Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 194

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1.1

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1.1.1

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1.1.2

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1.1.3

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1.2

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1.2.1

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1.2.2

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1.2.3

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1.2.4

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1.2.5

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1.2.6

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1.3.1

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1.3.2

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1.4

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1.5

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1.5.1

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1.5.2

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13

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1.6.1

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1.7

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1.8

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1.9

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1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17

2.1

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2.2

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2.3

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2.4

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2.5

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2.6

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1.3

1.6

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2.7

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19

2.8

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21

3.1

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3.2

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3.3

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3.4

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3.5

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3.6

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22

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4.1

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4.2

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4.3

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4.4

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4.5

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25

5.1

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5.2

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5.2.1

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5.2.2

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5.3

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5.4

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5.5

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5.6

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5.7

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5.8

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5.9

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29

5.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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31

6.1

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6.2

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6.3

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6.4

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6.5

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32

()

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7.1

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7.2

1918

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iii

7.3

1918 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.4

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7.5

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7.6

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37

8.1

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9.1

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9.2

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9.3

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9.4

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9.5

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10 (19181920)

40

10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.2

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10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.4

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10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

11
11.1

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11.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

11.2 1990-

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11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

12

47

12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

13 -
13.1

49

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49

13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

14

50

14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

14.2

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50

14.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.2

51

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iv

14.2.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

14.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

14.2.6 19191920

53

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14.2.7

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54

14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

15

55

15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

16

56

16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

16.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

17
17.1

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58

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17.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

17.2

18

60

18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

18.2

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18.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

18.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

19

62

19.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 -

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64

20.1 1919

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64

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20.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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20.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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20.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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20.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

20.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

20.2

21

67

21.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.2

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68

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68

21.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

21.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

21.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

21.3

22
22.1

70
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70

22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

22.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

22.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

23

72

23.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

23.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

23.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

24

74

24.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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24.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

24.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

25 (1918)

78

25.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

25.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

25.3

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25.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

25.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

26 (1918)

79

26.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26.3

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80

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80

26.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

26.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

26.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

26.4

27
27.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81
81

vi

27.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

27.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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27.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

27.1.4

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82

27.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

27.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

27.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

27.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

27.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

27.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

27.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

27.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

27.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

27.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

27.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

27.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

27.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

27.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

27.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

28

91

28.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

28.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

29

92

29.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

29.2 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

29.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

29.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

29.3.1
29.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

29.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

29.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

29.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

30

97

30.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

30.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

31
31.1

98

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

31.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

31.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

vii

31.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

31.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

31.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

31.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

32
32.1

100

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

32.2
32.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

32.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

32.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
32.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
32.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
32.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
32.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

32.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

32.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
32.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
32.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
32.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
32.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
32.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
32.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
33 ( )

111

33.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
34 (19181920)

113

34.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

34.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
34.3 18

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

34.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
34.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
34.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

34.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

34.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
34.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
34.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

34.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

34.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

viii

34.8.1 1918

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

34.8.2 1919 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


34.8.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

34.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
34.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
34.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
34.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
35 -
35.1

121

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

35.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
35.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
35.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
36

124

36.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
36.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
36.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
36.4 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

36.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
36.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
36.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
37

127

37.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
37.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
37.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

37.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
37.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
37.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
38

129

38.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
38.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
38.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
38.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
38.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
39
39.1

131

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

39.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
39.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

39.1.3 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

ix

39.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

39.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
39.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

39.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
39.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
39.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
39.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
40

135

40.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
40.2
40.3
40.4
40.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

40.6 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
40.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

40.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
40.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
40.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
40.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
40.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
40.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
40.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
41

141

41.1 2930 1918 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141


41.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
41.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
41.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
41.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
41.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
41.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
41.2.5 -
41.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

41.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
41.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
41.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

41.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
41.3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

41.4 1918 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

41.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
41.6 -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

41.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

41.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

41.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
41.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
41.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
41.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
42
42.1

150

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

42.1.1 , . . . . . . . . . . 150
42.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
42.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
42.2 -
42.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

42.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

42.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
42.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
42.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
42.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
42.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
43 (19191920)

155

43.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

43.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

43.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
43.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

43.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

43.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

43.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
43.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
43.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
43.7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

43.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
43.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

43.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
43.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
43.8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
43.8.5
43.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

43.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
43.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
43.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

xi

43.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
44 - ,

161

44.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
44.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
44.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
45 -
45.1

163

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

45.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
45.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
45.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
45.5 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
45.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
45.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
45.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

() (. Azrbaycan Xalq Cmhuriyyti


(AXC), ) , [5] ( )[6] 28 1918
[7] .


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1918 , 1918
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.

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7 1919 , , , , (), ,
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.

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. 7 1918

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.[58]

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: . , . -, . , . , . . , . . .
;
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). 29 1919
.

. . 14 () [56] :
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.[60]

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( 2000 .
[61] ).
.
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1.5.
28 1918 - . .

:

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, 1919 .
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-

1919
.
. . . ; . .
(), . (), . (); .
(), . (), . (); . (), . ().
,
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[62] .

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[63]

.
, 7 [64] .
19 - ,
.
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[65][66][67] .

1.5.1.

16 1919
- 22 1920 , , -
- - ,

1.6.

13

,
.
XX

, . [68] :
1. 1- /.
, , , , - , , . . , , 6 .

2.
1.6.
23 1919 - 1.6.1.
.
3. (. ).
1- /.
19 1918 .
(118.320) .
.
( 1.5.2.
, ), - 1918 16 [69] .
, .

14

1.

Official Map Issued by Azerbaijan


Democratic Republic, 1919 (. 88)

100 1919


1918 . ,
14 [70] .
1918 .
1919 , , 1920
. 25, 50,
100, 250 500 [71][72] .
-, - - (.
; . Republique d'Azerbaidjan).
1920 , 1923 . .

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The population of Azerbaijan was 2 862 000 people; 70
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. . ,


(. -; 1917
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,

-.
() 5-13 1917 .
-
5 1920 .

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( )
,
, ,
,
,

1917 . . -
.
26 814 , 36.
58 300,
- 1.
- 16200 , 300 - .
,
.

,
,
[1]
. , ,
1917 , 5-13 1917
II-
( ).
: 1 1917
( ), , ,
, , ,

,
, , ,
( 17 1917).
.
,
, , .
, . , . .
. .
,
, .
, . .
:
1. ,
- ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. ;
6. ;
7. ;
8. ;
9. ;
10. .
. .
, . X. . ,

17

18

2.
, , , ,

, .
, .


[2] .
25 , 10
. - ,
- [3] .

.
, . 1918 " "
, a ,
"" . ,
.
-
.
, , ( ) .
. 1918 -: , , . -
. , . , . .
- , 4 1918
,
,
. -
.



(
), , . .
. .
. 11 1918 - - - , . .
. , -
- .
, ,
.


,

- [4] .

2.2.

-
, X. . . .
. . , X.
. .
[5] . 1918 () ( -
) - -

1919 ,
,
. , -
.
,
18 .
1919 1
:


: 1).
; 2). 3).
.
... -

2.6.


... ,
.

, ...


,
, ...
. . - ().

. .
" ", , , -, 1929.
"-" , "-"
, , , 30- .

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,
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(. Araz Respublikas)
,
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.

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,

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30
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.

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,


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.
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[1] (. Vereinigtes Bal- .
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. 15 II 25 1918
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.
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( , - .
, ) (
), 4.3. .



.
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()

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. . : ,

24

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2005. . 721. ( : [ 35 .] / . . . . ; 2004, . 2).


ISBN 5-85270-330-3.
[2] Report of the Select Committee on Communist
Aggression, House of Representatives, Eighty-third
Congress, Second Session, Under Authority of H. Res.
346 and H. Res. 438, 2 Report of the Select
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the Forced Incorporation of the Baltic States Into the
U.S.S.R. U.S. Government Printing Office 1954.

