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SCOTTISH HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner


Subject, Grade, Level: IB1 HL
Unit No. and/or Title: Physics and Physical Measurement (Unit 1)
Time Frame and Duration: Term -1, 5 hours)
Teacher: ALKA MAHAJAN_ _______________________
Significant concept(s): 1.1 The realm of physics, 1.2 Measurement and uncertainties, 1.3 Vectors and scalars
Understandings/learner's profile
Fundamental and derived SI units
Scientific notation and metric multipliers
Significant figures
Orders of magnitude
Estimation
Random and systematic errors
Absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties
Error bars
Uncertainty of gradient and intercepts
Vector and scalar quantities
Combination and resolution of vectors

and

Aim 2 and 3: this is a fundamental aspect of scientific language that allows for spatial representation
manipulation of abstract concepts
Aim 2 and 3: this is an essential area of knowledge that allows scientists to collaborate across the

globe

Aim 4 and 5: a common approach to expressing results of analysis, evaluation and synthesis of
scientific
information enables greater sharing and collaboration
Aim 4: it is important that students see scientific errors and uncertainties not only as the range of
possible
answers but as an integral part of the scientific process
Aim 9: the process of using uncertainties in classical physics can be compared to the view of
uncertainties

in modern (and particularly quantum) physics


Aim 7: There are some excellent simulations to illustrate this.
Aim 7: This is an opportunity to show how spreadsheets are commonly used to calculate and draw error
bars on graph

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):


Range of magnitudes of quantities in our universe
1.1.1 State and compare quantities to the nearest order of magnitude.
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1.1.2 State the ranges of magnitude of distances, masses and times that occur in the universe, from smallest to greatest.
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1.1.3 State ratios of quantities as differences of orders of magnitude.
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1.1.4 Estimate approximate values of everyday quantities to one or two significant figures and/or to the nearest order of
magnitude.
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1.2 Measurement and uncertainties
2 hours
The SI system of fundamental and derived units
1.2.1 State the fundamental units in the SI system.
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1.2.2 Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units.
1.2.3 Convert between different units of quantities.
1.2.4 State units in the accepted SI format.
1.2.5 State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes.
Uncertainty and error in measurement
1.2.6 Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors.
1.2.7 Distinguish between precision and accuracy.
1.2.8 Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced.
1.2.9 Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures.
Uncertainties in calculated results
1.2.10 State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.
1.2.11 Determine the uncertainties in results.

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obj.1
obj.1
obj.2
obj.2
obj.3
obj.2
obj.1

obj.3

Uncertainties in graphs
1.2.12 Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
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1.2.13 State random uncertainty as an uncertainty ranges (}) and represent it graphically as an error bar.obj.1
1.2.14 Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
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1.3 Vectors and scalars
1.3.1 Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities, and give examples of each.
1.3.2 Determine the sum or difference of two vectors by a graphical method.
1.3.3 Resolve vectors into perpendicular components along chosen axes.

2 hours

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Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives ( from subject guide)


Theory of knowledge:
What has influenced the common language used in science? To what extent does having a common standard approach to
measurement facilitate the sharing of knowledge in physics?
One aim of the physical sciences has been to give an exact picture of the material world. One achievement of physics in
the twentieth century has been to prove that this aim is unattainable. Jacob Bronowski. Can scientists ever be truly
certain of their discoveries?
What is the nature of certainty and proof in mathematics?
This is a very stimulating area for a discussion of ways of knowing.
Data and its limitations is a fruitful area for discussion.
International-mindedness:
Vector notation forms the basis of mapping across the globe
Scientific collaboration is able to be truly global without the restrictions of national borders or language due to the agreed
standards for data representation
Interdisciplinary links:
This topic is able to be integrated into any topic taught at the start of the course and is important to all topics
Students studying more than one group 4 subject will be able to use these skills across all subjects
Mathematical studies SL sub-topics 1.21.4
Navigation and surveying ( Geography SL/HL syllabus: Geographic skills)
Force and field strength (Physics sub-topics 2.2, 5.1, 6.1 and 10.1)
Vectors ( Mathematics HL sub-topic 4.1; Mathematics SL sub-topic 4.1)

Learner's profile They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions. They are reflective when they peer
evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab reports. They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different
problems. They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own

Assessment Evidence

Summative /Formative Assessment Task(s):


Lab work
Vernier calipers
Screw gauge
Pendulum
Law of parallelogram of vectors
Class work
Homework
test.
Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies

