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PreparingapaperforPhysicsessayusingMicrosoftWord

JMucklow1
ProductionEditor,JournalofPhysics:ConferenceSeries,
IOPPublishing,DiracHouse,TempleBack,BristolBS16BE,UK
Email:jacky.mucklow@iop.org
Abstract.Allarticlesmustcontainanabstract.Theabstracttextshouldbeformattedusing10
pointTimes(orTimesRoman,orTimesNewRoman)andindented25mmfromtheleft
margin.Leave10mmspaceaftertheabstractbeforeyoubeginthemaintextofyourarticle.
Thetextofyourarticleshouldstartonthesamepageastheabstract.Theabstractfollowsthe
addresses andshouldgivereaders conciseinformationabout thecontentofthearticleand
indicatethemainresultsobtainedandconclusionsdrawn.Astheabstractisnotpartofthetext
it shouldbecomplete initself; notablenumbers, figure numbers, references ordisplayed
mathematical expressions should be included. It should be suitable for direct inclusion in
abstractingservicesandshouldnotnormallyexceed200words.Theabstractshouldgenerally
be restricted to a single paragraph. Since contemporary informationretrieval systems rely
heavilyonthecontentoftitlesandabstractstoidentifyrelevantarticlesinliteraturesearches,
greatcareshouldbetakeninconstructingboth.

1.Introduction
TheseguidelinesdiscusshowtoprepareyourpaperusingMicrosoftWord.Inadditiontotheusual
guidanceonstyle/formatting,therearenotesandlinkstoassistinusingsomeofWordsfeaturessuch
asinsertinggraphics,formattingequationsandsoforth.AWordtemplateisavailablefordownload
fromthehttp://www.phys.utcluj.ro/resurse/Facultati/Constructii/20092010/AnIConstructiiEng2009
2010.html
2.Pagelayout(headers,footers,pagenumbersandmargins)
IfyoudontwishtousetheWordtemplateprovided,pleasesetthemarginsofyourWorddocument
asfollows.

FromtheFilemenuselectthePageSetupoptiontodisplaythePageSetupdialogbox.
Selectthepapersizeyouwanttouse(USLetterorA4).
Dependingonthepapersizeyouuse,adjustthemarginsettingstothoseshownintable1.

Towhomanycorrespondenceshouldbeaddressed.

Table1.SettingWordsmarginsforA4and
USLetterpaper.
Margin

A4

USLetter

Top
Bottom

4.0cm
2.7cm

3.1cm
1.8cm

Left

2.5cm

2.8cm

2.5cm

2.8cm

0cm

0cm

0cm

0cm

0cm

0cm

Right
Gutter

Header
Footer

These must besetto0cm.Inaddition,please


make sure the Mirror Margins option is not
selected.

3.Formattingthetitle,authorsandaffiliations
In this section we discuss how to format the title, authors and affiliations. Please follow these
instructionsascarefullyaspossiblesoallarticleswithinaconferencehavethesamestyletothetitle
page.Thisparagraphfollowsasectiontitlesoitshouldnotbeindented.
3.1.Formattingthetitle
Thetitle is set 17point Times Bold, flush left, unjustified. The first letter of the title should be
capitalizedwiththerestinlowercase.Itshouldnotbeindented,asshownabove.Leave28mmof
spaceabovethetitleand10mmafterthetitle.Theeasiestwaytodothisistoselect Format
ParagraphandsettheSpacingBeforevalueto28mmandSpacingAfterto10mm.
3.2.Formattingauthornames
Thelistofauthorsshouldbeindented25mmtomatchtheabstract.Thestyleforthenamesisinitials
thensurname,withacommaafterallbutthelasttwonames,whichareseparatedbyand.Initials
shouldnothavefullstopsforexampleAJSmithandnotA.J.Smith.Firstnamesinfullmaybe
usedifdesired.Ifanauthorhasadditionalinformationtoappearasafootnote,suchasapermanent
addressortoindicatethattheyarethecorrespondingauthor,thefootnoteshouldbeenteredafterthe
surname.However,beforeaddinganyfootnotespleasereadappendixAInsertingfootnoteswith
MicrosoftWordfordetailednotesandacompleteexample.
3.3.Formattingauthoraffiliations
Please ensure that affiliations are as full and complete as possible and include the country. The
addressesoftheauthorsaffiliationsfollowthelistofauthorsandshouldalsobeindented25mmto
matchtheabstract.Iftheauthorsareatdifferentaddresses,numberedsuperscriptsshouldbeusedafter
eachsurnametoreferenceanauthortohis/heraddress.Thenumberedsuperscriptsshould not be
insertedusingWordsfootnotecommandbecausethiswillplacethereferenceinthewrongplaceat
thebottomofthepage(orendofthedocument)ratherthannexttotheaddress.Ensurethatany
numberedsuperscripts usedtolinkauthornames andaddresses start at 1andcontinue ontothe
numberofaffiliations.Donotaddanyfootnotesuntilalltheauthornamesarelinkedtotheaddresses.
Forexample,toformat

