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WhatisthesimplestexplanationoftheOSImodelinvolvingrealexamples?Quora

TCP/IPReferenceModel

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WhatisthesimplestexplanationoftheOSImodel
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Canyoudesignanetworkmodelwiththreelayers
usingtheOSImodelasareference?
Whatarethethekeypurpose(s)oftheOSImodelfor
eachofitslayers?
Whatisagooddocumentwhichdescribesallseven
layersoftheISO/OSImodelwithexamplesof
contentateachlayer?
Whataretherealtimeexamplesofosilayers?
IamunabletounderstandtheOSImodel.Whatare
somefactsaboutit?InwhichlayerdoesUDPTCP
fall?
IEEESpectrum:Howdoesthephysicallayerworkin
theOSImodel?
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VIshuKamble,Let'sconnecteachother!

26Followers

UpdatedJan14

IhadthesameproblemunderstandingOSImodelinComputerNetworkssubject.Well
firstthingsfirst.Youneedtorememberallthelayersandonlythenyoucanmoveforward
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withunderstandingthem.Createamnemonictorememberthelayers.Mybottomtop
mnemonicis

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LastAskedDec7

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Vishnu

Edits

PleaseDoNotThrowSushiandPizzaAway.(PDNTSPA).
Thishasjuststucktomymind,feelfreetocreateyours.
Understandingitthroughreallifeexampleiskindadifficultbutsupposeyou'recarrying
largeamountofgoodsfromoneplacetoother.Sayyou'retravellinginseausinganumber
ofships.
1.PhysicalLayer:Physicallayerdealswiththeactualconnectivitybetweenthesource
anddestination.Ifyou'retransferringdatatoanothermachinethroughLAN,physical
layeristheEthernetconnection.Thewaterintheseaconnectingyourplaceand
destinationisthephysicallayerinourcase.
2.DataLinklayer:Inthislayerdataisbrokendownintopieces.Thatisyourgoodswill
beseparatedinvariouscategories,sayexpensivegoods,fragileandnonfragile.Thislayer
dealswithbreakingthedatabeingsentandtransmittingitthroughthephysicallayer.So
goodsbeingcategorizedandsentthroughthesea.
3.Networklayer:Herethedatabeingsentisorganized.Italsodecideswhichprotocols
touse,tcporudp.Soinourcasethedifferentcompartmentsofshipwhereyou'llkeep
thesegoodsisthenetworklayer.Itwillalsodecidewhichgeneratorsandenginestobe
usedwhiletravelling(protocols).
4.TransportLayer:Transportlayergivesyouthebestroute,securityandsafestpathto

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WhatisthesimplestexplanationoftheOSImodelinvolvingrealexamples?Quora

thedestination.Thetransportationofdatatakesplacehere.Sothinkofthecoastguardas
transportlayer.He'lllookaftertheconnection,informyouifthere'sanydangerandtell
youthebestroutetoyourdestination.
5.Sessionlayer:ThebestwaytorememberasessionisthinkingofitasaHangoutor
Yahoomessengerchat.Whentwopeoplestartcommunicatingasessioniscreated,assoon
asoneendsthechatordisconnectssessionisbroken.Sessionlayercreatesanewsession
forapackofdata.Sothetimewhenourshipsleavesourdocksandtillthetimeitreaches
thedestinationisonewholesession,assumingtherearenoproblemsduringthatinterval.
Ifyourshipsgetshijackedbypirates,sessionisterminated.Ifthedestinationblowsup,
sessionisterminated.
Sessionplaysanimportantroleinonlinetransactions.Intheverylaststep,whereyou
needtoenterOTPoryoursecurepasswordtoauthorizethetransaction,ifyousitidlefor
morethan23minuteswithoutanyactivity,thesessionwillterminateitselfandthe
transactionwillbeunsuccessful.
6.PresentationLayer:Therearetimesyousendvariousfileformatsthroughthe
networklikeimagesorvideos.Presentationlayerdealswithallthisdifferentfiles.It
convertsthisdataintoareadableformatforthedestination.Thinkofacaptainwho'sin
chargeofpeoplefromvariousraces,countriesandlanguages.Hehastomakesure
everyonewillreachtodestinationandcanperformtheirworkoverthere.
7.Applicationlayer:Manypeoplethinkofbrowsersassoonastheyhearapplication
layer.Butapplicationlayersisn'tthebrowsersorapplicationyou'reusing.Inourcaseif
browsersaretakenthenshipswillbeoutapplicationlayer.
Butapplicationlayerisnotthebrowserbutthecommonprotocolsusedbythebrowsers.
Soapplicationlayerarenottheshipsbutthecommonfuelstheseshipsareusing.
PleaseifIamwronganywheredosuggesttheedits.TCPandUDPisattransportlayer.
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MuddassirKhan,TACengineeratCisco
WrittenSep24,2014

