell, be enthroned. DtTltt*

draw

hlDp

kil1

near.

(poetic).

break (mn. shiver)


*!DtT
T

IDtb

sel1

grain

as denom.

120?* (*D&)

breach, destruction, grain.

seat, dwelling.

an d T3i on the one hand, and p3 and ?3 n on the


fiv3 "Goliath," meaning the polished, brilliant (cf.

p3

Distinguish between
2

other.

derivative

" Sabbath."
he found.

An

2"|I] 8).

hit,

find.

tl?33

of

/. captivity, captives.

^'EV'

K^?p 4

31

allied root of

rQ'iT (be firm,

rest)

with

natural mn.

its

he went
K2T
T T

( 5) in the order X2ft,

X!T

Belongs to a class of verbs beginning with

Exercise.

12

wrote. 4

Which he

They have trodden.

Ye have

12

He

wrote.

He

wrote in
13

reigned

in Jeru-

have broken Moab pKlft).

ruled.

Thou hast counted.

She has

12

Rem. Pers. pr. as subjects of verbs are only to be expressed when

15.

italicized.

THE INFINITIVES AND IMPERATIVE.


Imperative.

Infinitives.

1.

forth,

having the meaning

33,

etc.

salem (D^tthT).
ruled.

Associate with

push, strike,

the book.

is

Inf. construct

Inf. absolute

7I0p

to kill

7ltDp

killing

Sing.

2.

m.

2. /

Plur.

2.

m.

2. /.

7tQp

kill

thou

"btop k iH thou
kill

*hl2p

ye

kin ye

n:Siop

The two Infinitives are, strictly speaking, verbal nouns, and indeThe Inf. cstr. has a changeable vowel
pendent of one another.
the Inf. dbs. is unchangeable in form, the 6 in the last syllable
coining not from
but being an obscured d.

2-

'tt^Knt -|i^3 wn en

ceased to count.

The
uses.

respective

The

3l,

nHi3

names

the

man

kept.

2m

\%ob blil
_ t

HbS

visiting I

(=1

he

surely) visited.

of the Infinitives describe fairly well their

Inf. cstr. is

used in construction with prefixed preposi-

THE INFINITIVES AND IMPERATIVE.

32

tions (^, 3, 3,
J^),

with pronominal suffixes;

as well as

may

it
2

govern substantives or be governed by them, or by verbs.


The
Inf. abs. serves to emphasize the abstract idea of its root without

by subject or

limitation
it

Used before a verb

object.

in a finite form,

usually emphasizes the fact of the action expressed by

same

after one, it has the

effect, or,

more

it

used

often, expresses the idea

of continuance.

Rem.

The

construct

formed by the prefixing

syllable

generally half open

is

but to this rule

of a preposition to the Inf.

a special exception (

is

3. 4.

foot-note).

^tOD from an

3.

original

^ftp-

should De noted that the

ground-form of the Imperative (and Impf,

16)

is

the same as the

Inf. cstr.

Rem.

Of the pronominal endings,

(perhaps from &na,

14. 3. k. 1)

,13 is

1_

^b.T

4.

not

let

hhu

The Imp.

kill.

command

kilL

8. 1.K.2);

bbpri"b8

(never

^bp'^K)
When

used in the second person only.

is

!)

7}

( 8).
,13,1
"
T

from "^X (= J1X>

is

from

do
a

given in the third person, the Imperfect ( 16) is


as also in the second person when a negative is required

used; 1

is

(prohibition). 2

Rem.
see 12.

Rem.

In

1.

explanation of the vowel of the

2.

The

ibp may

form

"vtpp, lbt?p

appear in the lengthened form ,11t0p,


T
It

#fe

being added, and the original

(H_)

first syllable of

k. 1.

Holem

(5), placed

ing in a shut, toneless syllable Qame-hatuph (o, 2.

3.

under the word, becomThis lengthened

r.2).

sometimes called the emphatic Imperative. As a matter of fact, it more


often softens the command, making it an entreaty or an expression of strong

form

is

desire.

Sv$ not (with Jussive, etc.).

ttfTT

IH

blfift

leave
3

point.

off,

rule.

cease.

blPft

visit

10^
(judicially),

Mn. "Midrash"

Associate with

lin
- T

ing of the noun.


5

begin.

"QtT

grave, sep-

keep,

observe.

nittttJfc

commentary on the Talmud.

= place in order (marshal); hence themean(the eyes).


Of. IpS ("Pekah") blossom.
,

open wide

Mn. Cover (by accommodation), the

ciated with

explanation, a

R.

post, watch, ordinance.

muster, ap-

(t^llft),
49

R.

visitation, charge.

ulchre.

similitude,

proverb.

IpS 4

HIPS*/-

CllpS t precepts.
12p 5 bury. n5p (i)

seek.

(break, keep).

r.

meaning heap

up.

It

may

be asso-

THE IMPERFECT AND PARTICIPLES.

To

Bury thou.
bury.
To rule over (3)
The man 9 (asking) asked
To keep the way.
12
To (7) seek Jehovah. Inquire of (seek)
first).

Exercise.

the day.
(verbs

10

He

Jehovah.

(=

visited

Thou hast

I surely

visited the earth.

Slno

THE IMPERFECT AND PARTICIPLES.

0.1)1.

.*].

Plub.

Sing.

Plite.
1

3. TO.

SbiT

he will

3. to.

iblDiT / they will

l:

\ kill
^tfipn
/ she will
l:
\ kill
thou wilt
2. TO. ^ftpfi
l:
\ kill
2./. ^StDpfi f thou wilt

3./. ffi.

3. /.

ftyyQpn
T:

3. /

m.

2.

m.

.V n

2. f.

2./. n:-

.'

!l:

I.e....

I.e.

.3

1. c

?BP

f I

l:

'

will

1. C

but takes prefixes

The former
always
the

713133
"

act

the gender and number.

takes prefixes,

in the other,

Rem. The origin of


13173-

affix

we

will

kill

throughout.

The reason why

while the Perf. has only

the several prefixes

The

Those

lies

affixes,
is laid

more

The other

and

affixes

it is

not possible to

fix

from
and th e

of the 1st Pers. are, respectively,

prefixed to the 2d Pers.

from H3Hi H3riX-

,*|3

ye win

\kiii

on the one acting.

with certainty in every instance.

^Xi

will

kill

generally affixes only in

single consonants

largely in the fact that, in the one case, the emphasis

on the

kill

are due to the circumstance that the prefixes do not

suffice to indicate

Im/pf.

of

,:

It will be observed that the Imp/, has

\
\

rraapn
*

\kill

the pZ.;

2. /.

\kill

J they will

2.TO...!|bBpn/ye

"

^_ -n

'

"

kill

3./....
2.

The Imperfect.

1.

m.

counting (to count). 12

off

left

visiting, I v.).

16.

3.

33

is

from

HnX DFl&

affixes of the

2d Pers. (%

etc
1)

have been

explained ( 14. 4. k. 1). Of the prefixes of the 3d pers., J") may be supposed
to be the original feminine ending of the noun.
The prefix *, it has been
suggested, represents an original ya

(still

vowel has been thinned to _, but with


2.

The terms

Perf.,

found
( 5. r.

in Arabic).

In most cases the

under Exercise) deflected to _.

Impf, as applied to the Hebrew verb

(notwithstanding the translations appended in the tables above),

do not, properly speaking, represent tenses. The former refers to


what is completed, especially in the past, but also in the present or
future
the latter to what is incomplete, especially to something
about to be entered upon, though also to what has been already
;

THE IMFERFECT AND PARTICIPLES.

34

The Per/, is employed in prophecies and asseverawhere the event is looked upon as certain; the Impf., in
speaking of what is possible, may or ought to be. Either may be
used of what is customary and of general truths, according to the
entered upon.

tions,

point of view.
TJie Participles.

3.

7tDp

killing

bltDp

killed

Part, active

Part, passive

The simple stem


ciples

and even

of the verb alone (Qal

see

19) has two parti-

remnant of

here, the Part. pass, appears to be the

a lost passive verbal form of this stem

used in Arabic).
4. The Participles may be used either as nouns (verbal) or
adjectives take prefixes (the Article and prepositions) and suffixes
to indicate gender and number, or (pronominal, to indicate) the
relation of government or dependence with respect to some person
(still

or thing.

The

5.

but may refer


something just about to take place or

Participles mostly indicate present time

to the future, especially to

to the past, in a context descriptive of a past event.

Rem.

The

scured to
qatul),

o,

it is

original

and

form of the Part.

heightened to

is

1
drive out,
ET-13*
-

""I3D
-

The Part,

changeable.

the Imp. and Impf. on the Inf.

tO^ft

act.

2
m. comtt^JB
T
:

tOvt m. one

escaped.

"ItlJp*
-

rQU? 8

rest, cease.

grass), devour.

c.

S"|2ip * (i)

m. anger.

bind, conspire.

R.

= make

rQttJ

Properly a drive (for

smooth (and escape).

break through (and escape)

divide,

Span, seguro (Eng. secure).


cut, break.

?"JS2

Sabbath.

escape, deliverance.

Cf Sansc. gras (Eng.


""DIP from ""Ol (6).

cover, keep, lay up.

F|5p * G be angry.

escape.

ob-

(orig.,

North.

cover, close up, shut.

but one

The a has been

while the first,


is unchangeable
based on the Perf. of the verb, as

is

J2*

precincts, suburbs.

ntS^B *

qatil.

cstr.

escape.

{^^2* 3

was

In the Part, pass., on the other hand

the vowel of the second syllable that

being tone long,

mon,

e.

cf.

plat.

Same

r.

So called as the covered, dark region.

This word means break loose, break out in anger.

fast, hard, stiff.

cattle).

Mn. "Sabbath."

Cf. 2ttT, 14.

Cf.

The next word

'

letters as
6

R.

Vp =

R, tjp

= be

INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

(Imp/.).

(verb

am driving
And 13 the door 3

Exercise.

They

up.

act.).

And it (Slfl) was shut (Part.


ye shall describe 4 (write) the land. 9

will conspire.

And

INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

17.

^fcOp-

1-

out (Part.).
They drive out
he shut. Y e howah will shut

Shut ye the door. He will be angry. Jam


The goodness 10 which thou hast laid

first).

angry (Part.
pass.).

35

Th e

*irfi' ?t0 p-

On

that of the second syllable.

principal vowel of the verb is

that

is

generally based the distinc-

The verbs already

tion between verbs transitive and intransitive.

and are commonly called middle


a verbs. 1 There are others which have e ( 2 or 6 ( ) 2 in the
second syllable, and are called middle e or middle o verbs. The

treated have a

( )

in that position,

latter classes are generally intransitive, or, as others

They

stative, verbs.

most

indicate, for the

condition of the subject.


2.

nns-

^S^.

e^ n_

nns
-

paragogic,

Verbs middle

mM
t

state or

is. 4. r. 2).

are inflected in the Perf.

name them,

some

part,

and

Inf. abs.

middle a (see table of Strong Verbs). In the Inf. cstr., 1


Imp., and Impf., s they are generally said to take a ( ) in the
second syllable.
As a matter of fact, most of the Inf. cstrs. of
middle e verbs end in o. a

like verbs
2

^JfcbrSt
|t

lilted|,t
t

Verbs middle o retain

DniS2DT

o,

|:

under the tone, throughout the Perf.


but in an open syllable without the tone it becomes S e wa ( 14. 3. r. 3) 2 and in a shut syllable
without the tone, Qamec-hatfiph (2. r. 2). 3 In the forms following the Perf, verbs middle e and middle o conform to the same law
1

of vocalization, excepting the Participles (Qal;

take the form of the Perf


a

7pT,

The middle

verbs,

(3.

s.

strong and weak,

ran, Titti kj&b, tfnr *n\ nna,

SQ^,

JO'ttN 7Stt?>

I n addition,

see 19),

which

m.). b

there

is

most used are the following

*6a

(trans, or intrans.),

na, biUi

a considerable number of verbs which

ground-form are either middle e or a, but which are always middle e in


Pause ( 6. 4. r.), and take e as a pretonic vowel before a suflix, in all cases without
change of sense.
6 The
following are the more common middle o verbs
TiX? t$l3? 2ltDi
*?3\ }tS(5in the

VAV

IMPERFECT AND

36
Rem.

1.

Both

forms of the Inf.

CONSECUTIVE.
7tDpi *133t

cstr.,

m &y

take a feminine

rH33)i and may then be used either as proper infinitives or


These forms are mostly found in the intransitive verbs.

ending (,T7t0p>
substantives.

Rem. 2.
There are about thirty middle a verbs which take a also in the
second syllable of the Impf. (Qal) and about twenty that may have either a or 5.
:

^13
Jlt

be ashamed.
2

beold.

X'T 3 be

Dt^S*

/-

shame.

biV

KT fearing.

afraid.

Mn. " Ishbosheth" (nttD't^Ni. 2 Sam.


being old and "cane" (7p) is not remote.
and

">

*]

are interchangeable in certain

and sound, "wary."

Mn. "Millo"

of ancient Jerusalem,

Kings

25), originally so called

'"'g

= the

Was

Lowlands, one of the

Exercise.

Abraham

Abraham was very

And

(been foolish).

This

small.

Thou

(/.) will

like the

Sam. xxv.

fool, 1

unstrung cord of a

Mn. "Joktan"

viol.

(JtOp^, Gen.
7

"She-

southern Palestine.

was

old

r.

(see

Thou hast acted

He

(r. 2).

am

will be humbled.

They were not 11


Jehovah

1).

foolishly

the leaf (il^^) has faded.

be small

art

With a

1.

usually

finite

able.

She

shall be glorious.

11

2.

In a nominal sentence (substantive

predicate (substantive, adjective, or participle), the order

its

subject, predicate.

Rem.

verb (a verbal sentence), the order of words in a sentence

(negative) verb, subject, object.

or pronoun) with
is

(DiTHDS)
11

letter.

in sense

fear (Part.) God.


Rem.

is

/-

the Filling, fortification, a part

he smaller or simply younger?

humbled (Perf.).
was not able. I was able.

first

and J^l approaches,

districts of

rich.

The connection between

Mn. "Nabal" (733

from unresponsiveness,

a descendant of Shem.

phelah"

JlbStt?

Note also form of

verbs

(J$1 T^fl

ix. 15).

8).

ii.

Note the same general idea in the other words.


x. 25),

low, humbled.

plain, valley.

^2tT*
foolish, wither, fade.

ftQp small.

small.

|13p

fulness.

be (lax)

foiiy.

/.

1^33 */

'

TtOpt ^ e small, young.

K^befull. K^fulL Vbti*m.


5

m. psaltery.

(i)

corpse.

HK'T*

/. fear.

733

hbaat

foolish,

boo.t

|[5told.

An

adverb limiting an adjective follows

In this Exercise the Impfs.

it.

are in a.

LENGTHENED FORM OF THE IMPERFECT AND

18.

WAW

CONSECUTIVE.

L
let

us

nbftpij!
kill,

it

I will kill, let

me

(I

has been seen ( 15.

would
4. e.

like to) kill;

nbb|?3

2; 17. 2) that the Imp.

WAW

IMPEKFECT AND
besides

CONSECUTIVE.

ordinary form has also a lengthened one, generally

its

Following this analogy, there

expressive of strong desire, entreaty.

a lengthened form of the Imp/, called

also

is

37

the

Cohortative.

formed in the same way as the lengthened Imp. by appending ah (J"J ) to the ordinary form. 1 This paragogic )"|__ takes the
It is

tone like

and

the 1st Pers.

With few

exceptions,

and pi), but occurs in

(s.

it is

all

found only with

classes of verbs,

in all Imperfects excepting, naturally, the Passives.

and

It indicates

the special direction of the will toward the act, and carries the idea
of purpose, wish, or exhortation (pl.). x

Rem.

That

the vowel originally under the tone

the latter attracting the tone to


sidered (

").

6.

R.

in

itself, is

is

volatilized before ah,

harmony with a law already

con-

14. 3. r. 3).

"In those days Hezekiah was sick (Perf)


Waw consecutive.
and (Waw consecutive) there came (Impf.) to him Isaiah
" Lest he put
and (Waw consec.) said (Impf.) " 2 Kings xx. 1.
forth (Impf.) his hand and (Waw consec.) take (Perf.)
and
(Waw consec.) live (Perf.) forever": Gen. iii. 22. It has been
J

2.

.*.

observed ( 16. 2) that the Perf. and Impf of the Hebrew verb
are not limited to the expression of time past and future respec-

They have

tively.

also a still

more marked peculiarity in their


In a narrative of past events,

relation of sequence to one another.

for example, only the first of the verbs is ordinarily put in the Perf.

Those that follow are in the Impf, the narrative being looked
upon as continuous from that point.
On the other hand, if a series
1

of events be regarded as taking place in the future, the verb intro-

ducing the narrative will be put in the Impf; while those that
follow will be in the Perf., the matter described being looked upon
by the narrator as completed (in the future). 2 This peculiar consecution of the Perf. and Impf.

is

indicated by

Waw

consecutive

when

joined to a Perf. or Impf. that


verb next preceding.

tion

that

is,

by a

*[

what

is

known

as

so pointed as generally to denote


it

sustains this peculiar rela-

to- the

Rem.
Rem.

1.

2.

The original form of Waw consec. was wa


Waw consec. always joined the verbs successively which
(l).

is

expected to
If this

order

is

it

is

head of the connected clauses.


broken (in prose), a new start has to be made.

affect,

same being placed

to

the

at the

It is not necessary, though usual, that Waw consec. should be


preceded by a verb in the Perf. or Impf. An Imp. or Part., or some statement
For
or implication of past or future time, may suffice to begin the series.
example, a number of books of the Rible begin with the Impf. and Waw consec,
implying the existence of the book or books preceding.

Rem.

3.

WAV

IMPERFECT AND

38

^bp'l

3.

Imp/, of

and he

With

*"|*3i$).
-

killed.

CONSECUTIVE.

HftX s l and he

Waw

the Imp/.,

said

HfcK*

consec. has its original

form.

("|)

and on account of

the letter following,

wa

if

being a syllable prefixed,

final to

it

not already on

is

Still further,

toward it, from the


if the latter be an open syllable,
with a corresponding change

attracts the tone

the penultimate syllable

and the tone

close connection with its word,

its

not a guttural, has D. forte. 1

it

(shortening) of the final vowel ( 3. 3). 2

Before X
Rem. 1.
becomes 1 (5.

consec.

of the 1st Pers.,


1).

Rem.

2.

3.

Rem.

4.

books

9. u. 3).

forte is omitted ( 4. 2.

s.

retains the tone on the final syllable.

is

not infrequently

joined to the Cohortative form


form

\ and D.

is

bfiSjTl-

The 1st Pers.


Waw consec.

for a shortened

Waw

forte,

v IT

Before the prefix \ the pointing

footnote;

Rem.

which does not admit a D.

^IflpKl-

of the Impf.,

mostly, however,
and

!T~|2*2JNfl

when such a form

is

kept.

Its

*"|2iOIT

in the later

usual

demand

possible, will be specially

noted hereafter.
4.

and he
StO^I
- |t

'

will kill

and
J"pm
T T

With the

and thou shalt stand.


rn^2!^1
- it
t
:

it

will (be)

come

to pass.

Perf.,

Waw

consec. takes

Waw copulative

the pointing of

and the tone

is

( 13)

under the same circumstances,

often thrown forward upon the final syllable,

The

not already there. 2

if it

be

projection of the tone serves to distinguish

from Waw copulative. It also well indicates the force


with the Perf, the thought being thrown forward by
into the future, in harmony with the verb that precedes."

Waw

consec.

of the former
it

fQT 1
lice,

slaughter, (especially for) sacri-

naj(i)

PQlp
-fit

H33
"1

u>g-

m.

Ifch 3

altar.

|3*TP*
-fit m. male.

some forms)

learn, (in

^p draw

slaughtering, sacrifice.

remember,

near.

ift

3*115
'

(i)

teach.

m. midst.

sacrifice.

3*fin

near, neighbor.

slaughter, (especially for) eat-

rattf

^
(executioner).

- t

hear.

.TOStf*/. report
*

>

slaughter.

Qf. ("DID-

Mn. "Zechariah"

distinguishes the male

CnaSfi) =

JT,** guard
n2tD

rQtb t m.
1

"

that which

(*i*THID*i

(sexually) as
is

taught.

Jehovah has remembered).

-Ql

3 Mn. "Talmud"
rD[53 the female.
5 Mn.
Mn. "Corban" (Mk. vii. 11).

"Ishmael" (b>Gat"J"' Godheareth).

The shifting of the tone never occurs in Pause ( 6. 4. n.) with the 1st Pers.
when another tone syllable would immediately follow or in certain other
forms of the Strong and Weak verbs to be noted when they occur.

pi.

VOICES OF THE VERB.

Let us draw near.

Exercise.

hear! (Impf. =5?Dt^%

And

ye shall sacrifice.

39

keep 10 this
Let us hear.

17.2).

(w.c.) I

( 15. 4. r. 2).

remembered.

And

(w.c.)

They

shall

hear and (w.c.) shall keep. And (w.c.) thou shalt stand. 5
He heard and (w.c.) kept. I have heard and (w.c.) will
remember. In (S) the midst. And (w.c.) God remembered

Noah (nrnifc

vocab.).

2.

19.

1-

The

/t5!"3-

one of

( 14), is

ground-form. 1

throughout

is

Per/.

3.

s.

ra.

of the verb, as inflected above

simplest forms, and

its

Cf.

VOICES OF THE VERB.

16.

5.

called the Qal

accordingly taken as a

is

r.

For the same reason

(i.e.,

light) stem.

this

stem

Rem. 1.
The Hebrew verb is found in lexicons and generally cited in grammars under this form, excepting verbs yjy and v "^ ( 14. 2) whose Inf. cstr. is
given,

T\}fo rule

Rem.

as though

Rem.
vowels)
( 14. 1)

(Q"1

were an

li

rise up.

This

^13p
- It

Inf. cstr.

same form

kill,

of the Q.

the verb
or to

kill

is
;

translated in vocabularies

lit.,

he has

killed.

when stripped
Hebrew words of three

(theoretically,

generally used to represent the root of

of

its

letters

though a nominal root of the same form may exist alongside of it


or *ini)
an d there is a class of verbs called Denominatives,

= ""Ol

which

7HS

it

3.

is

but fflp to

For convenience this form of

2.

is

derived directly from nouns,

ve

m a tent,

from

b?B
by*:

7n& 33

themselves

primitive

Qal
Niph'al

Qal

btop)

Niqtal

b$&

Pi'el

bp

Qittel

bvs

Pu'al

Stop

Quttal

by&nri

b^an

Hithpa'el
Hiph'il

Hoph'al
T

or derivative.

tent.

^BjSffl

Hithqattel

b^pri

Hiqtil

bfc$r\

Hoqtal

Besides the primitive stem of the verb (Qal), there are several
others based

upon

the verbal idea.


the

name

it and used to express various modifications of


These different formations have generally received

" Conjugations "

but they are less incorrectly

named

THE NIQTAL.

40

The derived stems

Voices.

by means of

formed from the Q. stem


vowel changes, and the repetition of

(or voices) are

prefixes, certain

the second or third radical

letter.

The

Hebrew

several Voices of the

verb (excepting Qal) have commonly received their names from the
forms they took with the verb ^5JS3> which was formerly used as a

paradigm

( 14. 2).

But

since that verb has been rejected as a para-

digm, because poorly adapted to the purpose, and

has been

^2D

seems more practical to use the latter


Familiarity with the old names, howas the basis of designation.
ever, will be found necessary in using the lexicon and other grammars hence both are given. Few verbs appear in all the Voices
generally substituted for

it, it

some

are found only in a single one.

deceive,

*T3S*
"TJ3

(i)

7?p he light, hold


?hhp* f curse.

treacherously.

deal

a garment.

^73 h take (prey, a city,

etc.),

light,

curse.

choose

3Dttf
-

settle,

lie

down.

Mttfc)
T

out.

to.

lying down, bed.

Hj57

Dip

takerise up,

height.

/.

(Hi.) establish.

Qipft

c.

D2\2? rise U P

Hftlp

m.

place.

The connection between noun and verb seems

DDE?

( eai"ly).

shoulder.

to be the

robe and rob, the garment being the thing oftenest stolen.

same

as between

This and the pre-

ceding word are to be carefully distinguished in form and sense. 3 Mn. ra\ei8d
5 This word and the next
4 Mn. Qal.
kov/j.= "Damsel, Arise !" Mk. v. 41.

The

should be associated.

root of each

means

to

bow, that of

Q^ ^
1

to let

down

the shoulder (used of the camel, etc.) for the (early) morning burden.

Per/.

Part.

20.

THE NIQTAL

btOp]

Inf. cstr.

Stop}

Inf. abs.

(Niph'al).

Imp.

^fijjjJl

^H

(or

Imp/.

^bp3)

StppH

StSp^

1. This Voice is formed by prefixing } to the primitive stem.


Throughout the Strong verb its original vowel a has been thinned to i.
The prefix } actually appears only in the Perf., Part., and one form
In the Inf. cstr. and related parts, the syllable in
of the Inf. abs.
Mn for distinctness is used, whose n is then assimilated to

the

first

radical ( 4. 2. k.).

The

aspirate

J"|

is

used with

it,

41

THE NIQTAE.
except in the Impf., which has prefixes of

own, where

its

}"J

is

syncopated.
Rem.
fixed 3

1.

The

characteristic sign of the Ni.

is

and

for the Perf.

Part, a pre-

for the remaining parts a U. forte (compensative) in the first radical.

Rem.

2.

The

tone in the

diately.

XJ

Rem.

3.

Exercise).

Rem.

"Ifttibn

The

Inf.,

Imp., and Impf.

when a
take neecl now

the last syllable becoming

generally retracted

is

(_

in

it

imme-

( 5. R.

under

syllable having the tone follows

Impf.

1. s.

may

take

as well as -^ with

tf

btDpX-

4.

The

second form of the Inf. abs.

is

based on the Perf. as the

first

follows the Inf. cstr.

Rem.
quite

5.

The

inflection of the Ni.,

on the basis

of these typical forms, is

analogous to that of Qal.

keep;

^ft^j

2.

^ft^J

keep oneself, take heed.

*"flnbury;

"13D3 be buried. In meaning the Ni. is either reflexive (occasionally


passive 2 of the Qal.
reciprocal), or
what is now more common

rV-Q
*'
233
-

/-

steal.

cover, atone.

break

V*-|S break,

covenant.

THS* 5

in.

(i)

m.

a breach.

*"l3

lion.

*|S3

to.

a young

'^""lE

cut, cut off.

^3fc 4

sell.

to.

R.

The young

"cover.'"

eyes.

Uzzah, 2 Sam.

vi. 8.

lion
4

was so

called

Note 2d

fTIS

on account

Cf. Lat. mercator,

Mn. " Pharisee " =

"

Exercise.

HIS
Cf.

(" cut

""Dp-

15

of his luxuriant main.

merchant,

the separated.

Mn. "Salaam" (= peace), a form

Cf. the root-letters

and

nab.

syl.,

are allied in sense (the idea of the rider being of one

breaks away).
8

QiSttJ

(mostly pi.)

smite, destroy.

cut (like that of n"l3)> so, separate, decide.

The bribe covered the

\1HS

D^tT 7

peace-offering.

a covenant") are often found together.

Mn.

rider, riding-horse.

peace.

^tt? 8
1

break, spread, scatter.

O^ttj be whole, well, at peace.

(cover of the ark) mercy-seat.

1"H3 *

^*] m.

rH S3 * /

bribe.

to.

*V3

The

who

Mn. "Perez"
roots

^HS and

springs forward,

of salutation in the East,

with the consonants of "smite."

And

if.CDK 2

it

shall be stolen (Ni.).

And

And he

(w.c.)

(w.c.) that soul (ttf^i/.) shall be cut off.

And
shall not be sold.
thou (w.c.) shalt spread abroad. In peace. They shall be
scattered.
And I (w.c.) shall be destroyed. Ye shall be
To be destroyed.
utterly (Ni. Inf. abs. 15. 2) destroyed.
11
(Ni.
I will be sanctified 6 (Ni.).
I will be honored
16
Cohort.).
Shut thyself in (Ni.).
He was shut in.
shall be sold.

The land

(/.)

THE QITTEL, QUTTAL, AND HITHQATTEL.

42

THE aiTTEL (Pi'el), dUTTA! (Pual), AND


HITHQATTEL (Hithpael).

21.

^pnn

per/.

bp

inf. cstr

btsp.

inf. abs

bp_ (btipj

imp

htop

impf.

St3|T

bi?

bprp.

Pan

StspE

btepn

btspno

b$

^i*?nn

Sbp

Stsf^nn

S^prin
:

1.

The most

characteristic

mark

of the middle radical throughout

of these Voices

common

another,

is

the doubling

to the first two,

The
the S e wa (originally a vowel) under the preformatives.
vowel in the first syllable of Qi. (orig. a, as in Q., Ni.) has been
thinned in the Perf. to i, though appearing in all the other forms of
The original vowel of the
this Voice and everywhere in Hithq.
second syllable (a) appears in all forms of the Perf. having affixes
beginning with a consonant (see table below) elsewhere in the Qi.
and Hithq. it has been thinned to i, and then, under the influence of
In the Inf. abs., <5 of the
the tone, heightened to
(2. table).
final syllable is from an original & (as in Q.).
is

e"

Rem.
is

1.

Rem.

>

The

prefix ft in the Participles of these

connected with the Interrogative Pronoun,

s.

2.

Three

72%

m.

Rem.

3.

D33,

2.

The Qu.

in the

still

vowel " u (rarely

who

).

in Pause, take e instead of e in the Perf.

o)

middle radical of verbs of these Voices

not supported by a

letter is

is

and the following Voices

"lD-

The D. forte

dropped when such

when not

verbs,

(one

1ft

full

vowel

further characterized by a so-called

in

the

first syllable.

may be

( 4. 2. foot-note).

"

dark

It lacks the Inf. cstr.

(except Ps. cxxxii. 1) and the Imp.

The Hithq.

formed directly from the Qi. by restoring the


first syllable and prefixing the syllable Hith.
In the Impf. and Part., which are provided with other prefixes, the
3.

original

weak

Rem.

vowel of

is

its

of the prefix

If

the

first

J"|J"I

radical

is

syncopated after such prefixes.

is

a sibilant (

1.

5), the fl OI the prefix

places with

it,

for euphonic reasons (as *"|2rHTn I0r ""IfttTnn)-

that sibilant

is

2,

t3

(as

p'HtO^n

the

J"l

not only changes places with

for p*12nn)-

it,

but

is itself

If>

changes
further,

changed to

K again, the stem begin with the Linguals

THK QlTTEL, QUTTAL, AND HITHQ ATTEL.


rii

43

each), the J"l of the prefix is


or tO (occasionally ], D
ttf, "1, T, once
it, the same being indicated by I), forte compensative (as ~|,""ltSn

*1>

assimilated to

for "iniSrin purify oneself).

"Q ^

4.

shiver (Q. break).

t\**\*\ persecute (Q. follow)


4

teach (Q. learn).

233 be

bury many (Q. bury).

^3p

recount, relate (Q. count)

|SD
The

stolen.

Qi.

*lft7

Voice as related to the

2
1
Q. mostly carries the idea of intensity, including that of repetition
3
of
Qi.
(somethe
Passive
The
is
causation.
Qu.
occasionally that of

times of the

Q.).

sanctify oneself.