JMucklow1,3,JEThomas1,4andAJCox2,5
wheretherearethreeaddresses,youshouldinsertnumberedsuperscripts1,2and3tolinksurnames
toaddressesandtheninsertfootnotes4and5.Notethatthefirstfootnoteinthemaintextwillnowbe
number6.
3.3.1.Insertingsuperscriptstolinknamesandaddresses.

Typetheappropriatesuperscriptvaluejustafterthesurnameandjustbeforetheaddress:
JMucklow2
2InstituteofPhysicsPublishing,DiracHouse,TempleBack,BristolBS16BE,UK

Selecteachnumberinturn(here2)anddothefollowing:
o
o
o

ChooseFormatFonttodisplayWordsFontdialogbox.
SelectSuperscriptundertheEffectsoptions.
ClickOKtoapplythetextformatting.Youshouldseethis:

JMucklow2
IOPPublishing,DiracHouse,TempleBack,BristolBS16BE,UK

Repeattheprocedureforallsuperscriptednumbers.Pleasemakesurethatanyfootnoteswithinthe
maintextofyourarticlecontinueonfromanysuperscriptednumbersusedtolinkauthornamesand
affiliations.Forexample,ifyoureferredtotwoaddressesthefirstproperfootnoteinthetextwouldbe
footnote3.
4.Anexample.Inthisexamplewecanseethattherearefootnotesaftereachauthornameandonly5
addresses;the6thfootnotemightsay,forexample,Authortowhomanycorrespondenceshouldbe
addressed.Inaddition,acknowledgmentofgrantsorfunding,temporaryaddressesetcmightalsobe
indicatedbyfootnotes.

5.Formattingthetext
Thetextofyourpapershouldbeformattedasfollows:

11pointTimesorTimesRomanorTimesNewRomandependingonthefontsinstalled
onyourcomputer.
Thetextshouldbesettosinglelinespacing.
Paragraphsshouldbejustified.
The first paragraph after a section or subsection should not be indented; subsequent
paragraphsshouldbeindentedby5mm.

6.Sections,subsectionsandsubsubsections
Theuseofsectionstodividethetextofthepaperisoptionalandleftasadecisionfortheauthor.
Wheretheauthorwishestodividethepaperintosectionstheformattingshownintable2shouldbe
used.
6.1.Styleandspacing
Table2.Formattingsections,subsectionsandsubsubsections.
Font