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Baltischer Landeswehrverein Die Baltische
Landeswehr im Befreiungskampf gegen den
Bolschewismus. Verlag der Aktiengesellschaft
Ernst Plates, Rga 1938. (ein Gedenkbuch)
Georg von Rauch The Baltic states - the years of
independence C. Hurst, London 1974. ISBN
0903983001 (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, 19171940)
Hannes Valter Landeswehri sjast, Vnnu
lahingust, Riia. Perioodika, Tallinn 1989.
ISBN 5797902753 (Ausalt ja avameelselt)

(.
)

- , 15 1917

[6][7][8] . ,
, , .

5.1.
1917
. -
1917 I II (),
-
.
() ()

, 1918 .
.

.

III (),
820 1917 . , - (),
100 [11] .
- ,
3 4 1918 7 (. . , . . , . . , .-. , . . , .
. , . ) . [12][13] . 3 4 1918 ,


.
.

20 1919
- 11 1917 1 - . , - - [9] . 15 - , 1917 [14] .
, - 5.2.
2.
, - , - [10] . : -. - ,
, , - 22 , 15 - . 3 .
. , , , , , - () 22
[15] .
, - 25

26

5.

. - 5.2.2. -
.

: () () (), 1917
, , 1919 .
, , ,
(- , - , 1917):
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
1. , ;
, , ,
, ,
2. ;
[18][19] .
3. ;
4. ;

5.3.

5. ;
6. ;
7. .
1918
, . .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
[16] .

1917 [20][21][22][23] .
: 12 , ,
- , [24] .
. , : - , , 4547 20 1918
- [25] .
(
, , )[17] .
[23] [26] .

5.2.1. 5.4.

III , .
, ( 1918);
,
: , (1918);
,
, (
1918 20 1919).
,
, (20 1917
4 1918);

5.5.

27

: ,
-
; - ,
- ,
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;
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. [10] . ., . . . //
: . : . , 1996. . 603. 672 .
ISBN 5-88185-001-7.
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1919 - [11] . // .
. 18 1919
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[42] .

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[14] . - 90- // .
2008. 2. ISSN 1683-3554.

5.9.

[15] -
[16] . . ? // . 2009. 3. ISSN 16833554.
[17] . . // .
1999. 1/2. . 149162.
[18] . ., . .
: . :
, 2005. . 53. 304 .

29

[35] . ., . . -. // : . : , 1996. . 324. 672 . ISBN


5-88185-001-7.
[36] :
[37] . // : .
: , 1996. . 163.
672 . ISBN 5-88185-001-7.
[38]

[19] III
20 1917

[39] ., . . :
, 2007. 136 . . 6.

[20] -
[21] -

[40] . . . 19171922 . // , 2008 10, . 149

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[42] . 100- // . 2013. 4. ISSN 16833554.

[24]
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[28] . . . (19171920).
. . 1. / . . . , . . , . . , . . .
: , 2005. . 20. 392 . ISBN 5-29503702-9.
[29] . ., . .
: . :
, 2005. . 1. . 51. 304
. ISBN 5-8258-0203-7.
[30] 2) , 1922 ( . )
[31] . ., . .
// . 2009. 5. . 70. ISSN 16833554.
[32] : 7 ./ . . .
. ; - ,
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468 . ISBN 978-5-7501-1199-2.

5.9.

.
.,

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1917
1920 . . :
// . . . .
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468 .

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364 .

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. ISBN 5-8258-0203-7.

. .
. :
(1918 1919). : ,
2009. 200 .

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// . 3 .. ., 1992. . II.

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35

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[3] (18711942). //
(www.sakharov-center.ru). 12 2013.
12 2012.
[4] , 1921 . 74.
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(libinfo.org). 12 2013.
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36

7. ()

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39

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[42] . . . .
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43

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[6] 1917 .
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815 . ISBN 978-5-02-038043-1.)
[7] . :
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[8] . . Litres, 2013. 718 .
ISBN 5457145670, 9785457145672.

16 1919 - [9] Alex Marshall. The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule.



2010. 120 .
, [10] Caucasus Times
18
[9] , - [11] . ::

.

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15.1.
[1] Dunsterville Lionel Charles. The adventures
Dunsterforce. E. Arnold, 1920. P. 207.

of

[2] Companjen Franoise. Exploring the Caucasus in the


21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics
in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam University Press,
2011. P. 119. ISBN 978-90-8964-183-0.

15.2.


, .48

55

16

[2][3] (
[4] , [5][6][7] ) ,
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[1] . //
Enciclopdia Heraldica (eh.lenin.ru) ( 4

16.2.

2013)
[2] . // (ez.chita.ru). 10
2014.
[3] . . . , 2000. 181 . ISBN 5931190449.
[4] // . ., .
., . .
:
., 2003.;
. - , . . // i
i :
(jakovkin.livejournal.com), 22.02.2013.
(www.ruguard.ru) (
5 2013)
[5] .
. // (www.
aif.ru), 15.02.2012.;
. . 90 //
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[6] . //
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). 11 2014.
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[7] . ? //
rbardalzo (www.rbardalzo.narod.ru),
2010. ( 5 2013)

16.2.

.
//
(kazak-chita.ru) ( 6 2012)
//
Japanese Dolls (japanesedolls.ru) ( 6 2012)

57

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1998. ISBN 5-8066-0889-1
[2] . . 19101918 .
,
, 1977

18.5.
. .
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61
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.

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9 . , 8 , - . . ,
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, - 1920 . 19 - .
. (.:
). .
1918 . ,
,
, . . -

19.1.

62

. . .
. . . : (11
2002). 19 2009.
2 2012.

19.1.

1918
14
. . .
. . .

. , . .

63

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-
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, 1919

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).
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.

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.[2]

20.1. 1919

20.2.

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,
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, ,

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64

20.5. .
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. ,


.[2]

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:[1][2]
-
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65
.

. , ,
-
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300 . ( , , ,
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10 5 % .[1]

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20.4.
,
, ,
, , .

( ) , . ,

20.5. .


20.6.
[1] . . .
: , 2004. 606 . ( ). 5 000 . ISBN 517-022759-0.
[2] . . . 1919 . ( ). 1-. : , 2009. .
340 364. 636 . 250 . ISBN 978-5-85824184-3.

66

20.7.
. . . : , 2004. 606 .
(- ). 5 000
. ISBN 5-17-022759-0.
. . . 1919 . (
). 1-. :
, 2009. . 340 364. 636 . 250
. ISBN 978-5-85824-184-3.
:
19171923 . 4 .
: , 2008. . 2. . 104. 650 .
( ). 100 000 .
ISBN 978-5-273-00562-4.

20.8.
- () .

20. -

21


(. , ) ( ,
), (,
).

, 15 475 (70 %) .
1926 , 315 203 , 18,1 %
[11] .
, . , ,
1905 :

, XIX [3]

. ,

.[4]
(
), [5] ()
[6] ( ).

21.1.
XIX
XX .
. ,

XIX XX .
1897 , 223 33 (15 % ) [7] . . . [8][9] , 18831905
172 876 ,
109 510 ,
63,4 % .
1912 ,
. [8][10] , 22 122 ,
18581914
67

. .
, , ,
. ,
, , , ,
,
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, , ,
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.[12]

68

21.2.

, .

21.
, ,
. , ,
.[2]

. ,
.

. ,
. ( ,
). ,

.
.[2]
,
. . , ,
, .[2]

21.3.
1936 . , , .
1944
(
-. ). . 1920.
.
11 (24) 1917 . ( ).
, .
,
. -

21.4. .


21.6.

21.5.
[1] , 1931.
[2] ., 1931.
[3] . . (.) // . . .
: . , 2011. . 2.
. 151158. ISSN 0201-744X
[4] . .
(24.08.14).
[5] . . (
) .: , 1994.

