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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

“Redesign and Modification of Conventional Drilling Machine for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys”

Mangesh S. Prabhavalkar 1 Bhushan M. Chalke 2 Nikhil V. Joshi 3 Pawan C. Karangutkar 4 Akshay R. Patil 5 1 Assistant Professor 2,3,4,5 Student 1,2,3,4,5 Department of Mechanical Engineering 1,2,3,4,5 Rajendra Mane College of Engineering and Technology, Ambav. (University of Mumbai)

AbstractConventional welding techniques are used to weld hard materials. Problem occurs while welding soft material. They cannot weld soft materials like aluminum, copper etc. To solve this problem Friction stir welding is used. Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process uses a third body tool to join two facing surfaces. It is economical process. But as the tooling required for such is costly; it can be performed on drilling machine with suitable modification. The aim of this work is to reconfigure and utilize a drilling machine successfully to produce friction stir welding of aluminium alloy which is also energy and cost efficient. Key words: Friction stir welding, drilling machine, clamping and backup plate, tool holder

drilling machine, clamping and backup plate, tool holder Fig. 1: Friction stir welding principle I. I

Fig. 1: Friction stir welding principle

I.

INTRODUCTION

II. LITERATURE REVIEW
II. LITERATURE REVIEW

In late 1991 a very novel and potentially world beating welding method was conceived. The process was duly named friction stir welding (FSW), and TWI filed for world-wide patent protection in December of that year. Since its invention, the process has received world-wide attention, particularly for joining aluminium alloys. In friction stir welding (FSW) a cylindrical, shouldered tool with a profiled probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material, which are butted together. The parts have to be clamped onto a backing bar in a manner that prevents the abutting joint faces from being forced apart. Frictional heat is generated between the wear resistant welding tool and the material of the workpieces. This heat causes the latter to soften without reaching the melting point and allows traversing of the tool along the weld line. The plasticized material is transferred from the leading edge of the tool to the trailing edge of the tool probe and is forged by the intimate contact of the tool shoulder and the pin profile. The process advantages result from the fact that the FSW process (as all friction welding of metals) takes place in the solid phase below the melting point of the materials to be joined. Friction stir welding can use existing and readily available machine tool technology. The process is also suitable for automation and adaptable for robot use. The major applications of FSW in the field of aerospace, shipbuilding and automotive industry.

field of aerospace, shipbuilding and automotive industry. To study the working and redesign of drilling machine

To study the working and redesign of drilling machine for Friction stir welding of aluminium alloy, we referred various research papers. Sagar Patel et. al. [1] have demonstrated the extensive research effort that continues to progress the understanding of FSW of aluminium alloys and its influence on their microstructure and properties. The influence of tool design on flaw occurrence and the development of non- destructive testing techniques to identify flaws in both lap and butt welds would be beneficial. Anees Siddiqui et. al. [2]have discussed that as this process of joining is achieving success daily at the level of research but it’s excess to workshops having lesser capital is limited because of costlier machines. This problem inspired to review techniques so that FSW can be achieved in workshops with little modifications in the conventional machine like vertical milling, drilling machine. Modification of tool design and redesign of clamping system are discussed so that conventional milling machine can be used for friction stir welding. Eur.Ing. C.E.D.Rowe et. al. [3] looks at some current uses, variations in tool design, improved welding techniques and new tool materials being developed for the welding of more difficult aluminium alloys to give increased tool life.

R. Rai et. al. [4] ritically reviews recent work on several important aspects of FSW tools such as the tool geometry, issues of material selection, microstructure, load bearing ability, failure mechanisms and process economics. Carl D. Sorensen and Tracy W. Nelson [5] covers the development of suitable tools, welding equipment, and welding procedures, describes the characteristics of the resulting weldments, and describes the variety of materials that have been tested with the FSW process. M.A. Siddiqui et. al. [6] discussed after successful fabrication of friction stir welding setup by using

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“Redesign and Modification of Conventional Drilling Machine for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys” (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/495)

conventional hand drilling machine that the low melting point metals unable to weld from Arc welding can be successfully welded by using our fabricated setup at workshop level. A M Khourshid and I Sabry [7] were carried out

FSW trials using a drilling machine on Al 6063 alloy. The

designed and formulated abutting on drilling machine module in order to execute the friction stir welding on cylindrical objects.