Formative Assessment Tasks:


Class work
Home work

1. Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the beginning of the unit. Every day at the
beginning of the class, expected questions/goal will be written on the board.
2. Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea about the students prior knowledge. They
will be asked to do a prior reading about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room discussions,
take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
3. Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions from past papers.
4. Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to write proper IB lab report. Hand outs
with sample problems and more and more practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
5. The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who finish all the class works fast will get
some challenging problems to solve. For the others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the
students know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all meaning of important vocabularies
on board, using ICT and/or address information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software, Simulations
using java applets.
6. Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links (TOK, other subjects). Mentioning the
topics learned in mathematics.
7. At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and comment on the part of the topic they
enjoyed and the part of the topic they found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.

Mentioning the topics learned in mathematics

Resources
Worksheets/handouts
Text book(T sokos and Oxford study guide)
U tube video
Ppt
Different lab equipments and simulations for the labs.
Reflections and Evaluations

Students were given enough practice of solving /finding uncertainties/errors in different physical quantities.
Except Arjun, no one could score full marks in the assignment (prepared from past year papers). Since this topic is very important
not only for Physics but also for other group 4 subjects, so students were given more practice/assignments
(Extra time given).
Question A1 from all past year papers allowed the students to demonstrate the learning objectives of the chapter. Students did
non graded/graded lab activities as formative assessment.
They were comfortable in answering questions according to IB expectations.
Resources
Resources were appropriate. YouTube accessibility is necessary as well as java applets (PhET).

PREPARED BY ALKA MAHAJAN

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner
Subject, Grade, Level: Physics IB1(HL)
Unit No. and/or Title: Unit 2, Mechanics
Time Frame and Duration: Term 1 (17 hours)
Teacher: Alka Mahajan

Significant concept(s):
2.1 Kinematics, 2.2 Forces and dynamics, 2.3 Work, energy and power, 2.4 Uniform circular
motion

Understanding (s)
Distance and displacement
Speed and velocity
Acceleration

Aims
Aim 2: much of the development of classical physics
has been built on the advances in kinematics
Aim 7: technology has allowed for more accurate and

precise measurements of motion, including video


Graphs describing motion
analysis of real-life projectiles and modeling
Equations of motion for uniform
/simulations of terminal velocity
acceleration
Aims 2 and 3: Newtons work is often described by
Projectile motion
the quote from a letter he wrote to his rival, Robert
Fluid resistance and terminal
Hooke, 11 years before the publication of Philosophi
speed Objects as point particles
Naturalis Principia
Free-body diagrams
Mathematica, which states: What Descartes did was
Translational equilibrium
a good step. You have added much several ways, and
Newtons laws of motion
especially in taking the colours of thin plates into
Solid friction
philosophical consideration. If I have seen a little
Kinetic energy
further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants. It
should be remembered that this quote is also inspired,
Gravitational potential energy
this time by writers who had been using versions of it
Elastic potential energy
for at least 500 years before Newtons time.
Work done as energy transfer
Aim 8: by linking this sub-topic with topic 8, students
Power as rate of energy transfer
should be aware of the importance of efficiency and
Principle of conservation of
its impact of conserving the fuel used for energy
energy Efficiency
production
Newtons second law expressed
Aim 3: conservation laws in science disciplines have
in terms of rate of change of
played a major role in outlining the limits within which
momentum
scientific theories are developed
Impulse and forcetime graphs
Aim 7: technology has allowed for more accurate and
Conservation of linear
precise measurements of force and momentum,
momentum Elastic collisions,
including video analysis of real-life collisions and
inelastic collisions and
modeling /simulations of molecular collisions
explosions
Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):
Students will be able to:
2.1.1 Define displacement, velocity, speed and acceleration.
2.1.2 Explain the difference between instantaneous and average values of speed, velocity and
acceleration.
2.1.3 Outline the conditions under which the equations for uniformly accelerated motion may be
applied.
2.1.4 Identify the acceleration of a body falling in a vacuum near the Earths surface with the
acceleration g of free fall.
2.1.5 Solve problems involving the equations of uniformly accelerated motion.
2.1.6 Describe the effects of air resistance on falling objects..
2.1.7 Draw and analyse distancetime graphs, displacementtime graphs, velocitytime graphs
and accelerationtime graphs.