69
. . (19171917-1922
.): . . . .
, 2005.
.
, 1974.
//
, 21 2014.
// Reibert.info
2012 (.)

. , , 1917
// (muzejunr.io.ua) 18 2014 (.)

[6] . .: 1992.
[7] . // 1897 .
.
Weekly. ISSN 17262887
[8] . (18831922)
// . ( 29
2013)
[9] . . // . 1971.
[10] A. A. . ,
1912.
[11] - // 1926 .
. Weekly. ISSN 1726
2887
[12] . , , // . 2329 1999.
42(263).

21.6.
.
19171920 .(
, ) (.) // . , 1931. 4.
., ... : //
, 7, 2006.
. .
// vybory.org, 13.01.2003.
. . :
// kobza.com.ua, 05.03.2006.

21.6.1.
1897 . . . . . . II.

, 28 1897 .
., 1905. XIII.
.
.
. 1922 ., 25 ,
. . 89. . . . : . . II. . 19211922. C. 8089.(
, )
1926 .
.: , 192829. .
9. . 3451; . 10. . 913; . 11. . 817;
. 14. . 616; . 15. . 813; . 16. . 812;
. 17. . 825; VI. ,
.

22


( ) 22.2.

,

1919 .
- .
,

.


22.1.

. ,
- . . ,
( - ( ), ) .[4]
- 1919 .
.-. , .[1] 1918 , - ,
,
- , - - [5] .
.-. ( . 23
), 1919 (14 5 1 . , , - )
( ) ( )
. - 102 ,
, - .[5]
- , .[1]
. -
1918 . , -
- ( , ).
, 1918 . -
.[2] - , . -
(
. ,
- ).
, .
. , , ,
. , -
- .[3]
, - () -

.[3]
70

22.5.

71

, .

, .-.
.[5]

22.3.

.
10 11 1919 .-.
- (
, ). - 14 ( 29[1] ) . ,

. .[3] 19
.-. . . 1919 .-.
2
.

22.4.
1920 . ,
- .-. . .-. . 1921 , , , .[5]
, 3 , . , , , . .. " , , , [1] . 1922
, .[5] -

,
. 9 . 1922
11 , . , , , . 150 .
, .
,
1927
.[1]

22.5.
[1] . .
- . (26 2012).
[2] . . . .
, 1957.
[3] . .
[4] 18765. . 4.; . 5. . 82.
[5] . . . . . . . . . .
.. : .: ,, 2006 .. . .
255276.. ISBN 5-8071-0204-5.

23


1918 . .
,
.
-
( ). [1] .

. [1] :

.1919


.
: . . (25 15
1918 ) . . (15
1918 1919 ).

, ,

[]. ,
,

,
. , ,

,

.

. , ,

,
.

23.1.
: -,
. . , . ,
. . , . . ( ), . . ( ), , - . . ( ), . . ( )[2] . .
,
,

.
. : , . .

-
.
.
:
. .

,
- , [1] . , 72

23.3.
[1] .

15 1918
. . , , .

23.2. . .
23.3.
[1] 1918
[2] . . . . : YMCA-PRESS. 1988. C. 598.

73

24


( 4
1918 [1] )
,
19181920 .

24.1.

[1] .
, .
4 .
[1] .
. , ,

.
[2][3] .
,
. ,
3 (. . , . . , . . ) 5 (. . , . . , . . , .
. , . . ). 9 [2] .

( 50 %
80 % )
,
[2] .
: , -

,
,
. ,
, [1] .
, , .
(
, )
( 1918 1920
),
. , 1914 ; , 780 , 900 , [2] .

24.2.
28 1918
. . .
16 1918

[1] .
. ,
3 1917
, 1 1917 .
1918 , , , . 39- , 14

74

24.2.
(1) [2] .
, ;

[4] .

75
, -
[3] .

1918
, , - , , . - - . , 17 . . - [5][6] .
. . [2] . - 23 - , , [3][5] .
.
1918
- [5] .
. , ; ,
,
,
;
,
[4] .
1918 ,

. 28 1918 .
. .
.
, , 9700 , 5 , 50 . 3- . [3] .
. ,
, .
.

. (15
), -

- ,


.
,
.

,
. ,
,
, ,
,

76

24.

[4] .
-
13 1919 . -
, . . .
;
,
, 1918 68,75 %, 1920
10 %, [2][4][7] .
, , , . ,
.
[4] .

, , ,
. 7 1919

, . ,
.
. . , , ,
[4][5] . , ,

[8] . ,
.
[4] .
1920
, . ,
, .
:
,
[9] .
3

, .
17 .

23 .
,
[9][10] .

- . 1922 , 1925 . 20- 30- XX , ,
[6] .

24.3.
[1] . . . // : . 5: . / .:
. . () . .
. .: - , 2008.
568 . ISBN 978-966-00-0855-4 . 435
[2] .. .
19171920. (8 2010). 5 2015.
[3] , . , . (1918) //
. . 2009.
3 . 218232
[4] . . .

(19181920 .) // ,
8. . .,
, 2005. . 1723
[5] .// . . .
. 2002. ISBN 966-96038-5-4 . 6875
[6] . . . // : . 5: . / .: . .
() . .
. .: - , 2008. 568 .
: . 978-966-00-0855-4 . 435438
[7] .
// . . . .
2002. ISBN 966-96038-5-4 . 5867
[8] . // . . .
. 2002. ISBN 966-96038-5-4 . 5257
[9] //
. . . 1983 . 310311

24.3.

[10] - 1920 // . . .: , 1983 .


309310

77

25

(1918)
8 1918
,
, ,
,
II. , , .[1]

, , 8 1918 , , ,

II.

25.2.

1918 II
, 22 - 8 1918 .
1918 ; .

25.3.
25.1.

1918
,
- 22 1915 1918 ; . .

.
16 1917 , 30 1917
,
, 15 1918 .[2]
, 1918 ,
. 3 1918
,
, , 27 1918
.[2]

25.4.
[1] Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, page
78, ISBN 0-313-32355-0
[2] The Baltic States and Weimar Ostpolitik By John Hiden

25.5.

1917
78

Informations sur les Duchs baltes de 1918 sur


www.crwflags.com (.)

26

(1918)
(. Lietuvos Karalyst; ) 11 2 1918 , .

.

,
Mindaugas II
( II).
2 1918
, .

26.1.
1915

, .
,
( ),
. 11 1917
,
-
. 16 1918 .
. , ,
, 11
.

III 16961763 .

26.2.

,
. .

( ). ,

,

. 4 ,
. 11
1918 (13 ,
5 , 2 )
. 12 .

79

80

26.3.

(
II)
. , , , ( ). ,
. .
.

26. (1918)
. , .

26.5. .




26.6.
26.4.

. . Naujj laik Lietuvos istorija.


Chicago: Dr. Griniaus fondas, 1986. Vol. II.
P. 355359. ISBN 5-899570121.
. . Lithuania in European
Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 19181940 / Edvardas Tuskenis. Paperback. New
York: St. Martins Press, 1999. ISBN 0-31222458-3.
., (2007). Lietuvi istorik
politik valstybingumo samprata (19071918 m.).
Istorija. Lietuvos auktj mokykl mokslo darbai)
(65). ISSN 1392-0456. (.)


, : ,
, ,
,
. : , , , ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.

, ,
11 1917
.
. , ( Lietuvos aidas, ) .

-

. . War land on the Eastern Front:


culture, national identity and German occupation
in World War I. Cambridge University Press,
2000. ISBN 9780521661577.
. . Lietuvos valstybs
konstitucij istorija (XX a. pirmoji pus).
Vilnius: Justitia, 2005. ISBN 9955-616-09-1.
. . The Formation of the Baltic
States. Harvard University Press, 1959.
. . The Emergence of Modern
Lithuania. Greenwood Press, 1975. ISBN
0-8371-7780-4.
. . Antanas Smetona // Lietuvos
Respublikos prezidentai. Valstybinis leidybos
centras, 1995. ISBN 9986-09-055-5.