'^'"Iprin

5.
3

nriSriH

( 5 2 )

lit n*^

tne y

^^'^p,'"! look at one another.

P en for oneself.

wiu

*n?ririn

fei S n

oneself sick.

The Hithq. Voice holds nearly

De forgotten.

the same relation to the Qi. that the Ni. does to the Q.
1

chiefly reflexive (intensive);


3

(do for oneself)

thing;
^intfl

and

HXXSD * /.

OD3
"ITID

TiHlO

be unclean.

<2i0

2
4

unclean.

uncleanness.

cover,

UZl?

hide.

It is (1)
(3)

medial

has a Passive signification. 5

clean.

XS2I3

tread, wash.

(4) has the idea of giving oneself out as some-

(5) rarely

be clean.

but, also, (2) reciprocal;

m. lamb.

"lHlD*

(>)

nns

open,

Pl"]"l

follow.

PI39 7

forget.

ptT 8

settle

nris (0

down,

door

dwell.

ptTtt

hiding-place, covert, secrecy.


1

Assoc, with following (clean, unclean), which also begins with ft. 2 Washing
Fix in mind as one of the three exceptions named above.
treading.

was done by
3

R. allied to that of

Mn. Pathah.

hoof -beat.

Cf.

Same

D2D-

rh%

radicals

Q- Part.

">

TTttfti

= inDft.

witn which compare mystery.

Repeated, the word sounds

Mimetic.

(here darkness of memory).

Mn.

like the

" Shekinah,"

connected with the Tabernacle.

Exercise.

hast spoken.

Let him wash.

thou.
(11.

Thou

4. b.

3)

And

he

He

has spoken.

(w.c.)

washed.

David (TH) hiding himself

will'cause to dwell (Cohort.).

On

(in)

Wash
Is

not

(Hithq. Part.)'!
12

the Sabbath.

10

The heavens 10 recount 12 (Part.) the glory of God


13
SancP&jTTiM). How 11 shall we justify ourselves?
6
(The one) sanctified.
tify yourselves.
To sanctify.
He made atonement. 20 Atonement was made (Qu.).
Rem.

Only the Voices

Exercise.

treated in the present section are to be used in this

THE HIQTIL AND HOQTAL.

44

22.

THE HIQTLL

AND HOQTAL

(Hiph'il)

Hi.
Per/.
Inf.

cstr

Inf. abs. .....

'imp

(Hoph'al).

Ho.

Hi.

Perf-

bipf^n

bl2p*

If abs

StOpi!

blZpft

Impf

SttjT

^PpE

Fart

^*?p

h^pl

'rppn

imp/.

S'ppH

(Jussive)

btppH

(Jussive)

SopH

Part

mark

of the Hi. and Ho. Voices in the Perf.


and related forms (including the Part.)
of the Hi. it is the vowel a, of the Ho. the dark vowel o (or u)
Both the vowels in the Hi. Perf.
under the preformative letter.
were originally a. The first has been uniformly thinned to i the
second (as Inf. cstr., etc., following verbs ]'"$) becomes I, except
before consonantal suffixes, and takes the tone. In the Inf. cstr. and

The

1.

is

characteristic

a prefixed

J"]

in the Inf.

related parts (also the Part.), an original

has been lengthened to


in the Jussive (see 2),

%,

of the second syllable

except in the ground-form of the Imp. and

where the normal heightening of

to e under

the tone has taken place.

Rem.

1.

is e (like

Rem.

It will be noted that the

final

vowel of the

Inf. abs. in these Voices-

the dominant Inf. abs. Qi.).


2.

The

Ho. Part., like the other

tioo

Pass. Part., has a in the last

syllable.

1
-

rh^pH- ^b^tt'

Jt has

bi?ph-

been seen

15

both the Imp. and Impf. may have


4. r. 2;
lengthened forms with an accompanying change of sense. Ordinary
forms of the Imp. and Impf. may also be shortened. In the Strong
Verb this takes place only in the Hi. Voice namely, in the groundform of the Imp. and in the Impf. (chiefly 2. and 3. s.). The shortened
17. 2;

18. 1) that

itself only when without augment at the


In the case of the lengthened Imp., and with inflectional and
other additions, 2 it assumes its normal state. The Impf. Jussive is
used to express a command, wish, or (with ^?fc$) a prohibition.
Such forms have arisen from a natural effort to speak the word
Connected with this is a tendency to draw back the tone
quickly.
from the final syllable. And inasmuch as the same tendency was

form of the Imp. maintains

end.

The form ftfyopFlQmpf.

2.

and

docs not occur; but the Imp. 2.f.

pi.

3./. pi.),

although found in the table below,

follows this analogy.

n^tDpH-

GUTTURAL VERBS.
observed with Wciw

co'nsec.

we

of the Impf.,

45

often find the two forms

agreeing orthographically. 3

^" Trpn
,i?

3.

(Q. be righteous).

"^T^^n
the Hi.

is

*s

^3JPl

show

it

Qi.)

indirectly causative;

is

i.e.,

a per-

caused to

Without a personal object


denoted by the verb

Pass, of the Hi., sometimes of

is

coast, border (see following).

*"Q3 1 De strong, prevail.

rhnf /man

m.

is

the Q.

^123

The Ho.

such person

itself

object. 2

In sense

With

a causative Voice.

do or be the thing denoted by the verb. 1


it is directly causative
i.e., the thing

becomes the

declare righteous

one's self strong (Q. be strong).

nas been) cast away (Hi. to cast away).

(much oftener than

sonal object

p^^H

sanctify (Q. be holy);

*Q3

strength.

W'zb*

TQS m. hero.
(cstr.

73

^nS

clothe.

m. clothing.

Mn. "Nephilim " : Gen. vi. 4.

fall.

-Q3)
4
nStT
' T

(poetic).

send, stretch forth.

fnbtt? m.
It:-..

table.

1*331 cleave, follow closely, hard.

"n^tT

StT3 2
1

stumble.

One

gibbous.

(Hi.

and Ho.) cast down, away,

out.

words beginning with 23 which mean be rounded out r


be high: so strong ; the preceding, be high, and so markSometimes associated with 73 "stumble and fall." 3 A

of a series of

This word
2

ing a boundary.

- T

pupil suggests lavish

John

ix.

the one

7,

"by

= throw

(i.e.,

mnemonic.

in clothing*) as

interpretation Sent").

out

To be

Mn. "Siloam"

(StAoia^,

associated with preceding;

the other, throw down.

All

the coast of Yisra'el.


The waters 3 pre2
vailed (Q.) exceedingly.
And he (w.c.) shall make strong
a covenant. 20 And he (w.c.) followed hard (Hi.).
They
stumbled and fell. Ye have caused to stumble. And he
Exercise.

(w.c.)

was

shall

cleave.

cast away.

(w.c.)

cast

down.

He
And

away

1.

cast

They
fall.

away.

And

( 15. 4).

thou art cast out.

shall be (Part.) cast out.


He sent.
forth the hand. 3
And he (w.c.) shall

23.

To

cast away.

Cast not (T>X)

The head 3

sent.

She

He

put

fell.

GUTTURAL VERBS. AN INITIAL GUTTURAL.

Guttural Verbs are those having gutturals (including

among

she

their radical letters.

is

*^,

regarded as a guttural only

,*f|)

when

used as a consonant (not when a vowel-letter, and so quiescent).


For the peculiarities of Jf and ""I, see 1.4, 5. 5, respectively. The

GUTTURAL VERBS.

46

might now be reviewed with profit, since it contains


the general principles distinguishing, in their inflection, the guttural
latter section

from other Strong verbs.

Q."

t39

Ferf.s.S.m

Ni.

Hi.

Ho.

TB!M

Ttt^H

TOSH

rTpip^n

rra^n

TOE

TO2D

D TO?D

BtfT&SB

2.w

nn6|

p?.2.m

nrnnvi

iH
TOE
Q TOE

/n/. cstr

IbS

"Ib^n

TO^H

inf. aba

nto

iia^3

i^n

3. /.

ittcj^

pin

toh

tosh

na?
nrt|

'pin

"na^n

T2n

ropjn

nrjftpn

ngrfliSP

nbr

ptrr

na^.

top

tsj

nbvn

ptnin

na^ri

T2fl

no^fi

-fb^x

ptnx

to^k

Tb^s

tok

....nnb3?ri

napinn

nrt^

nnto

re^ri

Itt!?]

TO3H3

/.

pi./.

s. 3.

2. /
i.

P i.

3. /.

Part. ac<

TJQJ

Part, pass

2.

'

tbgn

nbs

jmp.*.wi

/mp/.

wanting

1E"E

11)35

1*^"^X^T''.

The following

are the chief points of difference

between the verb whose typical forms are given in the table and the
ordinary Strong verb

a Hateph.

(2)

closely joined to

With
it

(1)

An

initial guttural requiring

S e wa takes

a preformative letter the guttural

(mostly

ft),

forming a shut

is

either

syllable, 1 or it is

loosely joined, forming a half-open syllable ( 3. 4).


In the latter
case, which is by far the more common, if the second radical has a

Typical forms only are given in this and a few subsequent tables.
The
remaining ones can easily be supplied by the student on the basis of 7tSp>
following the analogy of the typical forms.

GUTTURAL VERBS.
Hateph corresponding

vowel, the guttural will take a

vowel of the pref ormative

47
to the short

the vowel of the second radical

if

is

volatilized the guttural will take a short vowel corresponding to

The
that of the preformative (Q. Inipf. 2./. s., 3. m., 2. m.pl, etc.).
from
the
class
of
vowels)
a
(changed
disturbed
vocalization is further

when an

only

form (Perl

original a thinned to

Ni..,

Hi., etc.).

( 5. 2) lies at the basis of the

When

(3)

the initial guttural would,

if an ordinary letter, be doubled, compensation is made for the


doubling by heightening the preceding vowel (Ni. Inf., Imp.,

Inipf.).

Rem.
Rem.

1.

explained elsewhere
The vowel of the Q. Imp.
Some forms of pin are given (Q. Imp., Impf.) as an example of a
( 12. r. 1).

2. s.f. is

2.

verb whose Imp. and related parts take a.


Rem. 3.
The Qi. and Qu. Voices are omitted as offering no irregularities.

pK

/
2

S"|DK'

7ftX

nS 02b) 5

stone.

assemble.

collect,

*"03J

be faithful, true, (Hi.) believe.

H3115SX

faithfulness.

m. heart

pass over, along.

truth

beyond.

nlsS-

*"Q!?

P as ~

,113!?*
:

(overflow of)

anger.

te strong, (Hi.) lay hold

Dill*

of.

8
2T9
- T

leave, forsake.

strong.

pjn
TIP!

pi.

sage (ford), place of passage, the

rifcK (=

na&K)

cease, leave

ni9

hel P-

"ITS* (O

off.

GTTP'/O

hel P-

Mn. " Ebenezer " (= 17^, pX), 1 Sam iv 1 2 Asaph (^DS!) was a collector
of psalms 1 Ch. vi. 24. 3 Mn. and deriv. " Amen." * Mn. " Hezekiah " (PPpin
6
The heart, too, needs
strength of Jehovah). 5 Discrim. from 2]3? (see 15).
1

7m?-ing.

Origin of the

Euphrates.
</.

Ps. xxii. 2)

word "Hebrew," as those coming over the Jordan or

Used by our Lord


:

Exercise.

(in

Aramaic form) on the

cross (fiDl!? <"1ET'>

Matt, xxvii. 40.

5
'Abhraham
were not able 9 to stand.
3
The
wisdom.
not
Forsake
Jehovah.
(^)

They

believed in
Be
people 9 had not assembled themselves (Ni. Perf.).
9
9
land
The
hold.
laid
And
the
men
strong.
(w.c.)
(/.)
Jehovah hath helped. She left
shall be forsaken (Ni.).
6
Pass along (jrt-)- He made pass
off speaking (Qi. Inf.).
over.

He

stood

before

Holding in service (Hi.

To

be helped.

n
(

3S?) Jehovah.

Part.).

am

have served. 8

(Ni. Perf.) helped.

VERBS WITH A MEDIAL GUTTURAL.

48

VERBS WITH A MEDIAL GUTTURAL.

24.

m.

q.

Perf.

s. 3.

3. /.

j*. 2.

tOntTO

ntontf
T
IT

j
ntonttf
T

na^ia

nana

nanarn

ntpn^

ruprnft

fiana

nana

roiarn

anpntf mptnto

nrona

ana^a ana-ianrr

wg wfn

^a

warn

natoritfn

H3Di3

nn*iarin
- T
T

.
.

inf. cstr
//.

imp. s.m
/

pi./-

Hithq.

?.

QPlt^
":

2.

Qi.

-:

tohtr

torm-r

tointf

taints

tontr

an$n

natonir^

/mp/.

s. 3.

m.

'

wan

2. /.

1. C.

..

s. /.

...rutsntfn

mant^n

ant?

tantr'3

Port. ac.

"

*>*.

nwan

wan

wann

nwan nwann
TOT&

Part. pass.

The following changes from verbs

1.

tliose referred to in

(1)

The

original

non-guttural, in addition to

the preceding section, are worthy of notice

_ has been restored, through the influence of

guttural, in the first syllable of the Q. Imp., in the forms

in ^__

and

*|.

(2)

By

last syllable of the Q.

the same influence, __

Imp. and Impf.

is

the

ending

introduced in the

This change

is

no more

general elsewhere, because a guttural has less influence on a following than on a preceding vowel.

Rem.

1.

The

change to the verb *"H3

tne last three Voices

is

because

alone in this position (except Ezek. xvi. 4) requires compensation for an


omitted 1). forte by heightening the preceding vowel.
The other gutturals

*"|

CJ7)

Hi Hi ana sometimes X) permit D. forte to be simply implied (

rro,

(Qio nntf.

5. 1).

VERBS WITH A FINAL GUTTURAL.

49

Rem. 2. The vowel heightened through the omission of D. forte is unchangeable.


The letter "^ takes a composite in place of simple S e wa in forms of
Rem. 3.
the Qi. and related Voices before syllables beginning with 3, and having the tone.
(and

p$y

3H3
D"")3

p^)

tOrni?

" Cherub.

c.

Orf? 3

DITtf

(Ni.)

fight;

eat,

m. bread,

Mimetic.

n&nSft /
With

servile

"Bethlehem " (= QpT^, IT'S)5

lay low, rUTtl? destroy.

more

slay (espec.) for sacrifice.

corrupt,

destroy,

5
tOpkT * be quiet,

fight.

m^

war.

Mn. "Seraph."

?H'ty burn.

4
4

fiPltb

/.

corruption, destruction.

vineyard.

(Q-)

On^
1

cry out.

riT^SS 6
letter ? = S*3"l3)
4
R- PUT = be low

Discrim. from

rest.

(Qi-) serve, minister, (Qi. Part.)

t3!"ft$.

servant, minister.
i-

e -

vineyard-like.

ffl"Kft .Tittf

49

Syn. ot 133?-

sink

The

Mn.

tShtP

latter is

slavish, the former voluntary, noble service.

Exercise.

They

(*TH) blessed

(Qi.)

cried unto

Jehovah.

Ottfg) thou
Pass not 15 now 3 along. 23

(7K)

David

Jehovah.

To strengthen

(Qi.).

23

Whom

blessest (Qi. Impf.) he shall be blest (Qu. Part.).

Ask

13

(/.).

Fight ye (Ni. m.).

And

To destroy
(w.c.) the earth (/.) was corrupt (Ni.).
(Hi.). Destroy thou (Hi. m.). I
destroying (Hi. Part.).

am

He

slew the lamb. 21

("P2J).
(Hi.').

20

And

To serve. They shall


They have cut off. To

25.

s.

3.

I will cut off

minister.

cleanse (Qi.).

Hi.

Ni.

3. /.

2. /.

pi. 2. m...

Inf.

turhtf:

Inf. abs

s.

m.

pl.f

..

rbfn

csti-

Imp.

21

VERBS WITH A FINAL GUTTURAL.


Q.

Per/,

thou (w.c.) shalt burn the city

rbfn
rtirbtin

nnrhw

nnrrbtrn

VERBS WITH A FINAL GUTTURAL.

50

Q.

m.

Qi.

Impf.s.S.m

nSttT

rbf)

rtbw

rvb&

2. /.

Tibtfri

rbr\

Tfetffl

iT^ftFi

rbwx

rkfK

n^

rrbttfa

nrttfri

runSttfn

nan^n

nartStfn

fi^ti?

nStra

rtetfa

PpbtPO

i.e
pi. 3. /.

Part, act
Part, pass

The

1.

Hi.

fflbtt?

characteristic of gutturals

most widely exhibited in the

that of Pathah furtive, required under a


final guttural immediately after a heterogeneous long vowel ( 5. 2;

present class of verbs

cf.

is

and pass. Ni. Inf. abs. Qi. Inf. abs.,


and abs., Impf., Part.). Again, in some

Q. Inf. cstr., abs., Part. act.

Part.; Hi. Perf., Inf. cstr.

cases where 6

we

would otherwise be expected

(final syl. of Q. Imp.,

through the influence of the final guttural.


Still further, in final syllables where e would be expected in nonguttural Strong verbs (Ni. Inf. cstr., Imp., Impf. Qi. Perf., Inf. cstr.,
Imp., Impf.; Hi. Imp.), a is ordinarily to be found, though under
Impf.),

find a, largely

the influence of the tone

it

may become

Finally, in the Perf.

e.

s.

of all Voices, the guttural, for euphonic reasons, takes in place

2. /.

of a silent S e wa a helping Pathah,

though the following ^) retains

usual pointing ( 3. 2. foot-note; 4. 1). Like Pathah furtive,


this helping vowel cannot have the tone, and disappears when the
its

verb takes
i

2.

suffixes.

rf?p,

nbm

nbm\

nbnyiz-

H^^tt-

The Qu.

ing),

and Ho.

nbtiv-

(Inf.

(Inf. cstr.

hbxpr\,

nbnvr\ a^.
(inf.

abs.)

cstr.

the same),

nbm, nby\

and Imp. wanting), Hith. 2

(Inf. abs.

want-

and Imp. wanting) Voices have no special

peculiarities.

"1SG J
2(53

/ well,

n"]3 3
PtttJft

nee.

anoint.

^2 *

spring.

2 split, divide.

fl^pS t

pp-p *
PH2JI3

bolt,
4

/ valley.

bar.

anointed, Mes-

siah.

V^S* 5
1

meet, press, light upon.

Mn. with S3UJ "Beersheba": Gen.

transgress.

^JtTS

(i)

m. trans-

gression.

2nt? 7 he
V3tt?

satisfied.

(Ni.,

Hi.)

swear.

y^p

m.

(TOE?/.) seven. T^PSSf * / oath.


8 smite, blow
(a blast).
JJp^l
xxi. 32.

The "Beka"

(2J53)

was

NOUNS.
the

split, i.e.,

ing.

half Shekel.

Many

pang o, pact, etc.

Discrim. from

"Pasha"

Mn. "Tekoa" (^Ipri,

were (often) driven

Sam.

51
4

TpS-

Mn. "Messiah."
7

transgresses.

Cf. wdyoo,

Discrim. from the follow-

xiv. 2), properly the place

where tent-pins

a favorite tenting- ground.

in, i.e.,

To

Flee.
He made flee. (One)
(7) flee.
It (Ni. /.)
(One) splitting wood (D^2J).
They shall be split (Qu.). They shall be
shall be split.
And thou (w.c.) shalt
cleft (Hithq., cleave themselves).
He caused to light upon. Transanoint as fy) king. 13

Exercise.

making

flee.

And (w.c.) Moab


Thou art satisfied.
The oath which I

gressor (Q. Part.). They transgressed.


(3X*to) transgressed against (3) Israel.

Ye

shall be satisfied (with) bread.

24

swore (Ni.) to (>) 'Abhraham. Blow the trumpet ("lltT)


18
2
diligently ( 15. 2).
If ye shall hearken
in Tekoa.

lm

O,%t

GENDER

NOUNS.

26.

niDbft

rTH2-

Objects regarded as neuter

treats as masc. or fern.,

it

more frequently the

Masc. nouns have in the sing, no peculiarity of form dis-

latter.

tinguishing them as such


(after a vowel),

Rem.

1.

Rem.
original

2.

mark the

the endings

fern, sing.

The

c.

ending

fi_, which, as

i.e.,

J")

often represents an

1. 4),

= fr^Ttt^

HTtt?

may mark

ending

are used as either masc. or fern.

as already noted (

The

3.

the fern, in nouns also after a consonant,

a helping vowel (_, or __ with a guttural) he used in pronouncing

nntr

for

Rem.

4.

nntr

ro^aa

Adjectives, as

be hereafter seen, needs to he restored in certain

forms of the noun and verb.

Rem.

(with the tone) and

common.

n_,

will

There are not a few words which

Such are marked here

if

The Hebrew has but two

genders, a masculine and a feminine.


in other languages

AND NUMBER.

for
it

it.

ro*?&-

respects

Gender and Number, follow the analogy

of nouns.

2.

d^.

a^io-

ni"tin-

*d*t-

"D^i

numbers
and pi. only.

are used in the sing., pi, and (more rarely) dual

excepting the numeral for two, 1 in the


ing of the masc.pl. is generally Q^

sing,

(or

);

'-

Nouns

adjectives,

The

end-

of the /em. pi.

NOUNS.

52
Til

or Ii) 3

^ie

du-

D"

The

dti. is

mostly

vised

with things

occurring in pairs, like certain members of the body, or things


5
as in pairs.

which may be conceived of

aifc

D'DlD

DID

B?D1D

D^DID

HDIE

JlMD

HD1D

HiDlD

DTpffl

Masc
/'em

o.

The endings Ql

and

But before adding the


is

restored to

open

its

syllable (

I,

_I_

are added directly to the masc. sing.

form

original

J-)1

so ending, the latter

ending

this

but in the case of those

simply changed to the former for the

is

The changes required

in an

added directly to the

is

ft

J-|

vowel becoming

71 -> the

The ending

3. 3).

nouns not already ending in

sing, of

with

latter to the fern. sing,

pi.

vowels of a word to which


added will be noted hereafter.
For the present, the principle is illustrated by words with unchangeable vowels.
There are many nouns having a fern, ending in the sing, which
Rem. 2.
take D" in the pi.; and, on the other hand, masc. nouns sometimes take ]"l1 in

Rem.

1.

in the changeable

syllables attracting the tone to themselves are

the pi.

Rem.

The

3.

pi.

unchangeable.

That

sing, ending ath

is

Rem.
plurality

D""n

ending
it

an obscured ath

is

= life D^1"Ip

n)

most holy

i.

23.

Hos.

*12

nD)

(/

~\V2 (/

wind, press, besiege.

rock.

^Itfllt*

siege, fortress.
*Y"15C

Gen.

horse.

m. neck.

*")12

*"fi2flD*m.

Mn. "Tyre"

Dm(l together, shut

m.

in,

("Ti2).

oppress.

xii. 1.

!"Hlt)

enemy,

oppressor.

Mn. " Tsar."


T

^|1J

is

original

used to indicate a variety of relations besides


by abstract nouns.

Q1 m. blood related to DlHSl re(


bitter. Mn. "Marah":
IE* (/ mfc)
T
Ex. xv.

form of the

especially those expressed in other languages

(Pi- of

DID (/

Q. Inf. abs.), and

(c/.

doubtful.

The pi. in Hebrew

4.

is

JTJ

here, however, a strengthened

is

"H0
PDttf

nntT

rhW)
T

prince.

sing.

T'tf x

(/

Mn. "Sarah":

xvii. 15.

mM})

song.

(Qu., Hi.) give to drink.


(Q->

N*0

drink,

nri^tt ban-

quet.

2 This verb and the next are defective,


1 The heading of a number of Psalms.
but mutually supplementary, as will be noted (cf. the root-letters). The p. n.
"Rabshakeh" (2 Ki. xviii. 17) is usually derived from it (np^"D"l). i-> chief

cup-bearer

probably

it is

the Assyr. Bab-sak, chief captain.

ANCIENT CASK ENDINGS.

Bullock.

53

These (are) the


Cows.
Cow.
The waters^
princes.
The
Two
good cows.
10
9
high.
Enemies
are
very
These
mountains
were" bitter.
11
9
took
asses.
He did
He
new
song
(m.).
(m.).
A
3
13
Wisdom
is
good.
And 13
from
the
waters.
-drink
not
13
25
Oaths
with (2) horses. Righteousnesses
(/.).
(/.).
Exercise.

mares.

Two

talents.

reigrted
o
Rem.

"

13

Ye

keep 15 the Sabbaths (ni")- 1G Bela


Heroes 22 like 12 those.

shall

in 'Eclom.

Not infrequently the subject and predicate

in clauses of this nature

are united by the 3d pers.- (sing, or pi. masc. or /em.) of the Pers. Pronoun serving

as copula (These are, were

the word representing

irrio for

Gen. iv. IS

^3

originally, the
JSfom.

= nSH H vK)

When

and Gen.

the copula

is

to be expressed,

will not be inclosed in parentheses.

ANCIENT CASE ENDINGS.

27.
i.

it

^en. l 24;

rvrp
f r

THE

"13

Gen.

rare instances these endings

bigpvniQ (in^

still

riD)

would appear

It

xlix. 11.

Hebrew had endings


case.
The one was

CONSTRUCT STATE.
:

that,

to represent, respectively, the


*\

(}

remain

or
;

the other

\),

">

In

but their power as case

endings has entirely ceased.


2.

1I

2
.

towards the mountain;


mnn
TTT

H^^Wi"!
- T T

towards

Another old case ending, however, representing the


has, to some extent, maintained
1
It is appended to substantives
itself as wr ell in fact as in form.
mostly to denote direction (whither, more rarely where), and has

the heavens.
Accusative,

generally toneless,

accordingly received the

name

locative.

Pem. 1.
n_ locative being without the tone may be
from the fern, ending of nouns; and, for the same reason,
disturb the vocalization of a word to which it is appended,
Pem.

2.

it

does not usually

flfoiz)

When

reverts to its
3-

easily distinguished

thither.

appended to a word having a like fern, ending, the


original form J"|_.
HTf > help Jirnf" nelP

latter

'

^^^H

DID

tne horse of the king.

The

relations expressed

in other languages by case endings are expressed in

Hebrew mostly

But in addition to what has been said above of


has also a method of representing the close relation

by Prepositions.
the Accus.,

it

by the Gen. (subjective and objective), the Adj.,


One noun (the one to be limited) is put before another

ordinarily indicated
etc.

ANCIENT CASE ENDINGS.

54

(the one limiting) so as to express with


word,

is

it

one idea. 1

The former

said to be in the construct state with the latter,

which

is

in

the absolute state.

the word of the king

*WJ

^j?tf

2
-

but

~^2-

Furthermore, since the emphasis of this compound expression is on


the final word while the first one is hastened over, changeable vowels

word

in the first

will be either

dropped, volatilized, thinned, or

the effect being the same as though the tone were

shortened

removed one place beyond

it

(3.

3. 4.

6. 5).

Abs

DID,

HD1D,

D'OIB,

d^d,

d-vcid,

nacjp-

Cstr

DID,

nDID,

'DID,

"did,

tibid,

nana

5. The changes taking place in other (changeable) vowels of


nouns put in the coustruct state will be further illustrated hereafter ( 29)
those required, in the terminations of such constructs
should be stated here. The terminations of the pi. masc. and du.
;

Q^J_) become

(D*

(orig.,

reverts to its original form

the same to J^

The

of fern, nouns

the pf

while nouns ending in

change

may also be found before words governed by Preposibeginning with a Relative pronoun, and in many other cases
where a close connection of thought is indicated. VDT'SD "^H mountains in
(of) Gilboa.
"HTX BlpB the place in which.
Rem.

construct

tions, before clauses

inX

nin
T T

seize, possess. ["nilX /

bend,

encamp.

JT^n*

/. spear.

nn32

nSHB'"

/ gift,

":

encampment.

(meal) offering, Minhah.

(H- 112) m. lamp, light.

13*
f.

settle,

P ossess i n

ITl1^*

HE1 5
^SJtr

c.

bird (chirper).

be over,

remnant.
H2i2J

left.

JTIXiZ?

*|KU?* m. rest,
remnant.

carry (away) captive.

captivity.

^12? m.

]"VlBttJ /. captivity.

candlestick.

Mn. " Ahaz" CUIK) viho possessed the throne in the time of Isaiah. 2 Mn.
T T
" Mahanaim," i.e., two camps: Gen. xxxii. 3. 3 The spear was so called from
5 Mn.
4 Name of Abner's father: 1 Sam. xiv. 50.
its elasticity.
"Zipporah,"
wife of Moses; also mimetic. 6 Mn. " Shear-jashub" (DltT'' 1XIT) = a rem "
1

nant

shall return: Isa. vii. 3.

the Tishbite."

What

"

Mn. "Tishbeh"

(,-Qtt.Tl), the

has the name to do with the idea?

home

of "Elijah

THE NOUN WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.

55

(am) Jehovah the God" (pi.) of Israel


A possession of a
Righteous" (are) we.
15
With (3) a sword 8
of
Israel.
The
camp
burying-place.
and with a spear. The spear of the king. (Meal) offerExercise.

(^H^PI)*

An

ings.
silver.
(

offering in righteousness.

And

12

he (w.c.) shall

The candlesticks of
And he
the bird.'
11
Statutes (/.). Asses

The Altars 18 (nh). The queen 13 of SebM\ Borders 22


Cherubim. 24
Israel.
The mighty men 22 of 'Edom.

of.

of

(Into) Sheol.

12

Ye

the river (Nile).


a

Rem.

definite
1

noun

and

suffix ( 28),

^3

is

in

a noun

2-/.

m.

some other

(csti:

without

when

in prose

by

has the article;

is

noun)

when

when

it

"DX

(or

a proper

has a pro-

followed by the article carries

D^"73

used distributively.

every people

D3,

Q3_)

[i

p;}

Ms

on,

4vr
i, ri

13JL our

d_

I.e.

your

3.

m.

my

_!_

our

'

] )Uhy
T

13

,T
T

his
lier

p,

Wour

^j

their

In the suffixes of the pers. throughout, ^ by a not uncommon


has taken the place of Otherwise the fragmen2.

may be
H_ = H_
T

J*).

readily traced to their origin in the Personal

tary endings

2.

PL and Du. Noun.


Flue.

m. "T

interchange of these letters

(sing. 3./.

2.

3. /.

1.

Sing.

%?!_ 1

Suffixes ivith

Plur.
13,

Rem.

it

cases.

an(l

Noun.

*_ my

Rem.

marked

generally

THE NOUN WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.

28.

~73),

it is

it,

Suffixes with a Sing.

H,

made

tne whole people.

Sing.

m.

is

regarded as definite

is

in the construct state (with a definite

D!?n"/3

1. c.

every son (*ij??)" (into)

in the construct does not take the article, being

noun

the idea of totality

1.

22

connection with the following word.

Rem. 3

shall cast

The definite accusative

2.

is

nominal
c

its

2).
;

1.

by

Rem.

nS)
name

3.

24

2
has kept 15 the statutes (ra.V

w.c.)

2.

kill

si,l 'J- 3.

With Nouns

preceding vowel, or S e wa.

m-

(li) is

Pronoun

a contraction from 1i1_)T

and without a
The former are used with nouns ending in a con-

in the sing, are given forms both with

sonant, the latter with those ending in a vowel.

This so-called "connecting"

THE NOUN WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.

56
vowel

really

is

less modified

Rem.

3.

an original

vowel of the noun, which here in a form more or

final

reappears before most of the suffixes.


