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Module 1: Overview of Vibration Controlsd


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

The Lecture Contains:


Control of Vibration
Various Active and Passive Control Strategies
Reduction of excitation at the source
Isolation of the Source
System Redesign
Remedial Measures

Steps in Vibration Control

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Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Control of Vibration
Control of vibration or vibration suppression is possible using various passive and active methods
Passive action is independent of the resulting vibration Open Loop System.
Active method is dependent on the resulting vibration Closed Loop System.

Various Active and Passive Control Strategies

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Reduction of excitation at the source


Examples:
Balancing of unbalanced inertia forces rotors, engines
Changing the flow characteristics for flow induced vibrations
Reducing friction, avoiding vortex shedding to reduce self-excitation,
Reduce parameter variation for parametric excitation
Source provides the energy to maintain vibration. sources of vibration could be of several types:

Transient for e.g. shock loading


Forced excitation Source (continuous) independent of Response
Self-excited Source generated by the Response for e.g. vortex induced vibration.
Parametric excitation System parameters (m,c or k ) change with respect to time.

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Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

(ii) Isolation of the source


Modify the transmission path of vibration between source and the system to protect the system.
Example - Insertion of resilient elements Springs, Dampers, Viscoelastic Materials, Pneumatic
Suspension etc. between the source and the system.
Very often vibration isolators are developed using a combination of springs and dampers. For example,
viscoelastic materials are bonded to metal fasteners and used as anti-vibration mounts or isolators. The
construction of a typical bonded rubber spring for use under compressive loading is shown below.

A Typical Anti-vibration mount

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

(iii) System modification


A large number of methods exist in this group including detuning, decoupling, using additive damping
treatments ( constrained and unconstrained ), stiffeners and massive blocks (as foundation)
Consider the motion of the following single degree of freedom (SDOF) system:

(I) At low frequency the vibration is:

Stiffness controlled

(II) Near resonance, the vibration is

Damping Controlled

(III) Aat high frequency, the vibration is

Inertia Controlled

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Redesign of a Vibrating System


Redesign of a vibrating system involves modelling of materials - generally
Structural materials: metals and alloys
Viscoelastic polymers: natural and synthetic rubbers (with additive)

For metals and alloys:


Stiffness is a function of elastic moduli ( E, G, K ) and the geometric dimensions depending on the type
of loading and deformation (bending, twisting etc.)
Damping and Loss Factor are generally constant.
Inertia depends on Density and Geometry.
Density
(kg/m 3 )

E
GPa

Loss factor
O()

AI

2.7 10 3

70

10 -5

Brass

8.5 10 3

104

10 -4

Steel

7.8 10 3

210

10 -3

Cu

8.9 10 3

103

10 -2

Cu-Mn
(40 - 60)

7.2 10 3

84

10 -2

Concrete
(dense)

2.3 10 3

27

10 -2

Materials

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Viscoelastic Materials
Viscoelastic materials: butyl rubber, plasticized polyvinyl acetate, silicon rubber, polyurethane, thiokol
RD etc.
Stiffness and Damping properties for viscoelastic materials are frequency and temperature dependent
due to transition from Glassy to Rubbery Phase.

Thiokol RD:
The loss factor is 2 corresponding
to a critical frequency of 7 Hz at
5 0 C and around 800 Hz at 20 0 C.

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Viscoelastic Materials
A qualitative plot of loss coefficient vs, Young's modulus for different classes of materials is shown
here for comparison.

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

(iv) Use of Additive Layers


This involves addition of a secondary vibratory system to the original (primary) vibratory system which is
under excitation. Some secondary systems are vibration neutralizer, vibration absorber, tuned, selftuned, impact absorbers. This strategy has been successfully used for suppressing vibration in very
small to very large systems.
Examples: electric hair clippers, DC-9 aircraft, tractors, foot bridges, pipelines etc.
Viscoelastic materials are used as additive damping treatments: constrained and unconstrained layers

Extensional and shear deformation of the damping layer

Often spacers are designed to enhance extensional damping

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Objectives_template

Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Steps in Vibration Control:


A. Identification and characterization of the source of vibration.
B. Specify the level to which the vibration should be reduced.
C. Select the method appropriate for realizing the vibration reduction level identified in step B.
D. Prepare an analytical design based on the method chosen in step C.
E. Realize in practice (i.e. hardware mechanization of) the analytical design constructed in step D.

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Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Step A: Identification and characterization of the source of vibration

Note : Often for a linear system, the analysis of the response helps in determining the nature of the
excitation. As shown here, the response can be analysed either in time domain or in frequency domain.

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Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Step B - Identify suitable response variable and decide on the accepted level of
vibration
Different design manuals/handbooks are available which corresponds to acceptable level of vibration for
specified field of applications. The table below is an excerpt of some of the frequently encountered
applications and corresponding accepted level of vibration.

Source

Total equivalent
acceleration, m/s 2

Hand tools

Guideline 5 m/s 2

Impact drill

10 - 110

Rock drill

5 - 13

Rail saw

3-6

Steel plate cutter

4 - 20

Chain saw

2-5

Grinder

1-3

Bench grinder

15

Bolt and nut wrench

5 - 15

Concrete vibrators

5 -20

Vehicles

Guideline 1.15 m/s 2

Excavator

1-5

Caterpillar with push plate

1-3

Motor sledge

2-5

Terrain vehicle

3-5

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Module 1: Overview of Vibration Control


Lecture 2: Strategies of Vibration Control

Step C: Choice of a Method of Vibration Control


To control vibration effectively one can choose any of the five methods as discussed earlier or a
combination of these methods.

Steps D and E will be discussed from Module 2 onwards. In the next lecture, we will discuss
method (iv) and (v) of vibration control.

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