2.1.8 Calculate and interpret the gradients of displacementtime graphs and


velocitytime graphs, and the areas under velocitytime graphs and accelerationtime graphs.
2.1.9 Determine relative velocity in one and in two dimensions.
2.2 Forces and dynamics
2.2.1 Calculate the weight of a body using the expression W = mg.
2.2.2 Identify the forces acting on an object and draw free-body diagrams
representing the forces acting.
2.2.3 Determine the resultant force in different situations.
2.2.4 State Newtons first law of motion.
2.2.5 Describe examples of Newtons first law.
2.2.6 State the condition for translational equilibrium.
2.2.7 Solve problems involving translational equilibrium.
2.2.8 State Newtons second law of motion.
2.2.9 Solve problems involving Newtons second law.
2.2.10 Define linear momentum and impulse.
2.2.11 Determine the impulse due to a time-varying force by interpreting a
forcetime graph.
2.2.12 State the law of conservation of linear momentum.
2.2.13 Solve problems involving momentum and impulse.
2.2.14 State Newtons third law of motion.
2.2.15 Discuss examples of Newtons third law.
2.3 Work, energy and power
2.3.1 Outline what is meant by work.
2.3.2 Determine the work done by a non-constant force by interpreting a forcedisplacement
graph.
2.3.3 Solve problems involving the work done by a force.
2.3.4 Outline what is meant by kinetic energy.
2.3.5 Outline what is meant by change in gravitational potential energy.
2.3.6 State the principle of conservation of energy.
2.3.7 List different forms of energy and describe examples of the transformation of energy from
one form to another.
2.3.8 Distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions.
2.3.9 Define power.
2.3.10 Define and apply the concept of efficiency.
2.3.11 Solve problems involving momentum, work, energy and power.
2.4 Uniform circular motion
2.4.1 Draw a vector diagram to illustrate that the acceleration of a particle moving with constant
speed in a circle is directed towards the centre of the circle.

2.4.2 Apply the expression for centripetal acceleration.


2.4.3 Identify the force producing circular motion in various situations.
2.4.4 Solve problems involving circular motion.

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):

Theory of Knowledge: The development of the laws of motion raises interesting issues
relating to correlation and cause and scientific theories.
Classical physics believed that the whole of the future of the universe could be predicted
from knowledge of the present state. To what ex-tent can knowledge of the present give
us knowledge of the future?
To what extent is scientific knowledge based on fundamental concepts such as energy?
What happens to scientific knowledge when our under-standing of such fundamental
concepts changes or evolves?
Do conservation laws restrict or enable further development in physics?
The independence of horizontal and vertical motion in projectile motion seems to be
counter-intuitive. How do scientists work around their intuitions? How do scientists make
use of their intuitions?
International mindedness:
International cooperation is needed for tracking shipping, land based transport,
aircraft and objects in space
Automobile passive safety standards have been adopted across the globe based
on research conducted in many countries
Interdisciplinary links:
Quadratic functions and kinematic equations - Maths
Energy is also covered in other group 4 subjects
Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their

lab

reports. They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.

They
are principled when they write their lab reports on their own

Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Lab work
Experiments, including use of data
logging,
determination of g,
estimating speed using travel
timetables, analyzing projectile motion,
investigating motion through a fluid
verification of Newtons second law
investigating forces in equilibrium;
determination of the effects of friction
relationship of kinetic and gravitational
potential energy for a falling mass;
power and efficiency of mechanical
objects;
comparison of different situations
involving elastic potential energy
analysis of collisions with respect to
energy transfer;
impulse investigations to determine
velocity, force, time, or mass;
determination of amount of
transformed energy in inelastic collision
End of unit -test

Formative Assessment Tasks:


Group activities
Class work
Home work

Learning plan and teaching strategies


Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.
Resources to be used/needed throughout this unit
Worksheets/handout, U tube video and Ppt
Reflections and Evaluations
Students understood most of the concepts of chapter 2. They were comfortable with the
mathematical part because they understand the concept of differentiation and integration.
Vikram again had difficulty in solving problems. They all were asked to solve problems from past
papers and show. The lab writing skills has improved for the students.
Problems from IB question bank allowed the students to demonstrate the learning objectives of
the chapter. Students did non graded lab activities as formative assessment.

Resources -All the resources were appropriate and relevant.