Spacing

Section

11pointTimesbold

1linespacebeforeasection
Noadditionalspaceafterasectionheading

Subsection

11pointTimesItalic

1linespacebeforeasubsection
Nospaceafterasubsubsectionheading

Subsubsection 11pointTimesItalic

Subsubsections should end with a full stop


(period)andrunintothetextoftheparagraph

6.2.Numbering
Sectionsshouldbenumberedasfollows:

sectionsshouldbenumbered1,2,3,etc
subsectionsshouldbenumbered2.1,2.2,2.3,etc
subsubsectionsshouldbenumbered2.3.1,2.3.2,etc

withadotfollowingthenumberandthenseparatedbyasinglespace.
6.2.1.Thisisanexampleofasubsubsection.Notethatthetextforsubsubsectionheadingsshouldbe
runintothetextofthefirstparagraph.
7.Footnotes
Footnotesshouldbeavoidedwheneverpossible.Ifrequiredtheyshouldbeusedonlyforbriefnotes
thatdonotfitconvenientlyintothetext.PleasereadappendixAInsertingfootnoteswithMicrosoft
WordforguidelinesonworkingwithWordsfootnotefacility.
8.Figures
Eachfigureshouldhaveabriefcaptiondescribingitand,ifnecessary,akeytointerpretthevarious
linesandsymbolsonthefigure.
8.1.Spaceconsiderations
Authorsshouldtrytomakeeconomicaluseofthespaceonthepage;forexample:

avoidexcessivelylargewhitespacebordersaroundyourgraphics;
trytodesignillustrationsthatmakegooduseoftheavailablespaceavoidunnecessarily
largeamountsofwhitespacewithinthegraphic;

8.2.Textinfigures
Wherever possible try to ensure that the size of the text in your figures (apart from
superscripts/subscripts)isapproximatelythesamesizeasthemaintext(11points).
8.3.Linethickness
Ingeneral,trytoavoidextremelyfinelines(oftencalledhairlinethickness)becausesuchlinesoften
donotreproducewellwhenprintedoutyourdiagramsmaylosevitalinformationwhendownloaded
andprintedbyotherresearchers.Trytoensurethatlinesarenothinnerthan0.25pt.Notethatsome
illustrationsmayreducelinethicknesswhenthegraphicisimportedandreducedinsize(scaleddown)
insideMicrosoftWord.
8.4.Colourillustrations
Youarefreetousecolourillustrationsfortheelectronicversionofyouressaybutanyprintversion
willonlybeprintedinblackand.Ifanyprintversionwillbeblackandwhiteonly,youshould check
your figure captions carefully and remove any reference to colour in the illustration and text. In
addition,somecolourfigureswilldegradeorsufferlossofinformationwhenconvertedtoblackand
whiteandthisshouldbetakenintoaccountwhenpreparingthem.
8.5.Positioningfigures
Individual figures should normally be centred but place two figures sidebyside if they will fit
comfortablylikethisasitsavesspace.Placethefigureascloseaspossibleafterthepointwhereitis
firstreferencedinthetext.Iftherearealargenumberoffiguresitmightbenecessarytoplacesome
beforetheirtextcitation.Figuresshouldneverappearwithinorafterthereferencelist.
8.6.Figurecaptions/numbering
Captionsshouldbebelowthefigureandseparatedfromitbyadistanceof6pointsalthoughtosave
spaceitisacceptabletoputthecaptionnexttothefigure.Figuresshouldbenumberedsequentially
throughthetextFigure1,Figure2andsoforthandshouldbereferencedinthetextasfigure1,
figure2,andnotfig.1,fig.2,.
Forcaptionsnotplacedatthesideofthefigure,captionsshouldbesettothewidthofthefigurefor
widerfigures,centredacrossthewidthofthefigure,or,fornarrowfigureswithwidecaptions,slightly
extendedbeyondthewidthofthefigure.Thecaptionshouldfinishwithafullstop(period).
8.6.1.How to format figures and captions. One of the easiest ways to format a figure and the
correspondingcaptionistoplacethefigureandcaptioninatablecontainingonecolumnandtwo
rows;placethegraphicinthetoprowandthecaptioninthebottomrow.Toformatthefigure/table
combination,youcanadjustthewidthofthetable,centrethetableandadjustthewidthoftherowsto
givetheappropriatelayout.
8.6.2.Examples. Thefollowingexamplesshowhowtoformatanumberofdifferentfigure/caption
combinations. Notethatthetablebordersareshownasbrokenlines forguidanceonly;they
shouldnot,ofcourse,beshowninyouractualpaper.