R.S. Mishra, Z.Y. Ma [8] have discussed current developments in process modeling, microstructure and properties, material specific issues, applications of friction stir welding/processing have been addressed.

of friction stir welding/processing have been addressed. Fig. 3: CAD model of tool III. M ETHODOLOGY

Fig. 3: CAD model of tool

have been addressed. Fig. 3: CAD model of tool III. M ETHODOLOGY To carry out this

III.

METHODOLOGY

To carry out this operation it requires the machine with electric motor of suitable speed of rotation, vertical spindle to mount the tool and suitable base to hold the workpieces. With help of vertical milling machine, drilling machine this FSW can be performed. In the drilling, the spindle axis is vertically oriented which we have decided to carry this project. Considering these requirements and suggestions we were modified drilling machine into Friction stir welding machine. Welding tools are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended, allowing welding. We

also manufactured friction stir welding tool using tool material which will be suitable to weld
also manufactured friction stir welding tool using tool
material which will be suitable to weld workpiece material.
Also clamping and back-up plate to support workpiece were
designed and manufactured.
Fig. 4: Different tool pin shapes manufactured used during
trial
C. Tool Holder:
IV. DESIGN CALCULATIONS
 Material : High Speed Steel, Diameter: 50 mm, Length:
A. Workpiece:
Material: Aluminium alloy grade approx. 6000 series
commercially known as Jindal quality aluminium, Thickness:
50 mm, Arrangement to hold the tool with 3/8 BSW
threading, Hardened duly to RC 55 to 62.
6 mm and 3 mm

Fig. 2: Aluminium Alloy AA 6063-T6

B. Tool:

Material: High Speed Steel (For 6 mm workpiece material) During experimentation we manufactured number of tools of

following different shapes: Straight circular threaded pin

7mm

diameter (left hand threaded), Straight circular pin 10

mm

diameter (right hand threaded), Triflux type pin

(triangular), Left hand straight circular threaded 15 mm diameter, Tapered threaded: For 3 mm workpiece material,.

Out of which, during FSW with first four types of tool, there

were problems of chip formation and improper welding. So

finally it has decided to use tapered threaded pin and high speed motor and we got satisfactory result.

Fig. 5: Tool Holder

D. Machine Bed:

Material: Mild Steel, Length: 14 inch, Width: 9 inch, Height: 8.5 inch, Screw length: 24 inch, Diameter of screw: 24 mm, Threading length: 13 inch, Travel: 6 inch, Guide bar: 20 mm diameter, length 14 inch, Distance between guide bar: 96-96.05 mm

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“Redesign and Modification of Conventional Drilling Machine for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys” (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/495)

of Aluminium Alloys” (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/495) Fig. 6: Machine bed with backup plate arrangement Fig. 7:

Fig. 6: Machine bed with backup plate arrangement

Fig. 6: Machine bed with backup plate arrangement Fig. 7: The Fabricated Setup E. Drilling Machine:

Fig. 7: The Fabricated Setup

E. Drilling Machine:  Three phase induction motor with 5000 rpm, 415volts, 1hp motor F.
E.
Drilling Machine:
Three phase induction motor with 5000 rpm, 415volts,
1hp motor
F.
Force Calculation:
 Factor of safety = 1.2
Permissible shear stress for tool= ζ = (Yield strength)/ (f.o.s.)
ζ = ( 420 * 10^6)/1.2
= 350 MPa
Permissible shear stress for workpiece = ζ = (Yield strength)/
(F.o.s.)
ζ = ( 310 * 10^6)/1.2
=258.33 MPa
Assuming the following,
 Welding Length (WL)= 150 mm
 Time consumed during welding ( t ) = 60 sec
 Welding speed (WS) = (WL)/t = (150)/6= 2.5 mm/s
 F= μ*p (where,μ-coeff. f friction, p- contact pressure, F-
force)
 σt = Syt/FOS (Syt- ultimate tensile strength, σt-tensile
stress )
Fig. 8: CAD model of actual setup
This fabricated setup is used for joining of aluminium alloy
of 6063-T6 (6000 series) commercially known as Jindal
aluminium in Indian industrial market. For good welding,
edges of plates are suitably shaped and prepared. Dust, dirt
and oil also removed from its surface. During FSW of
specified material plate, due to different defects in welding
portion we changed shape of tool time to time and tried to get
expected result.
= 650*10^6/2
= 325MPa
VI. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
 σt = F/A