D BY ALKA M

SCOTTISH HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner
Subject, Grade, Level: IB1 HL
Unit No. and/or Title: Thermal Physics (Topic 3)
Time Frame and Duration: Term -2, 7 hours)
Teacher: ALKA MAHAJAN_ ________________________
Significant concept(s): 3.1 Thermal concepts; 3.2 Thermal properties of matter
Understanding (s)/aims
The students will get ideas about
Basic terminology regarding Thermal
Physics.
Difference between macroscopic and
microscopic definition of heat and
temperature.
Specific heat capacity and latent heat.
Different formula and their application
related to thermal Physics
Experiments based on calorimetric
equations.
Aim 3: an understanding of thermal concepts is
a fundamental aspect of many areas of science
Aim 3: this is a good topic to make comparisons
between empirical and theoretical thinking in
science

DP Unit Question(s):
Why temperature of ice does
not change while melting?
Why do we sweat in summer?

PREPARE

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):


Students will be able to:
3.1.1 State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two
objects.
3.1.2 State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature.
3.1.3 State that the internal energy of a substance is the total potential energy and random
kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance.
3.1.4 Explain and distinguish between the macroscopic concepts of temperature, internal energy
and thermal energy (heat).
3.1.5 Define the mole and molar mass.
3.1.6 Define the Avogadro constant.
3.2.1 Define specific heat capacity and thermal capacity.
3.2.2 Solve problems involving specific heat capacities and thermal capacities.
3.2.3 Explain the physical differences between the solid, liquid and gaseous phases in terms of
molecular structure and particle motion.
3.2.4 Describe and explain the process of phase changes in terms of molecular behaviour.
3.2.5 Explain in terms of molecular behaviour why temperature does not change during a phase
change.
3.2.6 Distinguish between evaporation and boiling.
3.2.7 Define specific latent heat.
3.2.8 Solve problems involving specific latent heats.
3.2.9 Define pressure.
3.2.10 State the assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas.
3.2.11 State that temperature is a measure of the average random kinetic energy of the
molecules of an ideal gas.
3.2.12 Explain the macroscopic behavior of an ideal gas in terms of a molecular
model.

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):

TOK:
We always use models and simulations to explain the behavior of objects that we
can not see. How far do these models and simulations work?
The gas laws are based on assumptions and they are approximated. Is it possible
to get any accurate gas laws?
Observation through sense perception plays a key role in making measurements.
Does sense perception play different roles in different areas of knowledge?
When does modeling of ideal situations become good enough to count as
knowledge?
International mindness:
Melting of iceberg in warmer water
Existence of water under ice in cold regions.
The topic of thermal physics is a good example of the use of international systems
of measurement that allow scientists to collaborate effectively
Interdisciplinary links:
Chemistry- Concept of mole, atomic structure, exothermic and endothermic
reactions. Particulate nature of matter ( Chemistry sub-topic 1.3) measuring
energy
changes ( Chemistry sub-topic 5.1) Consideration of thermodynamic processes is
essential to many areas of chemistry ( Chemistry sub-topic 1.3)
Math: Solving equations, Plotting graphs
Biology: Existence of life in the polar region in winter. Respiration processes (
Biology
sub-topic D.6),Water ( Biology sub-topic 2.2)
Learner's profile They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer
TOK
questions. They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try
to
improve their lab reports. They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they
explore
different problems. They are principled when they write their lab reports on their
own.

Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:
Group activities like labs
Lab work (on power of heater , sp latent
Class work
heat of ice, sp. heat of copper etc.)
Home work
transfer of energy due to temperature
quizzes
difference; calorimetric investigations;
energy involved in phase changes
verification of gas laws;
calculation of the Avogadro constant;
virtual investigation of gas law
parameters not possible within a school
laboratory setting
test
Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies
Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,

Simulations using java applets.

Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links


(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.

Resources
Worksheets/handouts
Text book(T sokos and Oxford study guide)
U tube video
Ppt
Different lab equipments and simulations for the following labs.
1.Friction generates heat simulation
2.p,v.T relationship simulation
5. power of heater lab
6.Temperature of the flame of a burner lab
7. Specific latent heat of fusion of ice lab

Reflections and Evaluations


Arjun, Yuvraj and Rahul were comfortable with the basic concepts of chapter 3. Vikram took
more time to understand and had difficulty in solving problems related to this topic. In general
they found it hard to understand the microscopic and macroscopic definition of heat and
temperature.
Problems from IB question bank/past year papers allowed the students to demonstrate the
learning objectives of the chapter. Students did non graded lab activities as formative
assessment.
They were finding it hard to answer questions according to IB expectations. Since it was a
combined class, I decided not to do the related AHL topic after finishing topic 3.
Resources
All the resources were appropriate and relevant.
PREPARED BY ALKA MAHAJAN