In the case of pi. and du. nouns, the original form of the

(ay)

cstr.

taken as the basis for the appended suffixes. This is generally contracted to
e (pi.)
a is once lengthened to a (sing. 3. ?.), and twice deflected to e (sing.
In the sing. 1. c. the pronominal ending is absorbed in the ay of the
2. m., 3. /.).
is

ground- form

Rem.

4.

and

The

in the sing. 2./. a helping vowel (i)


suffixes

strongly attract the tone

Rem.

5.

For

Q2,

OH,

72,

the other suffixes are

QT_,

the endings )'_,


T

The

be found.
rules for

Pause

effect of

used.

is

"heavy"

?H are called
'
'

the poetic forms 1iT_L,

a Pausal accent on the suffixes

falls

Plural Noun.

Noun.

Masc.

Fem.
1. c.

2.

my.

m. thy

m. his

TOID

YOD

"DID

TliDlD

*?ppiD

fJniDip

tpv

"sp*

Tjnpip

tj^d

"sjthdid

1D1D

iriDio
T

vcid
T

itiidid
T

nnDiD

rrbiD
TV

rrniDiD

3./. her..
I.e.

PI.

2.

2. /.
3.

m.

1.

all

c6b

irniDip

CDD1D

Dpricip

op'pip

Dp-nipiD

[ppip

jrnpip

jp^pip

[pTitoiD

DD1D

nnpip

Dirwp

c.TnipiD

JD1D

jnpip

jrrpip

|irnip iD

The word here used,

representative of

wnpiD

their. ..

P7D1D

ttV3

your.

3./. their.

Rem.

our..

m. your.

Fem.

TjriDiD

2./. thy..
3.

1^_L may

under the general

( 6. 4. r.).

/Singular

Sing.

and

suffixes,

'

light.

it

will

be noted, has immutable vowels.

The effects of the pronominal


be shown in the following section.

such nouns.

suffixes

It is

on the

mutable vowels of a word will


The suffixes of nouns denote the Genitive relation, and the words
Rem. 2.
Hence
to which they are attached are in the cstr. state in fact, if not hi form.
the cstr. of the fem. (]!_)> whose vowel, however, when falling in an open syllable (always except with the heavy suffixes) is lengthened.
In the fem. of pi. nouns there is a double indication of the pi.: that
Rem. 3.

of the masc. in addition to the fem.; but in the

3.

Pers.pl. the endings

are oftener found than those given.

Rem.

4.

noun with

TH
*Ti*T

The

omission of Dashes from

pi. suffix is

m. uncle, beloved (one).


m. generation.

in th p 2. m.

due to the loosely closed syllable

H3D* 3 /H3?

and

/.

of the sing. fem.

( 3. 4).

booth, tabernacle.

m. forever.

FIRST CLASS OF NOUNS.


and

{prep,

*"|2?

1"

(/

testimony.

miC

adv.)

mS) m

again,

^I'j'JJ

command.

till,

^1

as far as.

DH!?

witness.

^'"|

strive.

cause

strife,

TO.

(legal).

nhSw?"

still.

HliCSp /

57

maid-servant, handmaid.

command-

nnB#B

the beloved.

family.

ment.

"David" (TH)
T

Jin.

^^ = revolve.

R.

Mn. "door."

PI.

"Succoth," where Jacob

common

(the

idea at the basis of this

list

Gen. xxxiii.

of words).

*f^,

Hll!?

^11!?

repeat over)

then so called as one joined to the family

Mn. "add"

17.

on )

11137

( r-

= witness Ti'JJ (adv.)


R. = be hard, solid, and from it comes l)^ = " Zion," which may
Mn. "Reeve," an old term for officer. Sheriff = Shire-reeve.

forever
5

"booths"

built

again,

still.

serve as
7

If r.

mn.

= join,

and the family, as those joined together.

My beloved.

His uncle. Our witness (vowel


Your witnesses. Their witnesses (/.). Her
commandment. Your commandment. The tabernacle of
Exercise.

immutable).

Thy handmaid. His maidservants.


Strifes of.
Upon (T ?) the maidservants in those days. 10 This (is)
22
Great 10 (is) the
the commandment which Jehovah sent.

David.

day of Y e howah. Yisr'ael has not kept 15


Jehovah (is) a man 9 of war. 24 The horses
9
22
It (is) thy voice.
all his mighty men.

God

(sing.).

7il|n "?[7^H"J3

rock.
a

holy

(pi.) (is)

Rem.

Our rock 26

being (by

An Adj. modifying a noun in immediate


its

1.

29.

and
Jehovah our

(is)

not as their

connection with a Genitive

compound expression

Nouns with mutable vowels may be divided


suffixes,

and the noun

(of. 10. 2).

FIRST CLASS OF NOUNS.

according as they are affected by the pi,

pronominal

15

of Par'oh

connection) definite, the adjective has the article

precepts.

the eldest son of the king/

in the cstr. state) is placed after the

(i.e.,

my

and the

cstr. state.

du.,

into

classes

and fern, terminations,

In each of these cases the

tone moves forward one or two places, producing the effects described
in 6

(which should now be reviewed).

sing

pi

Abs.

Cstr.

Light Suff.

IIeavy Suff.

nm

a*B,

"om

D ?^-

.....Mm

mm

mm

DMm

58

FIRST CLASS OF NOUNS.

As a first class,

2.

may

those nouns (including adjectives and participles)

be designated which have a mutable vowel in the penult only.

Inasmuch

as that vowel is volatilized by any moving forward of the


form of the word thus becomes fixed, and to it, as a base,
the several terminations and suffixes are added without further
tone, the

change.

Rem.

If

1.

a word begin with a guttural, the general rule for gutturals in

the same circumstances

The same
Rem.
01

is

true of a

is to

Feminines of

2.

HD1D n

be followed

word ending

( 5. 3.

ftjj,

in a guttural.

V\$,

5. 2.

^1^,

nl^i

TllliS)-

X'O], D2SF33t ITttJO.

the form n7l*l3 (from m. 71H3) follow the analogy


T
T

the previous section.

Words of

the form "^i m addition to the changes spoken of in


T
become Q"32? (*35i DD"3I?) m the pi. ; those of the form i]^ become

Rem.

3.

e. 1,

W33J ( m y
"Ipfi

affliction)

with a

mercy.

w.

suffix.

"PDIf* merciful,

4
Kt?3
T T

S33 2

prophesy.

JC23 prophet.

*123

tell,

narrate.

before.

over against,

*"J33

i"I33?

the Stork,

was

so

associated with the next root

XI27S2

its

the idea of the

X vtP3T

V\y m. iniquity.

"^

poor.

^33?*

oppression.

tenderness to
r.

burden, portion.

iniquity,

oppress.

affliction,

named from

up, bear, forgive.

HIV t 5 do

1^33* prince, leader.

nT'pn

lift

prince.

1223 lk upon, regard.

Mn. "Nadab."

liberal, noble.

y*jl*

godly.

its

young.

To be

being to bubble forth, as the

prophet's words from his soul, as the eye from the

2 Mn. for the second


lids.
3 R. = be high, sightly.
"Nebat," father of the notorious Jeroboam.
Note three words for Noble beginning with } (TJ3, D"H3. fePttft)' 4 To be
disting. from |"|D3 (mn. "Massah": Ex. xvii. 7), which also means to lift up,

root

T T

but with the idea of trying, proving.


1730-1740).

Mn. Awa, an

Mn.

"Anna"

Distinguish

H39

answer, 47.

the Hawaiian Islands.

Collect

iniquitous strong-drink of

(an oppressive empress of Russia, a.d.

(pi.)
Our
my godly (ones).
The prophets of Jehovah. Thy (/.) prophets.
He went forth 5 from his place. 19 Ruler (T'JJ) of the
house 3 of God. The princes (K^tt^) of the earth. 9 Our

Exercise.

23

prophets.

iniquity.

Their iniquities.

Forgiving (Part.) iniquity

and transgression. 25
flock.

Pray for

Their
(ask,

Thy poor (p>l-)- The poor of the


affliction.
And all her multitude (jiDjl).

12

j??.)

the peace 20 of Jerusalem.

59

SECOND CLASS OF NOUNS.

SECOND CLASS OF NOUNS.

30.

3?& f?9|5- njPT- A second class of


JSnjJnouns are those which have a mutable vowel in the final syllable
only while that of the penult is (by nature or position) immutable.
Dbl&

1-

Cstr.

Light suff.

nSis,

obi';,

*zbr:,

MfcSis-

mabis.

*&&,

thus*

tsy&b\9-

mug
pi

The law

2.

of the form

is

(cstr.

(or participles

syllable (cstr.

and volatilized when the tone


and with heavy suff. in the x>l.).
;

Rem.

The

1.

Ni., Qu.,

and Ho.

and with heavy suff. in the


moved forward two places

Participles of the Strong verb follow in

2.

have some

Monosyllables

Participles follow

with a mutable a belonging to this class of words

peculiarities, represented

CTT, ifcft,

thinning a to
suff. in

and Hithq.

3^8-

Rem.
and

is

inflection the analogy of oSl!?. as the Q. (act.), Qi.

that of

Sura.

and adjectives)
is changed

that a remains in an open syllable

to a in a loosely shut
sing.)

nouns

of inflection for

Q^l^

Heavy

Abs.

U2fo% Cttli
or

e,

with heavy

by

"fs *p,

ETft'7-

The

D2T> Q^T'
special

the sing., and in the

suff. in

IT*' T!'

E!TT

peculiarity consists
cstr.

in

and with heavy

the pi.

Sing

pi

abs.

CSTK.

Sfc,

W'

ra'to

^K,

Vocal

Suff.

""W
^h,

CONSON. SUFF.

9pit

^&

or the Act. Part. Qal (i.e., words


3. In words of the form
having e in the final syllable and an immutable vowel in the penult),
the last vowel is volatilized with suffixes beginning with a vowel,
and is shortened to e or i before those beginning with consonants.

The

cstr. sing, is

Rem.

D$.

like the abs. except before

Monosyllabic

""Dtp,

Sptfi "U0-

nouns with

Maqqeph.

naturally follow this law of inflection.

THIRD CLASS OF NOUNS.

60
4-

In words of the form ;-fjn,


rnpo the
Before suffixes, ,*"[ and the vowel are

D s ]ft n?in-

nf"i

H]n

cs^r. s?'r?^. is

( ^7. 5).

dropped, and the suffixes are added directly to the word as thusapocopated.

^X

in.
2

n*n*

one hating, enemy.

see ? behold (a vision),

m. seer.
H123

JlHl*

HtSE

Hint

c. staff,

,11312

HSpp

cane, stalk.

TO.

vision.

stretch out, turn aside.

bed.

/.

ni. antiquity, age, eternity.


ObiV
T
acquire,
buy.
H3
fi^* (csir. Hip)

property

(in cattle), cattle.

rtXI 5

tribe.

132 vT

se ^-

nX*l!2

judge.

sight,

appearance.

13SITI2 judgment,

rule.

An interesting fact about this word is that it is used in this (Part.) form
about 280 times in the Bible and only once in another form Ex. xxiii. 22.
29 and
2 Not the r. of "Hosea," the prophet; but
HfcO
,Tj'n is a s y n f JCS]'
1

(seer).

Mn.

(= stretch out hands) to swim. 4 Mn. cane. The


comes through that of setting upright, establishing.
6 Mn.
letter.
are weak, and the first is a " vibrating

Lat. Nata-re

idea of acquisition in the


5

r.

'

Note that all the letters


" Jehosaphat" (t3E^ii"P) Jehovah has judged.

By

(3) means of (hand of) all the seers.


Your hand. Their hands. The hand of
enemies. The seer of the king. 13 Upon (?V) the bed of

Exercise.

Your
his

'

blood.

man 9 of

the

26

Thy

God.

And

rod.

I (w.c.) will

break 14 the
2

24

Possession (property) of flocks {sing.).


His cattle. Our cattle. In the name 10 of Jehovah. The
name of that place. 19 What 11 is thy name ? His judgments are in all the earth. 9 The priests 12 and the judges
staff of bread.

have taught 18 (Qi.) statutes 2 and judgments.


11
Their
of Jehovah.
the appearance of the glory

(Part.).

And

appearance.

The names

THIRD CLASS OF NOUNS.

31.

1.

*Q1,
^'zh,
"
T
T

of the tribes (Til") of Israel.

Ty\,

" T

PHE?
V

(see vocab.

when

additions are taken,

40).

This class

in-

eludes words with two mutable vowels.


is

AiiS.

Sing-

^2%

Pi...

rhoft,

found

6.

CSTR.

"CH,

nn*

!,

The law

of vowel changes,

4-6.

Light Suff.

nm,
nm,

Heavy Suff

22-13%

oana

18

!.

THIRD CLASS OF NOUNS.


Rem.

1.

except in
"|B

D"Hn3i

The

thinning of the original a to

cases where one

nn3), and

Rem.

2.

Rem.

3.

in a

4.

two

{cstr.pl., etc.) takes place,

letters is

Fp3,

few other words.

a guttural (D'ttSllj

cstr.

Words
D^2

vowel short.

(o r

Cstr. m'tt?> "Hfci D'Hti?

of this

cstr. pi.

fflfKfti

D. forte

keep the pretonic

D^&S-

for

Heavy Suff.

CSTK.

Light Suff.

XplX,
It T

rpi

^Tff'

DDnpl^-

fflpj?'

rfipix,

"CrtpT*'

DD^nipliE-

Sing

PI

+i&.

occasionally take with additions

class

Abs.

In feminines of this class ending in

ath (u-th in open syllable)


is

syllables-

Hli"!*

(characteristic, 4. 2. r.) in their final radical, in order to

2.

''ft !"[>

''SMS-

Words of the form 1p) become Tp| in the


sing.
rHIT having (unlike
30) a mutable vowel in both

belongs to this class.

Rem.

of the first

61

is

pf

the original form in

assumed, and the law of vocal changes

then applied, as in the masculines.

The dual has the form (HBti?)

Rem.

QHX

man, Adam.

HEIX

Fp3 4

ground, earth.

*lp2

^iri3

ar & e ) cattle, herd.

^Ipii

^HPSt

(Qi-)

m.

"itD
1

flesh.

Associate with preceding word.

ploughing)

rub out

its

wrinkles.

to see

r.

how

/ lip?

"

R.

Cf.

5V7,

Fp,

rub.

Cf. *"|D

HpttJD

fty&

JT^)

second.

= rub

Exercise.

From

of his wise (men).

second,
(/.

cattle, the clods (in

r.,

smooth the

to

4 II.

?3

(river

"|,'"|

pen on the paper.

(!"!3tt^2))

to.

iy$ m.

Qvj{tf two.

skin,,

The
and mount).
cover.

"

It is

easy

The two following

the idea of year comes from that of change.

words are from an allied r.


Mn. "Mishna"
Talmud, so called as a repetition of the law.

year.

f.

through
Idea of

Germ, glatten, Eng. gladden.


"canopy." 5 Associate with

is to

Syn. ^j^.

change.

= break

DSTIB^

border, shore.

copy.

morning, the mists and darkness.

three root-letters are in

Idea of

T)B\Pj

wing, border.

n. river.

HTirt
bring good tidings.

cstr. TlB'ttf,

c.

ilS'tt?

m. morning.
3

DTIB'W.

i-

e ->

the text of the

The wisdom a
According to Q) the word 6 of Jehothe words in a book. 12
The words of
the elders

17

of Israel.

vah. He wrote 4 all


the lips of Jehovah.
In the
His words. Their words.
heart 23 of the righteous 13 (pi.).
Which is upon (7S?) the

FOUHTH CLASS OF NOUNS.

62

In the house 3 and in the

shore of the sea (D^).

The waters

Flock

of the river.

field (iTltT).

and herd.

I will give

10
The
(jnS) thy flesh to the birds of (^IS ?) heaven.
Jehovah
righteous acts (righteousnesses) of Jehovah.

our righteousness.

FOURTH CLASS OF NOUNS.

32.

1.

HSD> "!p2

*?T7tt>

C"lp3)-

Numerous nouns

of a peculiar

formation (originally monosyllabic) may be reckoned as a fourth


Their vowels were respectively a, i, and u (or o).
class.
2.

*1D 0"D)> "Ip3- 0n

*nb?i>

account of tke difficulty of

pronouncing these words as monosyllables, a helping vowel was used


under the second radical and as this vowel was ordinarily S e ghdl
(see, however, the following section) they are generally known as
;

Segholates.
class,

They

are

named Segholates

of the a,

i,

or

u (or

o)

according to the vowel which originally characterized them.

Rem.
Rem.

In

1.

flected to

e.

Segholates of the a class this vowel

In Segholates of the

2.

has been ordinarily de-

rr^jp from "ihh-

and u (or

o) class these vowels

ing in an open syllable with the tone) are changed to e and

(now stand-

o.

Rem. 3.
It is not possible to judge from their absolute form to which of the
two classes a Segholate belongs, if the vowel of the first syllable be e.

first

have been indicated in our vocabularies.


have not been given a helping vowel,
but remain in their original monosyllabic form.
XtDlT 1X1217) CXtSn

Accordingly, those of the

Rem.

4.

Sing.

class

this class

Abs

"ISP.

7p

^P

T2*

*?hf2

"Tfip

ET27X2

D3nSD

T
*rm

Abs

cabia
T

CT-I2D

EHJ3?

Cstr

^g

T!S?

TB
T8

Cstr

Light

Heavy
pi.

Certain words of

suff.

suff.

Light

Heavy

du

suff.

suff.

''p'pE

DD*?^
ubr\

- T

wnso

w-pa

FOURTH CLASS OF NOUNS.

63

and
and in the cstr. and the forms having heavy suffixes
of the %)l., the pronominal suffixes are appended to the original
monosyllabic form. In the other forms (pZ. and the pi. with light
suffixes) a "helping" vowel (a) is used with the second radical, its
own being volatilized, and the suffixes are then added without fur-

The law

3.

for the inflection of Segholates is that in the sing,

du. of the word,

ther change.

Rem.

1.

It will

be noted that the

This law

the abs.

cstr. si7ig. is like

is

nearly universal.
2.

3.

^3
On the exceptional^, forms of tT'TiT and t2Hp see
The
really formed from the abs. pi. by volatilizing the
pi.

In Segholates of the u (or o) class, the characteristic vowel of the


forms is generally o, but there are examples of the use of u, and even i.
greatness.
17*13 from

Rem.

inflected

Rem.

2. 3. r. 2.

Rem. 4.
"helping" vowel

cstr.

is

and restoring in the fust syllable the original a (J, or o);


it seemed better to state the rule as above.
is the
more characteristic mark of words of this class than
a,

but, for practical reasons,

Rem.

5.

tone on the penult.

?'X* (Hi.) give

*|132

ear.

T]fa

m- firstborn.

m.

ear.

,Tli3t
T

/. first-

"

soul,

life, self.

g? (g about to) calumniate,

Sin* 5

ling, birthright.

^p

c.

t?fi]

spy out, tread.

TT

beget, give birth.

m. boy,

ftT

(0 m-

73")

/ foot.

oil.

son.

"ni* (and

vow.

-H3*

(i)

*T73)

? ytf 7

m.

fcHEJ*

a vow.
1

Cf. uffiv, dat.pl. of o5j.

perhaps, suggest
carries

D3

nJiPiP
sun.

the

idea

itself.

of

R.

T2Hp

= break

R. akin to

(excited)

oil press).

Assoc, with

movement.

2. 3.

In their ears.

the sun.

m.

through.

"1*3,

root.

Cf.

*|p2-

mn. "Nazirite"
6

Mn. "Beth-shemesh"
(see

c.
8

A mn

("VIS)-

Mn. "Gethsemane"

will

R-

>

3*1

(Aram.

(Josh. xv. 10), house of the

r. 2).

9
In the ears of the people of
the land.
The firstborn according to
All the firstborn.
sons. Where (10.4)
his
Their
birthright.
My
sons.
(3)
thou hast vowed a vow. His vows. Your vows. Bless
(Qi.), my soul, Jehovah.
For (?) the sole 3 of her foot.
From between (j^Stt) his feet. At (S) their feet. We
(are) your servants. 8
Cause (me) to hear 18 in the morn31
ing thy lovingkindness. 29 The root of the righteous 13 (pi.).
And he (w.c.) wrote 4 these words 6 in the book 12 of the
law (rnifi) of God.

Exercise.
9

FOURTH CLASS OF NOUNS.

64

FOURTH CLASS OF NOUNS

33.

"l"i

n*J

b^s

iyn_

vx:

^B

E?1V3.

051120

aabss

Abs

Cn^3

a*

Cstr

H<

TOO

"njya

T&O

^a
^s

B3T23

aa^rea

aa^sa

Sing. Abs. and Cstr

Light

suff.

Heavy
PI.

Light

suff.

suff.

ZTertuy s/.

1.

(Continued).

Segholates having a guttural for their second or third radical


and in those having

generally take a instead of e as a helping vowel

a guttural as their second radical, an original a in the first syllable


is usually retained, i.e., the word does not assume an actual Segho-

form in either

late

Rem.

1.

To

case.

the second part of this rule there are occasional exceptions.

urf? from pnS-

Rem.
abs.

and

Rem.

2.

Segholates

in the pi.
3.

of the u (or o) class

with light

Segholates

suffixes.

of the

class

sometimes retain the u

D^nXi VTTIK
whose

in the pi.

from ^HK-

first letter is

a guttural (,

|"|)

usually take

with suffixes instead of the original vowel.

Abs

Sing.

suff.

Abs
Cstr

"l^'.

nann

nann

nann

TO^O

suff.

Heavy
pi.

naba

Light

from

nsnn

HSbtt

cstr

"HfJ?

rain
t
t

Baiia^a

aansnn

aariann

nirSp

niann
T

niann
T

niD^ip

nisnn

niannT

nisnn

Tiiann

-:

T:

Light

2.

Feminities from masc. Segholates (like "TTy^,

require no

the

TlisSo

stiff.

word

new

principle in their inflection.

H!D' ^IH)
The /em. ending affects

as the ordinary suffix affects the masc.

monosyllabic form.

The

fern. pZ.

form

is

throws

it

into its

also precisely analogous

FOURTH CLASS OK NOUNS.


All suffixes in both sing, and

to the masc.

nouns of the third


an open syllable.

in fern,

cstr. (as

becoming a

in

nS*"in

Rem.

and

s.v.

rDtbp

^bp

Abs

^SttO
np^pa

cstr

nia^joa n&tiD

Light

cstr.

suff.

and a helping vowel (_,

pi.
;

or r\72rwt2i !"Htpb or ri7tpp)


an(l their cstr. always in

SnX

m.

J"| _.

Mn. "Oholiab": Ex.

tent.

m.

(pi.)

"Jeariin":

Josh. xv. 10 ("forest-city").

nt^ni 1

'

.TV;]/-;

(ritT))

though the

D*1^

some whose

(Qi.)

(or

lead,

nS?)

]]_

abs.

(,1X211753

form

in

is

especially a choir.

glory, eternity.

PICS * W. Passover

Gr. 7ra<rxa.

do, make. 72?D *

Q3S 5

5>l -

deed, work.

stroke, step, a time (once).

gate.

the p.n. "

may have been

latter

R. divide.

Mn. "share."

Necho" (Pharaoh) and

nearer the bronze age: Gen.

Mimetic, referring to time of puberty. Cf. gnar (= gnarl, snarl, growl).


niMfi with s is found over fifty times in headings of Psalms

Qi. Part.

in the sense of choir-leader.

Voices, as "Niph'al,"

The

as well as in

|"|

*")!?tT c.

The

I7J3

The memory may be aided by combining

iv. 22.

act. Part. Q.,

the third and

pi.

7S

youth.

"Seth"

pi.

copper, brass (bronze).

n^i 2 young man;

form follows the analogy

first

n^]
Mn.

forest.

Jl^Stttti Hti'S-

xxxi. 6.

the

while there are

there are also

the second (the fern.

Some fern, nouns have an abs. form in

Rem.

vitfro

are inflected in the sing, like

Hithq.) drops the pretonic vowel in the

fourth are rarely met with in the

*"|3T

rnia

They

of the fern, of masc. Segholates


Qi.,

TWm

J"l"03 mistress

are nouns with the fern, ending

).

In the

the masc. Segholates.

sing.

nhtifi

They

fern. Segholates.

to the

a in the

1.

Besides the /em. form of masc. Segholates,

3.

proper

n_

appended

pi. are

class), the final

PV"in? Ap.

rppftft

Sing. Abs.

pi-

See

reproach.

65

original monosyllabic

Exercise.
12

thou

(w.c.

May

be associated with the usual names of the

etc.

( 19).

It is

used in poetry for iTC".


T T

form Q2;2 suggests better the idea of stroke,

He

his tent {pi.).


silver

"Pu'al,"

and in

step.

sent 22 (Qi.) each man 9 (=a man) to


As a lion 12 in the forest. Its brass.

brass.

He

spoke 5 to his young man.

(75)

In

And

Impf. in a) hast cleaved 22 to (S) the maidens

NOUNS OF PECULIAR FORMATION.

66

"To

cut off 20 (Hi.)


from the city (*TS?) of Jehovah. all workers of iniquity
Ask 12 (pi) concerning (^2?) my sons 11 and con(J1X).
of Bo'az.

To

the chief musician."

work of my hands. 3 And I (w.c.) will reward 20


D ?^) them (DH?) according to their works. My

cerning the
1

(Qi. of

Twice

steps.

(dn.).

NOUNS OF PECULIAR FORMATION.

34.

Abs

Sing.

flX

runsT

*m

nin

THS

^ninss

Cstr

Light

suff.

Heavy

PL

Q^nx

Cstr

^nx

vrYm

suff.

LLeavy

1.

For

4.

nS2ST

VHK

(pi-

In HlPIX the ending


T

2.

tion for -awath.

The

?ff?9

D^3

cm

3.

The

173

pi. of

the latter form being

is

is

" T

oybs

first syllahle is

w ith

light suff.),

possible because there

VHX

not that of the fern,

is.

always found by

is

pi.,

but

a contrac-

is

nlni3X

is

used as a consonant, and not as in

formed as

if

from ^3, and of *"p^ as

in

J-[

...

still

^3
*&

mna

(Dsninx)

In D^flX the vowel of the

a D. forte implied.
exception.

nvns:

QSTIX

stiff.

Vbx

Dp^IlSI

Abs

Light

Rem.

stiff.

T?
T?

^?

T T

found in proper names.

5.

from

i*

^5 r
T

The remaining nouns,

usually reckoned under this head have already been given in preceding vocabu-

ns

|3,

H3X
T

wish,

will.

wish,

be reviewed: 3tf ( 8); fc^X, |"!$K

c 10);

(V3Sv
|

HIS*

!1K

up

( ii);

IX

now

but should

laries,

desire.

tr6,

rra,

dk

poor.

hack
"llnX
T

HIKH

ibid.

( 9);

J"T3 (

3);.

btt, crbtf c io).

(with

suff.

mother.

H^tf

^. nia*)

cubit, mother-city,

metropolis.
G
nX2K
T T

filllS sister.

side,

backwards. *"inX
- -

after,

"inx another. fi^nX 8

later.

f"P*lllX / latter time, future.

"lITO?

( 3);

( 2) or.

brother.

&h

latter,

mH^ */ to-morrow.

H^ST

maidservant.

complete, end.

iT?3*
T "

daughter-in-law.

bride,

^3 vessel, weapon,

thing. ["pSS, (only pi.)

Hi

v3 reins,,

inward parts.
*"fl^

be

astir,

awake.

"p^J

/ c ^y-

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

The idea of "poor" as coming from this r.


3 Mn.
The same word as interjection = Alas
for this series of
words "Acheron" ( Ax'p a"')' a fabled river of the after world.
"II1X (note
1

is

Mn. and

67

deriv. "Ebionite."

obvious.

>

vowel and D. forte implied as in


ently

= *inKT

i-

( da y)

e -> tne

'"IPIX)

after.

R.

one

after,

i.e.,

another.

(in Assyr.)

QJ3X

"iHtt appar-

be broad, roomy

Germ. Amme, nurse Lat. mamma. All seem to be mimetic.


rounded out, complete. S^ ( 2) is from an allied r. The
bride was so called as the full grown maiden the reins, from the conception of
7
them, probably, as a sort of vessel 073).
Note idea of a city. *P2? is
hence cubit.

Idea of

r. is

Cf.

to be

equivalent to *Ti as in DXiS2"137 city of


T

Exercise.

He

slept

Moab

Num.

xxi. 28.

19

with 9 his fathers.

33

The wife 9
Israel.
The

(woman) of thy youth.


All the men of
house of the women. A place 19 for (^) houses. My sons
and my daughters. In the days of your fathers. According to (y2?) the word (mouth) of Jehovah.
His brethren
9
(r. 1) were not able.
Say 5 (/.) thou (art) my sister. His

The

wife (formed from fi^TX) and his maidservants.


vessels (are) holy (holiness).

And

17

(w.c.) the elders

of

I have-made-to-cease
that city shall take 19 the man.
from the cities of Y e hudhah the voice 9 of joy. 3

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

35.

1.

AliS.

C8TE.

AB8.

CSTB.

im

ins:

nns:

nm?

ffJtf

"Mp

DTIttf

'fltf

ntfbtf

ntzfttf

tfbtf
t

tfbtt

sans

22yt
tf&rj

n?9/l$

npi-iK

nttfisn

A0&Q

trpn

nw

ntf&

aw

rrcntr

n%2p

snti?

220
wanting

rabtf

n:btt?

Tip

nwi

nstpi?i

20h

stfri

rrrt&s

rn&s

"ivi

rtrp

io

16

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

68
Rem.

1.

The vowels

not in an open syllable

and

and a

implied in

2.

[-[

for one are

The Daghes

3. 1. r. 2),

in

CrUJJ

a D. lene, the word

QWH-

being for

tv

ral for o?ie is rarely


its

is

not D. forte, but, by exception (

its cstr. is

word

in the first syllable of the

but D. forte

used except as an adj.

word, and agrees with

it

in

hence

it is

gender and number.

for two is an abstract noun; hence

it

may

found after

The numeral

be found standing in

2
apposition before or after the thing enumerated, or in the construct

state before
3-

it.

D^2?t

ttfbttf-

VfbVi
D'HSJt
t

The numerals from 3

to 10

are also abstract nouns

but as a rule they disagree in gender with

the things they enumerate, a masc. being used with a

and

fern,

vice versd."

rrm

-nrs ipik

row

11

Ht?s *$&$
j-

iwv

D"3t&

rrr&$ trrnp

rrtfpf Titf

12
I

rrto! tut;

ntt^

m??

ito| rrc^itf

13

^?

Etc.

Etc.

20

u^m

so

100

rraa
T

200

D"ri(du.)
T

P|Sx

2000

Q^StCdM.)

mpto

1000

'

Kiri dan)

nix'an cnisn) (pq

10000

roan
4.

The numerals from

niaan (#o
eleven to nineteen are

formed by prefixing

the units to the numeral for ten.


Rem.

1.

The form "Titt^? represents a root not elsewhere found in Hebrew,

but that appears in Assyrian in the word

Rem.

2.

The

for ''yp, \TJ>

istin, one.

forms CJttf, DTltP (contracted from D\KT,

and come under the head

of perpetual

res,

W'lW)

stand

though only used in

this connection.

The

fern,

form of the numeral, being the original, is used with the more
while the masc. form of the numeral, as shorter, is used

common

masc. nouns

with the

fern,

nouns.