Figurewithashort(narrow)caption.Centrethetableandcentrethecaptionandfigureinside
eachtablecell.

Figure3.Figurewithshortcaption(captioncentred).

Narrowfigure/widecaption.Tosavespaceonthepageputthecaptiontotherightofthe
figureasshown.Todothisplacethegraphicanditscaptioninatablewithonerowandtwo
columns.Justifythecaption.

Figure4. Thisisafigurewithacaptionthatis
widerthantheactualgraphic.Tosavespaceyou
canputthecaptiontotherightofthefigureby
placingthegraphicandjustifiedcaptioninatable
withonerowandtwocolumns.

Widerfigure/widercaption.Thisisafigurewithacaptionaswideastheactualgraphic.In
thiscasesimplyjustifythecaptionacrossthewidthofthegraphic.

Figure5.Inthiscasesimplyjustifythecaptionsothatitisasthe
samewidthasthegraphic.
9.Sidebysidefigures.Wherepossible,trytoplacefiguressidebysidetoreducetheamountofspace
used.Useatabletodothis.Forexample,toputtwofiguressidebysidecreateatablewiththree
columnsandtworows.Makethemiddlecolumnnarrowtoprovidesomespacebetweenthegraphics,

asshownbelow. Notethatthetablebordersareshownasbrokenlines forguidanceonly;they


shouldnot,ofcourse,beshowninyouractualpaper.

Figure 1. These two figures


have been placed sidebyside
to save space. Justify the
caption.

Figure 2. These two figures


have been placed sidebyside
to save space. Justify the
caption.

9.1.Figuresinparts
Ifafigurehaspartstheseshouldbelabelledas(a),(b),(c)etcontheactualfigure.Partsshouldnot
haveseparatecaptions.
10.Tables
Notethatasageneralprinciple,forlargetablesfontsizescanbereducedtomakethetablefitona
pageorfittothewidthofthetext.
10.1.Positioningtables
Tablesshouldbecentredunlesstheyoccupythefullwidthofthetext.
10.2.Tablesinparts
Ifatableisdividedintopartstheseshouldbelabelled(a),(b),(c)etcbutthereshouldonlybeone
captionforthewholetable,notseparateonesforeachpart.
10.3.Tablecaptions/numbering
Tablesshouldbenumberedsequentiallythroughoutthetextandreferredtointhetextbynumber
(table1,nottab.1etc).Captionsshouldbeplacedatthetopofthetableandshouldhaveafullstop
(period)attheend.Exceptforverynarrowtableswithawidecaption(seeexamplesbelow)the
captionshouldbethesamewidthasthetable.Note,tosetcaptionstobethesamewidthasthetable,
oneconvenientmethodistoplacethecaptioninsidearowatthetopofthetableandmerge(combine)
thecellstogethersothatyouhaveasingletablecellthewidthofthetable(selecttherowtocontain
thecaptionanddoTableMergeCells).
10.4.Rulesintables

Tablesshouldhaveonlyhorizontalrulesandnoverticalones.Generally,onlythreerulesshouldbe
used:oneatthetopofthetable,oneatthebottom,andonetoseparatetheentriesfromthecolumn
headings.Tablerulesshouldbe0.5pointswide.