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner
Subject, Grade, Level: IB1HL
Unit No. and/or Title: Unit 4,&11 Oscillation and waves and wave phenomena
Time Frame and Duration: Term 2 and Term 3(22 hours)(Red portions are done in term 2)
Teacher: _Alka Mahajan
Significant concept(s):
4.1 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion (SHM); 4.2 Energy changes during simple harmonic
motion (SHM); 4.3 Forced oscillations and resonance; 4.4 Wave characteristics; 4.5 Wave
properties; 11.1 Standing (stationary) waves; 11.2 Doppler effect; 11.3 Diffraction; 11.4
Resolution; 11.5 Polarization,
Understanding (s)/aims
DP Unit Question(s):
The students will get ideas about
Is it possible to shatter a wine
Basic terminology regarding oscillation.
glass by tour voice?
Practical examples of oscillations
Does light actually travel in a
straight line?
Law of conservation of momentum and
How does a police radar speed
energy
trap work?
Different formula and their application
Why do you use polarizing
related to oscillation.
sunglasses?
Types of waves and different properties
of waves like reflection, refraction,
interference, diffraction, resolution and
polarization.
Aim 7: IT skills can be used to model the simple
harmonic motion defining equation; this gives
valuable insight into the meaning of the
equation itself
Aim 2: there is a common body of knowledge
and techniques involved in wave theory that is
applicable across many areas of physics
Aim 4: there are opportunities for the analysis

of data to arrive at some of the models in this


section from first principles
Aim 3: these universal behaviors of waves are
applied in later sections of the course in more
advanced topics, allowing students to generalize
the various types of waves
Aim 7: use of computer modeling enables
students to observe wave motion in three
dimensions as well as being able to more
accurately adjust wave characteristics in
superposition demonstrations
Aim 1: the historical aspects of this topic are
still relevant science and provide valuable
insight into the work of earlier scientists
Aim 8: the increasing use of digital data and its
storage density has implications on individual
privacy through the permanence of a digital
foot-print
Aim 3: students are able to both physically
observe and qualitatively measure the locations
of nodes and antinodes, following the
investigative techniques of early scientists and
musicians
Aim 8: the international dimension of the
application of standing waves is important in
music
Aim 4: students can use this topic to develop
their ability to synthesize complex and diverse
scientific information
Aim 7: the observation of simple harmonic
motion and the variables affected can be easily
followed in computer simulations
Aim 2: this topic provides a body of knowledge
that characterizes the way that science is
subject to modification with time
Aim 4: two scientific concepts (diffraction and
interference) come together in this sub-topic,
allowing students to analyze and synthesize a
wider range of scientific information

Aim 9: the ray approach to the description of


thin film interference is only an approximation.
Students should recognize the limitations of
such visualization.
Aim 3: this sub-topic helps bridge the gap
between wave theory and real-life applications
Aim 8: the need for communication between
national communities via satellites raises the
awareness of the social and economic
implications of technology
Aim 2: the Doppler effect needs to be
considered in various applications of technology
that utilize wave theory
Aim 7: computer simulations of the Doppler
effect allow students to visualize complex and
mostly unobservable situations
Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):
Students will be able to:
4.1.1 Describe examples of oscillations.
4.1.2 Define the terms displacement, amplitude, frequency, period and phase difference.
4.1.3 Define simple harmonic motion (SHM) and state the defining equation. Find solutions to the
defining equation for SHM.
4.1.6 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, for acceleration, velocity and
displacement during SHM.
4.2.1 Describe the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy during SHM.
4.2.2 Apply the expressions for the kinetic energy,, potential energy and total energy of a
particle undergoing SHM,
4.2.3 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, involving energy changes during SHM
4.2.1 Describe the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy during SHM.
4.2.2 Apply the expressions for the kinetic energy,, potential energy and total energy of a
particle undergoing SHM,
4.2.3 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, involving energy changes during SHM
4.4.1 Describe a wave pulse and a continuous progressive (travelling)wave.
4.4.2 State that progressive (travelling) waves transfer energy.
4.4.3 Describe and give examples of transverse and of longitudinal waves.
4.4.4 Describe waves in two dimensions, including the concepts of wavefronts and of rays.
4.4.5 Describe the terms crest, trough, compression and rarefaction.
4.4.6 Define the terms displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, wavelength, wave speed and
intensity.