ThisisoneoftheeyecatchingexplanationsIhavecomeacrosswhenIstudyingformy
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Vishnu

OSIReferenceModelExample
AwebbrowserservesasagoodpracticalillustrationoftheOSImodeland
theTCP/IPprotocolsuite:
hewebbrowserservesastheuserinterfaceforaccessingawebsite.The
browseritselfdoesnotfunctionattheApplicationlayer.Instead,the
webbrowserinvokestheHyperTextTransferProtocol(HTTP)to
interfacewiththeremotewebserver,whichiswhyhttp://precedesevery
webaddress.
TheInternetcanprovidedatainawidevarietyofformats,afunctionof
thePresentationlayer.CommonformatsontheInternetincludeHTML,
XML,PHP,GIF,andJPEG.Anyencryptionorcompressionmechanisms
usedonawebsitearealsoconsideredaPresentationlayerfunction.
TheSessionlayerisresponsibleforestablishing,maintaining,and
terminatingthesessionbetweendevices,anddeterminingwhetherthe
communicationishalfduplexorfullduplex.However,theTCP/IPstack
generallydoesnotincludesessionlayerprotocols,andisrelianton
lowerlayerprotocolstoperformthesefunctions.
HTTPutilizestheTCPTransportlayerprotocoltoensurethereliable
deliveryofdata.TCPestablishesandmaintainsaconnectionfromthe
clienttothewebserver,andpackagesthehigherlayerdatainto
segments.Asequencenumberisassignedtoeachsegmentsothatdata
canbereassembleduponarrival.
Thebestpathtoroutethedatabetweentheclientandthewebserveris
determinedbyIP,aNetworklayerprotocol.IPisalsoresponsiblefor
theassignedlogicaladdressesontheclientandserver,andfor
encapsulatingsegmentsintopackets.

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Datacannotbesentdirectlytoalogicaladdress.Aspacketstravelfrom
networktonetwork,IPaddressesaretranslatedtohardwareaddresses,
whichareafunctionoftheDataLinklayer.Thepacketsare
encapsulatedintoframestobeplacedontothephysicalmedium.
ThedataisfinallytransferredontothenetworkmediumatthePhysical
layer,intheformofrawbits.Signalingandencodingmechanismsare
definedatthislayer,asisthehardwarethatformsthephysical
connectionbetweentheclientandthewebserver
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Downvote Comment 1