26.7.
World Statesmen

27

,
(. Republica Democratic Moldoveneasc,
, RDM;

)
,
(
) 2 (15) 1917 ,
24 (6 )
1918 ,
27
I 10
.

.

.
: , .
, , . ,
. ,
.

.
.
,
, , , , , ,
. XX 20 %
, 11 % , 8 % ,
, XVIII , 5 % , 4 % , 0,6 %
[2] .
27 % , 23 %[3] .

27.1.2.

.
. - , . :
, . ,
[4] .

27.1.

27.1.1.
2 700 000 [1] .
, ,
81

82

27.

--
, . Republica
Democratic Moldoveneasc i Independent ( ) . , , . , Sfatul rii, .
, . ,
,
RM (Republica Moldova, )[4] .

[5] .
, 1918 -
.

27.1.5.

, , , .
.

27.1.3.
. , - , . , .
, . .
, . ,
. [3] .

, .
( ,
) 4
1917 .
, - . . .
. 9 . .

, 1917
[5] . 150 105
, 15 , 13
, 6 , 3 , 2 ,
2 , , . [6] .

,
- -.
,
, (
,
).
.
. , ,

.
27.1.4.
10 1918
. , , , .
, 8 .
( ),
( ), ( ),
( ),
( ), ( ),
( ) (
).

. 1918
[5] , . .
, ,
.

27.2.

83

, [8] .
.

,
, , 27.2.
, , ,
27.2.1.
,
. .
[7] .
,
. - - . - , 28 1917 .
. - 22 . ,
[7]
[7] . - .
, , , , ,
- . , ( ) 2(15) 1917 , , , ,
, - , [8] :
?
? ,
, , ,


.


. XX 50 % , ( )
.
,
.

,
.


,

[9] .

27.2.2.
.
. . , 7 1917 , (), , - () .

84

27.

,
.
, , . ,
.
: , ,
; , ; ,
.
[10] .
.
, , , , , .
.
-
, . ,
. ,
,
. .
. ,
, .

. 21
,
,
, . ,
, , , [5] .

28 1917
. , ,
- . - (38).
. - . [10] :
, . 7 1917 , ,
-,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
[5] .
20 , -
,
. ,
.

27.2.

85

27.2.3.
! ! : , , , , , ;

, 1918


, ,
, . 6 1918
.
,
, .

[5] .
8
. . ,
, , . ,
, 13
. 10 , . 6- . 6 , 800 . 2 500 . , 6- . ,
[3] .

, . ,
. ,
[3] .
15 .
. . ,

. . -

. ,
,

. , .
- , , ,
. ,
, . , , , . .
[5] .

27.2.4.

21
. ,
.

.
, , . 22 ,

86

27.

. , , , , .
. .
-. 28
30 .
.
[5][11] .

, . (),
.
29 , 5 6- , . 2
, -
. 7 - .

, .
,
[12] .

23 . ,
.
, 25 .
. , .
. 30 . , , .
, . 1000 . ,
[3] .

, , . . ,
3000
. ,
. , (
).

, .
, [3] .

22 1918 . ,
.
23 24
. -


- , . , . -

27.2.
10 000 000 . , . ,
,
.
,
, 8
- [3] .


-.

.

87


, ,

,

(
)





. ,
. - 5 . 9 . - , . , . . ,
[13] :
. - . .
, , - . , - . . - , .
, , ,
. -
[5]

.

, 1918
, ,
, !
. ,
.
, .
. ,
-, ,



-. , .
[3] .

27.2.5.

1918
, . ,
, 1918
,
- ,
, - .

. .
, , , ,
. ,
-

88

27.

, , ,

.

. , - . , ,
. , .
. .
, .


.

.
25 26 1918 45- ( 125) ,
27 1918 .
.
27 , . 22
.

27.2.6.

.
, 1918 , 1812
. [5]
[5] .
, , ,
, , .
1918 .

27 1918 .
. , ,
,
. ,
, ,
[6] . .
. ,
- 1940 .
. ,
. 86 - 27.3.
, 3, 36, 13[5] .

- -

27.6.

89

[3] . . . : , 2006. 415 .


.
( 1918)
[4] // .
2006.

1917 1918

[5] .
= Istoria Republicii Moldova: din cele
mai vechi timpuri pin n zilele noastre /
. . -. . 2, . : Elan
Poligraf, 2002. . 182190. 360 . ISBN 99759719-5-4.

. . 1913
14
500 10 000,
712 , 19
%[14] .
.
,
[14] .
; .

[6] Gh. Cojocaru. Itinerarul Basarabiei spre realizarea


unitii romneti (1917-1918), in Marea Unire din
1918 n context european / Ioan Scurtu. Bucureti:
Enciclopedic, Academiei Romne, 2003. . 110
111.

.
, , .
.

[8] . .. : Tipografia
Central, 2002. . 272308. 480 . ISBN
9975-9504-1-8.

[7] .
= Istoria Republicii Moldova: din cele
mai vechi timpuri pin n zilele noastre /
. . -. . 2, . : Elan
Poligraf, 2002. . 182. 360 . ISBN 9975-97195-4.

[9] . .
(XIX XX ).


[10] .
,
= Istoria Republicii Moldova: din cele
. ,
mai vechi timpuri pin n zilele noastre /
, . . -. . 2 .
, . : Elan
Poligraf, 2002. . 183184. 360 . ISBN 99759719-5-4.
[3] . 9 1918
[11] . .. : Tipografia

Central, 2002. . 272308. 480 . ISBN
[13] .
9975-9504-1-8.

27.4. .


[12] . . : , , . : ,
1999. . 111. ISBN 5-88568-090-6.
[13] / . .. : , 2000.
[14] . . , . . . . 1992.

27.6.
27.5.
[1] Population of Eastern Europe // Historical Atlas.
[2] . . .
. , 1923.

27.6.1.
. .
// . ., 1956. . 57.

90

27.

. . . .
. 1917
1918. : ,
2000.
. . : , , . : , 1999. . 108112. ISBN 5-88568090-6.
. : , 1979. .
108110.
. . : ,
1982.

27.6.2.
Alexandru V. Boldur. Istoria Basarabiei.
Bucureti: Editura Victor Frunz, 1992.
Alexandru Bobeica. Sfatul rii: stindard al
renaterii naionale. Chiinu: Universitas,
1993. ISBN 5-362-01039-5.
Ion Calafeteanu, Viorica-Pompilia Moisuc. Unirea
Basarabiei i a Bucovinei cu Romnia 19171918:
documente. Chiinu: Hyperion, 1995.
tefan Ciobanu, Unirea Basarabiei : studiu i
documente cu privire la miarea naional din
Basarabia n anii 19171918, Universitas,
Chiinu, 1993 ISBN 5-362-01025-5 // Alfa, Iai,
2001
Gheorghe E. Cojocaru, Sfatul rii: itinerar, Civitas,
Chiinu, 1998 , ISBN 9975-936-20-2
Dinu Postarencu, O Istorie a Basarabiei n date
si documente (18121940), Editura Cartier,
Chiinu, 1998
Marin C. Stnescu, Armata romna si unirea
Basarabiei i Bucovinei cu Romnia : 19171919,
Ex Ponto, Constana, 1999, ISBN 973-9385-75-3
Mihai Tac, Sfatul rii i actualele autoriti
locale, Timpul, no. 114 (849), June 27, 2008 (pag.
16)
Ion urcanu, Unirea Basarabiei cu Romnia : 1918
: preludii, premise, realizari, Tipografia Central,
Chiinu, 1998, ISBN 9975-923-71-2

27.7.
( )

28


2000 ,
, .

- 1919
, [2] . 1919
. 1919
, .
1920 ,

.