THE STRONG VERR WITH SUFFIXES.


The numeral

5.

from

for twenty is the pi. of that for ten; while those

thirty to ninety are

69

the plurals of the respective units.


t

The numerals from two to ten generally stand in


their nouns
but may stand before them, 2 or, still

the

before

cstr.

less frequently,

'

after them, 8 in the abs.

Rem.

The

fern. du. of the

DTl^S^

idea of -fold.

corresponding cardinal

sevenfold.

J1W1, (/O.HJWKI first


The
*>tj^ttf, (/.) ri^ b^ tllircL
7-

is

used to express the

IT}#

(/)

second.

ordinal numbers (1 to 10),

except that for first, are formed from the corresponding cardinals by

2d and 3d consonants. They are adjectives,


ten the cardinals are used for the ordinals,
as also often in other cases in counting years and the days of the
month.
inserting an

and

after the

Above

so construed.

Rem.
8.

I,

I,

3?

31 fourth, drops the weak

Q^IE? tlJ'Hir HI these three years.

2.

Qijtf

3.

?hk D'Obftn

''W

4-

HHSri n!3K3

"1'tt^y

SDtJTD

The
2

seven years old.


these two kings.

the cherub

Inf. cstr.

vtOp my
nouns

be used for

(me), 1 the latter


Rem.

1.

Rem.

2.

are worth noting

5.

D3"'3t^ you two (or) two of you.

6.

M^Jan

7.

'TpiQ

was ten

and Part.

(Q.)

the

*V&

two

kings.

thy two sons.

iJttf

cubits (high).

bfcp> ^IDp-

me.

killing, killing

selves properly nouns, the Inf.


suffixes of

ordinal.

THE STRONG VERB WITH SUFFIXES.

36.

me.

^S*nX on becoming an

of

The following idiomatic expressions

1.

1.

TT^ftp

e^c

^Vp

Being them-

and Part, take the pronominal


1st Pers.
where ^_!_ may

cstr.

except the suffix of the

,s\,

The former always denotes the object


the subject or object (my or me). 2

The ending ^_|_


The Part, in

is

found with the Part, only

this form,

it

killin g

will

of the verb

in poetry.

be remembered, belongs to the

second class of nouns ( 30); the Inf. to the fourth class ( 32). The vowel o,
in the latter, is drawn back and used under the first radical, where, falling in a
shut syllable without the tone, it becomes o (or u), and is inflected (with the
exception of the 1st Pers.)

Cf Kennedy's

much

like ")|53.

Introd. to Bib.

Hebrew (Lond.,

1889), p. 106.

THE STRONG VERB WITH SUFFIXES.

70
Rem.

With

3.

under the 2d

Rem.

when

Mabc.

3. Sing.

Fem.

becomes ^tOp 037BP),

Mabc.

2.

Sing. Fem.

3. Pi.ur.

Com.

2. Pltjr.

Com.

rbibpT

ribtop

i^ipjp

nribtpp

^n^tap

^nSto,p

^nStap

'rifcoj?

^nbtop

inn^p

inbtcp

innbpp

ihSidj?

nn^top

nnbtsp

nnStop

rvtew

lan^ep

unstop

etc.

as

3. pi.

wanting

wanting

wanting

nbtsp
t t

nn^tap

2.

etc.)

nbtop

wanting

2. Sing.

top

nbtsp
T

Vp, the //. generally takes the vowel

inflected.

*frffi?

Q3,

TT,

"TptDpi ODptfip-

The Inf. of the form 7tDp (Intrans.,

4.

?]7iPpi e tc,

3. Sing.

the suffixes

radical.

wanting

Efibtap

dYiStop

otep

p^Bj?

p^pj?

The

T7te Pe?;/*.

sometimes
and
a suffix
J"|J>$
the pronominal fragment is

accusative of the Pers. Pron.

is

expressed with the verb by means of the particle


( 39).

When

this is not the case,

attached to the verb


Rem.

The

1.

itself.

suffixes of the verb here, too,

same as those

tion above noted, are the


of the noun, also, a

used before suffixes


the verb

it

is

of the

it

will

noun

be seen, with the excep-

( 28).

2.

As

in the case

union vowel (originally found with the word) is generally


beginning with a consonant, after forms ending in one. In

ordinarily a in the Peif., as in *3j_ (the only exceptions being e

before the suffix of the 2./. and

before

the Impf. and Imper.

some instances

3.

(3. s./.,

?T 2.
I

m. of 7tDP HT'tOP)) an d
- It
t
IT
:

Before appending the suffixes the verb assumes in

2. s. /., 2. pi. c.)

a different (older) form, already

dicated, better suited to the additions to be

made (!"I_becoming

in-

Jl__); F\ (from

Din? and then (eliding Q) !)fl. 4. The changes produced


on the preceding vowels are in harmony with previous rules the
vowel in the pretone is dropped that in the tone preserved, a becoming a in an
open syllable. 5. The ending D__ (3. s. /.), it will be noted, always has the
never have it. 6. The remaining parts of the verb
tone, while *}, 13, *])"[, ,1
TlX)> Yl or

by the

n OfU
;

suffix

in the Per/., as

ending in a vowel, present no

directly (1.

"rJT/ptQp

s. c.

>

1-

P^

^TD/tDp)

difficulty, the suffix


etc.).

7.

being added

In place of the form

THE STRONG VERB WITH SUFFIXES.


inri^lDp (3.S./.)

the ending

of the tabic,

the ending

(2. s. to.),

*npl_

and

ijf\j_

may

for *|*TJl"?lDp (1.

71

be found; for InStfip

) tlie

ending

V_-

means
appended to the verb, but only by the reflexive voices of

Reflexive action (kill one's sell) cannot be expressed by

3.

of suffixes

the verb itself (Ni., Hithq.).

^9pfl> ^tppn; ^t?p> ^?i> l^p-

^fcjprr,

4.

new

In the iTi. Perf. with suffixes no

The

principle

is

introduced.

Its

(and Hithq.) form has a changeable vowel only in the last syllable, and is treated, with the exceptions already named (1st Pers.), like a noun of the second class.
vowels are unchangeable.

form simply retain

this

have

a.

inS *

M*TM-

^15' *n35'

*153,

5.

Qi.

f ear -

*1rlS

Intransitive verbs of

an open syllable where the transitives

e in

breadth,

f ear -

31*1*1*

a broad street,

place.

PI2* m.
*l"iP
-

snare.

cut

ff)

It

reaP

De short.

*V2|3
'It

5
rrPl wash.
33*1 ride. 33*1

13*1 *'3

3IT"I*
1

PI33*1*3

moved, angry,

De
4

afraid.

be broad, enlarged.

Idea of

snare, etc.

(i)

m. rider, wagon.

m. harvest.

r.

letters

Idea of

HS
Vp

/ chariot.

7311* ~ have sagacity, act wisely.

311*1

TlDtT

pour out, shed.

is

swell up, spring up, as the flesh from fear, as the

is

cut, break.

Cf. F|SCp 16.

Idea of y~\

is

com-

"11 m tms word is connected with the r. p "|*l be airy,


731, 32.
then broad.
"Rehob," king of Zoba (2 Sam. viii. 3), had a name indicative of
5
breadth.
Idea of HI m numerous words is to be soft here make soft by
washing. 6 Mn. "Rechabite" 03,3*1) 2 Sam. iv. 2), so called from their riding
motion.

Of.

on camels.

'

Mn. "Maschil"

as skilfully wrought perhaps.

In

>

(7* 3'tt 'J3), a


l

Used

title

of certain

Psalms (32d,

especially of shedding blood (3*1)

etc.),

Thou hast honored me


And (w.c.) shalt honor him (Qi.). They have
honored me (Qi.). And we (w.c.) will honor thee. And
Exercise.

(Qi.).

his reigning.

13

11

him (Qi. Part. s.). To honor thee (Qi.,


Wherefore 11 hast thou disquieted (moved, Hi.) me ?
And (w.c.) thy heart 23 (/.) shall fear and shall be enlarged.
(he that) honoreth

in P.).

And

I (w.c.) will make thee ride.


To make thee sagacious.
Until 28 he hath destroyed 20 (Hi. Inf.). To till 8 it (/.) and
18
15
6
I will teach
it.
I have sanctified thee (Hi.).
to keep
15
17
you (Qi.) the fear of God. They sought him with (D)
all the heart.

WITH SUFFIXES.

.THE STRONG VERB

72

THE STRONG VERB WITH SUFFIXES

37.

The Imperfect.

1.

3. Sing.

Masc.

With

Demon

3.

{Continued).

The Imperative.

Plur. Masc.

SlNfl.

With

Demon.

Plur.

btip

q^Bjy

^iT!

^9|?.

ifrPr

#?R

^|p

n^top

^pj5

etc.

rfttpp

n#9j?

3te
n_

n^tpp'

*$&[?.

^Pp'
D^tpjT

foi?!

Rem.
directly

it

cal, after

tTi

D2?

imp.

4.

DDibpp

o.

here

?5' an<^ ^

The

as

W^jS

Impf.

Q^ipi?

fiw

PfypjE

2.

and

The

becomes iStppJI before

3. /. pi.,
is

Imp.

appears in the Impf. as


(sometimes contracted to f^

before the suffixes


)

in the Impf.

alternative (strengthened) forms before the suffixes

are due to the presence of the syllable an,


assimilated to a following

*1

and

The

now mostly reduced

while a

indicated by the D. forte in both cases.

?T,

is

( 36. 2. n. 2)

suffix

2.

Q3, ?2,
drawn back under the first radiand becomes o. 3. The union vowel which by

final 5 of the

De fre

suffixes).

volatilized before the suffix, except with

the analogy of the Inf.,


is

n_

tfjpj

forms of the Impf.

becomes

the rule

rpi

In both the Impf. and Imp., forms ending in a vowel take the

(Hl/bprii

final u of

when

1.

?^

This

|"J

following

3 is called J

is

to

''J,

J.

T|,

and

!]n,

This

assimilated to

} is

it,

demonstrative, and

as
is

found mostly with pausal and emphatic (cohortative) forms. It will be noted
that every syllable where it is found has the vowel e with the tone.
2.

*(55%

^"QD% 'tHM^

lable of the Impf.

open
3.

The

syllable,

and Imp.

heighten

it

b*%p\ *$%{*

Verbs having a in the last

(Intrans., etc.) retain

it,

syl-

and, in an

to a.

^i7- ^p> ^9P> ^9p/


;

Hi. Impf, having unchangeable vowels, presents no difficulties

while the Qi. Impf. follows the analogy of the Perf, with the
difference of the union vowel.

PARTICLES WITH SUFFIXES.

T13

n^D*

separate.

ttjpi

(Qi-,

^"3*1

l honey, syrup.

14

p"

PU2"
1

wine.
*

R-

/.

D^)

{pi.
10

Mn.

C"H!H
"llOp

t.

CTT 5

Qu.) seek.

right hand.

wi.

*D = separate.

dibs,

C/.

much

a syrup

12,

38).

seas.

Mn. "Benjamin" (pp^Q).

are closely allied.

Cf. Ffltl?,

5
"

burn incense,

(r.

= weigh)

sacrifice.

f"ntbp

m. Shekel. Sptt?12 *

weight.

= a gratuity

"Backshish "

vised in the East.

a word approaching " wine " in sound.

(akin to Tj'ptf, 22) forgive.


try, prove.

incense.

k"3EJ

sea.

73

Substituting

The "

Yam"

is

for

*>,

in the East.

we have

p"|,

mostly from over the

Idea of send, fling away, and forgive

though the

r.

idea

is different.

Mn.

"

Keturah "

(HTltOp)? name of Abraham's second wife (= sweet odor).

And

keep 15 thee. He who keepeth thee (Q. Part.). To keep him. And from his keeping
Keep (sing.) them. I will keep (Cohort.).
(Inf. cstr.).
He will keep me. And he (w.c.) has kept us. He will
keep him. He will keep him (J denom.). The lips 31 of
the wise (pi.) 3 will keep them.
For 2 thou didst separate
36
them. And I (w.c.) washed thee in (the) water. 3 Jehovah will surely separate (separating will separate, Hi.) me.
Seek ye me (pi. Qi.). Thou hast tried us as the trying
12
We ceased 15 to burn inof (D with Inf. cstr.) silver.
cense (Qi.). And they (w.c.) shall pursue 21 thee. He was
pursuing (Inf. cstr.) with (D) a sword 8 his brother. 34 Seek
20
(Qi.) peace
and pursue it (m.). And he (w.c.) pursued
them. And they (w.c.) shall burn 24 it (/.). For thou
wilt visit 15 him (3 demon.).
Ye shall seek 15 me with (S)
23
all your heart.
Exercise.

38.

I (w.c.) will

PARTICLES WITH SUFFIXES .ADVERBS.

1.

% (ITK)
"-j

P*

(H)

own)

nsjs:

ot

By*

1?n

njhj

wan

BT*

loan
T

T ~

ci3|n)

#!

lis

W*

^tt;

D ?^!

T!1 ?

tt'His

nnis

PARTICLES WITH SUFFIXES.

74

Rem.

1.

In some cases typical forms only are given in the table

noun,

all

in others,

While these particles have, in general, the suffixes of the


table may also have 3 demonstrative Ci3*T: Deut. xxix. 14),

that are in use.

all

in this

2.

and the union vowel frequently differs from that of the noun. 3. These particles
all involve a verbal idea, and may include the copula (Where art thou?
Thou
art not.
Behold I am here, etc.). 4. Excepting TJ2?, each of these words has
a cstr. form (, pg, -jnrttfy

Ti^a, sp^s- v\ryi

2.

There are a few other adverbs which take some

TO^SD-

^}*3D>

cnro- *i&> ipp^ jiyp^

of the suffixes of the noun.

ET

IS 1 then.

where (see

''X

TK'2

(to be) naught, not.

VP3
n,

n ti

nsri

"HJT
1

"2.1
-

uT 7

*P9*

Composed of the demon,

as the opposite of V}*

From

and

J$

a verb

repeat.

as one,

i.e.,

with the form of

Exercise.

its letters,

And

Where

R. '"Q

Hi

an d adv.

"fl5

njj) again,

still.

28.

Not p. May be remembered


H73, meaning to waste away (to nothing).

prosthetic.

comes from a form rPS* w itb *_ paragogic.


4 Disting.
Inf.
HUH from pron. T\1i\- 5 R- a ^in
6

^3D
T

It

together.

is.

a prefix).

roundabout.

See vocab.

together.

is

turn about.

circuit,

except.

behoia

(to be) something, there

*737 6 alone (7

11).

= separate.

Cf.

It is

used principally with the

to numeral *1HX =

TH3-

m its unity,

Assoc, the meaning

especially Q.

the Canaanite ("02?J3) was then in the

thou?

And man 31

there-was-not to
And lie was not (he, he-was-not).
the ground.
18
Behold-we
Behold-I (am here).
Not-to (To not) hear.
2
8
That 2 there-is a God 2
to (^) my lord.
(are), servants
Is my father yet
Ye-are.
Thou-art.
in (7) Israel.
26
11
11
(Is
yet, etc.)? I-alone. They-alone. His blood
alive
31
18
upon (sV) the altar round about. What is man that
11
of man
thou rememberest 18 him (Impf.), and the son
15
him (3 demon.). Righteous 13 (art)
that thou visitest
30
And they
thou, Jehovah, in (D) thy judging
(Inf.).
23
together (Ni.).
(w.c.) will gather themselves
land.
till

art
31

^ARTICLES WITH SUFFIXES.

PARTICLES WITH SUFFIXES.

39.

75

PREPOSITIONS.

1.

nx

riK

*>

T!K
?jri

i?

^1312

^nx

^3

1 to

spap
ttfciO

ins

ins

iHBS

nns
T

nnfca
T
T

u T?

una
T

una

tt&S

titba

03ns

D3m

D33

Q3P

1*

RW'

pns

IW

w>

orb

onx

ana
T

DH3
" T

pra

|ns

jna

ri
Rem.

'

\m
1.

The forms

of

7)p,

It is

one result of a general

"if23

(=

and

lift).

The

come from doubling


more body

4.

71212)-

mostly used with suffixes; only in poetry

latter is

books of Kings,

in the

excepting a few forms


part, *%.

(7)2312

'

to these particles, as in

2.

The difference between

]"|X with,

They

J1X, the sign of the definite accus., will be noticed.

mixed

T v

in part,

effort to give

before substantives ( 12. e. 2).

thee

TO3

pins
T

and

tik

if

i&3

3,

3.

Cfi'J?

and Ezek.

Jer.,

Like the former, Q37

or "^ft;?) D212!?' |323*)

The idiomatic phrase Q271

"

with

are

7H)3

and

suffixes,

somewhat
is

treated,

like ">7, for the

= What

have

I to

most

do with

The prep. ^ with a pronominal suffix is often used (especially after verbs
somewhat pleonastically. As denoting an intimate participation of

of motion)

the subject in the act,

^S

it

is

named by some grammarians

the ethic dative.

ItttPil take heed (to yourself).

2-

*b&

M^Kn&
......
- T

prepositions ^J^,

*"]^,

r\n$.
T
...

*bV,
- T

M^S...

..

The three

..

and "p^, having ended originally in

assume this form with pronominal suffixes.


they are called plurals. In poetry their cstr.

i
,

By some grammarians
is

used independently

of suffixes.
3.

nns,

34

nos*.

nnn

Tinn-

ps. irra-

There are

certain other prepositions which actually take the plural form with

DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

76

the last of the three named, however, only with plural

suffixes,
suffixes.

EJX 1

by

rifices

71"1S

bZT] 3

nati 6

"firings" (sac-

HtTK*

fire.

c.

ron

S^E

D^n* break, throw down.


b~ H 5 c cord, region (measured).
4

in

"

sense.

idea.

Idea of

r.

Mn.

02H

Mn. "Abel"

xvii. 27.

sound and

n*?$

\r7$ Most

High-

may

be associated with
called

/ steps.

"Barzillai'

in Pause).

Discrim. from b^lil-

The burnt- offering was so

(hbVih) upwards.

above,

nnri beneath.

^T^ H^K-

Discrim. from

Sam.

rhyfc*

bl2 upon, by, etc.

/. burnt-offering.

breath, Abel.

c.

wan.

!"D2 go up.

fire).

p^HQ),

iron

(man):

Eng. harass approaches

Gr. x"M<*? equiv. in sound

^,

it

and

already used several times.

from being wholly consumed (going up in

fire

and smoke).

And I (w.c.) burnt

24

it (m. with DS) with (D)


thee (/.).
From us. From her.
Thy heavens 10 which are over thy head 3 (shall be) copper, 33
and the earth 9 which is under thee (shall be) iron. Where
34
Two CJ#) lines. The
(11.4) is Abel thy brother?

Exercise.

To

fire.

With

her.

king 13 of Israel (was) passing. (Q. Part.) 23 on the wall, and


a woman cried 24 unto him (/S). And they (w.c.) shall
break down thy (/.) walls. An offering (made by fire)
12
unto ()) Jehovah. Sacrifices 18 and burnt-offerings. Sheol
36
from beneath is moved (Perf./.) for thee. With (D3?)
me. With you. Like us. After him.

40.

!
2

bS3^T

bllSn- H3S
t

me.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

D3H

nriX

the elder of

lier

"^JStt
v

"D3

to

Daniel.

heavy for

The Hebrew has no special forms for indicating degrees in

by prefixing

The comparative degree

is

word with Avhich the comparison

Ifo to the

expressed
is

made

the objects compared do not immediately succeed one another,

by the use of the


thing

sons

than

wiser

art
3

the comparison of Adjectives.

or, if

thou

is too

article.

great or too

Ifo IS a^ so

little,

used to express the idea that a

3
or the like, for a specified purpose.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON.
the youngest son;

^fepa

2.

youngest of his sons.

The Hebrew has a variety

of

D* *^^ *1D^

to generations of generations;

exceedingly great.

7X2 7173t

"IStt

77^

r]

\'

"pjjj jfcjp) the

ftp (or
of them

Jfcjpfl

the best

Q3lt0

3<m

servant of servants.

77

ways

to express the idea of superlativeness

as

by the use of the

with the adjective 1 or by a Genitive following the object


compared (it may be a pronominal suffix) 2 or, a less definite superlativeness, by a repetition of a word, or the use of an adverb. 3
article

ED"

dry up.

T T

n^S

ini^*
,

*T

c.

ntTp*
2tt?-|*

tongue.

measure.

JT^Ifi /

77^

nS(5* 6

/-,

PKg

Idea of

cover, conceal (cf. 7SC).

Letters

Vp =

cut

bow, on account
7

off.

pretty well with


8

sea."

R.

out,

7K^

eldest

to see

to watch, spy out.

how

this

r.

the word for

^p = stubble.

Cf. Isa. lvii. 20,

"troubled

(draw out by) question.

for midst.

10

To be

Used more than 100 times

HlIT
rO^lriT
-:

His

(niC)!2)? watch-tower.

meaning, be in commotion, corresponds

much used

10

middle, midst.

Note also shape of

hck.

comes from

loose, without firmness.

in the Bible, often in the expression

Exercise.

Easy

rigidity,

away, akin to

associated with S""ip, both

"

abomination.

One conceals himself

in its original

"?1 be

draw

wickedness,

Tlin)

=
Htt^
T T

R.

bow.

spoil.

Mn. "Mizpeh"

Cf. *llp, S]2Cp-

of its stiffness,

Mn. "rash," which

Gilead.

Sansc. Mad, Eng. mete.

first letter.
r. is

m.

H^lfi 10

m. end.

Mn. "Jabesh " Gilead = dry

9 (cstr.
TTlii

hook about, watch, overlay.

^m,

* (0

c.

^^-|" wicked.

be wicked.

rn. field.

rnti?

measure.

ntTp

hard, rough.
7

3?t2fl

S3n continually.

flSif

dry ground.

/. law, Torah.
ITnin
T

Jlw3^ t

l-pp cast > found.

son.

More righteous 13 than

11

brother? 34 Is it too
your youngest
10
little (ED9ft) for (from) you ?
A day in thy courts (7XH)
10
3
than a thousand.
The most glorious song 26
is better
9
The earth became dry. The law of
(song of songs).
(He) passes 23 (Part.) by
mercy 29 (is) on 39 her tongue.
(from) he.

17

Is this

At (T ) the end of the days. He


us (73?) continually.
24
16
wars'
cease
maketh
unto 28 the end (i7p) of the earth ;
5

(the)

bow he breaketh

unto

(of)

Jehovah

(is)

in pieces

the

14

(Qi.).

way 12

An

abomination

of the wicked (sing.).

Divide ye (ppfl) the spoil of your enemies 30 with (QS?)

your brethren.
fire.

39

In (2) the mount 9 from the midst of the

VERBS

78

K"B.

WEAK VERBS VERBS

41.

K"S-

1. The distinction between the Strong and Weak verbs, and the
nomenclature of the latter, have already been noted ( 14. 1. 2).
Verbs having J$ as their first radical are properly gutturals. In
certain of them, however, ^ is not so treated throughout, but as
a quiescent letter, losing its power as a consonant, and becoming
blended with the preceding vowel (5).

Impf.

h^W

m.

s. 3.

3./.

m.

2.

^3*0

bzxn

s. /.

S?Kn

2.

m.

2-

/ nibhxn

b20U

2. /.

pl.S.m.

!
\

Sax

i. c.

njbiKn

^KJI
Sds:

i. c.

In the Impf. Q. of six verbs beginning with ^ this letter


6, which is an obscured a (yaakhal = ydkhal = ydkhal).

2.

quiesces in

In the

1.

^ers.

(rarely elsewhere) the radical letter

s.

itself dis-

fc$

appears.

Rem.

These

1.

He

follows:

said

verbs

HDX),

may
lie

be easily remembered by arranging them as

wished (J"OX). to eat (SbS); he baked (HEX).

he seized OlfX)? he perished (^DX).

Rem.

There

2.

S"|DXi three times, twice with a

love, in the 1.

^X" m

s.

occasionally

Impf. (3HX)-

THX *

granary, treasury.

ram;

pi.

Q^X

tne mighty,

the foremost.

^liS

*iri3
-

be long, tarry.

m. cistern,
6

choose.

bZX
Saxa

eat.

^DX

(/

nS?K)

food.

Tt""|X

length.

pit.

^IIPD*
T

^ which

dropping of the

and 3nj<
*"liiX

always so quiesce.

in ]j-[X does not

^ (HDrii
which might lead to a confounding of the word with some forms of Jrp''

follow this analogy


Sip*"!),

are two other verbs beginning with

chosen one

(youth, etc.).

'

{"OS" weep.

food.

"'SS*

to-

weeping.

high place.

*^'bake (HS'X baker).


rtSK
T T,

nSiS 8

nnX m

S"p ,9 add, (with other verbs) again.

waY

course.

/ height,

1
Mn. "Oats are" (there). 2 Mn. "Aijalon" (place of deer). 3 It will be
remembered best as a K"D verb in connection with the sentence above. * To be
associated with, and discriminated from, the next word (|"| marks the word
meaning way, T[ that meaning be long). 5 Mn. "Bore," to which its r. is nearly
6 Associate the three words of similar sound thus
equivalent.
Cf. *"|K3-

D"Hp3 ni"l333

"iri3 he chose the firstborn of the cattle.

Note the order of

verbs
the consonants
Ps. lxxxiv.

Mn. " Baca" (fcOS a dropping (weeping) balsam):


Mn. "Bema" (y3^,ua) raised place. 9 Mn. and deriv. "Joseph"
"

3, p).

(|f,
8

7.

79

re.

(rpi'O: Gen. xxx. 24, "the Lord add,"

The

etc.

house 3 of Jehovah.
And behold
a ram caught (Ni. Part.) by (D) his horns
Thou mayest surely eat (eating thou mayest eat).
(?"lp)Exercise.

treasury

38

the

of

27

Teach 13 me
thy cords. 39

(Qi.J

thy ways

Lengthen

(pi. in Til)-

(Hi.)

We

22
to (*?) its (/.) length.
will cast
35
him (Hi.) into (D) one of the pits (pi. in JTi). Choose
ye (for you 39 ) to-day 10 whom ("^"JIX) ye will serve. 8

As

The people 9 (were)

sacrificing

18

and burning incense 37 (both

And

Qi. Parts.) in the high places.

(w.c.) said to

them. 39

24

And they (w.c.) took him (ijnlX) and slew him.


And
they (w.c.) said, let us not 15 perish 8 (Cohort.) for (D) this
man's 9 life 32 (soul).
27

42.

VERBS

D"S-

m.
Perf.

s.

o.m.

3. /.

ntfaa
it
T
:

2.

m.

pi. 2.

m.

Hi.

tfaa

ntraa
T

ritfia
T

antfaa

Dritfia

Ho.
ttfan

'

ritfan

rittiri

antfan

origan

tf3P

wanting

Inf. cstr
Inf. abs

Imp.

s.

tnaaT

m
/.

tfa
....

pl.f. ....

natfaan

ntfari

regular

Impf.

s. 3.

m.

tfaa^
..

2./.

1.

c.

pi. 3. /.

Part. pass.

ntfari

tfax

natfan

natfa'n
~
:

natfari

traa
.

wm
t

Part, act

tfiaa

tfaa

tra&

VERBS

80

3"B.

Verbs }" show but a few variations from the Strong verb
and Qu. Voices. When, in process of inflec-

1.

none

at all in the Qi.

tion,

the J would come at the end of a syllable and be pointed


it is assimilated to the following radical, the

with a silent S e wa,

by a D. forte
and in the Hi. and Ho. throughout).

assimilation being indicated


Part.,

(Q. Impf., Ni. Perf.

and

Rem. 1.
Assimilation does not take place, however, in verbs medial gutand in a few other cases, especially in Pause.
Rem. 2.
A certain number of these verbs (like t?33) ni addition to those
medial guttural, have a in the Q. Impf., and some others have either a or <j.
Rem. 3.
In the Ho. the original u appears (instead of o) in the sharpened

tural,

syllable.

IWUj nt2?i

VJl,

Q. of

some }"

TlttJ3

('

thinned from a),

In the

etc.

verbs, this letter at the beginning of a syllable,

not supported by a full vowel,

is

dropped

(Inf. cstr., Imp.).

when

In the

shortened root is again made triliteral by the addition


marking the feminine, so becoming a Segholate (of the i
and inflected accordingly.

Inf. cstr. this

of ft,
class),

nnp>

3-

}"

the analogy of the


4.

The verb Pip ? (except

np v

Pip;

verbs.

nn (=iwi

im cnn;, ism

rift:,

in Ni.) follows

with the vowei

heightened and the weak consonant assimilated), *ftft

(H3n)j

The verb

?rT' irin-

"OPI-

etc.

*,ft

1ft} assimilates also its final }

before ft (Q- Perf., Inf. cstr.), and naturally before another } (Q. Perf.,
1. Pers. pi.).
In the Imp. the final vowel is e, as also in the Impf.

harmony with the

in

The

Inf. cstr. as ground-form.

Inf. cstr. is

inflected like a Secrholate noun.

EX j

m. Negeb, the south.

3233
3

3)33
-

HD3* 6

say, utter oracularly.

touch,

smite,

TTD3

plague.

3733 i

try, prove.

pour out (a drink-offering)

Iff}

m. a drink-offering.

(i)

stroke, plague.

smite.

S"|33

7173

^173

inherit.
fn>-

&

smiting

fr^TD / inheritance.

wady, (and

^i-

DI73
-

H23H2*

repent,

its)

2^3

pull out (tent- pin), journey.

(and

stand.

brook.

comfort.

Qi.

3?D3

Mn

7^3

3Jp

Hithq.) be set, fixed,

rQ3t)2

/ pillar.

deliver.

"Nahum"
3Jt03
1

(0^13)) consoler.

plant, drive (tent-pin).

733 preserve.

7n3

10

give, set, appoint, etc.

Like 3VXi used but once except as Part. (DX3)-

Southern Palestine.

R. 33?

One

n many words, has the idea

of the divisions of
of touching

more or

VERBS

81

'S.

word here. 4 Following word is from


Both may be better remembered by thinking of the wady as a
5
Both words, with ^Q],
possible boundary of an inheritance.
Cf. 17133T T
have to do with the tent ()"HD3 to spread it 3,'tD3 drive its pins ^D3 P uh them
Cf. t?33 ail(i the following

less forcibly.

a different

r.

up).

Mn. and
"

from D3with its mn.

"Massah"

deriv.

Associate with
9

]'^ Zion.

of what God now does


(= Nathanael)

unto

(a dry Spanish wine).

10

for us.

Utterance

And

(w.c.)

And

And

41

Akin

to

|""H2

14

19

thou, take

ye shall not touch

Jehovah smote Pharaoh

(with) great smitings. Bring near

And

Discriminate
8

Mn. "Nathan," he (God) has given

Jehovah.

of

thee from all food.

("p)

(13)-

"sack"

7.

This word and the next (note radicals) include in idea

much

Exercise.

(|7Dt2)? proving: Ex. xvii.

it

(WjBTIS)

(Hi.) the burnt-offering.

39

(^D/) your
For 2 thou shalt make this people 9 inherit the
land 9 which I swore 25 (Ni.) to their fathers 8 to give to (T )
them. Comfort ye (Qi. pi.), comfort ye my people, saith 5
(Impf.) your God.
Where ( 10. 4) he spread 30 his tent. 33
ye (w.c.) shall be smitten (Ni.) before

enemies. 30

He shall plant
And they (w.c.)

And

the tents.

