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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

Unit I

Basics and Statics of Particles


by

S.Thanga Kasi Rajan


Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kamaraj College of Engineering & Technology,
Virudhunagar 626001.
Tamil Nadu, India

Email : stkrajan@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
To deal with the above situations, we need to know
about engineering mechanics
Mechanics is the foundation of most engineering
sciences and is an indispensable prerequisite to their
study.
Mechanics is the science which describes and
predicts the conditions of rest or motion of bodies
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under the actionS.ThangaKasiRajan,
of forces.

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Branches of Engineering
Mechanics

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Engineering Mechanics
Mechanics:

The actions and effects of forces on bodies.


Statics: Bodies at rest, or in equilibrium

Mechanics

Dynamics: Bodies in motion, or out of equilibrium


Will be static, OR move with
constant velocity

IN EQUILIBRIUM
Velocity=0
Velocity=
constant

OUT OF EQUILIBRIUM

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Velocity
changing
with time

Will accelerate (velocity changing)

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Dynamics:

Kinematics:
Study of motion without reference to
forces producing motion: Relations between position,
velocity, acceleration and time.
Kinetics: Relations between unbalanced forces and
the changes in motion they produce.

E.g. Rollercoaster ride:


Kinematics: how fast, how far,
and how long it takes...
Kinetics: What forces were
involved to produce this motion?
- Weight
- Friction
- Aerodynamic drag
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What are the resulting


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accelerations?

Six Fundamental Concept of Mechanics


Space - associated with the motion or the position of a point P given
in terms of three coordinates measured from a reference point or
origin.
Time - definition of an event requires specification of the time and
position at which it occurred.
Mass - used to characterize and compare bodies, e.g., response to
earths gravitational attraction and resistance to change in
translational
motion.
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Six Fundamental Concept of Mechanics


Force
A force is a push or pull. An object at
rest needs a force to get it moving; a
moving object needs a force to change
its velocity.

The magnitude of a force can be


measured using a spring scale.
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Six Fundamental Concept of Mechanics


Particle
A particle has a mass but size is
neglected.
When a body is idealised as a particle,
the principles of mechanics reduces to a
simplified form, since the geometry of the
body will not be concerned in the analysis
of the problem.
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Six Fundamental Concept of Mechanics


Rigid Body
A combination of large number of
Particles in which all the particles remain
at a fixed distance from one another
before and after application of load.
Here mass & size of the bodies are
considered when analysing the forces.

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Basic Laws of Mechanics


1.Newtons Law
2.Newtons Law of Gravitation
3.Triangle Law
4.Parallellogram Law
5.Lamis Theorem
6.Principle of Transmissibility
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Basic Laws of
Newtons First Law: If theMechanics
resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle will remain at rest
or continue to move in a straight line.
Newtons Second Law: A particle will have an acceleration proportional to a nonzero
resultant applied force.

F ma
Newtons Third Law: The forces of action and reaction between two particles have the same
magnitude and line of action with opposite sense.

Newtons Law of Gravitation: Two particles are attracted with equal and opposite forces,
F G
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Mm
r2

W m g,

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GM
R2

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Parallelogram Law
If two vectors acting at a point be represented in
magnitude and direction by the adjacent sides of a
parallelogram, then their resultant is represented in
magnitude

and

direction

by

the

diagonal

of

the

parallelogram passing through that point.

Parallelogram Law
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Triangle Law
If two vectors acting at a point are represented by the
two sides of a triangle taken in order, then their resultant
is represented by the third side taken in opposite order

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sine and cosine rules


When adding forces it is often
useful to consider solving the
problem using geometric rules,
rather than considering components

The sine rule states


that

A
B
X

sin sin sin

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The cosine rule states that

A2 B 2 X 2 2 BX cos

B 2 A 2 X 2 2 AX cos
X 2 A 2 B 2 2 AB cos

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Principle of Transmissibility
According to this law the state of rest or motion of
the rigid body is unaltered if a force acting on the
body is replaced by another force of the same magnitude
and direction but acting anywhere on the body along the
line
of action
of the -replaced force.
Principle
of Transmissibility
Conditions of equilibrium or motion are
not affected by transmitting a force along
its line of action.
NOTE: F and F are equivalent forces.
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Coordinate System
Coordinate system: used to describe the
position of a point in space and consists of
1. An origin as the
reference point
2. A set of coordinate
axes with scales and
labels
3. Choice of positive
direction for each
axis
4. Choice of unit
vectors at each
point in space

Cartesian Coordinate System

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Vector Representation of Forces


A vector is a quantity
that has both direction
and magnitude.

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Application of Vectors
(1) Vectors can exist at any point P in space.
(2) Vectors have direction and magnitude.

(3) Vector Equality: Any two vectors that have


the same direction and magnitude, are equal
no matter where in space they are located.