(4
1919).
: F. K. Rppnen, Paavo Pajula, Nestor L. Eskola, Juho
Kujala.
: Adolf Renvald, Pekka Supinen, Isak Julin, Jaakko Seise

28.1.


, , 15
1918
(
),
-
1918 [1] .


,

,
, , ,
, , .
, ., : Aunuksen vliaikainen
- hoitokunta.
.
[2] .
28.2.
, . ,
, ,
30 1919 .

( 16
600 000 )
91

[1] 1918 .
[2]

29


,
191720 .
,
,
18 1918 [1] . : , . . [2] .

. . (
);

29.1.

. . ;

7 1917 2- : ; .[1]
. . . .
,
,
[2] [1] :
, ;

. . (
);
. . ;
. . (, );

. .
.
11 ,
,

(
, ..
).[2]

29.2.

,
(
);

1918 .
.
,
. .
, :
,
. . ,
.-. . , ,

92

29.3.
1- . . . ,
, . ,
, ,
,
.
, . .
; .
2 , .
, , , , , .
,
( ),
, . ( - ),
; .
,
, 1- ,
, . , ,
.
.-. (), ,
. . ,
, . , -
, , . ,
. , , , 2 , .
, 20
1919 . . , :
-

93

.
.
, .

29.3.
,
,
.
17 1918 , , .
. - ,
1918
- . . ,
.
28
, 1- 2-
, 4- , (4 ) 1- . 10 . .

29.3.1.
1918

( ), 1-
, , , . 1918
1919 . .
,
, , ,
.
.
1919 ,

.
1919
,
. , , , -

94

29.

, , . 23 1919
.-. . . .

3- .

, (21 16 1919 ).


, 1919 ( ),
,
.
-

( 1500 1200),
18 (21) -
, , , . 10 1919 . [3] .
1919
4300 , 16 , 4
[4] .
C , , .
. . . 1920 , .

:
, , 21
1917 ;
, , 28 1918 ;
- ,
, 25 1918 ;
, , c 1918 ,
2- .
1-
. 8.10.1918 .
:
1. - ,

2.

.
.
(07.11.11.19)

1- .
8 1918 .

29.3.2.

: - , ( 19 1918 ), -
, ( 11 1918 ); :

[5][ ? 337 ] :

:
, ,
1918 19
1918 ;
, (17
1918 23 1919 );
, (23 21 1919 ):

,
.
7-, 8-, 13- 14-
.
2- .
8 1918 .

,
2-

:
1.
-

(16.02.7.03.1919)
2.

.
.
(7.03.24.05.19)

29.3.


(16.02.24.05.1919)
3- .
8 1918 (
2-
16.02.1919)

4- .
8 1918 (
2-
16.02.1919)
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13.01.1919 .
(13.01.5.03.1919).
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29.
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29.6.

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[1] . .
. : , 1937.

29- ( 2
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[2] . . // , 2005. 9. . 5684.

- :
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42-
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27 .[4] .
11- .

29.4.
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,

29.5. .


[3] . .
. 19171920 . , 1937.
[4] . . ,
25 1919 .
// : . 2005. 8. .
302304.
[5] (23.05.18.09.1919 )
// (www.whiterussia1.
narod.ru) ( 25 2015)

29.7.
. ., . .
. 18911945:
. ., 2007.

30


, , 1919 1920. 12 1919

.

:
,
,
-
11 - 24 ,
.
. . ,
. . . .
.
,


.[1]
21 1920 - .

30.1.
[1] . . .
. /.: - ,
1998. 320 . ISBN 5-222-00228-4, .254

30.2.

97

31


,
23 1922 ,
( ,
) , 26 1921
1922
, .

, . . . . . .[2]

,
.[2]


. . . - .

, , .

31.1.

, , - ( )
1922 , 1922 . .
, 23
1922 .[3]

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.

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16 25 1922 .[4]
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31.3.
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[5] .

31.4.
[1] . .
19171922 .: , . ( 22 2012) .
3. ().
[2] . ., 1957.
[3] . . ( )
. .
: - , 1974.
[4] . ., 1957, . 5., . - .
..
[5]

31.5.
. .
. .: , 1957.

31.6.
Harold van Vechten Fay: Witness to Japans april
1920 offensive in the russian far east; reports of
Capt. Fay are used in the chapter Atamans exile
and White Russias last spasms (October 1920 November 1922)" of the book Jamie Bisher. White
Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian
2005. ISBN 0-7146-5690-9. (.)
6) =
(
) (.)
= .
// cccpcamera.photo-web.cc. ( 20 2012).

31.7. .

32


(. PohjoisInkerin tasavalta; Kirjasalon tasavalta)
, . 1919
,
.
1920
,
.

32.1.


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101

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[23][24][25][26] .

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1728 [61][62] .
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[65] .

16 1920
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32.5.

1919
- , - . , .
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32.

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[13] .

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, 45 . . : . , [62] .

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. - , [62] .

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. [77] .

32.10.
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[79] .
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[22] .

107

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32.10.
32.9.

. 1920 .

1919
[80] .

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, [81][82] .
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- , .
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. [83] .
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. - , ,
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[13] . 1920 .
(. Frans Kamara)[87] .
(.
Gustav Niemeyer) . , , [88][87] .
1,5 , 1 300 000 . ,
, : .
. - [89] .

32.11.

32.
(. Kirjasalon Sanomat)[90] . 1920 34 [91] .

(18901927) ,
, [92] . ,
. . , ,
. . [93] .
, , , (. Narvan Sanomat),
1919 ,

(. Inkerilisten Joulu)[65] .

32.12.

9 , 1919 1919
14 , 1919 1919

16 , 1919 1920
1920 6 , 1920

32.13.
[1]
[2] . ., 2004, . 112.
[3] . ., 2001, . 153.
[4] . ., 2001, . 172.
[5] . ., 2001, . 155.
[6] . ., 2000, . 45.
[7] . ., 2004, . 110.
[8] . ., 2001, . 157.
[9] . ., 2001, . 156.

.
(. Inkerin
Sanomat) 1920
,
[84] . -

[10] . ., . . ( .)
.
[11] . ., 2001, . 160, 163.
[12] . ., 2000, . 46.
[13] . ., 2000, . 61.

32.13.

109

[14] . ., 2001, . 215, 267.

[47] . ., 2004, . 24.

[15] . ., 2001, . 278.

[48] . ., 2001, . 195.

[16] Kurs, Ott Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia


and Finland // GeoJournal 33.1. 1994. . 107
113.

[49] . ., 2001, . 173, 197.

[17] . ., 2001, . 160.


[18] . ., 2001, . 163.
[19] . ., 2004, . 30.
[20] . ., 2001, . 215.

[50] . ., 2000, . 54.


[51] Nevalainen P. Inkerinmaan ja inkerilisten vaiheet 1900luvulla. S.248.
[52] . ., 2004, . 25.
[53] . ., 2001, . 239.
[54] . ., 2001, . 242.

[21] . ., 2001, . 289.

[55] . ., 2001, . 261.

[22] . ., 2001, . 217.

[56] . ., 2000, . 55, 56.

[23] . ., 2001, . 195, 196.

[57] . ., 2001, . 246, 247.

[24] Polvinen . Venajan vallankumous ja Suomi. 1917


1920. II. Toukokuu 1918 joulukuu 1920. Porvoo;
Helsinki, 1971. S. 240.

[58] . ., 2001, . 257.

[25] . ., 2000, . 50, 60.

[60] . ., 2001, . 259, 260, 261, 262.

[26] . ., 2004, . 123.

[61] . ., 2004, . 148.

[27] . ., 2001, . 158.

[62] . ., 2001, . 270.

[28] . ., 2001, . 161.

[63] . ., 2004, . 149.

[29] . ., 2001, . 162.

[64] . ., 2001, . 272.