Abram

(w.c.)

journeyed.

pour out (Hi.) drink-offerings to (T )


Behold 38 I stand (Ni. Part.) by {bV) the
3
of water.
And /delivered thee (Hi.) from the
will

other 34 gods.
fountain 3

hand 3

of Saul (btttttf).

covenant.
place

15

20

Give

(pi-) to

with (DS?) you.

tance of

my

s.

:;.

m.

3.

Inf. cstr.

me

the possession

My

giving (Inf.

...

VERBS

15

of his

of a burying-

cstr.)

the inheri-

m.

Hi.

Ho.

Stfi3

ywi

agin

regular

ratfia

CfO^I?

...
.

V'.

Q-

rntbia

27

3tt

2
pi. 2. TO.

(Q. Part.)

fathers 8 to thee.

43.

Perf.

To the keepers

rofc

n^

*'

mWi

Fobm
T

orot^in

Fouhn
~
T
Dnnunn
:

rrtfin

sttftn

stfin

wanting

wanting

VERBS

82

V 'S.

m.

Q.

s.m

Imp.

un;

sttfcrotf)

/.....

'

a^in

IT

JETo.

ntfiri

" T

TT

"Otf

Hi.

B
pi. f.

Imp/,

....

s. 3.

m.

2./...
1.

c...

njafc

ruttf'v

3#!

#T

"Qttfl

TTfl

2trx

naatbp
"

"

it

TtfS&VQ

S^

cr<3

a-^i

atpr

wbifl

awi

yttfiK

a$iK

atfiK

tth'N

pl.Z.f...
T

nga^in

rrjatbiri

"

2^1X2

niri:

atfia

Verbs *' are of three

1.

whose

In the

2.
i

when

"]

"])

verbs, the original

initial (Q. Perf., Qi., Qu., and, partly,

Q. Impf.

may

first

The first two include those


the last are the proper Vgj.

classes.

was originally
class of 1" (or

first radical

and related

In the latter case, (a) the

parts.

be dropped, the stem vowel, originally

appears as

Hithq.), except in the


first

radical

becoming under the


tone e (a with a guttural)
while that of the preformative (? from
a union of ^ with a) becomes an unchangeable e.
The Inf. cstr.
(like verbs }'') taking the fern, ending J"] assumes the form of a
Segholate noun, which when inflected takes i under its first radical.
Or (b) if the first radical be retained in the Impf., the stem vowel
is a, and
(become i), uniting with the i of the preformative forms t.
i,

"]

Rem.

1.

There

are but eight

radical in the Q. Impf.

"*")

verbs which regularly drop their

and related parts (JJTi

"TIT,

first

lS% "h" OSi"!)? ^p" be


1

"pPi K2T, 2W)Rem. 2.


There are but three of this class of verbs which retain invariably
in the Imp. (JT"p, XT, !7T)There are others which appear in both forms
dislocated,

ozh\
3.

*>

etc -)-

When

in verbs originally *\" the

is

not initial,

it is

treated

as a consonant at the beginning of a syllable (Ni. Inf. cstr., Imp.,

Impf., and sometimes Hithq.)

and as a vowel at the end of a


homogeneous vowel
contracted with an (original) a to <5 (Ni. Perf. and

syllable.

As a vowel

(Ho.) or

is

it

either coalesces with a

Part., Hi.).

Rem.

1.

In the Qi. and Qu.

are inflected regularly.

Voices

The same

is

appears always as \ and these Voices

partly true of the Hithq.

(c/. 2).

VERBS
Rem.

2.

The

83

"TO.

lengthened form of the Imp.

is

frequent in these verbs.

2p or rQttf from 2ttf\


Rem.

3.

The

verb Tj'y has forms of

parts

Q*h\ lfg\j ^b Cnib),

Tjbn

r em

4.

The

4.

my

going)

related

but elsewhere

verb

b^

forms

its

Q. Impf. irregularly (b'DT,

others suppose the form to belong to the Ho. Voice)

cstr.

^b n3^

and

in the Q. Impf.

'fiD ?

used.

b^V
rbSy

from

own

its

p%\

Inf. cstr.

also its Inf.

Im P f

Im P- p2T and pS-

flp^.

S^'p

etc. for
;

pSt^-

second class of verbs originally Y'S follow the analogy of


The first stem letter, when coming at the end of a
verbs.

The

with silent S e wa, is assimilated to the next; and when


standing at the beginning of a syllable unsupported by a full vowel,
There is considerable variation, however, in their inis dropped.
syllable

Their forms may be generally distinguished from those of


verbs }" by the fact that *i" verbs of this class have almost
flection.

exclusively

& Dt^-

as a middle radical.
Q- I n f- cstr

Part, regular.

wo

Win;* Im P-

Impf.

(ffljV^ Jp&Epi
T
oa^D); impf. n^^.;

third class of verbs i",

The

Imp. wanting;

regular;

Infs

Hi. jpfcig

i.e.,

verbs whose

'

Part.

first

^tD^

2*W6>
y*wfc.

radical

was

% have the following characteristics. In the Q. Impf.


this \ which is never dropped, unites with the vowel of the preformative (i) and forms I. In the Hi. this radical unites with the
original vowel of the preformative (a) and forms e, which being
unchangeable appears in all the other forms of this Voice. There
There are but eight verbs
are no forms of the Ni. and Ho. Voices.
in the class altogether, and all are more or less defective.
originally

'

'J}'}"

?j9

8
3

"ID"'

know,

ftyi

knowledge.

V^T counsel.

(and T|j?n) go, walk.


instruct,

chastise.

|2^
1D1X2

".

- T

/. congren*TJJ
"

gation (of Israel).

*1Vltt

appoint, meet.

sea"

f15ai, oiSa.

names

counsel.

^p

go down.

Imp. T]S, "?I?i (IDS

of the Tabernacle

Discriminate from /em. of

possess, Hi.

- T

possess.

is

was l^lb SltX-

yy

wood.

ttTi*Vn

verv common.

Connect the three i"S verbs, -[&, yy>, "\$\

the
5

Cf.

pour.

- T

**PV

son, festival, assembly.

*"|^ 7 form, make.

correction.

*W*

n23?

(sometimes)

TH TH

Read from the

dis-

new wine.

right.

Get thee
4

One

of

For two others see 6, 21.


"Sack").
"T[D3 ( mn

Assoc, with

VERBS

84
7

Allied

r.

^""lJC, *"|JC

press, impress, form.

other words in

Exercise.

And
ness

This means, too,

Mn. "Jordan" (pTHTI the descender).

thus:

Assoc, with

(he sought), tTl3 (he drove out), ^j"p (he

^""H

of thought.

Know (pi.).

To know good 10 and

evil (SJ^J).

walk with (DV) wicked men (men of wickedBe instructed (Ni. Imp.), ye judges 30 of the
There (DtT) hath he appointed it (/.). Speak 6
9

to
40
).

earth.

{j*|,

(mn. "Tsar"), meaning press, oppress.

and note progress

possessed),

IT.

(Qi. pi.) to

("/S)

all

the congregation of Israel.

He

10
Pour out for the people 9 that
counselled in those days.
41
(Impf.).
The man 31 whom he had
(w.c.) they may eat
formed.
He that formeth (Part.) the mountains. 9 When
(3) he came down (Inf. cstr.) from the mount. And they
9
(w.c.) possessed his land.

44.

VERBS

Ni.

Q.
Perf.

nap

2. to.

pi. 2. TO.

nnbp

Hi.

npin

nnn

nnip:

nnpin

nnn

niiip]

rinpin

nnn

nninip:

nnin-pn

nip

Dipn

Inf. abs.

nip

nipn

npn

nip

nipn

npn

-nipn

*&>

s.

m.
/

s. 3.

m.

nip;

2./-

pi

wanting

rap

pi f
Impf.

nnnpin
npin

Inf. cstr.

Imp.

Ho.

nip3

s. 3. to.

3./.

1'"2-

3. /.

nip'

Dpi-

ttipri

-npin

npn

nrnipn

naopn
T
T
:

Part, act

Part. pass.

op,
.

nip

nn

nip:

nabpin

n-pn
npin

VERBS
1.

The

IT.

85

irregularities in the inflection of verbs

in the elision of the

weak middle

]"$ consist mainly

radical together with one of the

vowels, usually the preceding.

Rem.

was

qawam, aw being elided, and final a under the


and Imp., orig. qwum, wu = u Impf., orig. yaqwum,
a in an open syllable = a; Part, act., orig. qawim, w being rejected and i absorbed; Part, pass., orig. qawum, a being rejected.
2. Perf. and Part, of
intrans. verb were orig. mawith, the present form eliding w and retaining and
heightening vowel. 3. Ni. Perf. and Part., orig. naqwam, which is contracted
Q. Perf.

1.

tone becoming a

orig.

Inf. cstr.

to nd-qom, the final syllable appearing in

and

4. Hi. Perf.

Part, were orig.

in second, syllable),

Imp-

miqwlm

n3i3n
" T
T

!"I3J2b,

(i in

all subsequent forms of this Voice.


(thinned a in first, and, after Inf. cstr., t

an open

syllable

are due to the vocal law that u

e).

and

5. The forms of the


cannot stand in a shut

haqwam

penultimate syllable even with the tone ( 3. 4.


ginning with the consonantal afformatives ]"| and

r.).

6.

J (Perf.

Before the affixes beand Impf.), except in

the Ho. and the Q. Perf., an additional syllable

is generally found (probably an


used for the purpose), which serves to open the
stem syllable and protect its vowel. 7. The change of tone works a change in
the vowel o of the Ni. Perf. in some parts to u.
8. The verb H13 has an alternative form in the Hi. Impf. and Imp. (PPS 1 )-

original

vowel of the stem

The endings

2.

is

,"|

it

will be noted,

do not generally take

the tone in this verb, the contracted stem drawing

4.

X3

Illf

o retain

is

it

In the Iuf and related forms,

besides the ordinary form with u (changed to

there are some with a heightened to


i

5-

DD%T
|

a,

in the last syllable,

il)

and then obscured to

0D*1>
|T T-

lDD'%
T
I"

whose

throughout the Q.

Xl3 Im P f $\D?-T

to itself.

Intransitive verbs of this class

tlM3> Tl^'S; tlM^-

3-

middle vowel

it

The
DD'T
T-

Jussive and

6.

Waw consecutive

|v

forms of the Q. and Hi. should be especially noted. In one case we


have o becoming o with the tone retracted in the other, e becoming e.
;

Xi3 x .come
HXlSri *

]h

XlDtt*
T

in.
/

entrance.

c.

(pSj stay over

night.

3 die.

ni!2
v T

QY1XD* men
1

nS^

^J,

Hltt) m. death.

To be

sing, ritt-

DT1J5 as

full

(|Ti3).

DW

flee (?

3J13

shake, wander.

PV|2

wave.

the noose).

nS13ri* 4

Cf. nuo, nuto.


/-

wave

offering.

(adults).
2

Antithetic to J$3T go out.

and noun.
lete

(cstr.

rfrp3 * m. rest, pleasantness.

rest.

Mn. "Noah"

m. night.
filtt

ni]

income, increase.

Note interchange of the liquids

associated with the following word, which

Th e

roots

grown men,

,111X2)

j"|ft

TIE.

as a dead

flltti

etc.

man.

what

]
is

is

and

in verb

from an obsostretched out,

Assoc, words for offerings

(burnt-offerings, 39 peace-offerings, 21 heave-offerings, 11 etc.).

VERBS

"1?

shall

keep

86

Jehovah

Exercise.
C?iriSiC)

and thy coming

15

him

going forth
(H^H) of

thy

The

in (Inf. c).

spirit

Stay over night (/.)


41
10
of thy eating
For in
to-night
And
(Inf. c.) from it (m.) dying ( 15. 2) thou shalt die.
9
and
the
the
women
The men and
he (w.c.) shall die.

Jehovah

shall canse

children

to rest.

( 9. k. 1).

the day

They

(F|E sing.).

(Part. 7^.).

flee

And

42

(w.c.)

(Ni.) before (^S ?) Israel,


Judah (iT^iT) was smitten
33
The daughand they fled e very-man (ttTK) to his tent.

Jerusalem hath shaken (Hi.) her head. 3 I will


19
wave (Hi. Part.) my hand* over them. 39 Let him arise
And he (w.c.) arose. Let him establish (Hi.).
(Jussive).
And he (w.c.) hath established his word 6 which he spoke 6
17
39
Let them be ashamed.
(Qi.) over us.
ter

11

of

Per/,

s. 3.

m.

J2

Inf. cstr.

pa

abs.

mi
T

AND THE INTENSIVE

*"8

VERBS

45.

Imp.

s.

m.
/.

p3

VOICES.

Imp/,

^a

s.

3.

2./.

pi.

fi32

m.

172

As

in verbs

*
1

<rsnT
*

Part, act

Part, pass

1.

T^T

m.

\2

VQ

"^, we find also in the present class 1 not in\ The vocalization being thus changed,

frequently changed to

there appears in the Q. some forms resembling those of the Hi.

(Impf.); or of the Hi. apocopated (Inf. cstr., Imp.). In fact, they


These (Q.) forms are
are regarded as such by some grammarians.
In the
^
place of !).
except
that
takes
the
like
inflected
Q1H,
other Voices the inflection of these words conforms in
to that of the proper

Rem.

bin

1.

*['"$

The

words

It

often not possible to distinguish the Q. Impf. of these verbs

6m nw cn^),

Rem.

2.

all respects

verbs.

is

of

this

sort

most used are |13 (T2)' ^13 \Tfyi

nitf (.rr)-

from the Hi. Impf. except by the sense.

r em
in

some

3.

it

is

probable thac in some of the verbs just cited, and certainly

others, the original middle radical

was

actually \

AND THE INTENSIVE


2.

fl^S,

pj3,

riii

,
!|}>

radical in the Q. Perf.

a Hi. with

(i.e.,

3.

Sometimes

"

Qip (D1p)i

inf.

D&ip'! (D1p^)i part. DfcipJ? CBOipp).


The

intensive Voices

found as a middle

then inflected like an apocopated Hi.

It is

Perf.

is

87

syllable wanting).

its first
2

>o;p.

e*c

VOICES.

(Qi., Qu.,

c
b

Impf.

Dip;

Cp^p

Dpjpp-

Hithq.) are not ordinarily used with

There are a few examples in *"$ verbs; but


verbs *\"V (*'"$)
only one of an *]'"$. The same effect has been secured by doubling
1

the last radical and then inflecting as a strong verb with unchangeable vowels. 2

These Voices are accordingly to be named in harmony


with their vocalization, Q6lel, Q6lal, Hithq6lel (or on the basis of
Pd'lel, Pd'lal, Hithpd'lel), respectively.
More rarely both
the first and last radical are repeated, forming so-called Qilqel,
Qulqal (Pilpel, Pulpal) Voices. 3

hV&

X^Q

/ virgin

"112 sojourn.

I,

by

create.

n^*ri3 2

|2

D^

about (in joy or

Rip

circle

pain), be in pain, wait.


i

Gen.

i.

^ft t (round

DTl^K X"in

rPttftFlS.

"Abigail" ("VOX)} father's

joy.

m. sand.

^pf,

cstr.

777

(army).

m. sojourner, stranger.

(712) circle about (in joy), rejoice.

^Tt 4 Oil!)

rolling),

(strong by twisting) m. might, force

(= the separated).

(DltP)

Gen.
2

To be

Cf.

set, place.

Mn. "Seth"

set, place.
iv.

(nttf):

25.

bl3, and

assoc. with

it.

assoc. with the preceding.

Mn.

Com-

bine with following as having the same general meaning.

Exercise.

Sojourn

the stranger

My soul

32

who

(m. s.) in this land. 9


And for (7)
sojourneth (Part, with Art.) in the land.

shall rejoice in

Jehovah.

We have been

virgin of Israel hath fallen. 22


v
(D "tf) his life 32 in his hand (1M).

The

hast put (IVttf) under

enemy

30

riseth

shall

his feet.

32

(Qolel Impf.).

All 2

in pain.

he (wc.) set
(things) thou

My

people 9 as (7) an
And I. behold I 38

DID) my covenant 20 with (TS)


The tabernacle was reared up (Ho.). 19 And he
exalt himself (Hithqo.) 10 and make himself great

establish

you.

up

19

39

And

(Hithq.). 10

(Hi. Part,

of
21

VEKBS

VERBS

46.

Perf.

V'V.

V"V.

H33D np

4?|5

333

3. /.

nap

rfej?

nspi

s. 3.

2.

niip ni ?^

Hi.

Ho.

5DI3

3pm

ni3p3

ntoin

"

"

niton
T

rutoin
T

":

Jn/. cstr

33

^PH

SDHT

wanting

/n/. abs

niDDT

3isn

SDH

wanting

33

DDH

Don
" T

/.

^b

'asn

'Dpn

pz. /.

nrio

iB"^!!

nrscn

Imp.

s.

/nip/, s. 3.

3b

nb^

bj5^

"

OQ

3D?
3D'
" T

3D?

spf

2./.

tori

?3Dn

'tori

?3Dn

tow

pis./.

nrtofi

nwbn

nation

nrton

nraran

3D3
T T

3D&

333

Par*. ac

3133

Part, pass

1.

The

331)2

$"$

chief irregularity in the inflection of verbs

consists

(by D. forte, where possible) the second radical as


representative of both the second and third, which in this class of

in doubling

verbs are identical.

On

the other hand, the Perf. Q. of nearly

all

transitive verbs of this class, as well as those parts of other verbs

which the last two consonants are separated by an unchangeable


vowel (Q. Inf. abs., Parts., and Qi., Qu., if used) are inflected

in

regularly.
2.

The two consonants

of the root,

which are

alike,

being doubled,

the vowel of the second (as in verbs ]'"$) appears under the
(except in Hi., and Ni.

tone from the endings

Impf

)"|

}, ^

first

and the contracted stem takes the


(except when it is thrown forward

Waw consecutive of the Perf.


The vowel of the stem in the
Rem.

after a

1.

stand before the doubled consonant.

Perf. Hi. is

e,

because

could not

VERBS
Rem.

89

1>"L\

The vowels of the preformatives when falling in open syllables arc,

2.

and

of course, lengthened (Q. Impf., Ni. Perf., Part., Hi. and Ho. throughout),
an original a has in some cases been restored (Q. Impf., Ni. Perf.).

clear in pronunciation the doubling of the second

To make

3.

radical, a helping

vowel (Perf.

sonantal afformatives

y$

from verbs

f), J,

which uses

Impf.

o,

used before the con-

e) is

The

in four of the Voices.

difference

only in the Q. Impf. and the Ni. and

it

Hi. Perf., will be noted.

This rule with respect to the Ho.


Rem.
example found in the Part. pi. f. (JI'DpItt)-

To show that a stem

4.

$"$

is

rests

on an inference from the one

where there

in forms

is

no

afformative, and consequently no D. forte in the second radical, a


D. forte is sometimes put in the first radical, by way of compensa-

tion

(c/.

5.

^Q% ^dH
DD' DD'T
T"
T~
those with Waw consecutive

Tne unchanged Jussive forms,

- T

and

and Hi. Impfs.).

alternative forms in Q.
>

and

(Q.

f 3?>

Hi.), as in verbs

should here also be especially noted.


Qu. Perf.

Qi.,

6.

nsiD

Mip%

impf.

Mfo

DDiD

nnio;

Infs

Parts,

DDiD, DDlD

^p.
i*

nnio^, nnio^-

the intensive stems, the inflection is either regular (D. forte in the

middle radical, making contraction impossible), or an unchangeable


6 is inserted after the first radical, and the inflection then proceeds
In the latter case, the Voices would receive, on the basis
^ftp, the names Q6tet, Qdtat, and Hithqdtet (from

regularly.

of the verb
'

bSB> P6 1 P6
>

7.

(cstr.

niQ),

CJ3K), n*
FIX

P|}<

Hithpdel).

Nouns from verbs f5?

ns
(Pl- WW),
n

cstr
(

its)

ant^
>

6 be
H2"l
T
T

m. nostril (du.

D^SX

face),

nnn
- T

"")1D

m. (pebble)

^e

ek

(last

3J3^

lot.

many.

two from
be

3"| 6 great,

great, multiply.

n3*"l)

(/.

breathing, anger.

S"ll2

J"lltt

and those from verbs 3"$ b y

etc.

a l so y ea truly.
)

^"3 are represented by

evil.

allied

9-1

r.

m. multitude

22*1)-

n!TD

(/

evil,

wicked.

dismay, trans, break.

3^

turn aside, remove.

return.

Discrim. from following.


Full form and r. Fptf (hence D. forte in d.)3 Mn. " Coral," which we may
Anger associated with (violent) breathing.
imagine to be the " pebble " or lot. * Mn. and deriv. " Hittite " (Till) They seem
2

to

have been redoubtable warriors.

about

(DDD 38 ),

returned Qlttj).

5
e

Assoc, as follows

Mn. and

deriv.

He turned aside (")1D)


"Rabbi" CS^, 'Pa00l).

verbs

1)0

Gf- l3"li

etc -t 35.

R.

means be

in

rrb.

commotion

without fixed

(cf. 'JJt^")),

principles or goal.

Also I

my

dream. 3 In his nostrils. For 2


And ye (w.c.)
in their anger they slew (J1H) a man.
2
the land 9 by p) lot.
shall divide (Hithq. of
)
Be not dismayed (Ni. Impf.).
They were dismayed.
They have turned aside from the way. 12 And my mercy 29
For
I will not remove (Hi.) from (from with W8) him.
31
10
Return (pi.)
(was) the evil (/.) of the man.
great (/.)
unto me ( vK), and I will return (Cohort.) unto you.
Exercise.

in

7W

VERBS rrb.

47.

Ho.

Qu.

Hi.

rfM
t

Tfal
t-.

TlblX
t

H^H
t:t

nn^

nn^|

nrfea

nrfean

nnban

rv^a
T
T

rrta
t "

rr^a
T

rrifc

n%i

n ,L?3n

niybi

arrbaa

axybi

dtp ?!

Drrtan

Drrbari

cstr

niSs

niS|rr

ritea

ni^s

mban

niSan

//. abs

fb}

fbi:

,1^3

wanting

H^H

H^H

/top.

rhi

nSarr

n^a

wanting

n?3n

wanting

Perf.s.S.m

3./.....
2. to

Ni.

Qi.

flSl
tt

,"1^33

nnb|

pi. 2. to

w.

s. 2. to

-.

"

?3n

^a

"bsn

,-13^3

nAi

nr^a

nrtan

nSr

nSr

n^r

n'pr

rfra?

nbr

^an

^|ri

^ari

iJ

^an

^3n

nSax

nbaa

n^pax

nbax

rfca*

nr^ari

na^an

na^pari

na^ari

nr^ari

Pari. ac

,1^3

,1^33

H^ajQ

Part, pass

^3

2. /.

Pi.2.f. ....
/top/,

s.

3.

2./.

....

i. c

p?.3./.

^3

ni

?ari

na^ari

ilSa

H^

ilbaiB

verbs

H^ = ^

1-

ox

1^;

91

itb.
2

Part. pass.

^.

Verbs ft"b are

properly ">"^ (or *\"b)> the final ft being simply the sign and
accompaniment of the preceding long vowel 1 ( 1. 4). The third
radical (">), which is usually dropped when it does not coalesce with
2
the preceding vowel, appears in the Part, pass., before ft} of the

Imp. and Impf., and occasionally elsewhere before afformatives


Most of the verbs of this class were
beginning with vowels.
l"^
in a few forms.
in place of
found
is
but
originally
attention to the following comparatively uniform

By

2.

*i

"|

prin-

forms of this verb may be easily fixed in the memory.


while the old
The ending of the Perf 3. s. in all Voices is ft

ciples the
(1)

ending ath (m/ath becoming Hhali; in


before

in the feminine.

it

The

(2)

p.,

athah) has been restored

original

reappears in

and

1.

2.

Pers. of the Perf., always coalescing, however, with the preceding

vowel, becoming uniformly

and

as well

as its

( is also

found) in the active Voices,

(3) Before the afformatives

the passive.

in

representative

ft,

(always with pronominal suffixes) disappear.

end

in

ft"]

J"J

The

(4)

Inf. cstrs.

of the Impf.

and Parts, (excepting Q. Part,

pass.) in

(6) Before the fern, ending ft} (Imp., Impf.) the radical

orthographically reappears
Rem.
Rem.

1.

2.

(cf.

2. R. 1).

The Hithq. Voice follows, as usual, the analogy of the Qi.


The ordinary form of the Impf. is used for the Cohortative, except

in three instances,

where the ending Jl_

s use<i Ior !"I_

Ps. lxxvii. 4

cxix.

Isa. xli. 23.

T$i because of (in response to)

turn, overturn.

R.=

2,11 m. gold.

Cf."ZH"

shine.

(11),

the (blooming)

Hebrew month

cause

(May-June).
2

.TO'JJ

iyj

n3J*l

cloud (as responding from the skies).

Mn.

"M huppakh"

riV

= ri3!b)

(have an eye

tmie

Disting.

upon)

pasture

$-) GTS"!) friend.

(flock), seek.

from H327

afflict.

( as

now.
HAS?
T -

(Qu. Part.), one of the accents ( 7) whose form

overturned trumpet (<).

from

of.

appointed, fitting).

respond, answer, sing.

j^tt

(always with 7) in order that, be-

T T

the abs. in ft (or }) excepting the Hi., Ho., and genwhich end in ft
(5) The ground-form of the Imp.

ends in ft

117

erally Qi.,

ft

*],

with their vowels, generally

Cf.

HS*1 and

is

an

disting.

"55*1.

Exercise.

For

(there) shall be turned

9
(^bV with/.) the abundance

of the sea.

37

to thee
Instead 39 of

(Ni.)

verbs

92

rt"b.

44
gold, and instead of
copper 33 (Art.) I will bring (in)
12
39
And (w.c.) my
(Art.) I will bring (in) silver.
iron
13
shall answer for (2) me.
His brethren 34
righteousness
9
30
were not able to answer him (TliS). Incline (Hi.),
32
And (w.c.) the woman
answer me.
Lord, thine ear,
answered and said. 5 Should (H) a multitude 46 of words
not be answered (Ni.) ? Jehovah is my shepherd (Part.).
And Dawidh went 43 (Part.) to feed the flock 2 of his father. 8
And the appearance 30 of the glory 11 of Jehovah (was) like
a devouring 41 (Part./. Segholate form) fire. 39

VERBS m"?

48.

Imp.

T\%

Hi. Imp.

rfran,

Qi.

Q. Impf.

Q. Impf.

"

*$?*

"

nSr,

^3

apoc.

San
^T.

(J.L

or

ban

"

*?

"

(Continued).

Impf.

Hi. Impf.

nta\

apoc.

^^

"

*?$.

"

t?r

"

>ni

nbr,

Q. and Hi
Impf.
}

tf&fc

HKT,

or

IT13

Ni. Impf.
: T

1.

"

It is a peculiarity of

,^"^ verbs that in their Jussive and

consecutive forms they generally reject the final

the Voices the Imp. also

is

|"|

this apocopation occurs, changes take place, in

remaining vowels, as shown in the

In some of

shortened by the dropping of

some

Waw

J"|

When

cases, in the

table.

In the Qi. Imp., the apocopation takes place without further change,
Hem. 1.
except the necessary disappearance of D. forte. In the Hi. Imp., the word
remains in its monosyllabic form or takes a helping S e ghol with the middle
radical,
(cf.

under whose influence the a of the preformative frequently becomes

treatment of Segholate nouns).

Kem. 2.
In the Q. Impf., after the apocopation the word may remain in its
monosyllabic form either with or without the heightening of its vowel, or it may
take a helping S e ghol. In the Ni. and Qi. Impf., the apocopation takes place
without further change, except the omission of D. forte in the latter. In the
Hi. Impf., a helping vowel may be taken, which works the same change as in
the Hi. Imp.

Rem.

3.

If

the

first

radical be a guttural, the apocopated

form

of the Q.

and

VERBS

93.

r\"b.

its

preformative under

Waw

consecutive in the

Hi. are the same.

rtX^I heightens the vowel of

the tone

in the Impf.,

The verb
when apocopated

takes

3. s. in.

and with

a.

with
^ w VPIj with Waw con,TiT> aP 0C
when
apocopated in the Impf.,
The
verb
H^H
^n^Tt t
assumes the forms given, and ,^n follows the same general analogy
2.

TP^Wi

secutive

T T

here and throughout.

The

Rem.
the

Inf. cstr. of

radical has S e wa,

first

Imp. (JTiTl) and

HTI

is

HIT!

'>

tne

and the prefixed

Im P- PPM-

letter

With

prefixed letters,

(!TiT)' excepting

The vowel

with the Impf. (fTPlX)-

with unapocopated forms takes Methegh

with the

"]

of the prefixed letter

( 3. 6).

Hirjrit^ apoc. Vfgnjfy YlQIDt^ contracted, HT\ftp\


The much used verb Hnt? presents some peculiarities. The final
3-

(instead of ^), and this radical appears in the unroot letter is


apocopated form because this verb in the reflexive intensive Voice
When apocopated in the 3.
doubles, exceptionally, its last radical.
left over becomes % after the analogy of Segholate nouns
s. m., the
*\

*\

of this

form

making

it

H32

while in the

strike, smite.

3. pi.

m.

H3D*/-

stroke,

!"!3S

Htn*

>

H^ft

Suggests "knock."

much
Ip,

work.

etc

Till,

Syn. of 7X3-

},

thus

m.

turn (face), prepare.

lest.

J
'
|

unused) face

H3S

( s-

H32*/-

set free.

Similarly

Idea of

nn*^ 6

corner.

HD3-

r.

is

(with

n^Sl*

bow

etc.

inner.

one's

self.

liable to apocopation,

and

HSHi

Perf. Hi.

Syn. of

^^S*

Hithq. worship,

This verb as doubly weak,

used, requires special attention.

fj

s.

b) ''JSb before, "OS^ before me,

ITIS 4 redeem (by payment),


1

D'JS
valley.

do make.

3.

T T

wound.

pV" m

contracted becomes

}"]

identical with the apocopated

Impf.

Syn. of

turn, hence the various

n^P

JTQ,

apoc. forms
*|3ft

SSS-

meanings (corner

turn

what

face,

is

turned

the inner place, where the face, presence

"Peniel M (bs^S): Gen. xxxii.

Exercise.

And he
8

81.

Of. fllTCh

(w.c.) saw. 30

R- PRtf

And

= be

(w.c.)

is).

Mn.

low.

God

said,
%

be light.
They bowed themselves to (^) me.
he (w.c.) bowed himself to the earth (H_ locative).
they (w.c.) bowed themselves to (75) him. Multitudes,
multitudes 9 (pi-) in the valley.
Smite (Hi.) now 3 this
people ( i3 m.).
And he (w.c.) smote (Hi.) all 2 the city. 34
And he (w.c.) did evil 46 (Art.) in the eyes 3 of Jehovah.

let (there)

And
And

l,

VERBS

94

X"b.

43
Before me.
Before
he (w.c.) turned and went.
32
30
(Hi.)
thine
ear
and
hear 18
Incline
us.
Before
them.

And

the words

r em

of the wise.

Apocopated forms of

the Imp. and Impf. are to be used where pos-

sible in this Exercise.

Hi*

>6a

fetta?

moKa

n*6a
T
IT

rrcacaa
t

m^a

nsiaa

%:l
3. /.

IT

nxia

2.m.

Pl
2

"

T T

Hi.