10.5.Examples
Because tables can take many forms, it is difficult to provide detailed guidelines; however, the
followingexamplesdemonstrateourpreferredstyles.
10.5.1.Asimpletable.Thefollowingexampleisasimple,narrowtable.Hereweextendthecaption
textoutsidethewidthofthetable.
Table 3. A simple table. Place the caption above the
table. Here the caption is wider than the table so we
extenditslightlyoutsidethewidthofthetable.Justify
thetext.Leave6ptofspacebetweenthecaptionandthe
topofthetable.
Distance(m)

Velocity(ms1)

100

23.56

150

34.64

200

23.76

250

27.9

10.5.2.Amorecomplextable. Thefollowingisaslightlymorecomplextablewithacaptionthatis
narrowerthanthetable.Centrethecaptionacrossthewidthofthetable.Ifitisdifficulttomakea
tablefitthepage,useasmallerfont.HeadingsshouldnormallybeinRoman(i.e.,notboldoritalic)
type,haveaninitialcapitalandnormallyalignleft(butcentredsometimeslooksbetter);itisuptothe
authortochoosealayoutthatismostusefultothereader.Columnsofnumbersnormallyalignonthe
decimalpointanditisquitepossibletodothisinWordusingadecimaltab;howeverwewillnot
describethisheredetailsmaybefoundinWordshelpfacility.
Table4.Aslightlymorecomplextablewithanarrowcaption.

F3
Fz
F4
C3
Cz
C4
P3
Pz
P4

WakeChiSqr.
(N=15,df=1)
1.143
1.143
4.571
0.286
1.143
2.571
0.000
0.286
0.286

p
0.285
0.285
0.033
0.593
0.285
0.109
1.000
0.593
0.593

Stage1ChiSqr.
(N=15,df=1)
0.286
0.067
1.667
0.067
0.077
0.600
0.600
1.143
0.000

p
0.593
0.796
0.197
0.796
0.782
0.439
0.439
0.285
1.000

Stage2ChiSqr.
(N=15,df=1)
0.286
0.067
1.143
0.067
0.286
1.667
0.600
0.286
0.067

p
0.593
0.796
0.285
0.796
0.593
0.197
0.439
0.593
0.796

10.6.Notestotables
Ifyouwishtoformatatablesothatitcontainsnotes(tablefootnotes)totheentrieswithinthebodyof
thetableand/orwithinthetablecaption,thesenotesshouldbeformattedusingalphabeticsuperscripts
suchasa,b,candsoforth.Noteswithinthetablecaptionshouldbelistedfirst.Notesshouldbeplaced
atthebottomofthetable;oneconvenientmethodistocreateanemptyrowatthebottomofthetable
tocontainthem.Again,mergethecellstogiveyouasinglecellthewidthofthetable.Tablenotes
shouldbe10pointTimesRoman.Eachnoteshouldbeonaseparateline.
Table5.Atablewithheadingsspanningtwocolumnsandcontainingnotes a.
Separationenergies

Thickness

,n(MeV)

,2n(MeV)

Nucleus

(mgcm )

Composition

181

Ta

19.30.1b

Natural

7.6

14.2

208

Pb

3.80.8

99%enriched

7.4

14.1

209

Bi

2.60.01c

Natural

7.5

14.4

Notesarereferencedusingalphasuperscripts.
Selfsupporting.
c
DepositedoverAlbacking.
a

11.Equationsandmathematics
11.1.FontsinEquationEditor(orMathType)
MakesurethatyourEquationEditororMathTypefonts,includingsizes,aresetuptomatchthetextof
yourdocument.
11.2.Pointsofstyle
11.2.1.Vectors. Bold italic characters is our preferred style but the author may use any standard
notation;forexample,anyofthesestylesforvectorsisacceptable:
thevectorcrossproductofaandbisgivenby a b ,or
thevectorcrossproductofaandbisgivenby a b ,or
r
r
r
thevectorcrossproductof a and b isgivenby ar b .
11.2.2.Thesolidus(/ ).Atwolinesolidusshouldbeavoidedwherepossible;forexample,use

Ma

2
S
d 0
N

x 2 y 2
x y

insteadof

12

1
Ma

x 2 y 2
.
x y

insteadof

S
d 0
N

11.2.3.Romananditalicinmathematics.Variablesshouldbeinitalic;howevertherearesomecases
whereitisbettertouseaRomanfont:
UseaRomandforadifferentiald,forexample, tan dy dx .