[30] Ahti . Salatiiton aariviivat. Oikeistoradikalismi ja


hyokkaava idanpolitiikka 19181919. Espoo, 1987. S.
201

[65] . ., 2001, . 273.

[31] . ., 2001, . 169.


[32] . ., 2001, . 208, 209, 210.
[33] . ., 2001, . 167, 168, 170.
[34] Nevalainen P. Rautaa Inkerin rajoilla. Inkerin kansallaset
kamppailut ja Suomi 19181920. Helsinki, 1996. S. 81.

[59] . ., 2000, . 57.

[66] . ., 2001, . 274.


[67] . ., 2001, . 275.
[68] . ., 2001, . 276.
[69] . ., 2004, . 153.
[70] . ., 2001, . 277.
[71] . ., 2001, . 279.

[35] . ., 2000, . 49.

[72] . ., 2004, . 32.

[36] . ., 2001, . 175.

[73] . . ?

[37] . ., 2001, . 176, 177.


[38] . ., 2001, . 181.
[39] . ., 2000, . 50.
[40] . ., 2001, . 179.
[41] . ., 2004, . 23.

[74] Toivo Flink Eero Ilmari Haapakoski ja Inkerin lippu //


, 2012 ., 3 (078), . 3
[75] . . // , 2012 ., 3 (078), . 5
[76] Inkerilisten Viesti, 1975, . 8-11
[77] . ., 2001, . 271.

[42] . ., 2000, . 51.


[43] . ., 2001, . 186.

[78] . (
). 1992. . . 28

[44] . ., 2001, . 189, 194.

[79] . ., 2001, . 216.

[45] . ., 2001, . 202, 213.

[80] . ., 2001, . 196.

[46] . ., 2001, . 218.

[81] . ., 2004, . 126, 166.

110

32.

[82] . (19171939). , , 2003, .


160161/170. ISBN 5-87516-020-9
[83] . ., 2001, . 199, 213.
[84] . ., 2001, . 213.
[85] . ., 2001, . 197.
[86] . ., 2001, . 265, 266.
[87] . ., 2001, . 265.
[88] -
. ., 1990. . 1. . 158159. ( . :
. 3 .)
[89] . ., 2001, . 266, 267.
[90] . ., 2001, . 214, 273.
[91]
[92] . . . , , 2012, .
148, . 78. ISBN 978-5-904790-17-2
[93] . ., 2001, . 214.

32.14.
... . . The Ingrian Question as
a Historical and Political Phenomenon (.).
2000. . 153.
... . . XIXXX . :
-, 2004. 450
. ISBN 5-98187-031-1.
. . : . : , 2004. 52 . ISBN
ISBN 5-98187-005-5.
... . . . - (1918
1920 .). : , 2001.
362 . ISBN 5-86007-269-4.

32.15.
. ., . . ( .).
.
. 4
2012.

.
. 4
2012.

. ..
4 2012.

33


( )
, 16 28
1920 .

6 1920 ,
. . . , . . 26 . , ,
. 9
33 35 . 10, 16 .

. . 4 1920 . . ( . . ) , . 16 1920
3
. .
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. . , , . . ; , 26 . . .
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111

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33. ( )
.

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1920
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16 26

.

. . , . . . .


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, .

15
. - . . .
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15
, .
19
. 22 ,
. 25
16 , - .
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, , , .
.
24 . . , , . . . , .
- .
2 . 8 . .
, - ,
,
. .
. 18
, ; 17 , 25,6 % .

33.1.
. .
. .: , 2005.
ISBN 5-9524-1400-1

34

(19181920)
, ,
23
1918 . (
)
,
1917 ,

[2][3][4][5] .


[2][3] .

[2] .

-

:

, , , 34.1. -
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[2] .
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113

114

34. (19181920)

34.2.

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.


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34.4.1.

34.3. 18

19 1918 . (
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. . . . .

- . . . . .
, .



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[10] .
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116

34. (19181920)


. .






3
5
3 .

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28 1918 - . .

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34. (19181920)

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) (24 ), .
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. 18 1918 34.8.2. 1919
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34. (19181920)

. ,
. , ,
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, .[7] .

34.9. .
(19181920)

34.11.
. . . 1919 . (
). 1-. :
, 2009. 636 . 250 . ISBN 9785-85824-184-3.

34.12.
1918 . 1920 .

, 19171922
.

34.10.
[1] , 2009, . 2,
. 18
1918 ., . . 29 41.
[2] ,

[3] . . :
1918 ., 2007 .,
ISSN 2308-4073
[4] . . , , .
19181920 ., ., .
-, 2013, ISBN 978-5-8112-4563-5, . 148.
( VIII: )
[5] , 19171991: , , 2007 ., . , ISBN
9789949415984, . 182
[6]
, 18
1918 .
[7] . . : .
[8] . . . .: , 2005. 415 . ISBN
5-9524-1400-1, .101
[9] , 2009, . 38.
[10] , 2009, . 39.
[11] . . ,
/ . 4- . .:
, 2012. 637[3] .: . ( : . .; . 1356). ISBN 978-5-23503375-7, .463
[12] , 2009, . 364455.
[13] 16 1919 ,
.

35

-
- - . .
, . 11 1919 1920 .
,
- 112 .
, 13 , , 35.1.
138 .
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- - -. - , 1919 ., , -
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19191920 .

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36


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. 85-154.)
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. 12 2004.
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[6] //
: [ 30 .] / . . . . .
3- . . : , 19691978.
[7] . heninen.net. 19 2012.
[8] . heninen.net. 19 2012.

36.7.
. . // . , , 2008.
(.). .
19 2012.

37


(04 (17) 1918[1]
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37.4. .

37.5.
[1] ..
[2] . ., 1921. . 1. . I. . V. . 121. ,
. ..
[3] . ., 2010.
[4] . ., 2009.
[5] 4 (17).07.1918.
[6] . ., 1994.
[7] . ., 2007.
[8] . ., 2010, 172-173.
[9] . ., 2003.
[10] . ., 1997.

37.

37.6.
. .. , . : ., 1921.
1, 2.; .: -, 2008. ISBN
978-5-8112-3010-5.
4 1918 . //
, 18 1918. 2 .
9. . ., . (19171918).
..: , 1926.
. 70.; - (scepsis.ru) ( 20
2013) . . .
: .
. .
( 1917 1918 .)
// . 2009. 323. . 174179.
ISSN 1561-7793.
. .
( 19171923 .) : . - . : 07.00.02. , 2010. 4.1. .
. .
( 19171920 .) :
. - . : 07.00.02. ,
2003. 411 . , 71:04-7/61.
. .
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. : 12.00.01. .:
, 2007.
. . (1918 1919 .) . . .
.. , 1997.
. . (18521919) //

18951917 .. , 1994. . 1.
. 616.; . . .
(oblastnichestvo.lib.tomsk.ru) ( 17 2013)
. //
(gornovosti.ru), 12.07.2013. 2801..

38


(. ) ,
1918

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38.5.

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140

40.

[6]

40.14.
State symbols of Central Lithuania (.). www.
crwflags.com. 25
2011.

Litwa rodkowa i Sejm Wileski (.). www.


bezuprzedzen.pl.
25 2011.

Bunt generaa eligowskiego (.). www.


polska.pl. 25 2011.

(.). 1 2013.

41


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21.03.2006.[ ]
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41.12. .

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.: , 2009. . 246.
. . ., 2007.
. [ ] //
30. . 4652.
. .
, 1918. // , 2002. 18.
Les Annales de l'Ukraine / ed. par le Ministre
des affaires etrangres. Kiev: [s. n.], 1918.
16 .; 24 . (Srie politique); .
952 {old.rsl.ru} ( 5
2015)

42


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( , () ) 14 1990
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.

[1]
, 1917

, (14 1991 , ) . .
( ), , , -, ,
. - -.