Ho.

b&a
T

tfacan

Katan

nxa:a
T

rnfabn

nKatari

riaata

nxaten
t

maton

areata,*!

Druoan

Ni.

Q.

VERBS X ?.

49.

'.

nasta
T

"

*-

m nnxxb nnvbft Dmata? Dnaata cns^a


.

**

Inf. cstr.

Wft

icn

wanting

t^ajan

xacan

Inf. abs.

Xi^D

tfataa

K2

wanting

atari

wanting

m.

JCW

feOfian

K5ta

wanting

Katt3!"l

wanting

'josa

iecan

^aca

watan

pi. /.

nudos

na*a)a

naKaten

Imp.

s.

Impf. s.S.m.
2./.

-"Baton
v

pi.3.f.rav&ton
v
T

Part. pass.

1.

The

naK&an
*'

'

satan

IT

X2fb

K3KT rapy

Kata::

xattr

"

Kata$

safari

"ascan

waton

"jctari

aca

ksk?k

aritax

sata**

PUKsteri naKateri

act.

IT

K2flQ?

Part.

naxacan
najdan nasian
T
t
v

Ksaa

Kato3

srataa

*w

Kiata

peculiarities in the inflection of verbs

xaraa

"y

arise

from two

(t) the fact that the letter J$ is treated either as


a guttural (consonant), or a quiescent (vowel) letter, according to

principal causes

its

of

position in the syllable (


its

5.

4)

forms the analogy of verbs

J"""

and (2) that


7-

it

follows in some

VERBS

95

H"h.

In all forms ending in J$, the vowels remain the same as in


the Strong verbs, except that when short (a everywhere) they are
lengthened immediately before it.
2.

r em

The

Q. Imp. and Impf. take a (a lengthened a) in the final syllable,


whose third stem letter is a guttural ( 25).

after the analogy of verbs

In like manner, in

3.

other forms where

all

before afformatives beginning with consonants,

it

ends a syllable

quiesces with the

preceding vowel in the Q. Perf. with Pathah (becoming a) in all


the other Terfects with Cere, and in all the Imperfects with S e gh6l,
following in the last two particulars verbs Jf"^. Before afforma:

tives beginning with a vowel,

detached, and stands as a con-

is

sonant (guttural) before them.


Rem.

2.

Intransitive
The Hithq.

3.

Verbs X"7 are not infrequently inflected in other forms than those

1.

verbs,

will

it

be noted, have no peculiarities here not

shared by the transitive.

Rem.
verb.

Rem.
named,

hike verbs

Voice follows the analogy of the Qi., as in the Strong

|T7i an(i vice versa, even to the extent of their exchanging

final letters.

~H>7\

^fi

wound,

bore,

wounded
bhf]
T T

/ praise.

X 3 t

profane, begin.

n^Hll

praise, boast.

(to death),

n^pffi
T

*l2itT

beginning.

cf-

7*in cease.

J$2^

(thirst,

clear.
is
is

deriv.
3

thirst.

(and

O^fiT

perfectness.

Dfi) perfect, upright.

"Hallelujah" (rPV^SrO-

Discrim. from preceding, and

Associate with X2K3> having the same root letters,


4

go forth, find).

Eng. clarionet.

Cf.

Oft*

Mn. and

XftJtt m.

trumpet.

TitT 5 (pi D"HH2J) m. (single) ox.


ftn B be complete, finished, perfect.

JOlt (Pi- filJO?) nost warfare. Mn.


"Sabaoth" ("Lord of Sabaoth").
1

thirst.

An

R.

shine

and

metaphor, shine in tone, so be

individual of the ox ("]p2) species, as

H'W*

one of the sheep or goat (|K2) species. 6 Mn. "Thummim" (D^jpfl), which
associated with the " Urim" (from *"|iX) = Light and Perfection.

Exercise.
I pray,

they

(w.c.)

Give

me

to drink

little (tS^tt)

said

to

water

(7>)

3
;

him:

The man 31 is not able (Impf.


the work 48 which is done 48

26

^= cause me

for

We
cf.

am

to drink),

thirsty.

have found
43. 3. r. 4)

14

And
water.

to find out

beneath 39 the sun. 32


For all the priests who were found (Ni. Part. pi. with
25
6
Art.) sanctified themselves (Hithq.). And he (w.c.) blew
11
a (D) trumpet. Whose ox (the ox of whom ) have I
2

12

(Ni.)

VERBS

96

K"b.

taken. 19

The words 6 of Job pi"K) are finished (Q.Perf.).


(As for) God (T^H) his way 12 is perfect. They went
5
When (D) I went forth
forth from the ark (rQftil).
(Inf. nK2 for D*d).
And (w.c.) Cain (pj3) went forth
48
Jehovah. Jehovah brought forth (Hi.)
(K2.1) from before
Israel.

Bring out

(pi.)

the children 11 of Israel.

PARADIGMS, EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION,

AND

LIST OF WORDS.

THE STRONG VERB.

98

THE STRONG
Qal.

Per/,

Niqtal.

"D3
" T

s. 3. to.

rros
T

3./.

nbtpp;

IT

na&p
t
It

rrtba
- T
T

2. to.

1.

pi. 3.

r^tpp;

fjty&fc

TOisp

c.

utppT

ibtopIT

c.

riStsp

2./.

,-ibtsp

arms

2. to.

6pj33

orirara

ninbtsp

2-/.
1.

jribtsp

1H33
- T

c.

i3bp

Inf. cstr

StDfp

bbpn, bbj53

Inf. abs
T

Imp.

s.

2./.

"^PiS
ibtpp

2-/.

Impf.

s.

H33
nrps

3./.

btopri

2. TO.

bbpri

pi. 3. TO.

3./.

btopM

H33":

nnasn
H33n
nn?3n

2-/.

rubiipn

^topn

Parf

a<tf.

c.

Part. pass.

bbp;

IT

tep
:

it-

l^p:

rnbtipri

1333

n23

^Bpn

^ps

ibtopn

tepn

robtbpn
T
-It

rubtbpn

^tDp2

^Bp?

1.

^p?
Stspn

"I33X

^PfT.

IT3^|5

^P'

i33n

rubtapri

2. TO.

btppn

c.

- It

iStsp

W!

"133n

2./.

ibtopn
it-

133%

3. to.

1.

Sbp

^P

2. to.

pi. 2. TO.

Stsp,

'

m?

btDM

yy

THE STRONG VERB.


VERB.

Cf.

14-25.

Hoqtal.

Quttal.

Hithqattel.

Hiqtll.

bfcj?

Stspnn

b^tppn

^W

rb%

nbtspm

n^tppn

nbtopn
T
T

nbij5

nbtspnn

ribtppn

nbtopn
T
T

nbtsp

ribtsprn

iffappn

nb^pn

^ijj

vibtsprn

^StDpn

Wpibpn

1:

1:

6&J3
DfibBp

iStspnn

frfcpi

ibtppn

Dnbtspnn

nnStopn

nnbtopn

JFibaj?

|fbts>pnn

jnbtDpn

|nS^prr

B^fcjJ

ubtbpnn

^bppn

ubtpprt

wanting

bttpnn

bnpipn

wanting

bsj5

bBpnn

^Ppn

^sp?

wanting

^Stffl

^tppn

wanting

^tspnn

^tppn

ibtspnn

fr^jjO

rubtspnn

nabtapn

^j?rr

^P:

'rep:, bttjr

^i?:
Sapri

bfcpn

btapnn

'rppn

Stspn

biS(?nri

'rtppn

bepri

^Bpn

^Bpnn

"^ppri

^tppn

^j5K

b&pns:

^tpps:

*?j?K

1^P

^tspiv

fr$p

fops

nibtppn

refobpn
~
T
T

njbBpn

rnStspnn

|!

ibepn

iStspnn

6np|5ri

6t0|pri

rubepn

rnbtspnn

n^tppn

rubtopri
T
T

btspn:

^t?i?3

bipp3

btspna

bnppo

^j53

biapa

I:

btapa
t
T
I:

THE WEAK VERB

100

TV.

THE WEAK VERB


ffl.

Perf.

Dp

flSS

Dlpi

BpCI

Dpin

3. /.

nap
T

nna

naip:
T
T

napn

napin

2. to

rapji

np6

niaip:

niapn

napin

2. /.

nap

na

niaipi

nnsprr

napin

nap

via

tiiaip:

Tiiapn

-napin

i.

"

iap

ma

laip:

^n

lapin

nnap

nna

Dniaip;

Dnia^pn

onapin

2. /.

jnap

jna

fniaip:

jniapn

WW

<nap

una

i:iaip:

uiapn

i:apm

2.

i.

Dipn

ffl

Dip

Dipn

opn

Dip

Dipn

=W

^aip

^aipn

iaip

iaipn

vfc?
iapn

map

n:apn

n:apn
T

Dip

cstr

/n/. abs

s.

j>i. 3.

Imp.

pl.

s.S.m

Imp/.

Ho.

Hi.

s.S.m

Inf

Y'9

Dip*

wanting

DPt' P|TT BpP

3./.

Dipn

Dipn

D^pn

Dpin

Dipn

Dipn

opn

Dpin

2./.

^aipn

^aipn

^pn

'apin

1. o

DIpS

Dips

DpS

Dpis

laijT

Vtfp)

fc

iapi;

n:apn
"
T

n:apin

iapn

lapin

n:apn
T
T

n:apm

Dp:

Dpi:

2.

D1p\ Up)

Dpin
wanting

pl.S.m
3. /.

nraipn

cnraipro

iaipn

2. /.

nraipn

2.

iaipn
cnj^aipn)

1.

Imp/, with w.c


Part. act
Part, pass

Dip:

D1p3

Dip

Dp'l

DP"!
Itt-

DP
It

na

Dip:

Dpa
Dpia

the weak Verb


(or

^$).

101

tp.

ee 44,45.

<J)ofa<.

I?

P?

ma

nra

T T

n?pip
T

-:

nisip

nbolp
I

noAip

fi#5lp

W3

mra
mra

nawp

ri^ipip

^?i

^nira

inaAip

H3T

wa

3^1j3

i&fcip

orita

bnira

bna&ip

tapbip

[nan

fnira

P?^i?

r$w?

ai

131^3

ttaiip

Wb&jp

ra

DDIp

wanting

1*

wanting

wanting

r?

D&lp

Wanting

rrii
T

T2
W3

ttadip

wanting

tabip

TO

n&ip

,i

"Pttlj?

Q'pip:

P?

fw

opipj

Dibipn

Diaipn

Doipn

daipn

"Wpfl

'&ipn

01pN

D1pX

ttaaifE

^?

nrran

n^^ipn

m&ibipn

win

i&aipn

ifc^ipn

nrran
Tv*:

naiaiaipn

naabipn

ra

D&1p3

n&ip:

Tin

p?*

i?=

i*
i?
J1S

Bttlpg
Dttipa

THE WEAK VERB

102

THE WEAK VERB TV.

s.

33,

m.

3.

3B3
- T

See

46.

Ho.

Hi.

iVi.

Q.

Per/,

tt'V.

2P?
naon"

Qolal.

Qolel.

apin

3313

3313

nabin
T ~

naaip

maiD

H3B"

nam

nisp

ril3p3

nispn niacin
T

nails

n33lB
T

2./-

ni3p

ni3p3

nispn mapin

ri331D

ri33lB

1. c.

Tfiap

tube? 'niapn 'HISDin

T1331B

^331B

13313

13310

3./.

m.

2.

" T

T "

13B

c.

1333

ispn

oniap

2./.

jniap

|ni3p3

1. c.

13133

131303

i3i3pn

Inf. cstr.

3B

spn

Inf. abs.

3133T

Imp.

in

s.

pi.

ynispn jniapin

fnaaip

I3i3pin

13331B

13331D

wanting

331D

wanting

31BH

apn
spn

wanting

3313

3310

3b

apn

sonT

wanting

3313

wanting

^3D

rnpn

130

lapn

"

ispn

13313

nrapn n^SBn
T

.133313

-:

s.

ab; 3B?'

m.

'P31B

"

3.

lapin

inaau?

Impf.

Bni3p3 oniapn oniapin oriaaiD onaaip

m.

2.

-:

pi. 3.

3D*, 3D'

^l"

apr

aaia;

aaio*

abn
3bn

apn
apn

aanT
apn

apin

33isn

33lDn

abri

spin

33lDn

331BH

2./-

^on

"Wi

'3pn

'apn

^spw

'33ipn

'oaisn

1. c.

DDK

bbk

3BK

apx

3B1K

aaiBK

331BK

13ET

no;

13B?

ispr

12313;

1331B^

nriDtf
TV*.:

naaisiri

3br,
T

3./.
2.

j>Z.

m.

3.

m.

3. /.

labri

2. TO.

2. /.

nraori

1. c.

3B3T

Impf. with
IO.C.

Part. act.

Part. pass.

^_

i3Bn
rt33Efl
T

13B

nrapn nrapn nrapw


iapn
nripri

33b

" T

ispin

nrapn nrapw

-I333lBn
H3331BH
"
T
t
:

133lBn

1331BH

n333lBn H333lBn

3D?

333

U
n
TT-

3133T

333
" T

3313

C31B3

331B3

3p h
T

3B3t

3B3

33lBfc

3B13
T

331B0
T

103

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.
l,

v$ faj ascDK : jrpn "km :ni.T o5g s.


:aiD \n$ nrus twig "is? g :*in tfnp g tjWiri
3

:
-

:p#k
X* ix t^a

:nwn
T

9-

nain ntfrin nisei :tbot tnssn


EHrn6 dio rjiJa^n :a?n Kin

"

na#

ba

'

rrtfrn"

tDsn-ba
TT

thk?ti
T ~
VTT: D^ttfn

>6i

"

|-

ntanrrDS

m :^nan nan&n
own trr&n tf'wi
T

t^ftaT

sp? :nKH nytoo

pan

:nn nj 10.
Dtr? nto D^n i^s rbn
n^E n:n n#8 roog

r^wr ranjn

:tfnn
Dtf-n#K
XT rra tonT
T

T ~

T -

V 7

nonn
T

'

~:

tnjn~ risnn
:

T T ~

|V

T T

|V

*.

-;

nn*n raiK nj n^ jttfij*rn& tons ^ ".


*-na nann rmfcn :na-DK p-a :*6-dk i'to
rrvg npu tb'hjsno nns tnifta na-iM :ak

ni

snp trfr^a tDibnsr trnaarna


t

t| t

14

bs

-:

nrt

b*nti^

:n*o t^psa

i*$hb
:

i6

n ??

nttfKa
v
-: ,-

13

Q2

njia

12.

t :dv ni*6 DTfc$


tnjiTj ^ ra^aa bins
1

trie ?

:bsa
-

t |V

atrr-itrte
trim*
v
t
t
-:

byes
t

|-

1 The predicate of a sentence may be a substantive or adjective, as well as


2 It.
a verb, and no copula is necessary to connect them with the subject.
5
6
4 not (no).
3 Proper name.
Sabbath. 7 See 0"j\ 8 Sing. KlUi"!
} = and.
but pi. as here. 9 Fern, of Sllfi- 10 gold. which I. 12 What manner of house.

13

From what

people.

H God.

15

5. 4. r. 1.

ie

According

as.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

104

tnanaa tnonaa tnvn

-tea

..

..

nw

nK&onr

ntfei

:nna

:*p$

:d#$ tpntpi rraa ta^rra nrrn nnn 13.


a#a-..nt5te
:r--t an^ nfrrna tnirra trrima
;

t T

t: it

1"

wrfc* naa -ntfK ba nianrms nn^ *6i 1*


na$i
tttf'wpra
xbni bnp tnbna nfca bnra
T
~T
:d?88 nip nrps : Dn:fl? rrpg rn^ipn n^a
^sv tosn "vrx&K ni :*oto mrv nt^s n^ip
:
n
ra\ nils ra tanxaa ot^ nte "pfcliii nkjV
-dk nay aans :d^ nasntfa tKxaifci :"sn
7

T |T

|T

I"

I"

l"

l0

it

10

"'

-:

:mi nam :na-n :t-h :*bsss

nann
t

- T

ijbsa tntfrrrjp^

it

|T

^P

:nja tf"8crn$

15

sr^-H tannins n?g M n$$ aj?tth-p2


tarrr^K "SHtfiiT nbsa rnWn natfb jnirp. hi
:ito naarva tnjn btfairna :a?Tn * n PW
16

Di*a

|T

V -

:nsi

ana

baa buto nn*o tKjfc *fc ami sw.


ntrhT
-ba tn&TTia ianan ansi natka avpcr^M
18

19

v t

nb?p
1

5
10

22

^i

usually
tone.

tracted

Fern.

12

Whence.
6

(given up) to, for.


p.n.

Egypt.

Not

"I^K-

it

had not

to be translated.

is.

10. 3. R.

17

21

here,
to.

18

10. 4.

na ?
1

2i

"

13

Preacher.
14

Evil.
15

U&

4
9

bnj

Note connective.

in pause. 6. 4. r.

with |"J_ locative,

become

over, with Stt^S 15. 4.

t-*ptp -jg

Bread and wine.

torn.

"there."

2=

rjipi

10. 4.
'

rendered "thither";

w 5 = while

:avf?#j
2

Like a stone.

19

by

describe.

loss
*>

of

con-

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

tann^m.T

^a

ra5# bsj
rm,T rpprrbs mii

jbp nan
T
T

is

T "I

nb*^

nbaj

17.

iba^ *6i

-: ,-

it

a^sn-

v T T

^$3

"w^j ^tf

tpKn

as?
-

ba? :naa,T ?;a

'nvtz T^aitrnttfs

b'tiQn bittto'as

*6i baj
T t

105

,t

:aan
b2 nnasn naan
-

-: |T

|T

nansrrto :ttfnn-ma rra ntrs t^an-^ t^fu


prolbp :nb nba^ pnio nbnn-nsi :sinn binsn
T

"

T T

-:

:rinsa
t
it

-:

v -

t t

"

wa mm

T T

- t

tnabsttfn
t

.T.m
T T

:tsh:itt
T

|-

bnr Kin rnnipj nns

naia ?naa

T T

eMjs
pnsr-nfci
.:]-:

is.

piWpB 2iM?"DK :bso/^-banis bwv fapn


bnj*i :pni mir nsbtf tbsn^ s&tf *fTW n
:nna nai apr nan
^as-ns nnapsi intitz
8

10

- v

-: |-

wizfr

:rrtirf?
|t

:nn

snfea
t

nnaw
:

efon

,T

it

anpn-bs tnanba
-

nnpb

:anasi
:nn:a
naa
v
t

19.

|- t

>6 niabi tpy is niris n:a is ps tin^i PHiasri


aip&n pngntt anrip'pi :d^,th^ np^i :nia^i

nm

paattf
aatfa
... t*rt>n
_
j

......

t t

nqto "-Mptoa :sinn Dip&a

Dtsraattf
ntfs
- ,t
v -:
t

tbiKtr?
t

aa#n :naa^s

:na?tr

mai&.Tbs anp pns-bs


s

:rnaa :nnaj :a:r :nnsi os


t

narb
1

13

nnna^

Compound

sometimes be
7

13

Prep.

left to

superfluous

Older ending.

J"J.

:psn

rma

20.

nn-iaa
t
:

nnan-sbi tn-ian tnnnan

3 The vowels of certain familiar words


~ over us.
6
n
be supplied by the pupil. 4 upon. 5 See
X-

P-n.

15. 2

5. 2.

1(>

My

(father).

hither.

will

'

12

P-

18. 3.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

106
m

n#pm xhnffl

*p2i tib] W3T59J t^ot' *fflfpj


nbbp :mm wia : rtoinn
:ts33
:- jpd-q
tt: *6i:tt|:
b%

pa mm pa :p$fn *?#n **vw?s


Dib^o ifc&i trg? pa Kino Dip)? ? irjps

njy$

rsim

pp) tmrrnK

:tts# n?i&p

21.

ratpEr'lS

mnpji
71s raj tfrMrms dtoi tnsn n#*f rnns
tp^eyrnw snrn n ? '"WEtf D1 *8 *"flW9
-ini?i :ojjiT^S IBM? "ce; 3# nnsa isa^
atf*

Kim

*D!ftnn$ #*ip*i :n$p9]

K^rrj

ta

'

ro^ p*D p'ns

itz^K abfpj *6i

:miiTTi$ jgsn

nan nbai bni


1

'

t t

rn?aw ^tf-^s :mm-n$ jp^iprrn^ n$ 22


:^#n :n?^#si t^byn tftyo vytypb tnyb^n
r^a Trips nnpn rnn^n H^? ttt^o

nypo \nby tmm D^p^ *mps trojo


tn^rntt^. tmm naT^S 2teO lyjo bisa

n:n bara6

^pa

-ns

tm^cs

nb^3 tnp^rrbK

m^

np]

23.

ri??s| tja&n
t#8 tmssg Q?Tri$ trnbp
ksb-k ? prntoi :mm-n owe rprcn TJS3
1

t^nri pii pli


1

p.n.

in preceding
10. 4.
11

my

face.

2=

for (of price).

word.

seven.
15

tirfro

10

see
1.

Ci\

tnjs

Note retraction of tone


Adv. accus. 7 my lord. 8 in which.
" be rewarded. 12 from my iniquity. 1S in p.

20. 1. R. 2.

12.

*#wm$ WMSPl

wall.

5 lest.

to thyself.

Adj., whole, perfect.

soul, person.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

-ste^ riraan

trow

msfe
t T

-:

*mn nsn-nx

:nHDi
T

n&ft
t T

tmma
roam
nns

tp-nb 'ann pirn

b^rr-pi

tttfttrm*
v
T
rtlv

107

24.

m&ntfi
-

,-

t "

tbnprrb? nst ^nnn :bs^n


tf]SM? ^ir-itfg ns :*?33 an-os-nx *j-q mn^
tnrrire :M3 zw nn -i#k pK.-rna mpe*
-

Drpno

fctjpj

11

^b

tnje

10

o?ri^ #tjij #Tj

nn^b tbiirbip p^si

p?

-:

12

v 7

mm

n'np-ns

-na

I9t??sn

Ti^p :dpi^5^' 16
:a^n ^p3!l :T3^0 0^3

tnye^

:$%n

n#ip!3

h ?

19

ranis

tnffi* tnibip

:dtdb<-!
7 -

in p.

here.

famine.

Philistines.
14

3
8

prophet.

^ = by.

of.

fulness or

want are followed by an

w Only

(long) live

in Ps. cxxxvi.

15

7.

pi.

anips

mpa

10

the Jews.
you.

16 letter.

to^pio

nrp>

tnisn&t?

frequently __ for __

before.

tnma ton*

tnjjtfm
7

-it?
-

wash.

young man.

the house

Eden.

*6

tnyns^l aan jj :^&n


26
t^SS "nrib nns :an on? '5

nips ptpa tonbrirrp tniftn ?^ matpft


tD^i3| tnnx3 trilM^
D 3VT?rrri$

25

n3#?!

rop^^

tnfe&tj

tprm-nso

t"f?sis ssyrte

DTVO

tp^ecrn^

isjsri

nn#

"d^jj&o njjpb

t^ttfnihn n'n? ?

bmttr

to.

accus. without a Prep.

12
18

19

p.n.

13

against

Verbs denoting
of the garden of

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

108

cnn

#ij :n$p3*i

p$

nn?n tnjiyi na^pi n;

WW

nmsn nns n.ns nhK3

n'ns

T:

|T

,v

v:

v:

iri

1Q

$$

nm

^7

tnroarj
t

-.

,v

27.

'Wistf

itolptptf]

:nnht?n nnterr

^ ni-arnK tjnsri n\n$

nnn ayiw k^i

t^Tp'nippJ n#* Dn^3.n

sinn Dip&rrDtf
-

mpe
-

Tipin
tths

taw

-:

it

t:

-:

:i

28.

:^riin#

oris

renins
tDjTpirrjo tan

nnnTtr

tnnawamrrmK

trnrrrrhoK
-

it

-: |-

tnwian cneas

Vftv fnipni ti^PB "ib^'i

tD^asn'^KTbs
,t

:mm

:ns

rq? :ib^rn$ns>D^
-

it

jDrn'-ii-i'p

M rp3

1-

D^rfoK

ni

nnm

r-rto nip

nana
"

*np*i
t|: "

tn*]ti$$

m'ns^n

Drrnr pji&jriK toyoirttptf tniiK^jfi

ttfnp ovfe* u^x

n^s

tjpj

rnstsn-n?^ tmpo

toni^ naps ji^-na

tD^aia

bisip

t^aja

crj

na&i

29.

nt?

aftn6
mm anp ^ m tvTon-ns

tnnan ma
:nna tprb* s^
t^smai :sttf
:: tD'anjn-w
n*rbx fin^UD^nin nhtepo rapsvj ns:r nsi?
t

-: |-

T -

- t

|s^rsbi

naT

^rnia| t^ijE&e nia? rnp^j


a

nnitf
1

mitfm
-

n^ia nrian
_

PZ., generally refers to

..

T2
T

"

naifi
Q3i
V V
T "t

interna nbn
T

blood shed criminally.

...

30.

sea (seaward

west-

in p.
Defectively written. Many verbs, as
On, upon. * Egypt.
7
here, require a Prep, with the word with which they are construed.
See

ward).

$K1

also.

p.n.

109

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

- t

tnjn
v

t t

i"

ton terrain "sab nbsb Tft

:ttn:u
-

nai

nu$ p&x-ja 'H^ttf


Tnii tiT ^K-bx mars :ar6 n&& t1no

-bs :a??rr^ &fe#


TibBttfo
v t

anbxb

trnim

Tinpb v*i!&

:-iai

jiici

. ,-

to

:abir
t

it

i"

:pni-r^5^ spjfjS tabids sp^ m.T


a*h& nns :rn &' -itfK ins^a :amauMft
*
"
trnir ab56
nqto ^99-ra ni??n nn *6& rnaa-'nnp 31.
tyip :hi.t nai afc tbg^oj "this?
Tt"pi^
pan ab-ns rain nan* rai? ^k :ans art*
bar?

-:

-.

"

V T

T -:

|T

teaman

ansi xn*bv nnaa "n&ij


v
-

t t

33
;-:
":~ :aan'tra&

T T

nw^P? tfitfffl nninn .nj#&TiK


-ns ^-iri
irrap :a;rniana inyn bpi$jn$
:nnaa .nnaa :naa naab teaman wain tanK.n
7

Tia^n

t^bipti
8

it

\T

t -

t^ja-^a nis^

mbK-ba pnig taibtf jpe^e

:*

-nsntf tKBirntfas w?trt>9

ntpaip

n&?

*6

^jn

it

b's

32

awsn ^nns

rniSb ? OMSpl t^-^npE-bs Kias-n9 tain tfnji


t^imasTi^ matt :b*nt^ nag :vprH?a rnb#i
9

tniK&ri

10

rai rra tnJtfBTie


I

n#8 mnrnK

tjafio

p.n.

12

^ai
2

contraction.

rjfcfc
3 spirit.

before.
8

See

n^ISl-

the case with words


gender, except in pi.

9 I

^a^

t^oa
5

Note the idiom.

came.

commonly used

10

in

x^otr?

^9-1-1$ D ??i I'wp

bnsn-ns: &7n;i tna'n pyj nsbtf

^98
1

:nnj

nann tth& tnpns


t

tp^rrei

^8

bn rpft

19$ tusn-nsn

matter.

jjk

33

*]Sk tptftea

extending.

law.

"

Note

pieces, understood, as often

measurements.

12

Kine.

It is of

com.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

110

xmp vna

tin

^k

tanrbi
npib
tiantiv
t

it

inpb
,t

nbia anttfnrba
tbsn^ *n na trnmsw
:nosn npmbaa :b bss-na tnsib na^rrba

!T

- t

rnanba

-bs

:na TKrntfK
v

rehTi
:

-:!-

-.

- -

nsitf jq#-ri?ba

..

:amniannf
nmr rar ar ^nhb^

WS

inabttft
:obi2rm?
aaa

tnn man*

inbss

-:

yw-n$

tmari sp.TJV tfiiw tnabtf

nab :rp watr? nns^rb nroa 34.


trbai jnb^n s^ijs? ^n^ srnairn tain Tins
jipg bTfn;."Kb :na ?}b$ n^srba-na ib^M
vax-na t^K-aj^n^THa najp ait: :p$ an^a
*nn :abi ni^ba nx'i mm :in^sa pam i&x-nsi
tt^Kb mna tints trnn :anns avrbx tnnba
naK-Kbi nins ibttfai tKVHJK arhnK-riK :aibttf
tTpj ma-n^ mn^nb mm
35.
rnaaa sans tarntf trrtoa Tittf nnsa
oa rrrtte trrotf pfebttf p :nsan n&attf roatf
Dip tniK Wi ^bs a^i an'w anapa ]ftH
nba mn ib*o tttfnn -rtpsmitfsb nnsi antra

mi*

,,

-:

|-

it

.....

-:

,-

-:

v v

t t

-:

t t

trvtftfn
"

mis pttto nabs

"

hm a^

m#a
T

"! I"

ntcrtb
V "

ba 7*?

^bll

TSpTiij

D?^p? :ana?mns

nJipbj?;) ttijrap.

mnsto "aria

tnbitfn
:

"

.-

:n^

36.

na^3 nan

t^rrjPiB

irpja tbmttr'

Kb pis t^pna ^nia^b ntagp-bj naa'n :aa5na


1

every man.

with.

"'

their bread, understood.

Note construction.

8 if.

From

erous verbs are followed by a cognate accus.

day by day.

X^*'-

Note

See

H^X-

final vowel.

10

P n

Num-

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

an^r
tsh niarn tnTinbttf
:-:
t: wb&
:itrtne :rom a&K a^an rnra s^jptfob

tninb'n
TiKsr
tt
T
it

mm
:

Ill

":

it

nr^n

?i??? VKH& ? t^5?3^n


aia :nsrb?? *r$p3 sb :a^n DVtfgn 37.
dm toning one^J n#*$ nssn^n rji^T: narn
t'jTisrfis

d?h

arnbp :dt3?*1

W^

o;

9p?
? P*
:^aa-bp& nKia t^M.TriK frpia D^pnip tnja
nuttj ps art ?* ^:n tn^npb bp#& rrn *6
fijjj?

isipw tir&rns b*n'^ nb#?i :^na p;w


K^?b;*H>? tnnjbpn ^&p?i nns^si ^^-ari-jrr

tD'ses

gja vnitfjrpQ

tmrrn ofwqp

Ipja
T

mrro tfiip-pa

inaa

mab
mn ansn n
-

t t

t t

nnn

:]#

jiTirrf?

,t

bs^ job t^rrtoti


7

;.

Make

T T

...-

lonrj
:

of Q3J (with 1st Pers. sing. andpZ.).

>

n:fe?

ttj>$

onana a-ro
irhg n^s pa

ttev

ibjns
7

Inf. cstr. of

ni ha&o

Hitf
- _

bbna ^s

-. ,-

thee skilful in understanding.

in a sharpened syllable.