SagarSukhdane
WrittenAug23

OSIReferenceModel:
OSIlongfromisopenloopsysteminterconnection.
ItisdevelopedbyInternationalStandardOrganization(ISO)in1970.
OSIreferencemodelhas7layers.
Physical(layer1),Datalink(layer2),Network(layer3),Transport(layer4),
Session(layer5),Presentation(layer6),Application(layer7).
BelowmentionthefunctionsthatoccurateachlayeroftheOSImodel.
Applicationlayer:
TheapplicationlayeroftheOSImodelmarksthespotwhereuseractually
communicateorinteractwiththecomputer.
Userapplicationisinanyformlikefile,print,images,messages,database,and
applicationservices.
Dataanapplicationlayerisinoriginalfrom.
Presentationlayer:
ThePresentationlayergetsitsnamefromitspurposeitpresentdatatotheapplication
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layerandisresponsiblefordatatranslationandcodeformatting.Asuccessfuldata
transfertechniqueistoadaptthedataintoastandardformatbeforetransmission.
Computerareconfiguredtoreceivethisgenericallyformatteddataandthenconvertedit
backintoitsnativeformatforreadingforexam,fromEBCDICtoASCII.Byproviding
translationservices,thepresentationlayerensuresthatthedatatransferredfromone
system.Applicationlayercanbereadandunderstoodbyapplicationlayeronanothers.
TheOSIhasprotocolstandardsthatdefinehowthedatashouldbeformattedtasklike
datacompression,decompression,encryption,anddecryptionareallassociatedwiththis
layer.Presentationlayerstandardsareeveninvolvedinmultimediaoperation.
Presentationlayerperformdataencryptionatsendersideanddecryptiondoneat
receivingside.
Itisanuserinterfacelayerusercandocompressionofdataatsendersideand
decompressionwashappenedatreceiverside.
Usercanmangedatainappropriatefrom.
Dataanpresentationlayerisinbitfrom.
Sessionlayer:
TheSessionlayerisresponsibleforsettingup,managing,andthentearingdownsessions
betweenbetweenpresentationlayerentities.Thislayeralsoprovidesdialogcontrolbetween
devices,ornodes.Itcoordinatescommunicationbetweensystemsandserverstoorganize
theircommunicationbyofferingthreedifferentmods:simplex,halfduplex,fullduplex.To
sumup,thesessionlayerbasicallykeepsapplicationsdataseparatefromotherapplication
data,
Sessionlayerperformflowcontrolofdata.
Sessionlayerprovidesessionmanagement.

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WhatisthesimplestexplanationoftheOSImodelinvolvingrealexamples?Quora

Sessionlayeralsomangeheadersize.
Sessionlayeralsomaintenteddataandtimeusersendingandreceivingdata.
Transportlayer:
TheTransportlayersegmentsandreassemblesdataintostream.Serviceslocatedinthe
transportlayerhandlefromupperlayerapplicationanduniteitontothesamedata
stream.Theyprovideendtoenddatatransportservicesandcanestablishalogical
connectionbetweenthesendinghostanddestinationhostonaninternetwork,
TheTransportlayerthesendinghostforprovidingthemechanismsformultiplexingupper
layerapplication,establishingvirtualconnections,andtearingdownvirtualcircuits.Italso
hidesthemanyandsundrydetailsofanynetworkdependentinformationfromthehigher
layerfacilitatingdatatransfer.
Transportlayerconvertthebitintosegment.
Itassignthesequencingtotheeverysegment.
Italsodoneportaddressing.
Itperformconnectionmanagement.
UDPandTCPisusedforconnectionmanagement.
Networklayer:
Itroutesthesignalthroughdifferentchannelsfromonenodetoother.
Itactsasanetworkcontroller.ItmanagestheSubnettraffic.
Itdecidesbywhichroutedatashouldtake.
Itdividestheoutgoingmessagesintopacketsandassemblestheincomingpackets
intomessagesforhigherlevels.
Datalinklayer:
Datalinklayersynchronizestheinformationwhichistobetransmittedoverthe
physicallayer.
Themainfunctionofthislayeristomakesuredatatransferiserrorfreefromone
nodetoanother,overthephysicallayer.
Transmittingandreceivingdataframessequentiallyismanagedbythislayer.
Thislayersendsandexpectsacknowledgementsforframesreceivedandsent
respectively.Resendingofnonacknowledgementreceivedframesisalsohandled
bythislayer.
Thislayerestablishesalogicallayerbetweentwonodesandalsomanagesthe
Frametrafficcontroloverthenetwork.Itsignalsthetransmittingnodetostop,
whentheframebuffersarefull.
Physicallayer:
BigpictureofcommunicationovernetworkisunderstandablethroughthisOSI
model.
Weseehowhardwareandsoftwareworktogether.
Wecanunderstandnewtechnologiesastheyaredeveloped.
Troubleshootingiseasierbyseparatenetworks.
Canbeusedtocomparebasicfunctionalrelationshipsondifferentnetworks.
Readmoreon:FreeComputerNetworkingPreparation
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SantanuChatterjee
WrittenSep25,2014

ThanksforA2A.
OSImodelisareferencemodel,soithasneverbeenimplemented,.Hencethereisno

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WhatisthesimplestexplanationoftheOSImodelinvolvingrealexamples?Quora

questionofgettingareallifeexample.Itisoneofthebiggestandcostliestmistakesinthe
historyofcomputing.Ifstillyouareinterested,justwriteinthecomment.
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