[5] Volodymyr Kubijovy (ed.): Ukraine A Concise


Encyclopaedia I, p.744.

. , 2009 , 16
-

[2] (
1917 - 1918 .).
[3] Russian Centre of
Vexillologia and Heraldry last edited 11.1.2010
[4] . i- i
: , 2009.

[6] Encyclopedia of Ukraine


[7] 12.05.08
[8]
[9]
-
(.) // . 2009. 3.

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[10] ,
. (.) // history.org.ua. 2009.
. 217.
[11] , , (.) // i
. 2006. 1. .
95.
[12]
// (kharkiv.unian.net),
16.02.2009.

42.8.
. - . .: , 2009. . 144-157. 384 . 4000 .
ISBN 978-5-9955-0033-9.
, . ., , . . .

42.9.
1918 ?
,

43

(19191920)
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43.9.

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[13] , . 439, . 1, . 110, . 77.

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[16] . .
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[17] . ., 2009, . 132.

160

[18] . ., 2008, . 88.


[19] . .
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3. . 5052.
[20] . .

43.12.
, .
. --:
, 2008. . 320-322. 416 . ISBN
978-5-9567-0443-1.
. ., . . . .: , 2007. 640
. ISBN 978-5-17-45470-9.
. ., . .,
. .
, 1917-- 1920 :
. , 2003. 113 .
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.: ,
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. . 1919 . . 07.00.02. . / . .
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. . :
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07.00.02. , 2007. 204 .
. ., . . .
1919 1920. : -XX,
1997. ISBN 5-88735-045-8.
. . . 1919 . (
). 1-. .: , 2009. 636 . 250 . ISBN 978-585824-184-3.

43.13.

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45.3.
[1] Chapter Six: The Final War in the East. Kars,
page 211. // Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of
Ottoman Muslims, 18211922. Author: Justin McCarthy.
Princeton: Darwin Press, 1995, XV+368 pages.ISBN
9780878500949
(.)
The Muslims of Kars had unquestionably been a majority
before the war. Upon the Ottoman defeat, they formed a
Muslim National Council (the Shura) in Kars Province.
The British, who began a de facto occupation of Kars
on 19 April 1919, gave civil and military power in the
province to the Armenians, because it was expected that
Kars would become part of the new Armenian Republic;
the Muslim majority was not consulted on this issue. Muslims were disarmed and their weapons given to Armenians, so that in eect the only armed forces in the province
were Armenian bands and some Kurdish tribes.

[2] H. Pehlivanli, The Post Armistice situation on SouthWest Caucasia in Kars and Eastern Anatolia in the
Recent History of Turkey, Ankara, 1994.
[3] W.E.D. Allen, P. Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields,
Cambridge, 1953.

45.4.
hrono.info (.)
kavkaz-uzel.ru (.)

45.5. ,

165

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45. -

D0%BE%D1%81%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B0_(1918%E2%80%941920)?oldid=
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WolfDW, Dmitrij1996, LaaknorBot, Mondalor, Dnikitin, Luckas-bot, Wisgest, Proger, ArthurBot, Xqbot, GAndy, LucienBOT, Schrike,
MondalorBot, , Polskivinnik, Vladlen666, TjBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Maks Stirlitz, Artemis Dread, WikitanvirBot, Zeev
Kadosh, MBHbot, Armenia The World, 5-, Illustrator, MIKHEIL, Vcohen, , ,
Rorsah, Addbot, Hayk.arabaget, Mortemus, Evgeniy E., Georgiano, - : 18
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%
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Abune, Vizu, Chath, Nickpo, , Parishan, Muradwu, Tretyak, EmausBot, Acebot, WikitanvirBot, Dausfield, Gipoza, Addbot,
Hayk.arabaget, Yusif 7788 : 3
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%
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Hamelia, 55, AVB, Nemets, , Vladlen666, EmausBot, Helgikroha, WebCite Archiver, Shogiru, TemirovBot : 1
- : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%BF%D0%B0%D0%B4%
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HOBOPOCC, Vladlen666, Scriber, Movses-bot, Baden-Paul, Nick Fishman, MBHbot, Addbot : 3
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%91%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_
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Yufereff, , Skokian, , Alex Smotrov, VolkovBot, Wanderer777, Glossologist, , TXiKiBoT, 1, X-Pilot, Daphne mesereum, Riwnodennyk, David.s.kats, Ivanchay, Alex717, Pamerast, , Sunpriat, Alexbot,

45.5. ,

167

, LatitudeBot, Jackie, Alecs.bot, , WolfDW, Dmitrij1996, (), Mamai2003,


, Alxalx, , Majuro, Vognejar, Sigwald, WindBot, Nikita Kozyrev, LimeBot, ,
VAP+VYK, RedBot, TobeBot, Sergeisemenoff, Vladlen666, UeArtemis, Pvladko, Catgirl, , VolodimerBot,
Wurzel91, AbiyoyoBot, LarBot, Dennis Fry, Pintg, Scriber, Mcowkin, Deniska47, KrBot, Nysandra, Kamolan, Ig2000, Kodskoy, Llecco,
RotlinkBot, Cathry, Quaerite, YOMAL SIDOROFF-BIARMSKII, Misha motsniy, Addbot, Wikilangcor, TemirovBot, Alex NB IT
: 41
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B0%
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: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%BC%D1%81%
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, , , Yakiv Gluck, Apr1, , Dmitrij1996, MystBot, Rubinbot, D.bratchuk, HOBOPOCC,
Fauust, Charmbook, HRoestBot, Artemis Dread, Tchernow, 22, KrBot, Paulaner-2011, 91i79, Hunu, Senior Strateg, ,
BFPlayer 0, Stanislav-1969, Addbot, Victor Krym, Alex NB IT : 5
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, CommonsDelinker, , Wanderer777, Victoria, Glossologist, , ButkoBot,
Johnny Rotten, TXiKiBoT, Vizu, , SieBot, Silent1936, Nickpo, Andrijko Z., Eugene M, Zabaznov, Kwasura,
Tbma, Deevrod, TEZer, Lexovolense, , MPowerDrive, LatitudeBot, VlsergeyBot, Fastboy, Dmitrij1996, EL-259,
Luckas-bot, Trim, Dmitrij96, Zemant, TaBOT-zerem, Clockwork, , , Gamer05, SassoBot, ,
Tutaishy, Homme, Seryo93, HOBOPOCC, Oled, LimeBot, TobeBot, , , Arbnos, LEGO Rus, ZroBot,
, Artemis Dread, Basilius von Poljakow, , Wikifido, WikitanvirBot, Scriber, 18mk, 22, ,
Kotokot82, Stanislavovich, Sealle, 2007 , Inctructor, Geohem, DartRaiden, Istkart, Absconditus bot, Addbot, Kwestex,
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: 43
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Wanwa, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, SPKirsch, Slb nsk, KamikazeBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Cherurbino, Kirillkirill321, LarBot, Senior
Strateg, , Shogiru, Addbot, Alex NB IT : 3
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Alma Pater, , JAnDbot, , WolfDW, Dmitrij1996, Luckas-bot, Wanwa, Alex Alex Lep, Renessaince, Obersachsebot,
EmausBot, VIbot, TEP 60, , Maks Stirlitz, Artemis Dread, MaxBioHazard, Paulaner-2011, ErmakBrun, User 699, HiWBot, Shogiru, Glovacki, , , Skelanard : 6
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B4%
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Dmitri Lytov, Illythr, Levg, VPliousnine, Skokian, Oleg Grom, , Chekist, Otto Magnus, Simulacrum, TXiKiBoT,
Pianist, Yakiv Gluck, AlleborgoBot, Zirnis, Nickpo, Nesteriuc., , Alexbot, Serg2, Tat1642, VlsergeyBot, ,
MystBot, Luckas-bot, Artm, Lunarian~ruwiki, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, Alex:D, Estlandia~ruwiki, Vasyatka1, , Xqbot,
, DumZiBoT, Sigwald, WindBot, Seryo93, MondalorBot, , Alexey-nv, Euandrew, Arbnos, Kalendar,
Acebot, Courcelles, Artemis Dread, , Haffman, 22, KrBot, Rubinbot III, MBHbot, Vladimir2623, Vladimir0719, Gvozdik,
, Enshtyndynskayaeshmantorka, YOMAL SIDOROFF-BIARMSKII, Addbot, Oium, TemirovBot, Kjblwk : 25
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%86%
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D1%82%D0%B2%D0%BE?oldid=74473588 : DimaU, , Saluton, Dmitrij1996, , Murza-Zade, Scriber, KrBot,
Semenov.m7, , Finland, : 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B1%D1%
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El-chupanebrej, H2Bot, Byzantine, 18mk, Kravtz, MBHbot, !, Ryanag, Dghor, TemirovBot : 5
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%
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:
DonaldDuck, , MPowerDrive, Vladlen666, Scriber, MerlIwBot, Senior Strateg, Addbot, BASant, 29.10.98,
Balabinrm : 3
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%
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BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B9?oldid=69599507 : DonaldDuck, Amdf, , , Abune,
CommonsDelinker, TXiKiBoT, Worobiew, Max071086, Michael Kasprick, LatitudeBot, WolfDW, Dmitrij1996, 55, Mamai2003,
Bulatov dv, Luckas-bot, , Flagman 22, , DSisyphBot, , Shkottt, Migueletto, Vladlen666,
Scriber, Movses-bot, Max Shestera, Addbot, Kasprick : 8
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BF%D1%83%
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%D0%98%D0%BD%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=82040711 : DonaldDuck, Abune, JAnDbot, INS Pirat,