UseaRomaneforanexponentiale;forexample, y e x .
UseaRomaniforthesquarerootof1;e.g., i 1.
Certainothercommonmathematicalfunctions,suchascos,sin,detandker,shouldappearin
Romantype.
SubscriptsandsuperscriptsshouldbeinRomantypeiftheyarelabelsratherthanvariablesor
charactersthattakevalues.Forexampleintheequation

m g n Bm
m,thezcomponentofthenuclearspin,isitalicbecauseitcanhavedifferentvalueswhereasn
isRomanbecauseitisalabelmeaningnuclear.
11.3.Alignmentofmathematics
Thepreferredstylefordisplayedmathematicsin JournalofPhysics:ConferenceSeries istocentre
equations;however,longequationsthatwillnotfitononeline,orneedtobecontinuedonsubsequent
lines,shouldstartflushleft.Anycontinuationlinesinsuchequationsshouldbeindentedby25mm.
Equationsshouldbesplitatmathematicallysoundpoints,oftenimmediatelybefore=,+orsigns
orbetweentermsmultipliedtogether.Theconnectingsignsarenotrepeatedandappearonlyatthe
beginningoftheturnedoverline.Amultiplicationsignshouldbeaddedtothestartofturnedover
lineswherethebreakisbetweentwomultipliedterms.
11.3.1.Smalldisplayedequations:Someexamples:

r r
23
r
k (r ) 2 exp i k r

32

A A A

(1)

( I 32 )

(2)

r
r
C 12 x x r
1 const
1 const

r2
L2

xdx
L
x2

(3)

r 2 L
ln L .
L2 r

However,ifequationswillfitononeline,doso;forexample,(5)mayalsobeformattedas:
r
r
C 12 x x r

1 const

r2
L2

xdx
r 2 L

const
ln L
r x 2
L2 r

(6)

11.3.2.Largedisplayequations:examples.Ifanequationisalmostthewidthofaline,placeitflush
leftagainstthemargintoallowroomfortheequationnumber.

1
(h )2
Y (h )
q [(h r )2 (h )2 ]2 ( h1 2 )2 (h )2

hn
o
/2 cos ( ) cos 1 q

E EV

[ E ( E v h )]
[ E ( E v E )]

E
dE
exp[( E E m ) kT ] 1

hn
2
cos ( ) sin

1 q
1 q d cos ( )

1 q

hn2 d sin ( )
hn
hn
hn

sin ( ) sin
sin ( ) cos 1 q

1 q

1 q
hn

o
/ 2

o
/ 2

cos

hn
sin
1
q

cos ( )cos

hn

1 q
d .
hn
sin ( )sin
1 q

hn
1 q

(7)

(8)

11.4.Miscellaneouspoints
Exponentialexpressions,especiallythosecontainingsubscriptsorsuperscripts,areclearerif
thenotation exp K isused,exceptforsimpleexamples.Forinstance, exp i kx t and

exp z 2 arepreferredto e i kx t and e z2, but e 2 isacceptable.Similarlythesquarerootsign

shouldonlybeusedwithrelativelysimpleexpressions,e.g. 2 and a 2 b2 , butin


othercasesthepower1 2 shouldbeused.
Itisimportanttodistinguishbetween ln log e and lg log10.
Braces,bracketsandparenthesesshouldbeusedinthefollowingorder:{[()]}.Thesame
orderingofbracketsshouldbeusedwithineachsize.However,thisorderingcanbeignoredif
thebracketshaveaspecialmeaning(e.g.iftheydenoteanaverageorafunction).
Decimalfractionsshouldalwaysbeprecededbyazero:forexample0.123 not.123(note,do
notusecommas,usethedecimalpoint).
Equationsthatarereferredtointhetextshouldbenumberedwiththenumberontheright
handside.