'^s

rowci

v:

|T

afc?^

nnpn n#s

-;

d^3 hit :jti53 "1353


ansn rrrn rrtonfc tTpriba
39.
:aans aa^ns
.-: Tibs

i"

j#

fj?

pish TYiMD
-

*iUK-ba
;

7 t

1"

33.

wb

:dmip?

a??'**

p$

mrr #:

tnja aip&a

i's

3
4 Note change of 5 (o)
in p.
of strengthened form
Note
use
HTIAdverbial expression for heretofore.
2

p.n.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

112

t^inbarn nab^
:n?^n rqa-jw
tnbnp

tb^ ma

nsntn tmrjK

:tfsa

fWW

in*

aami

-i&$

a^bag bag tKTi vb ainp-

mn trnoa n&K a^baa

^b

Tj*t?b

nnn :u& did


~iv) fiKri njjye fflJTi ni29 n**"?? itrtfbij bi#
03K aiis sb :^?b s?En mrs nstf n#p if TKn nsp
mm tnvibsn Tiba sin rnsb nb'mn attf pnb*
t

"

tmitfb

I"

a^^h

nas>iri
^iss

nrjKn

naj tbbtf

irna

qtppn sin

sbft;

mna

^is a^nst? xed-d::

:a\rr

:,m,m

t'b&nM #*n tfa; rrnin


^is tsttn Tfcfc nasim swtrh u*&n tntfavr
7,
3B-bs ts?a^ n.mk? ^pa; rnini rmtfp Tpbs rnbtf
D;rms

-nsi

,t

nt>?

D^eo nann

-:

as^rrba

-i#8

a?b

jaK ti*x

n$g niKE

rajfo

spfc

t -

41.

tt?b#

D^btth narn

.mss

:rrn??ip

y^irr; artb n&*n_ tsfctp^rb? ajt^i

nnan tiMtf-bs nns


Tjfinb !"tto\p5 bis tanshai a?n nbb$ ^dk;i
ia-n p^j ins^ tanbg n^s ru? na$Q ibpsn vh
mrib'rns rbs?
m&bttrnisi
t
t
v t
:

|T

Tib iter
bss-b::t tai&n- i-^is-ns
t

nn^
-

:anb nasi iba^ mrs b^KE-ba^


v v

1"

-:

im% Tjm^tD^nb mk
9&tf :ai'H
1

6
11

Affliction

= 133?

hard (tidings).
39.

1.

1;.

4.

'

nga

a?b
*

P-

Cursed.

face, surface of.

|-

-ito
tnroafcn
t

tottfaj
t

lo

a!?nn
_
..

:b^rrba-n$ ntfa nap?i

tnjn m'arrbs ins i^b^rr


3
8

p.n.

the ark.

See
9

p. 9, foot-note.

hold (on).

10

He made.

R. of

fO^iA-

113

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

:ni&M onepipi nvzvs djnj tw p??? ^P mrr


cniWO *"H3**} :npxn tjHpsn iigft natf
'

twnaa Tap

rrhrr ^th-dic
naii
v
t
t
-:

tTmv

- T

t; ffc nftr*???

ta>3?

*|p vfyitft "sj^o

:b^
t

sb

^pix

:n2?ip

rfl

jjft

ntfq

npj

^b

:tot

:^i;

:e^ *6s

:b$B t^pj it ?:? ^p!i

tnj.sn

nap

|-

42.

n^ d#

&OT twpj
-i#k nioarrnK Ste^i :d.tok

-ns npj D^nbsn


:#3j rniatf
t T

nt?^

:hs ^bs br^tf bsn -o^ rnir jrn

ja^n asa :nroD 205 npsn

-:

nnsb

fp'n nstsn

:-

rrpTi sb n$)

43.

jwi :rr tnjnb


- :nrm trrnn
ttt fe^erfc ^aix
--t tan*
noin nynin tsnv tissrv. irmtft
:ps
ikti :nrm -idiei nwn tnion bsi n:p nas
nis? bbpb ^ps sb :*ypfc ttypii t^pij n^s n#i&
x

wB

...

...

,T

_ T

t 1"

J"

10

tDnran

^p

"

rob
? tnangfi-n^
ran
msm rob tro^i isb :dv6x tfhnb
1"jrrps x; ^xtx "p*? tiTjsfj bnpni bsnur ^prb?
tirrv ti^SE 165 ps HSPtj rtqfth-bs jp# pin
nnin^pri nnin ti-rn hi :vbx ij^jo jttts
inpbp

mm
t

t -:|T"

n.iiK
t

|"

make.

Note

Note vowels.

locative with csr.

croucheth.

10

Buy.

3. 4. foot-note.
8

n&ttf
t t

TTiri-

pn.

10. 1. k. 4.

usually whither, here where.


^ItTSi
-:
v

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

114

mp9S

^in?

T v

|"

:nns :n^nn
tnan
T
t

nop
T

nns :d;5

usim mx

nP
t

nps

**

:anrn
:dti
vt-

:D-ffi
-

rab

T t

men

jbi
|t:

:m nsT *6i mr nni ^ njb pn


amp :ss n'ra-bsfp ^0791
wk :natenb seh
ra :nWi
t:t Txnb
tt
-t:

:^n

nisnnfl

..

iflsrbzb
t

mdk rnMa ttfimrtK


:nte::
... pji^iri mpp
t

nnssi
- t

|T

:Dvtf?K tsBtttob
t

^oSn :rns-n$ nnbb ^prn :#i-ps


:ns?i-PnK ptpa

v v

:novn:no*i
-- VT- :noiT :nb T"i

:nio :n trttot'nanK
T:|T

it rw n^ss tpKn-ba ntDpts? nni wfrwri


nrip?i :nvr ^t dti&p tnififob pne lyjfli t pb&?
nnj na^ri *pn ntr*? n\3? mi; riri :oi;i nbnn
*o:n
- t

-: ,-

T t

it

-:,-

m.Tb nbis Drqnprn

:mnP

:strh *]Trp81 id?

Oh*)
10

tnari
- v

tpta tjiaj

t-

sj-d^

,t

^to

and

shall not see.

gold.

10

For

d$i t^ii vb-nw'w xmrb


5

p.n.

nlft*J
T T

D. forte conjunctive.

tstth-D? ijt ntfjfrbx


li

Note change of vowel from > to

lives

:jin>6 ovrba

odor.

14

:,.

tbmfcr nbiro Dip wfrniriR


-

inttf

:ninstp?p jsics
1

bin? :bvrbs brio id^j tD'p; ro?tr

mhta

nts^K

:d.tb

:pn

"hs

:rmoR3 db^j px 45.


:^? "ojk n3 :d,tok Dttrnrntfs

innn2

nnttf
t t

nn

w tn
i

to

also the idiom.

them, to be understood.

tone retracted.

3"it0-

offered

consider.

12

ninn

an

7^-

P-

offering.
13

a * so

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.
2

^Ton

ni>nb

rpin qrpS) tnrrtb


ran nani ovfe*

rspjjp

:hn Ttf tfrvrtf


ibvn
-

t t

t t

aism6

*wsi

b'ixtib

vin^x D-rppins

ly&pti

tv

inn *6

115

|"

:a*a
T

ntiw SbTr b?
ia
-T
-

rpns-^s aittfis

no'i_

non

ah?

ntrb^i inn

_ T

..

rm-n^p

nn

ron_

:mm

aitfa
:

av ^b

bsnt^

mm nxma
_...

mo

..

rnw ''jrn?

fD'S^I ivnP?l tnp;i

nan nrva Kins -rpan


t?? snh tSltf ? r n T1

msn Rtam
mm mnnra ^npan mxaa
tti?i abitf ^bi mm t^ai 79 ijfy mm pj^ap

-bs

^"^

trrran
... trmoJi
TT: :jn

anna tjnsa nnsn

n^?

dt6k

mattf

-:

nsai

*6i

TB'min
-

n$n6

^-ait:

f -

-T

:mm

-i#k

:vbna
main
:t:t:-t

imbm

ggip

lab

47.

iaairto-ba
t
t

rpms "tfrtf *m '*Hp? 6plpai ^01 H^pflp


ns Dmairts mm wan votub :# wrntfK attfn
ro naab-as nw firm ntrs ra< xrhs naT-itf*
#" n$*h_ r?'n-b? n^ ann trrfojib ns trots'?
xnTbx ^b wmn npa jssa aanpn rrrsT^K
nmsn

|T

- -

rjr^T^a.T^
tnacaiab

t^nna ^hpnttte t^Tto tmrto


o&rpattf ain^ tvbs :nn#3"no hto*6

6,

:man rrmnn avmba $ihn wish


1

K thibh.
e

to see.

3 i.e.,

moved

changed for euphonic reasons after

*\.

themselves, to one another.

in vain.

exceedingly.
6

in p.

much

(adverbial).

Note the idiom

said

TJ7

among

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.
1

116

D-012 rpv 1JM

t^D'b^

picjp :p)*o

ntfirta ns
-.

...

48.

!!

-na rp^i :^nrrbs npran

niM
... nan nrm

p?H

i'lyto b,7T)8

raftt
ft?
T
T T

..

:r /^

*n6

bwen
.

p) i^sn te nt^K-ns b^nb tDiTp?


n^H-TvT^ :^t pa n^n rrtesa no

t]3

jpps?
ns ttrjrna nb tosh triW
t

nop tan

it

xb

tftfib

fcrpTip
6

fwb

^3

nvi?;i njjpVJ
.

..

i"

|T

t:

:d^

*b? njrjirDK

CJf 3

mi pb*rn*nj ^ti bs
t

..

- -

nah tnnanian

sdsi

:siB

'

5,,

ub

fcbnti?*a
v
r

it

^m?

ri^in

d#td*i
vt

-:

:hm

tniDJ

:n&n rb

:&ki ja
rins^

^p mrr

^?" D ^

49

,t

rab mnfc nano


o rWKn mrn tnim
t

it

......

:nai& Dtf p?i

:nw

nn'^i ji st;: sji&j

b*rp

|fcii

nab fwnnfe yvB-bv


I

W^

rtp#.n

dwk *n*i

jaifc-E nisn-ns
_

:^is"n nini?^

tuvm ^:

fpniarrja

T .._

hdh-^ jnaa tmw i^r\x


^:Hin ps nnbn n^ :dsi
:

:ima

D^trn snia m,T :nsn,T

d,tb13i
......

13tk
t

tfT^ ub nnni?

f$??bb

it

D*:n-)3Tfi$ jrn :ti?T3?b


4

*6 nur bss

itr:r

nrvn
kti :m.T Tin
v v u&
t
:

ntirctti

\v6b pvibK jsh :^npn

& jn

fr?? aura W?b

bbn ranps bbn pb tapjp m&$ nroi


nMnnbnn :hb onan "brm"^ ti tm.T'^nfi
nni.T

io

12

nST

Sing.

The

Adv.

accus.

Fulness.

bow down.

old ending ay being contracted to

with a consonant.
inter, particle.

poetic,

wounded.

?.

and so without the


10

polluted.

on whose account.

before an afformative beginning

began.

art.
12

Question without an

to multiply (DD"1)-

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

irfenn

-bs

Tan

wna

irpp h$]

mrrn$

nr-baa

117

n*T

nanagi :,tt

*bbn na rfr^i car naaisn


1

^"rn

nbbu^.tnn^ or?

sptf

obis? ?

:^si

^a orris nnip iW s?t neitf trnria


wtf? na^an rn.T mm tansaa d^b

1T1T

ds?

nanban

a^ara? rairna^
ra b^aa '.ti tTrfca

a^an :saj

n;.nn

nax sh *a to^ab D^a


nana rrni :a^b nna rrn tniM
-

|V

v:,-:

"

v:

6ni 6$ rnn a'^a nb^l

-ns

v:

KiTi)
t

TO

t^Ti

rH$

*& tit

mpj vf^xn
nann snrrcM :,Ta-ns nbxt^i -i^b
".ft
arpb otfa ni^a? ^,ti raa^ oba ta^as? sn#
3

-:

taarn? naD-bs

niiT

ns-tn

Tl

rvrinn
:

na^r-ns

was?
T

Note.

the perfect (man).

in p.

Note dropping of

alphabetical

list of

words should be consulted.

"bottle," and 3T12^ week {pi.


vocabularies

while ^tT" s ^e
1

the words X2,


tt^llli

&Ol2i

inserted.

nisa^
t

(in Pent.).

A few words in the preceding exercises have been used, by oversight,

in advance of their occurrence in the vocabularies.

">X God,

7X

7l"Dt

an(i

73"ji

11137

m tne sense of

there used, are not to be found in the

found only in the following one.

D^S, CwTZJi appear

"1*73'
to,

is

*"li**"2*"^),

In such cases the following

The word

Further, while

in the following alphabetical list twice,

have been unintentionally omitted, and

CD'S oe strong, f]u?V maiden, have been unnecessarily

WORDS OF THE VOCABULARIES.

118

WORDS OF THE VOCABULARIES


3K

rd* 8

dt6k

(Alphabetically arranged),

n? 38
Sis 37

bai

ran?"

rnn-i 22

ni33 22
22

^n
38

run

aibn 3
bbr\ i0

'

niS 2

ma

23

J3K

dSk
nans 31

DX
DS 2
hek 34
mix 34

bnx

TOIBK 23

JHS

3*

31

33

j6

nix 34

nps

23

38

nV

32

e^t

nsxT 41

86

34

ninx

53^86

27

jna 12
rnfc 41

inW

34

nna

34

rnnx

b*

IT?.}

'1 12

133 32
rnis 32

-131

18

ni 45

-13]

18

bix ii 46

psf 2*

p'rK

13"

npn 2

45

T T

so

trst

33}"

unn

trnn

U
PI33

P51

Sp3 25

*W

K")3

34

^?n 39
Sin 15 23

- T

31

22

bin 45
bin 45

nsin 39
2

fin
ntn 30
7

nil 28

83

nth
pin 30
23

pin
pin 23

39

Ktpn 5

rri3 25

nri

43

nns

TH

12

n^3

stpn 5

nxttn 5

uw

rrrj

11

^5~n 39

1X3 25

bzk

19
133
- T

il

31
ItiD
T T

byr\ 9

bzx il

nnn

46

nsto

18

nit?

18

rntb 18
ninto 21

nrnp 11
3ira

10

3ita

10

3ito

10

21

xpt?
Xfctp

21

nx^tp 21

ntfi

ns

17

nic 3
tT3",4

31

'

"

TV
n?"j3
nx 2

16

39

41

3-in

ram*

T T

45

25

#3T
liT

37

3nnT
-

bftP

I?"

It t

ipn 29

14

una

-p3 31

n; ;rj 27

3H1

3 38
1
nsa*
T

25

18

p6h m

nS-i

trps

bv

i5

T
HT

D3n 3

11

bbn 49

3311 3

nSira 45

min 9

niiri 3

of*

'

bs3 5

11

tfEn 35

47

H33 41

^ni

3^

bHy

T?3

n-fcn

bii10

n^3 3

,T;p3

34
runs*
'

inx

46

bbfi i9

D-in 39
18
H3f
~ T

nns 41

34

im

^?l

in 9

41

-11H3

n
fix

#13 "

22

bzp

iik 8
nix 8
is

41

23

is

-13| 22

ma**"

P*9*

HPT''

88

WORDS OF THE VOCABULARIES.

HIT

38

- T

Tra 40

KB3'
HD3-

pi 37
9

Sir

32

*r-r
-

Taa

20

rnss 20

Q137

TO"

arc

21

nx-ia 47

ana

ma

F|U 44

n33-ia 36
Kt'b 29

44

13

rna 44
nsia 1S

nttfa

27

D^a

a*?a

Wa

T^-1^3

-I3S

18
n^9
- T
naT 1T? n

7^138

nbmj

11

nnsttfp 28

H3J 48
HIM 42

HS^a 13

PTO

^!?
3^]' 42

npbaa

X^V

nii

n?-?aa

13

^33

Lj^42

29

u
rtea
T T

Kt 2 *

^?

^34
rrSs 34

rfe

84

K*iai9

-rub

42

TU

p;a 47

Stti

10

risib 42

29

xita 14

tfnaa

16

n^a

nana

nixa 2i

28

29

42

n%
nb9?

jni

42

33D 3S

44

n?

nSv 39
njS 39

17
nb33
T "

^5
nSs 34

23

na: 83

nixa

23

-,^34

83

-133 4

3_r;

- T

33 29

bv6 39

ni-;
88

X33 29

nxa 2
HKa 35

30

23
nti
- T
42

13

nDE 12

"TO 28
ni^ 28

pr

ni3bp 13

nrap 27

nn*; 28

^34

27
rue nni]p

21
D33
- T

nn? 43

nbw

IP
v.

33

"OS 23
ITpS 28

30

ivi 33
DTlb'44

13

^sb

as'^a 30
bji^b 37

16

'

"1133 "

ni-; 23

n'nV 4

15

n^ia 81

aw
jib

13V*

1?

43

19

21
s

n^ 28

n-iatfa
18

nnb 24

15

17

pb

fnibs 8

ntpj

13

n TT 43

12

^c

cm
n^m

25

nx*v 17
"tTT

"is?

nna 21

42

sstrb l9

btra

anb 24

vzb 22

12

10

25

rrtfb

nib
nza 21
*6a
sSa
nanba 24

f.

^B

'

(sib) 11

H3S

*vd m

afeia

6p

(33*?) 23

32

BU 44
^44

^na 34
rnna 34
naa 33

3H3

Tu

nb' 2J

20

29

3^5

ntna 48
niia 43
aiia 5

rria

33

p^43
n ^43

Dipb l9
ropb 80

24

*6
3S
"iv:

tt^|5p

nb u

E"!3

_T

|^47

rnsa 42

nip*

119

^SB
\JB

38

16

DID 20

mo

46

H3B 28
n^b 37

DV 9
5
nbv
bai* 9

mav

,4S

P^i

47

29
ni^
T T

120

WORDS OF THE VOCABULARIES.

ABSTRACT OF NOTES TO VOCABULARIES.

121

ABSTRACT OF NOTES TO VOCABULARIES.


with. coot,

O-r.

2.

my

whole,

K- n-

ing)

4.

1- \ 2-

Hokhniah.

Car. case.

Rephaim.

Baruch.

8.

Abba.

re.

Eaphe.

"[t^n and

Deborah.

Qadhes.

Abaddon,

Horeb.

ore.

Hum.
of

deriv.

Qoheleth.

(berry, pear).

Migdol.

Erebus.

Moil.

Q<2>.

Ephraim

Yom. Abram.

Tobias.

Shem.

HTT- Hamor.
12.

7 and

Ichabod.

Meaning

of

FpD ?

13.

Melchizedek.

KaSfios.

14.

p3

p2

and p2.

Sabbath QttP).

KITE

33-

"Hj-|

and

Go-

mar-

cover.

*'""|3-

12 7^2

derivative)

deriv.).

(^

?2

pp

(r.

tTp (*&*&)

Ishbosheth.

wary

Shephelah.

1).

meaning).

r
(

3^il?

and

nab.

^23

Perez.

Phari-

nnn-

of smite.

-IHB and KJ2B.

21.

"1PIDS2

D323 (r.
and "mystery."

Pathah.

sounding

like a hoof-beat.

nD? and

I'CTf-

^33

33.

Shekinah.

and ^3-

Siloam (John ix. 7)

lavish.

p 7tT and ""H*^.

Ebenezer. Asaph, amen. Heze-

23.

71H and 31!T-

kiah.

rOTS

laving.

Hebrew.

Pl2S(Ps.xxii.2).

p"* (mimetic). Carmel. Beth-

lehem.

p"?

(r.

meaning and

deriv.).

fcptf and tOHt^- nntr'tt and


beka.

Beersheba.

25.

""H Messiah,

irayw.

26.

92$.

Sarah,

Psalms

Pasha.

aiK^

VDtT

Tekoa.

C"t and D*HX-

Tsar.

13^.

n*"Q

Marah.

Tyre.

heading of a number

O^).

nptT and HAttf

(Rabshakeh).
27.

Mahanaim.

Ahaz.

rP3Pl

( r-

meaning), minhah. Ner. Zipporah.

Sansc. gras (Eng. grass). *Q*7ft

seguro (secure).

and

p.

tyjft.

*IpS (r. meaning),


and
^2'^
*Qtf.

and

Sheol.

X2f and

shal.

16.

Qal.

kov/j..

Salaam. ^t2*& and consonants

see.

of

Midrash.

15.

pPD

20.

and

and

liath.

17.

pjft.

Aaron. Ariel, behemoth. t(d)rack.

Kohen.

TaKei&a

and Q3*j.

24.

ITfl and

Derivatives of H333-

11.

Ishmael.

Rob and robe H32). *\^h and

PpH.

22.

tlHp and ^Ifl-

Hor.

Zechariah.

p2t2-

corban.

meaning).

*[&-.

-.

Obed.

and

PT 7

Talmud,

and "lap- mercator.

hate.

gaol.

6.

10.

B-

hal-lucination.

e thibh.

yachts.

18-

19.

D- $.

sack (article of dress).

Emir.

flStf-

9.

topaz.

ft.

joy supports.

oar.

5.

initial

Camel (etymological mean-

*.

").

3-

Coke,

an

Sadday.

hissing letter.
3.

cholera.

zone,

oath.

meaning

meaning and
Sabbath.

cane (Tp and

|).

David,

door.

Succoth.

Zion (|T2 and TW1)(r.

29.

Millo. Nabal. Joktan.

Tishbeh.

Shear-jashub.
28.

meaning and

UTOn

( r-

reeve.

add.
|-|Sttf

derivatives).

meaning and

deriva-

JO] and tD23 (Nebat). tD


meaning and deriv.). HD3 and

tives).
(r.

Kt-*3-

awa.

Anna

(,v.n.

1730-1740).

ABSTRACT OF NOTES TO VOCABULARIES.

122

Word used

30.

(enemy),
(seer),
all

280 times as Part.

^23

and MX"!

cane 2

(cf. 17).

syn. of

nata-re.

weak and

the letters

"vibrating" (see).

the

Mad

Jehosaphat.

?2 (idea of

PV^

lip).

Mishna (change,

32.

and word

r.

(idea of

r.

for

year, etc.).

3"1 (idea of

Nazirite.

deriv.).

Gethsemane. Beth-shemesh.

gnar or snarl (young man).

Pl332-

Niph'al

iraax a

3V-

(mamma).

yp

HS

(idea of

37.

Rechabite.

Maschil. "j^j

Q"]-

*0

backshish,

dibs.

and

r.

(1

its deriv.).

for

).

Benjamin.

J"I7D and *"[7^-

and FH"^-

Keturah.

38.

bod,

JK (demon,
11).

f,

etc.).

ptf and p^.

negative

letter

ins
37).

suggests

nt>K and nt>.

Barzillai.

Abel,

tfKandtfiJt

harass.

7*2"!

and

and

or

"J, 3,

prefixed.

,771*13 and

and
46.

etc.).

D^

bV-

and

Pitf

Abigail.

Sl3and

coral.

Fltf.

47.

Hittite.

r.

49.

Rabbi.

deriv.).

pTjn. .7X7 and

Knock.

and

and

huppakh. H32 and H337 (see

29).
48.

r.

7 h3

fii #

turn aside (about, return).

Peniel.

92%

HtT (idea

of

deriv.).

Hallelujah.

X23J and

meaning.

39.

(nam

2?V7 (idea of

^ (Icha-

rm

form of

"p3fc

Shekel.

from rh^. n3i1 and


and *niT- 737 and *0 (see

5 (33D)

yam.

"

nst"?

-Vl2 and -|Jp-

(pour).

44.
X13 and Rjfi. p? and ^j.
]")1X2 and
Yl2- words for offerings

45.

(idea of

43).

Get thee (point

Jordan. t^"1 with

73U and

-tsio bnx.

n3C- sack

its deriv.).

See

(Zion).

(oi5a).

ei'Sco

"|7 -]S)-

r.).

16).
XS1 and ^3*1
Rehob. n*1 (idea of r. and its

deriv.).

and

and

r.

its

See

(ibid.

( j"l)

and

""p^ or 1> (idea of

deriv.).
36.

r.

and

and DJ.

HI33, 123

sack ("TD3-

(r.

33

7J"[3

Nathan.

*|53.

1*173 (idea of

Negeb.

deriv.).

333 and H13C

43.

"plK and

Joseph.

(^ij/xa).

Nahum.

Massah.

share.

Amine

J-t^p

pp.

Aijalon.

;rx and QW.

7PI3-

meaning).

its

pfX- Acheron.

Ebionite.

34.

and

(r.

(r.

letter).

7PO, "133 and np3-

Bema

Baca.
42.

Necho and

Seth.

nyfo
first

rosin

are.

meaning and

Jearim.

Oholiab.

Oats

PPIX. bore.

and tfp.

tf*|tf
33.

r.

mm

n-ip.

and

yeledh.

of

Mizpeh.

(mete).

41.

*"|33 (firstborn) and *"|p3-

hxriv.

and

and ,73p (idea of r. and deriv. See


16).
Hw'p and Dt^p C^ea of r.).
rash.
^ttf and hW2- "TID and

for

and word

(Gilead).

meaning and form

CHK and ntt-JX. npn (idea of r.


and its derivatives). ""It- 3 (noun and

wing)

r.

72? (idea of

Jabesh

40.

first

31.

verb).

XM a

73rideriv.).

(idea of

SiCtt-

r.).

^H

and bhU-

Sabaoth.

"UtT and

pfttf.

7S1$
Thum-

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

APPENDIX

123

I.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

mm i^a

^sbn

ns s n^an
%

Tj-it'

nina^fsn nptb nbn bas nnni

pofaxsa nar; nni'a uxa

nur ntfs trttsn nma japbn


nnaK mi niKaaj mrp nnin

:npa

-|2

naa

niata

rr#i irnSx aia-*a

n^nt/nn^

aa

sm xn Kim
taa'^tott

nniac n**bnai

biarnaa

dv?

w*gm
4

:n^

:abn,n

:T||na rinaui :nnt?

*m

if?

*n*tba

aba*;

mm

t&

a*b*aa nbix :n;rianx abir

rrp

rrrt

nun:

)fr

:ki*i

i'ur :,nn ai 9,n

nana :rrra

nu*:

a^nnx saxa

nan-nab pa^vna

nap u*xn :m)


4

:ai s *ra*<

tTip&r *p"nx :nnix

:naa pasn ptn

ttf*K

ana-ntr^

latai vixnp p5

tot&I

ni s a jrripjj!

#*

sjS^

aVST^? Jirfr
nan :run sinpatf :ia

aisab *^ria boajr "* rarnnpK

run mb

n^tr^'i

narar naj&a bant***-

:anj

*a

twaan^to can ana ta^n

jnai*-

:pr

wm

nana Sp aan

nm

:a**raa

nnt ibag

ina:

Jmrmaiq

iaaa

t trrttpa p&j

rpaa'pa **$?

niatp*;

nian: *6 ana ahiib marii :a*3*anna

pui'a intparrbs

nrrdp ^pa*-

*a

mna pan

:risnn *a-na :na

nama

naps

pnxa D^tr

1?

a,^

xn ^*va*p

-tfrij?

5*5*1

ifci

naw

:*pto sfia tjk

ifc

14-25.*

a*b*ea

u aypa

bnx nnn

p*r:a

:a^

26-40.

:arnrrnK fhaa a^nanai pnfaaarnn u imi.n rnbar; bats :,nana

:nn ab l2 in;p*rriKi arba-m n^br nau nnrnajp*; |ik **2Hh


jaaa wjfi anna n^run w n'T :naab pun nua :*a n*ria *a nnaa

^a-br

i4

nbun amnataa pb^a :*nja-ba


The

sections (of the

Grammar) named

na'u

mm

bba :aia

nan

are simply more especially illustrated

than others.
1

Disting.

oppression.

poetry.
12

from
6

7*fi.

2 Qi- Inf-

break forth.

with /em. termination.

Here

sacrifice,

usually feast.

gray hair.

bosom. 9 during the (same) day. 1} Note the idiom. n


13 Otherwise
^| from *)]]. u idiomatic, set on fire.

prisoners.

* p.n.

Art. omitted in
44. 1. e. 8.

ADDITIONAL, EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

124

fnAfeftn tttia*

nsitf
:

rab nar*6 jp*} irir^ab

*}*$

d^rn irr^S mr\r\ Bi 3 r^n ra?i


9

:ias
x
:

mrr

p'OKi

nisa "spT^s ^ann mart

pbfj

waa

"b

Dnfti

^na^s

ttztosa

]*t$ ja

T!?rr

raw in^ tfatb-rniaa

Ban trn^-'oxba ^6-narj ta^ron nipbna

n?* :*pjB^ wiri aian


:rnrr niann trx itzhn^aa bnan t^W" ^a-ipa anrj :anfc a^irjri

anrn :nSr its mrr fan

:ia

pirrba

aS

nnS :n^s bp\ jnn Sip Tiatfn jaa^niatfna

rrpT

np:

mir nan t^an lb:

rrn

:nirT

nnri nirr-rna

:m

pn$ tarrr

Tjiatfrra

*6

abrj

npri jrjan

^^ i^Sw

H^" *T

fa

f5 :aab n^-Sp nft^rj :\nana-nx 'fiatfa


D'pShb aia-saa? *6 :^roj6a-na
: cans

t^nrrstfa

aprrbx

nrab na

ntos

na

:ovftiQ artea itfK ran f?s&Tno mifafe n^pa nans? rift

:Drr^ cnp^h a^narrba

^r

nf-ia t^K-rva ntrx arrcn


6

ni

t?

na^a Tmai t^d mrr


spra mop rriipn nszatp jarr^a
-*6

ibnxa nnajx :pah

aim bx

i^i-iarn abi*;

viftrjiTj tJTty

:nann
jn

man ftnsfc

apr

jvttorc

:rrsi "sp^
nnstanir;

11!

abn
T

12

nai
" T

a^ft

iaat& nt2?K3

i^

iota
:

b%%

trtpruri ^nat

nnn
8

IT

"

I-

rn* n'aft xS pscn rog

tr\s

9
:

nr'^ ahj ^nx

,
,
7^K;'?a
- v T

T3K

to

i^paa

41-49-

arwh

^ana r'inx

rvstib tnaatt)

rts: "i'^x jiaaS

T$ TO

iB^arr^aviK

nns:

"ei

ascra
T
:

1
with.
p.n.
brightness.
Here melteth.
csr. of 3"Tfnt$*l net.
T T
Note half-open syllable by special exception. 8 where. 9 defectively written.

aaaaS Enp ^anbas*

ian tpsjn xb ain;i naaSst-ba

nk nbxa prn^m

tba? rt&p

:tfrt

tainri^s-^^pi nbb^Si

nacpai Dip sir

n&tfl ^BiT-aii a ^a

rip'1 tnjyft ? nten

byhz t$ :na'^

mrr ^sria

rn$

nana tpi man rrraa *pB

rfeafi

Danaa-bs:i

pii

baca nptfa aibtri

wa

p^a*

Y'b)

rnsa-bx aba

na jarixa bt; trrni ttj?

ban

tn? ^a en

naian

rf?

Haa-vba

na&s p-ikb

nfta laaa

Q^

J^uairifc

10 i.e.,

Elijah.

astonished, usually desolate.

12

211 (Part.

cstr.).