168

45. -

GENVELES, Nickpo, Bortorix, Stoljaroff, Tbma, Macs, LatitudeBot, Dmitrij1996, Wanwa, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot,
, Germash19, Alexandronikos, Kovako-1, Valeriy10f, Artemis Dread, Basilius von Poljakow, H2Bot, 22, KrBot,
Paulaner-2011, WebCite Archiver, , INSARbot, Csskyfire, Shogiru, Niruku, Diademodon, Addbot, Kaiser Guglielmo,
TextworkerBot : 16
( ) : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%
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: Obersachsebot, Seryo93, HOBOPOCC, Slb nsk, Batu, , , StanTRC : 2
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Man, Elmor, Lehtman, Nickpo, , MPowerDrive, , Dmitrij1996, Rubinbot, Zemant, Maximalist, GAndy, U-bot,
Kolchak1923, Seryo93, HOBOPOCC, Dimetr, Pereslavtsev, , KrBot, , MBHbot, 84, Bartini,
, 91i79, Inctructor, , , AlexTref871, MarchHare1977, Hlundi, :
20
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, VlsergeyBot, WolfDW, Dmitrij1996, LaaknorBot, MystBot, Nokka, Rubinbot, Master Shadow, Nrku, ,
EmausBot, AndyWerner, Hjalmar, H2Bot, , Movses-bot, Maqivi, MBHbot, Abuubayda, McZusatz, , Oleg-ch,
, Senior Strateg, Istkart, , -, Addbot, TemirovBot, : 14
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%
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Gruzd, Sasha Krotov, Whiskey~ruwiki, Red October, , , CommonsDelinker, YaroslavZolotaryov, One half 3544,
TXiKiBoT, Silent1936, Nickpo, Monegasque~ruwiki, Mariluna, Eugene M, Stoljaroff, Tbma, , Serg2, Macs, LatitudeBot,
Permjak, Dmitrij1996, , EugeneKA, Wanwa, Piryur, Seryo93, JLincoln, , Suomen Joutsen, MotnahpBot, Kovako-1,
ArBelov, , Murza-Zade, Artemis Dread, LarBot, Stif Komar, Scriber, Paulaner-2011, WebCite Archiver, Sealle,
McLennonSon, , Semenov.m7, , Addbot, , Force majeure : 20
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%81%D0%
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Mc laudt, Mamai2003, ZZZico, MGPortal13, , Almabot, Kaiyr, Vladlen666, Kalendar, 67, Scriber, ,
KLBot2, MBHbot, Sealle, Barbariandeagle, , Cathry, Vyacheslav84, , DimaBot, Chorvador, RpycckeN, Fesyzz,
, Q-bit array, , TextworkerBot, Force majeure, AXEL WOLF OF CHRIST : 21
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, , UncleMartin, Velfr, HOBOPOCC, Vladlen666, Movses-bot, : 1
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Kmorozov, Zac Allan, Abune, HalanTul, Lvova, , NBS, Wer~ruwiki, Nicolay Sidorov, , Skrod, SassoBot, Master Shadow,
, Vladlen666, Pereslavtsev, -, AbiyoyoBot, Scriber, Movses-bot, ,
, Oleg-ch, , FameownerBot, 18, Sheek : 13
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%
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IgorMagic, CodeMonkBot, OckhamTheFox, Andrs, Alghenius, Bektur, , Bocianski, Wiking, Escarbot, Thijs!bot,
JAnDbot, , EvgenyGenkin, Otto Magnus, CommonsDelinker, VolkovBot, Glossologist, TXiKiBoT,
, SieBot, Nickpo, Eugene M, Tbma, PixelBot, , Alexbot, Azgar, Deinocheirus, WolfDW, Dmitrij1996,
Gintaras8182, Luckas-bot, Wanwa, Artm, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, H-JAM, Berillium, Amherst99, Maarcinn,
Daemon2010, EmausBot, Petras Grigas, , Mekadva, Artemis Dread, WikitanvirBot, WebCite Archiver, Hunu, Gipoza,
Shal.george, Akaznachey, Qbek16, RasabJacek, Shogiru, YOMAL SIDOROFF-BIARMSKII, Addbot, Glovacki, NicitOs,
: 41
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:
Wulfson, Butko, Skirienko, Yakudza, Alghenius, Sasha Krotov, Dmitri Lytov, , BotCat, , MaXOR,
Thijs!bot, , , Bogomolov.PL, Celest, Rave, VasilievVV, VolkovBot, DodekBot~ruwiki, Iurius,
Mitas57, Glossologist, Aleksandrit, Vizu, , , CheloVechek, Loveless, Pianist, Jo0doe, 1e0nid,
Nickpo, Andrijko Z., Monegasque~ruwiki, Eugene M, Indianer, Kwasura, Tbma, , , Deevrod, Ilya
Mauter, Klangtao, LatitudeBot, Tat1642, , Heffalump1974, Generous, Dmitry Logvinenko, Dmitrij1996, El1604, Tirray, AVB,
MystBot, Artm, Ptbotgourou, N sam, Renessaince, Obersachsebot, Stas-Adolf, KaiserAdler, Bechamel, Maximalist,
, San-ch93, A.Skromnitsky, Kolchak1923, V-Mark, WindBot, Kirsim, Glavkom NN, Seryo93, , HOBOPOCC,
VAP+VYK, Thecakeisalie.bot, EmausBot, Odessa novoross, ZroBot, Hydropotes inermis, Artemis Dread, Hjalmar, Wikifido,

45.5. ,

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WikitanvirBot, Scriber, Mcowkin, 22, Movses-bot, KrBot, , , MBHbot, , , Btxo,


Smirnoff 80, , BAW, , BFPlayer 0, Rotlink, Stanislav-1969, Alexej67, Addbot, ,
, Kadavr2000, DimaBot, Glovacki, Andreyadamenko1982, TemirovBot, Q-bit array, , EricLewan, Balabinrm
: 59
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Dionys, Wulfson, Dark Magus, YurikBot, Butko, Okman, , Chobot, Yakudza, Alghenius, Sasha Krotov, Dmitri Lytov,
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45.5.3.
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