11.5.Equationnumbering
Equationsmaybenumberedsequentiallythroughoutthetext(i.e.,(1),(2),(3), )ornumberedby
section(i.e.,(1.1),(1.2),(2.1),)dependingontheauthorspersonalpreference.Inarticleswith
severalappendicesequationnumberingbysectionisusefulintheappendicesevenwhensequential
numberinghasbeenusedthroughoutthemainbodyofthetext:forexample,A.1,A.2andsoforth.
Whenreferringtoanequationinthetext,alwaysputtheequationnumberinbracketse.g.asin
equation (2) or as inequation(2.1)andalways spell out the word equation in full, e.g. if
equation(5)isfactorized;donotuseabbreviationssuchaseqn.oreq..
12.Conclusions
Anyarticlemusthaveaconclusion.Thisisasummaryin23sentencesofthemainideas.Youcan
underlinethenewsorexpressapersonalconclusiononthetopic.
13.Appendices

Technicaldetailthatitisnecessarytoinclude,butthatinterruptstheflowofthearticle,maybe
consignedtoanappendix.Anyappendicesshouldbeincludedattheendofthemaintextofthepaper,
aftertheacknowledgmentssection(ifany)butbeforethereferencelist.Iftherearetwoormore
appendicestheyshouldbecalledappendixA,appendixB,etc.
Numberedequationsshouldbeintheform(A.1),(A.2),etc,figuresshouldappearasfigureA1,
figureB1,etcandtablesastableA1,tableB1,etc.
14.Acknowledgments
Authors wishing to acknowledge assistance or encouragement from colleagues, special work by
technical staff or financial support from organizations should do so in an unnumbered
Acknowledgmentssectionimmediatelyfollowingthelastnumberedsectionofthepaper.
ThistemplatewasinspiredfromJournalofPhysics:ConferenceSeries
15.References
A complete reference should provide the reader with enough information to locate the article
concerned, whether published in print or electronic form, and should, depending on the type of
reference,consistof:

name(s)andinitials;
datepublished;
titleofjournal,bookorotherpublication;
titlesofjournalarticlesmayalsobeincluded(optional);
volumenumber;
editors,ifany;
townofpublicationandpublisherinparenthesesforbooks;
thepagenumbers.

Twodifferentstylesofreferencingareincommonuse:theHarvardalphabeticalsystemandthe
Vancouvernumericalsystem.For JournalofPhysics:ConferenceSeries,pleaseusetheVancouver
numericalsystemasdescribedbelow.
Examplestakenfrompublishedpapers:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

Kurata M 1982 NumericalAnalysisforSemiconductorDevices(Lexington, MA: Heath)


Selberherr S 1984 AnalysisandSimulationofSemiconductorDevices(Berlin: Springer)
SzeSM1969Physics of Semiconductor Devices (NewYork:WileyInterscience)
DormanLI1975 VariationsofGalactic CosmicRays (Moscow: MoscowState University
Press)p103
CaplarRandKulisicP1973Proc.Int.Conf.onNuclearPhysics(Munich)vol1(Amsterdam:
NorthHolland/AmericanElsevier)p517
Cheng G X 2001 Raman and Brillouin ScatteringPrinciples and Applications (Beijing:
Scientic)
SzytulaAandLeciejewiczJ1989HandbookonthePhysicsandChemistryofRareEarthsvol
12,edKAGschneidnerJrandLErwin(Amsterdam:Elsevier)p133

[8]

[9]

Kuhn T 1998 Density matrix theory of coherent ultrafast dynamics Theory of Transport
PropertiesofSemiconductorNanostructures(ElectronicMaterialsvol4)edESchll(London:
ChapmanandHall)chapter6pp173214
KuhnT,BinderE,RossiF,LohnerA,RickK,LeischingP,LeitenstorferA,ElsaesserTand
StolzW1994CoherentexcitonicandfreecarrierdynamicsinbulkGaAsandheterostructures
CoherentOpticalInteractionsinSemiconductors:Proc.NATOAdvancedResearchWorkgroup
(Cambridge,UK,1114August1993)(NATOAdvancedStudyInstitute,SeriesB:Physicsvol
330)edRTPhillips(NewYork:Plenum)pp3362