F =σt *A

= 325*1.9634*10^-3

P =F/μ

= 16.25/1.5

= 10.833MPa

= 638.1kN

Heat rejected(Q) =2/3*P*μ*ω*Ԥ *(Rs^3- Rp^3)

=276.12kJ

V. DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING OF FRICTION STIR WELDING SETUP

In this work we have used the conventional drilling machine for the operating the tool due to its high rpm and torque. Figure 7 & 8 shows the setup developed for friction stir welding on conventional drilling machine. To develop this setup we manufactured machine bed for mounting the backup plate, backup plate (vice) for holding the workiece during process, welding tool, tool holder, lead screw as per specifications from design calculations. Initial bed was replaced by newly fabricated one and above which backup plate is mounted. Tool is press fitted in tool holder which is specially fabricated for FSW tool which can be rotated with help of electrical motor and pulley belt arrangement.

This paper has describes the design procedure of components required to reconfigure drilling machine into and its effective use as FSW machine. It can be concluded that tool rotational speed and tool pin shape play a very important role in obtaining better mechanical properties for the weld joints. Machine is energy efficient. It can be used by semiskilled personnel to produce a satisfactory weld. In this way we successfully tried to reconfigure and utilize a vertical drilling machine to produce friction stir processing of aluminium and friction stir welds of aluminium and copper.

REFERENCES

[1] Sagar Patel, Prof.Krunal Modi, Prof.Mayur Mirani (2014), A Review-“Friction Stir Welding of AA6061 Aluminum Alloy using Drilling Machine,” IJLTEMAS, Volume III, Issue XI, pp 33-37. [2] Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, P. K. Bharti, Pramod Kumar (2014), “Friction Stir Welding as a Joining Process through Modified Conventional Milling Machine: A Review”, IJIRD, Vol 3, Issue 7, pp 149-153. [3] Eur.Ing. C.E.D.Rowe, Wayne Thomas (2005), “Advances in Tooling Materials for Friction Stir Welding”, TWI and Cedar Metals Ltd., pp 1-11.

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“Redesign and Modification of Conventional Drilling Machine for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys” (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/495)

[4] R. Rai, A. De, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and T. DebRoy

(2011), “Review: friction stir welding tools”, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, VOL 16, NO 4, pp 325-342. Carl D. Sorensen and Tracy W. Nelson (2007), “Friction

[5]

Stir Welding of Ferrous and Nickel Alloys”, ASM International, pp 111-120. [6] M.A. Siddiqui, S.A.H. Jafri, M. Qazzafi, Mohd Abu Bakr, Mohd Deen, Mohd Afsar, Mohd Bilal (2015), “Friction Stir Welding Through Fabricated Setup By Using Conventional Hand Drilling Machine”, IJRD, Vol 2, ISSUE 5, Paper 16, pp 82-86. [7] A M Khourshid and I Sabry (2013), “Friction Stir Welding Study On Aluminum Pipe”, IJMERR, ISSN 2278 0149, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp 331-339. [8] R.S. Mishra, Z.Y. Ma (2005), “Friction stir welding and processing”, Materials Science and Engineering, R50, pp

178.

[9] Rajiv S. Mishra, Murray W. Mahoney, Textbook on “Friction Stir Welding and Processing”.

Murray W. Mahoney, Textbook on “Friction Stir Welding and Processing”. All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1769
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