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.


nsrr

:^nba

a^rras ja^a

DtfK

ittfaa

^a

rpai

&*

:iaaa nnji

mm

ariabi nhiK

nab

otfjj

125
jrn :#aTi

^inrba

jriK

:*;ni

rnp Trinvr nana W3 :jpi nianrba b?


|D tbh^ pbm y&$ :nban ma ijbh jd^ rm

arfrit |a$ t^Jatbn

jm niaai

rrnrp

tnWg
naji

:tfias

nas
*p; pna t^f-p:^ ^snari raam
l
nsnn inTrrbK :a:nr ^as: jinn jmia j^b nrn

""Stra

vn_ :aar

WTp

bmnvb naa m,ni$ invitp-m nina


nnp'is jmm-bK n*atr nm nsi* xni ah^ :*pa "may? m^nn
jn*na n&\ tvxyb mm ma :p* TifeH?a i^ti 8,?pW? ^T^l
*if?an natf mrja :ni&n jttftrfla nia-Tpnrns nnin ni^-ns
ni^in mtar
fcs*i
ywa
........
: urhna itWk
*Tt: jtw^
T*T :an-nta^
aim
vrjrj nann-baa irbni mwn mm
*aai3 ispfrni* *i^
:

^n

nasi*

antp

nw

aana nabas

njjtj

snngtf nab mnin *rbzb iirrby nxn

^aaa

:aab ba^a raan :7a ni&Sa nnsa


i

spjab nstbi :D , ips pa tpatis

nst

aba

D^a

'labaraai itfia :aaatp

:*>na-nr

tpriK

vnty:

:nawa
its
pin :nnna
na^n
jma'nan
in ^i :nton
Ti^n
:- ^to
t
t:|":
t
t
"T
t
T
6
6ri twianfr aW? s-tns 5 anS Ksrrts :nnaa m?
*

mm

mb-a^a Kpr^n :nnan


nnna

^m

man

naami
:dtt6k
.._.._ anan
v

na?

xn inann javibK bia nf? nnx mrr

:na$ ^riirnnttfK anan-naa nsnaa


9

...

-:

nanai laaa xai

mm* *w m
v

..

..

3?j2^ af a : anhaia-ns Drixri:i


^r;a :nrar;n a*;a rfain
J

:rtrifi

T!

imna! naa

10

pjrai?;

ana

mbft

ttnan
tpi
:~
t T

ribb^

M^s

:vnr;:3 bs vto* ^a na^S aia

a^a ans

ni snaa

na?n h n^x-nx

a^n^atr ^a

:i3a-i

nap:!.

mm

nSa

nsaa nrb :a^aa

siairn n

^^av kS :anxa y~\*n r\T$ r\)arb nsai^ '^k


^arrSx a^an ^na^-ax ^a nan 'nna-nx rxaai

m*; ^a-sa;
nj3"i

mp

:nai

nrrs:

10

^s

p.n.

How

narnx
:nisa^

2 lion.

^n

^aa

^Sk
before.

rnrrb

sevenfold.

35.

(5.

e.

pH3-

wap
5

728

often they rebelled against.


r2

npnnn n'^a nac .! rnirbsa nnx


8

xa,^

riaa

npa :mm

defectively written.

Note use of 7.

Note the idiom.

Made

To

^nip

(the Lord).

himself strange.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION.

126

twhfb win rp-irpn impa ^aaa tnw


^aaia "nrr'pa :Q W?- aab i^ "W ^ tp^.Tffaij'p snyj?
ixai ngi
:n*nn ifr nbis tDttftrrbs dSis nnatn rrna p
aab

npnni_

ss

n'pnna

Drft

Jra ^xa

rria

rrJ^sn

"pnbK mrr-atf-nx xtrn sb

ffsan *i$ nx

rnatf;! rnpn

nan

tfpri

butefcn pa; torr^x

arrtra tsatr ag\

n^n

natf

^j?

tnfcfc

ioat?H?5 Dfcn

xi0

:nSn
VOCABULARY.

2HK
- T

-:

Vix*

(cstr.

pX
TllK

/.

b"*73

suffixes

0T1X).

7>3

*nX-

bind.

h^fi, (cstr.

h^k)

* side Prep, beside.

Syn.

trespass.

pK2 m. majesty,
Cf ^13, etc.
be high,

H^X,
t t

D^ ?!*

Sfyj" It

Qtt?X*

trespass

csjr.

(l>Z.

of

^X)

Hail!

Happy
jlnX * m.

bna*
- T

Erom

pride.

r.

n'aa high,

H13-

qi

be rounded up, gibbous.


nation (rounded together).

R. H13 (rounded out).

N'S valley.

offering, guilt.

i^|t&H*

c.

(Idea ?)

"13 Ml. people,

*
"I^a^
T

separate.

off,

Qt^S*

up.

husband, Baal.

fortress.

na|*
1J =

Discrim. from TflX-

cedar.

curse.
"TTlk
- t

"Belial."

..

...

Ml.

lord,

-|22 * cut

(TTjfcK) father of Isaiah.

nnger.

"HX

empty.

trust.

*"|>a burn, extirpate.

R. syn. of

oath.

r?ist*/..

?n

H3127X/- widow. Suggests " almoner."


VJDX* b e strong, of good courage. Mn.

-|DX

Mn.

uselessness.

7^2*
swallow
>7a
-

r.

Discrim. from J"IX sign

"Amoz,"

ntOa

R. tD3

ftfia / belly.

T|S! surely, only, yet.

nSx*

^PD-

m ix confound.

which takes

of accus.

folly,

nothingness.

w. travail,

|iX)

s ig n

ntOa

rbytk*/-

Cf.

trust, confide.

Mn. "Evil."

from same

is

try, prove.

jna

I*

Mimetic.

foolish, fooi.

godlessness.

71&

HSHK*
T

(breathe after) love.

a loving, love.

Q3

mi.

id ols

?3*

c.

TS3

mi.

(r.^3

and).

also (both

roll), stocks.

R.

Q3 = bind.

garden.
vine (crooked; F|3

= a3)-

7"13 * Mi. threshing-floor.

she-ass.

Syn. niftfT

be troubled, in consternation.

ilia * despise

intrans. be despicable.

Qtra*

|H*
T

strip.

Mn-

shower.

grain.

3^ t
"Dagon."

13 m. booty.

thicket.

m.

Deriv.

T T

tia plunder,

(i) Ml.

fish

R.
;

p.n.

HJH

multiply.

pY

(fish-god)

VOCABULARY.
'75*7* feeble, poor.

Mn. and

77H

R.

languish.

gratis. 77377*1 t / favor, supplication.


T

"Delilah," the lan-

cleriv.

127

guishing.

Mn.

mother

77317

mi<l

17017*

of Samuel.

refuge

R.

trust.

in,

T T

meditate, "imagine."

H3H*
T

hasten (to).

murder,

3*77!

7/S17 be pleased with.

kill.

Disting. 71*717-

1*7*717* conceive.

(0 m. arrow,

7*7!

afl* flow

Part.

de-

Ki. xxi.

1.

Yin

ete

Mimetic.

Syn.

be hot, angry.

ji*77l* heat,

R. *77f suggests char.

anger.

TT

shine forth

sun),

(of

apart

set

sprout.

Harem.

'
'

last.

13*7, etc.

0*77! devote, destroy.

play the harlot, be idolatrous.

77*17 1

* tremble.

71*771

w- psalm.

*7i*3)**3)

R.= divide.

*27! half.

hedge. R. allied to

*7*7! "i. court,

*77-

*V7) > olive.

sing,

*7*3)7*

n-

Part ati

be strange.

*7*7 (cstr.

7737

7/2317*

Hephzibah ": 2

T T

T T

**117

"

Mn.

light.

0*77!

curse,

destruction).

(to

Cf.

'

- T

7^*77

dawn,

"*

7H7*3!

sow

I?i*77 c

R.

east.

arm

= scatter.

*5*"7t

seed.

R. akin

Associate ideas together.

reproach,

despise.

engrave,
*I?*77!*
-

plough.

SV771

*7S*77l

**)*77l*

p*77*

and

following.

T T

to preceding

ibid.

engraver, artisan.

scatter, (espec.) sprinkle.

be

737*77!*

dumb.

silent,

073*17 desire, impute, reckon. 71*37*7*1*3)


317 or

O 33n) m.

jn
-

*7377* gi r(i. Note last

feast.

thought, purpose.

two radicals and

- T

form of

first.

(sweet).

Mn. "Helbon"

fat.

(p3**.7f),

celebrated for its wine :Ezek.xxvii.l8.

*77n* change, exchange. Mn."Caliph,"


vicar of

off

(clothing, etc.),

divide,

Tlp/H *
Mn.
nS3i7

ht2U*

'.,

divisions, classes.

= Jehovah's

heat, rage.

portion.

R. Qn*> a^m to

Mn. "Ham."

pity? spare.

pTTjl

portion, smoothness, flat-

npTTltt */

Q27[-

0*27!

apportion.

" Hilkiah"

in.

seal, seal ring, ring.

dew.

R. akin to 7*7 hang

(stream) down.

700*
Sip m.

(Moses

secrete

and

one. R. Fl*30

little

Mn.

Inf.).

term.

&1*70* m. fresh

tear.

2*3** be weary, labor (to weariness).

07T*

give

* wait.

rD T

only Imp. 0*7,

Akin

to

adjudicate, correct.

grace, favor.

to.

QJTT*

Cf. 77377-

vain,

R.

stamp

level.

77* * complain, howl,


be gracious

7133*1-

7*1*7-

= trip, spring.

prey, food.

leaf,

R. (f37l)

be hot.

body of Egyp-

"7*10* pluck,

777*'

Cf. a/j.a\6s.

violence, wrong.

J317 incline,
*|7

*7l7l t

0*70 not yet, before (gen. with Impf.

deliver.

tery.

70*

tian)

Mohammed.

* draw out,

p7l7

Part, father-in-law.

173*00 * /

next.

l/'T'n

om

Assoc, with

*jSn

m. bridegroom.

m mu k

337Tf*
T

*n!7 *

py*

(Hi.) give suck.

necked.

yell.

Cf.

Mn. "Anak."

p39 be

long-

128

VOCABULARY.

73**

found,

1717 *

m.

mutual counsel.

secret,

,73*'*

713

together.

sit

7"17*

Mn. and

beautiful.

" Joppa" (Jaffa).


ITT
1

j-[T

nV"

21XX2 neck,

!73'HX2 *

f^t

sleep.

H3tyt/.

y*fl

save.

5B?s* (0 *

lick up.

pp7

cell (of

temple).

spot.

77

(r.

nna'(Qi-)

sleep.

Syn. of

despise, reject.

3XX2

side, loin.

,73"T*/-

|7p7

"XX2 * (Qi-) refuse.

motion).

its

side. loin.

C/.

HX21XX2* anything (whatever), from

PHX wander.

Syn. *3HJ7.

curtain (from

l"*

TR* */-

733"7

R. akin to

month.

to.

glean.

nStlv'/*/- chamber,

Syn.

precious.

'"IP"'*

PH* * to. moon.

Ai^os.

C/.

stammer) mock, scorn.

(r.

pb *

deriv.

shine) m. tablet.

(r-

last.

rule) /. province.

hasten.

7,7fc*

(H*

/.) quickly.

salvation.

niv^ 1 n>T^n ibid. Mn. "Joshua,"

131X2* move, totter.

"Jesus."

71X2* cut

Mn. "mote."

^''be upright. 7^7 upright.


m

is)

before,

over

against.

nSlX2 * ( r DSX distort) n. wonder.


nnX2 * wipe out, destroy.
-

orphan.
,

71T remain

over.

7j-p

(i)

string of bow.

is left,

(what

71X2* (71X2)

Mn.

" Jasher."

DID''*
T

(foreskin), circumcise.

off

E.

what

to.

pX2*

stretch

r divide) to. kind, species.


-

angel,

mes-

,73X2* count, apportion, prepare.

Cf

7X7X2

out.

"1X7 send)

(r.

to.

senger.

H3

thus, 50

713*

= 73

contain,

(PD3)-

113X^X2 / business.
* / word (poetic).
n?X2
T

R. akin to

sustain.

bbz 63).
place,

|13
(

Tp

vii.

3*3

pdlar of the temple

11^X2* m.

Mn. "Jachin"

prepare.

1 Ki.

T T

next.

21.

deceive,

313 *

lie.

Mn.

liar.

n3 n

773X2*

* be ashamed. ,7X273 * / shame.


3.73
~ T
T

*3 thus (upright, place, base).

3V3

"

fool.

R.

vex provoke.
i

niris * cnans)
*)r\2 / shoulder.

(divide)

= heavy, stupid.
3"3 t to. vexation.

m.

xn& v

elevate) highway.

sin.

*
7>X2
" ~

(r.

"712 be deep) /. cave.


" T

Cf

71"; * blind.

77X2

revolt.

,77X2 *
/ tunic, shirt,

773

sin.

7"33

|X2

short,

* act treacherously,
7VX2
- T

*
H7"X2
T T

lowland.

little,

t3VX2

"33 * (and -|3) bow. Mn. " Canaan,"


i.e.

r.

elsewhere.

R. akin to

strength.

Cf

"3X2* withhold.

"Cozbi" OS'S).
|73

salt.

(r

HX27X2 *

Mn. "Nimrod" (77X23)-

akin to last) rebel.

(r. ,7X2*1) /

deception.

R. press. Cf. 3J73.

?"V3 * commit adultery.


Syn.

Qp, iy.

3i<S

people.

i"!17*

(r.

join) borrow, (Hi.) lend.

"Levi" (77).

Mn.

despise.
PR3*
- T
*
77] wander.
I

cleanness.

Syn. Ctffc.
" T
,773 * separation, un-

VOCABULARY.

PIXS / corner. R. open, yawn. Deriv.

fl^3 drive away.


iHtli*
T T

eac^7 direct.

PIB-

serpent.

*|23 be strange

^Sl *

Hi. recognize.

"D3>*

foreigner.

!"Q|33

I- T

T I"

be innocent.

\"5J

It

sprout, bloom.

J"H3*
- T
*"H2 break, make

* innocent.

overtake.

arm

pnJ *

DD3
- T

(put on weapons), obey.

down

tear

tOtTS *

strip,

nnS*

entice.

etc.

*TUC * hunt,

J"HD*

(cleft) rock.

Of. *fi5t-

*}) divide.

simple (ton).

TlS

JTTI3CI!? t /. fortress,

fish.

72* m. shadow. Mn. "Zillah"

(fine) flour (as well bolted,

c.

R.

void.
off.

T'itt game, provision.

etc.

3jS? m.

put

nna.

c}.

(altars, houses, etc.).

* tear away, out, down,

m. (hewn) image.

(i)

7D5J3*

female.

QpjJ avenge.

ptZ?3* kiss,

right, intercede.

- T

Jjj?]

fcOS be wonderful.
772 smooth over, set
R. separate.

3D3 * pierce, bore.


!"Ti33
It t

scatter.

I^S

7113 wady, valley (with a brook).

tlTD*
T T

129

(Pl?S6).

n71i prosper.
!?73i * / side, rib.

C^HDT

eunuch,

w.

officer.

|-[2

sprout.

Zech.

3JJ*

(r-

DWbe thick) c. cloud.

m.

Sri*

nSr;)

(/.

oalf

JTfl'J?

= roll),

mp

t
TO
- r
hi.

be strong.

= order, set in rows.

u^ V t

* /., ft m.

fi^ft

pJ5

(r.

(selfsame).

restrain.

fTlSBt
T T
-:

/.

TO*") *

OTflb)
v v
-:

("["n

exchange.

P lain "Arabah."
nakedness.
!TH"*/.
V
T

be red) be jealous.

fllOp*

horn.

TH"*

R.

stiffen,

point (the

"!

lie

c.

down, crouch.

breath, spirit.

shout,

run.

rfjliri

shout, hurrah.

Suggests in sound and

(dis-

tantly in) sense roots.

in order.

attend.

'

TH!? put

encircle) m. wall.

(r.

v^l *

gi ve security,

TEhy /

It

ear, etc.).

strong.

holy day.

3"l>*

^p

DtTp*
QIJCV *

strong.

!>/ bone
-|2C*
- t

V"lp rend (the garment), tear away.

yoke.

be

Messiah

/. jealousy.

strength.

7"137*

ffipri * /. hope.

line,

Wj5t

she-goat.

137
-

be stretched) wait, hope. "H

(r-

-It

m.

Fri^J ? bird.

bow)

WV

1!? ( r -

R.

n. flock.

* cover,

nfti

8.

Syn. WJ.

(r.

so called as frolicsome.

*T1^ *

iii.

m. prepa-

ration, appraisal.

pnt

be empty,

p".-) t

a#.,

pn

Dp" !/!" adv. vain, without


Mn. " Raca" Matt. v. 22.
cause.
$

7T2 *
FY"^*

(foreskin) uncircumcised.
(r.

separate) m.neck (back side).

3"C737*

ptv"*

oppress.

herb, plant.

QfH

r be soft)
-

merciful.

show mercy.

QrT") *

Eim

womb. 2^17")

mercy.
|"P*1

m. savor, odor. Cf. HI"! of same

r.

VOCABULARY.

130

shout.

rejoice,

p*1

,13*1* /

ibid.

Mn. "Arnon" (fJHK)-

KltT

'V~\* tremble, quake.

Vj'2'1 1

m.

m.

ac-

earthquake.

R.

kill.

p=

earth, in running;

one;

|"|X")

fi2")

and

touch

WH

the

H2"l adhere to

y^\

one sheep.

c.

as *T|^

is

touch hard,

DpiT *

*^3tt?
T

robe,

*Wtl? hairy

garment

"*.

^DPl*

or

be

stiff)

f
/

"

be waste, astonished.

astonishment,

waste.

^id.

falsehood

rbn

barley (as bearded).

rain.

by

(r-

habited)

pfr&\P*

hair.

/ desire.

*0$t

adv. falsely.

rlow)

world

/.

(in-

in-

the (great) Deep. Mimetic.

* hang (impale). Cf

bin*

c=

bianx =

bbn,

bia,

over against, yesterday.

goat.

confer, found.

*lt22

n&sttf
T T

mo

bh%
<**>.

See ^2.

Pl"Pl wander.
T

i"Hn

Shechem."

full).

Qlnn *

"

* wages,

SkEw? (X inserted) m. the left side


(as the rHX2U was worn there).

PPl]?^*

R. over-

m. strong drink.

*lptT

f. ibid.

*?$& * m.

*TO&.

It t

drink (oneself

"DttM
- T

Related to ?X2

hire.
/.

Mn.

shoulder.

HEw**

to ^IDS.

t serve for hire.


*"D't?
-

n&b'E? t

Cf.

spread.

Dk27

Pit**

Suggests

morning (gray).

crush.

kill,

vanity.

ra.

m. gatekeeper.

"nlTU*

P2*1* hreak, crush.

ID"

perish)

(r-

shoio.

ceptance.

H^-J

rod, sceptre, tribe.

c.

T>1^*

De pleased with.

i"I^"l

l33tT

mXBfi (niSSn)

*"fl3

se parate.

L 2 T2 c- concubine.
112 separate.
i,

beauty, glory.

131

LIST OF SYNONYMS.

APPENDIX

II.

(^)-.-LIST OF SYNONYMS.
na, bm> ntf ana. ana, niK, nns, ran,

l.

2.

nsn-

V |m

n ^' n *^'

19,
I

20.

TW

(rarely)
'

nana, npa.

p|Ss,

nrt,

bit

nitf
ns,
T

^st r\%

T33. anji

Tpn. ntf} pis, an-

2i.

},

22.

nak ">^3, n ^- n /^' D ^'


T

na:,

dti& rif &


;

riap3.

(</

n)TiTja

nip

(last

two

8 )> nai.

atpn

sps/apS, pap,

23.
( rare-

nttl^, |T)K. 7133, 7311

5-

nsp, nr;

(rarely).

nanri nib!, nrn&,

ly),

nm

-1$?.

^gfe-

bnx, rra, ma,


nan, ptt-

e.

San

nan,

attf;.

^03.

SnS>, 777 (sometimes),

7.

733,
T
8.

d^k, wan,

2^3, iFJ,

PV'

*#>

nW npa.

9'

72J2.

nn&Hk^o. *6-

"13,

10.

nix,

11.

jlX,

12.

-iiWdsb-

13.
14.

tn, pin (Hi.), tosns-pn, ftrttf.


3*4,

15.

'tk, '^33,

16.

pi 7$ 'Tibs,

17.

73K, 723, P|1^.

riaifc.

n:> (answer),

3Jtt^|5,

Stf-

nnK, n,ni n^pD.

ns, TS3-

27.

Tpk, ^p;.
ntfit atrx

28.

nam

-|33,

The term

is

tfiab,

Sns, spa,

33.

T?to

n?na, nbat?

7-

3nS

D'n'Sx, nibx, ni.T

nsa, nns,

nnn, nnn, *rr, nns,


bra,
T

34.

(Q-),

pba

"ins-

tan. tft?n.

tt,

ma, nns, nnn,

Di3,

here used with some latitude

sfrn, as;,

ma, np?,
rpj, a^3, 33D,
T

nan, nSr,

nSs, 'jsnp,

cnab^Vp^.

*n& 7,

nim

8),

Cc/-

^D3,

narin
nap, and' ab&>
29. jink nian30. nsi, "lis, asia, psi. 733,3t3,nns, nana, np&.

35.
18.

"IIS

20.

32.

r;, jtbc. ritt.

"1131.

7tfpT

25.

(c/.

jix,

-St,

24.

rarely),

pn,

a'ltr-

(These verbs

the object being to associate

words used in this Grammar, having a kindred meaning,


adjectives as well as verbs, are taken, if necessary, as
and
Nouns
as possible.
root is used,
representing roots and, generally, but one representative of a

together as

unless

it

many

of the

be as expressing a different shade of meaning.

LIST OF SYNONYMS.

132

of motion are put together for con-

bbn
-T

ee.

it^a, nat,
"T
l-T

(c/. 7),

nT.
TT

venience.)

*pn, aba-

se.

Bfla. nia,

37.

in, &pfc> bbtf.

38.

mna, "lb?, nb> Tripsunpa'nci'^f^-

39.

naa,
ras
-t|-t

40.

bm
-t

|i, ann-

42.

pa, aan,' sm, bafr

43.

naa, naa, rSria, "in, ana.


naa, xna, trnn, nar, bvs.

44.

n'tr-f
T

n^a, nap,

45.

46.
47.

pa& nbaa>.

*ra,

tttoa
I- T

ban
Unn,
" T
" T

bna,

(spy out;

40.

ni"
nt'2,
T

so.

na,

22), t|S)d,

na&

rrpttp.

nbvia,

nba,

nnaa*.
nm;a,
r

see

i.

(</

n),

^na

7 o.

ail m*r, nna, bra (V-

71.

nit,

ma w-

72.

p-;t

(pjjp, bb;, xnp.


T

73.

rru

74.

anf, sea-

75.

pnj, pi;, naa, pT\,

76.

ban,

77.

an, m;ia,

78.

bnn, nba,
arc, naa\ abtf
*

58),

mpn

ip,

(c/.

cm

tfnnVnm.

so.

bin,

naa,
nbn,
T
(c/

bas, nac

u)I

bm

(V. 8).

82),

Kto

nfn, K33-

baa, naa, nns-

8.3.

rvh mn-

53.

maa, (bro nanba 'ttt

84.

aibn, pin

54.

-in:, pD. pin, bar-

85.

rjbn, t^nn, natf-

55.

i-ia,

52.

;, pfcb-

56.

nbia,

57.

b-a,

58.

mnxtf, natf-

vn, fan, nat?.


baa, nba col-), abtf

se.

pbn, atfa-

87.

n,
nnn,
ora,
nan,
rras,
" T
V
T
T T
T "

Eha, tfm

60.

O0i
v

(Hi.),

88.

cql).

nna.

Tirr (rarely),
T T

See
50.

(/.

ban,|an,nari,aia,an:,ann.

2.

89.

naa.
T T

(<-/.4o),

sn

hain/mp.

on, K&a-

^af.

40).

nntra, rna*
T

82.

jiss,

46).

naa.

pa, t?na

tit*

79.

5a;,

6),

si.

5i'.

pm

ps, nn|(c/.33), ^np, na&

pro,
T

Cc/.
(</

ann,
nan,
T

69.

c/. 35).

n^a

bap, ami'
nna,
T T

(hi.) ,

nny, aa ^

naij?.

m?pa,

48.

ma

28),

(c/.

<Qi.),nprv
4i.

pan, an.
bbn, ann, naa,
ann, "ba,
t

nna,

nan,
tt

(Hi.),

07.
es.

90.

can, par;, irvt


(q., ni.), viznpa
nna,
"It
T T
T

tpn C"/. 14).


62. nan,
nna, p'n, ma,
rna#a, tstta, "rrrr?. nnipa,
nmn.
61

pan,

See 21.
91.

63.

nn

64.

b%

65.

aan,

*;ni,

92.
93.

'

|V3K,

ban,

nmn.

[iK

95.

^V
T

(<-/.

8),

xia>,

irn,

(c/-

38).

am, jna.
|A uimn, natrfo\ na\T nm (Hi.), nab
apa, nav, nps"
nb^ (n^n), bin (# so).
T

94.

nnatfa-

*p, nb ;
T, P|3'.
'

(Qi.),
96.

133

LIST OF SYNONYMS.
129.

97.

n\

98.

ioo.

np^ (QL), nrT


np; (m.).
njr, rno naa, rnxan-

ioi.

$$, c^a

99.

Dinri-

cabs). bajiinau

ns?, nfctfio2.

nir, "itfp-

103.

Dpi

104.
ioi.

napjs,

(&. 67),

ftfcn

nsa

(</.

100).

130.

Tlia. .TIE,

131.

btfib, ?;%.

132.

r^i

nat"

133.

isaa,

ntn

134.

#ji sng-

135.

tpj Bpt&.

|TPJ-

^DDpa, sab* caaw. T2> Dip

nbfta,
T
''

See 33.

naat ro.

531 n|r.

nm

ni3,

35).

(c/.

fea^a.
(</' 82),

136. "1^3. aiia,


137.

11D

nnia,

pnn-

(Hi.).
ioo.

nb,

107.

|3,

108.

HD3,

nao
T

n?3T

52),

(c/-

is?

44 )'

22).

no. fpa,

p^J,

^int,

n3>

sb

n2.

nib

ii3.

i4o.

tiva

(c/.

52),

(</.

i4i.

naa, nac-

142.

5^6, ps, niat

'143.

a?,' jav-'

t;id, macs. ^np.

naia, snap, nag.

146.

TJ$,

Jfc&

jnbV

147.

pjii,

148.

nv-

149.

nSa,

n^b,

-nS,
npS- T
I" T

no. 7K&,

anp

st;.

^tfri,

See

bm

in. nap;?,

saa.

pp.

USD, nTistD,

msa.
:

t;id (Sns),
iista,

122.

nlftlD,

rnip,

xax

ta?np&, fstfia.

n^n

53).

155.

156.

,Tnp, t-;-

157.

pan, aatr.

154.

rt6i

b$tf,

sbat Saw, nan:xap, nna/ (tf-V>"


anp ('/m), jaa(c/.4i),

153.

no. niD, nai-

121.

fan (mthq.),

T;tr.
T

i2o.

niaat

"m

nann,
n9anT
150. rna, nna, nfcat
T
151. nna (*/- 7),
nbn, nna,
152.

us. tfna&, nania, n-;nT


T
T
T

(c/. 15).

13.

pb, d,

See 36.

naata ncs.

n^ttf-

See 66.

Dng,

xxia

(with

158.

nsa, tas&, nap.


n^D, aatra-

140).

am'

(c/.

5i),

See 43.

159.

a'nn, jnn-

126.

xixbft, rrt&sg, nnia*;,n*;a

160.

aan- trna-

127.

tayD,

flag.'

lei.

;*n,

128.

}{,

ffft

162.

san, nan-

125.

naa

ns^nntf.

nfe

115.

124.

si),

,-itJ,

nft,

145.

tfaa,

in.

123.

tj, Dbtt-

144.

D?tr-

in.

nad

nba-

nn& fast
ara ehn /(

ntaa, nntf.
~

139.

T T

H3|B,

138.
-

cc/. 6)1

io9.
(c/.

See 54

Diac-

t5,

n,

amp.

x'tra

(</.

51,

"WORDS TO BE DISTINGUISHED.

134
163.

^tv

104.

tpfy T;S

165.

*g&,

xbfr

^3

(Hi.).

169.

Tj^tft

170.

nptf,
nntf.
T T
It T

|n

171.

rrjsn nbnn.

ice.

batf
nntr, sis.
T

172.

r&nn,

167.

n^V'

168.

natf,

a*;

Dp

nsKi ps, jik

nS*;:

as, a:;:

nii, nax, nay

im

na,

na

vb,

h (rib).

(D*i '^V:
: nas,

yanVnan/i:
pnns, fin : rn& pnW:
nnx.nnx: nna, tt;: r-s, fs:
pi#k> nirs: ns, ns ;nm nny.

niY: HaSs, nay:

jm

nxa, nya: na. naftfis/isi:

nna.naa

rhto

nba, ^Sa :

npa:

b$b

;:a:

(n

Kteb

n:na, n?pa-

p]3j

p]3,

nSa:

locative),

rba:
nba
naa,
:
TT cnba),
"T
|-T
TT spa:

na:- ra:

rna. ipaT

^9:

an, an-

im nm

P^nT bbn, bbn, bb$ : nan,


nnn,
nan,
nan
;n, :n
1
"
V
T T
T "
:

^n,

T T

T T

" T

nj,

ntT:

nr;

*m

n&nfc:

ma* : nat, nr t*

nnj,

tnp

srji.

bia: bin, ba, bip:


:

im

am

Tl t

atfp-

nr, *;t: rn\ prr: ar,


(plurals

na\

crti%
T

T^:

forms):

aw M)
:

nna,

Tjoa nat-

nji, n;'/:

in\ nsn (in some


nT, tt: SttKntg*.

tns,

nsin,

nn, *;n:

nvn,
-;vn:
T

ana
"T nn,
-T nan
-"Ion
:

"

xan,
TT nan.
TX

rrt^, x:
Sp^ nsr.Svx;

rats rati, >at':

3^ n:|

bat',
:

a;
1

(p2),

nn^: nas.
sa^, na^: nns,
T
^n^, rp.

|B3j

nnto, Hj5tf

pa /:

ns?

nna,
nna
:
T
nna, nna-

Tl T

am, ap:

na:, s?3. k'^3-

nna,
npa
T

vPin,

(pr).

ttfna

#np: bin,
nam, naip:
nn nan, naa it)n, hba nan,
pan cpa):
sis, njji s;p: panl
T
na:p ann, anp:
"rf pp7
anri, ana
snp, n^p, Tp
rnn.
-It
T T
tnn,

nti ^^5

t; (prep.), t; (a^.)J t$. H?:


ht; nj), nn^ nr): niv, nix:
(^o,
nii, nr;: bar. ban:
13^' (subJ.)

T T

ann, trnnnt,

bn;, bni

nan
nnn

bra j n^D],

nba, rba, sbac: nba, nbf,

na, *ra: aaa.Viaa.

bin,
Sari
V V
V V

pa : n:a.
b$b (subs.y.
nS^a : K2ia,

bD2,

pro, $13

np?, np3

bba, bba

naa, -Dp.

ja,

(prep),

nSva

pa, ja:

cnaa).

pa, Dip

nna, nna, naa: ma, aia:


nna, naaY naal naa : vbti,

pjdk, ar;

"J?)j3

TO BE DISTINGUISHED.

nna, nna:

"tjxj

nwi.

"pn (tent-pin, trumpet),


nai natf see es, 69.

jfeWo:

nas,

see ee.

173.

ppa.

WORDS

[is (&)>

n,

niW, ni*;:

Q^.

105).

(c/.

nax, na/;

46).

(<>/

riJ (sometimes),

(J5).

2$

(cf. 17).

an^

aptr : nnt%

iw

na^: aa^, aa'^: na^,


nbnn, nbnn: nnin, nnin:
Tan, a*an-

^^^^^^^

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