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Resolution and Composition of


Forces
20 N

Splitting of forces into their components

30

Resolution of force is a reverse process in which a single


force is expressed in terms of its components. These
components are sometimes referred to as the resolved
partsy of the force.
Y
O

OX = F cos

OY = F sin

Examples
15 N

y
42

X = -15 Cos 42 -11.1 N


=
Y = 15 Sin 42 10.0 N
=

y
62

35 N

X = 35 Cos 62 16.4 N
=
Y = -35 Sin 62 = - 30.9 N

y
x
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10 N

32

X = -10 Sin 32 - 5.30 N


=
Y = -10 Cos 32 = -8.48 N

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Resolution and Composition of


Forces
F
sin

F
cos
F
cos
F

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F
sin

F
cos

F
sin

F
sin

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F
cos

1. It is convenient to
have
Fx = F cos
Fy = F sin
and Always measure
angle from horizontal
reference(acute
angle).
2. Assume force
pointing Right and Top
as positive otherwise
negative

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Procedure to find Resultant


Force

Procedure

to find the magnitude and direction of the


resultant force
1. Find Fx
2. Find Fy
3. Magnitude of the resultant force is given by
4. Plot Fx and Fy with its appropriate sign
5. Direction of the resultant force is given by
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Problems

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Problem No 1

Two forces act on a bolt at A. Determine their resultant.

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Problem No 1 (contd)
Graphical solution - A parallelogram with sides
equal to P and Q is drawn to scale. The
magnitude and direction of the resultant or of
the diagonal to the parallelogram are measured,
R 98 N 35
Graphical solution - A triangle is drawn with P
and Q head-to-tail and to scale. The magnitude
and direction of the resultant or of the third
side of the triangle are measured,
R 98 N 35

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Problem No 1 (contd)
Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.
From the Law of Cosines,
R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B

40N 2 60N 2 2 40N 60N cos155

R 97.73N
From the Law of Sines,
sin A sin B

Q
R
sin A sin B

Q
R

sin 155
A 15.04
20 A
35.04
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60N
97.73N

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Problem No 1 (contd)
Sl. No.

Fx

Fy

1.

+ 40 cos20

+ 40 sin20

2.

+ 60 cos 45

+ 60 cos 45

80.01

56.10

Magnitude of the resultant


force

Direction of resultant force

R = 97.72 N

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Fy =
56.01

tan = ()

Fx =
80.01
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= 35

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Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats.
If the resultant of the forces
exerted by the tugboats is a 25 kN
directed along the axis of the
barge, determine
a) the tension in each of the ropes
for = 45o,
b) the value of for which the
tension in rope 2 is minimum.

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Problem 2

Trigonometric solution - Triangle Rule


with Law of Sines

Graphical solution - Parallelogram Rule


with known resultant direction and
magnitude, known directions for sides.

T1
T2
25 kN

sin 45 sin 30 sin 105


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T1 18.3 kN T2 12.94 kN

T1 18.5 kN T2 12.8 kN

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Problem 2
The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule
and observing the effect of variations in .
The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs when
T1 and T2 are perpendicular.

T2 25 kN sin 30

T2 12.5 kN

T1 25 kN cos 30

T1 21.7 kN

90 30

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60

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Problem 3
Knowing that the tension in cable BC
is 725-N, determine the resultant of
the three forces exerted at point B of
beam AB.

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Problem 3

SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular components.

Calculate the magnitude and direction.

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Problems for Practice


Fig 1

A disabled automobile is pulled by means of two


ropes shown in fig 1. Determine the Magnitude
and direction of Resultant by (a) parallelogram
law, (b) Triangle law (c) analytical method

Fig 2

Determine the magnitude and direction of


resultant force shown in fig 2.

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Equilibrium of a Particle
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero, the particle is
in equilibrium.
Newtons First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle will
remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.

Particle acted upon by


two forces:
- equal magnitude
- same line of action
- opposite sense
2 - 35
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Particle acted upon by three or more forces:


- graphical solution yields a closed polygon
- algebraic solution

R F 0

Fx 0

Fy 0

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Examples for Equilibrium

Cables AB and
AC carries the
spool of weight

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Problem 4
Given: Sack A weighs 20 N.
and geometry is as
shown.
Find:

Forces in the cables


and weight of sack B.

1. Apply Equilibrium
condition at Point E and
solve for the unknowns
(TEG & TEC).
2. Repeat this process at C.

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Problem 4
Note that the assumed directions
for the forces in the two cables EG
and EC are tensile in nature.

+ Fx = TEG sin 30 TEC cos 45 =


0
+

F
=
T
cos
30

T
sin
45

y
EG
EC
Solving these two simultaneous
20 N = 0
equations
for the two unknowns, we get
TEC = 38.6 N
TEG = 54.6 N
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Problem 4
Now move on to the point
C and consider equilibrium
at C

Apply Equilibrium Condition


Fx = 38.64 cos 45 (4/5) TCD = 0
Fy = (3/5) TCD + 38.64 sin 45 WB
= 0
Solving the first equation and then the
second we get
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TCD = 34.2 N

and

WB = 47.8 N .

