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THIN CYCLINDER TEST

MECHANICS & MATERIAL LAB MANUAL


MEMD221
SEM 2 2016/2017
28/12/2016 WEDNESDAY
SECTION 4
GROUP 2
PN. FARAH ELIDA BINTI SELAMAT

PRAVIN A/L MARIAPPAN

DM94317

MUHAMMAD IKKRAM B. KHAIRUL HISHAM

DM94427

SAIFULLAH BIN MOHAMMAD

DM94514

AMAR REEZLAN BIN AMAR JAUHARI

DM94462

JOSHUA DAS A/L LAWRENCE

DM94605

OBJECTIVE

1. To determine the behaviour of aluminum alloy 6063 in open ends condition and
closed ends condition.
2. To determine the principle planes in open ends and closed ends condition.

DATA & OBSERVATION


TABLE 1:CYLINDER CONDITION : OPEN ENDS
No

Pressure

Direct

Strain

MN/m2

Hoop

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

Stress

MN/m2
1

0.5

7.60

111

-40

-3

37

72

111

1.0

14.53

217

-80

-8

70

139

215

1.5

21.07

311

-115

-10

102

201

313

2.0

27.60

413

-151

-13

136

267

413

2.5

34.53

519

-189

-15

171

337

522

483.04

-159.40

1.21

161.82

328

483.04

Value from theorectical


Mohrs Circle at 2.5 MN/m2

TABLE 1: OPEN ENDS CONDITION

TABLE 2:-

CYLINDER CONDITION : CLOSED ENDS


No

Pressure

Direct

MN/m2

Hoop

Strain
Gauge

Stress

Gauge 2

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

MN/m
1

0.13

0.5

7.60

90

12

72

53

69

85

1.0

14.80

179

20

60

103

139

179

1.5

21.60

268

29

87

152

205

268

2.0

28.27

357

34

113

200

272

358

2.5

34.80

441

40

138

245

325

442

403.33

82.19

162.48

323.05

242.76

Value from theorectical


Mohrs Circle at 2.5 MN/m2

TABLE 2: CLOSED ENDS CONDITION

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

403.33

Sample Calculations for Open Ends (Theoretical values):


Thickness = 3mm
Internal Diameter = 80mm
Poissons ratio = 0.33
Youngs Modulus = 69 10^9 N.m^-2
H =pd/2t (1)
H = 2.5x10^6 x 0.08 / 2 x 0.003 = 33.33 MN.m^-2
H 1 = H/E. (3)
H 1 =33.33 x 10^6 / 69 x 10^9 = 483.04 (for 1,6)
L 1 = -VH/E . (4)
L 1 = -0.33 x 33.33 x 10^6 / 69 x 10^9 = -159.40 (for 2)
1 = 483.04, 2 =159.40
n =((-159.40 + 483.04)/2) + (-159.40 - 483.04)/2) cos 2 (30)
= 1.21 (for 3)
m=((-159.40 + 483.04)/2) + (-159.40 - 483.04)/2) cos 2 (45)
= 328 (for 5)
= (-159.40 + 483.04)/2) = 161.82 (for 4)

Sample Calculations for Closed Ends (Theoretical Values):


Thickness = 3mm
Internal Diameter = 80mm

Poissons ratio = 0.33


Youngs Modulus = 69 10^9 N.m^-2
H = 33.33 MN.m^-2
L = 16.67 MN.m^-2
H =1/E (H -vL ) . (9)
H = 403.33 (for 1,6)
L =1/E(L -vH ) . (10)
L = 82.19 (for 2)
1 = 403.33 , 2 = 82.19
n = ((2+1)/2 ) + ((2-1)/2 ) cos2 (=30)
n = 162.48 (for 3)
m = ((2+1)/2 ) + ((1-2)/2 ) cos2
m = 323.05 (for 5)
When is equal 45
= ((2+1)/2 ) = 242.76 (for 4)

DISCUSSIONS
A)

1.

Graph 1: Graph of Hoop Stress against Hoop Strain

From the Graph, we know that the value of the Youngs Modulus is
((27.60-14.53)/(413-215)) = 66.01 GPa.
(Gradient of graph is 0.066 TPa)
The actual value of Youngs Modulus is 69GPa.
Percentage Error = (69-66.01)/(69) = 4.33%

2.

Graph 2 : Graph of Longitudinal Strain against Hoop Strain

From the graph, we know that the Poissons ratio is


((-40-(-80))/(111-217)) = 0.3777
(Gradient of the graph is 0.3777)
The actual value of the Poissons ratio given is also 0.33
The Percentage error = (0.33-0.3777)/(0.33) = 14.45%

3.
Sample Calculations for Open Ends (Theoretical values):

Thickness = 3mm
Internal Diameter = 80mm
Poissons ratio = 0.33
Youngs Modulus = 69 109 N.m-2
H =pd/2t (1)
H = 2.5x10^6 x 0.08 / 2 x 0.003 = 33.33 MN.m^-2
H 1 = H/E. (3)
H 1 =33.33 x 10^6 / 69 x 10^9 = 483.04 (for 1,6)
L 1 = -VH/E . (4)
L 1 = -0.33 x 33.33 x 10^6 / 69 x 10^9 = -159.40 (for 2)
1 = 483.04, 2 =159.40
n =((-159.40 + 483.04)/2) + (-159.40 - 483.04)/2) cos 2 (30)
= 1.21 (for 3)
m=((-159.40 + 483.04)/2) + (-159.40 - 483.04)/2) cos 2 (45)
= 328 (for 5)
= (-159.40 + 483.04)/2) = 161.82 (for 4)

B)
1.

2.
Sample Calculations for Closed Ends (Theoretical Values):
Thickness = 3mm
Internal Diameter = 80mm
Poissons ratio = 0.33
Youngs Modulus = 69 10^9 N.m^-2
H = 33.33 MN.m^-2
L = 16.67 MN.m^-2
H =1/E (H -vL ) . (9)
H = 403.33 (for 1,6)
L =1/E(L -vH ) . (10)
L = 82.19 (for 2)
1 = 403.33 , 2 = 82.19
n = ((2+1)/2 ) + ((2-1)/2 ) cos2 (=30)
n = 162.48 (for 3)
m = ((2+1)/2 ) + ((1-2)/2 ) cos2
m = 323.05 (for 5)
When is equal 45
= ((2+1)/2 ) = 242.76 (for 4)

C) State one example of real engineering application using open ends condition and
closed ends condition concept:-

CONCLUSIONS
It can be concluded that the purpose of the experiment is successfully achieved. The
Youngs Modulus, E is obtained to be 66.01 GN/m 2. The Poissons Ratio is calculated to
be 0.3777. Meanwhile, for the open ends condition the Principal Strains are calculated
to be H = 483.04 and L = -159.40 . The concept of the circumferential stress and
combined stress is clearly understood.
REFERENCES
1. Book :

Semester 2 2016/2017. MEMD221 Materials Laboratory Manual. COE, Uniten. pp 4154.


a. Author (s). Year. Title. Edition. Place: Publisher. Page number. (example: L.H. van
Vlack. 1989. Elements of Materials Science and Engineering. 6th Ed. Reading
:Addison-Wesely Publ. pp100-105.)
b. Title. Year. Book Title. Edition. Place: Publisher. Page number. (Example:
Materials Science Handbook. 1986. 20th Ed. Ohio: C.R.C. Press. pp. 1986)