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Problem 5
SOLUTION:
Choosing the hull as the free body,
draw a free-body diagram.
Express the condition for equilibrium
for the hull by writing that the sum of
all forces must be zero.

It is desired to determine the drag force


Resolve the vector equilibrium
at a given speed on a prototype sailboat
equation into two component
hull. A model is placed in a test
equations. Solve for the two unknown
channel and three cables are used to
cable tensions.
align its bow on the channel centerline.
For a given speed, the tension is 200-N
in cable AB and 300-N in cable AE.
Determine the drag force exerted on the
hull and the tension in cable AC.
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Problem 5
SOLUTION:
Choosing the hull as the free body, draw a
free-body diagram.
tan

7m

1.75

4m
60.25

tan

1.5 m

0.375

4m
20.56

Express the condition for equilibrium


for the hull by writing that the sum of
all forces must be zero.

R T AB T AC T AE FD 0

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Problem 5
Resolve the vector equilibrium equation into
two component equations. Solve for the two
unknown cable tensions.
r
r
r

TAB
200N sin 60.26 i 200N cos60.26 j
r
r
173.66Ni 99.21 N j
r
r
r

TAC TAC sin 20.56 i TAC cos20.56 j


r
r
0.3512TAC i 0.9363TAC j
r
r
T 300Ni
r
r
FD FD i
r
R 0

r
173.66 0.3512TAC F D i
r
99.21 0.9363TAC 300 j

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Problem 5

R0

173.66 0.3512 TAC FD i

99.21 0.9363 TAC 300 j

This equation is satisfied only if each component


of the resultant is equal to zero

F
F

0 0 173.66 0.3512 TAC FD


0 0 99.21 0.9363 TAC 300

TAC 214.45 N
FD 98.35 N

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Problem 6
A sailor is being rescued using a
boatswains
chair
that
is
suspended from a pulley that can roll
freely on the support cable
ACB and is pulled at a constant
speed by cable CD. Knowing that a =
25 and b = 15 and that the tension
in cable CD is 80 N, determine (a)
the
combined
weight
of
the
boatswains chair and the sailor, (b)
in tension in the support cable ACB.

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Problem 6

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Forces in Space

The vector F is
contained in the
plane OBAC.
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Resolve F into
horizontal and vertical
components.
Fy F cos y
Fh F sin y

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Resolve Fh into
rectangular components
Fx Fh cos
F sin y cos
Fy Fh sin
F sin y sin

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Forces in Space

With the angles between F and the axes,


Fx F cos x Fy F cos y Fz F cos z

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

F cos x i cos y j cos z k

cos x i cos y j cos z k

is a unit vector along the line of action of


F
x ,the
cos
y , and cos
z for
and cosare
cosines
direction
F

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Problem 6
SOLUTION:
Based on the relative locations of the
points A and B, determine the unit
vector pointing from A towards B.
Apply the unit vector to determine the
components of the force acting on A.

The tension in the guy wire is 2500 N.


Determine:

Noting that the components of the unit


vector are the direction cosines for the
vector, calculate the corresponding
angles.

a) components Fx, Fy, Fz of the force


acting on the bolt at A,
b) the angles x, y, zdefining the
direction of the force
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Problem 6
SOLUTION:
Determine the unit vector pointing from A
towards B.

AB 40 m i 80 m j 30 m k
AB

40 m 2 80 m 2 30 m 2

94.3 m
40 80 30

i
j
k
94
.
3
94
.
3
94
.
3

0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k


Determine the components of the force.

F F

2500 N 0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k

1060 N i 2120 N j 795 N k


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Problem 6
Noting that the components of the unit vector are
the direction cosines for the vector, calculate the
corresponding angles.

cos x i cos y j cos z k

0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k

x 115.1
y 32.0
z 71.5

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Problem 7
A crate is supported by
three cables as shown.
Determine the
weight of the crate
knowing that the
tension in cable AB is
3750 N.

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Problem 7
Net Force acting at point A is

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Problem 7

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Problems for practice

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Problems for practice

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References
1. Ferdinand P Beer & E.Russell Johnston VECTOR
MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS STATICS & Dynamics,
(Ninth Edition) Tata McGraw Hill Education Private
Limited, New Delhi.
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics by
S.Nagan, M.S.Palanichamy, Tata McGraw-Hill (2001).

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Thank you
Any Queries contact

S.Thanga Kasi Rajan


Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kamaraj College of Engineering & Technology,
Virudhunagar 626001.
Tamil Nadu, India

Email : stkrajan@gmail.com
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