4.4.7 Draw and explain displacementtime graphs and displacementposition graphs for
transverse and for longitudinal waves.
4.4.8 Derive and apply the relationship between wave speed, wavelength and frequency.
4.4.9 State that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in free space, and recall
the orders of magnitude of the wavelengths of the principal radiations in the electromagnetic
spectrum.
4.5.1 Describe the reflection and transmission of waves at a boundary between two media.
4.5.2 State and apply Snells law. 2 Students should be able to define refractive index in terms of
the ratio of the speeds of the wave in the two media and also in terms of the angles of incidence
and refraction.
4.5.3 Explain and discuss qualitatively the diffraction of waves at apertures and obstacles.
4.5.4 Describe examples of diffraction.
4.5.5 State the principle of superposition and explain what is meant by constructive interference
and by destructive interference.
4.5.6 State and apply the conditions for constructive and for destructive interference in terms of
path difference and phase difference.
4.5.7 Apply the principle of superposition to determine the resultant of two waves.
11.1.1 Describe the nature of standing (stationary) waves.
11.1.2 Explain the formation of one-dimensional standing waves.
11.1.3 Discuss the modes of vibration of strings and air in open and in closed pipes.
11.1.4 Compare standing waves and travelling waves.
11.1.5 Solve problems involving standing waves.
11.2.1 Describe what is meant by the Doppler effect.
11.2.2 Explain the Doppler effect by reference to wavefront diagrams for moving-detector and
moving-source situations.
11.2.3 Apply the Doppler effect equations for sound.
11.2.4 Solve problems on the Doppler effect for sound.
11.2.5 Solve problems on the Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves using the approximation
11.2.6 Outline an example in which the Doppler effect is used to measure speed.
Term 3
11.3.1 Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction of the relative intensity of light diffracted at
a single slit.
11.3.2 Derive the formula = /b for the position of the first minimum of the diffraction pattern
produced at a single slit.
11.3.3 Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction.
11.4.1 Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction of the relative intensity of light emitted by
two point sources that has been diffracted at a single slit.
11.4.2 State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be just resolved.
1 Students should know that the criterion for a circular aperture is =1.22 /b
11.4.3 Describe the significance of resolution in the development of devices such as CDs and

DVDs, the electron microscope and radio telescopes.


11.4.4 Solve problems involving resolution.
11.5.1 Describe what is meant by polarized light.
11.5.2 Describe polarization by reflection. This may be illustrated using light or microwaves. The
use of polarized sunglasses should be included.
11.5.3 State and apply Brewsters law.
11.5.4 Explain the terms polarizer and analyser.
11.5.5 Calculate the intensity of a transmitted beam of polarized light using Malus law.
11.5.6 Describe what is meant by an optically active substance.
11.5.7 Describe the use of polarization in the determination of the concentration of certain
solutions.
11.5.8 Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis.
11.5.9 Outline qualitatively the action of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs).
11.5.10 Solve problems involving the polarization of light.
Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):
TOK: What is light? Is it a wave or a particle?
Can an experiment prove a law?
The harmonic oscillator is a paradigm for modeling where a simple equation is used to
describe a complex phenomenon. How do scientists know when a simple model is not
detailed enough for their requirements?
Scientists often transfer their perception of tangible and visible concepts to explain
similar non-visible concepts, such as in wave theory. How do scientists explain concepts
that have no tangible or visible quality?
Wavefronts and rays are visualizations that help our understanding of reality,
characteristic of modeling in the physical sciences. How does the methodology used in
the natural sciences differ from the methodology used in the human sciences?
How much detail does a model need to contain to accurately represent reality
Huygens and Newton proposed two competing theories of the behaviour of light. How
does the scientific community decide between competing theories?
There are close links between standing waves in strings and Schrodingers theory for the
probability amplitude of electrons in the atom. Application to superstring theory requires
standing wave patterns in 11 dimensions. What is the role of reason and imagination in
enabling scientists to visualize scenarios that are beyond our physical capabilities?
Are explanations in science different from explanations in other areas of knowledge such
as history?
Most two-slit interference descriptions can be made without reference to the one-slit
modulation effect. To what level can scientists ignore parts of a model for simplicity and
clarity?

How important is sense perception in explaining scientific ideas such as the Doppler
effect?
The resolution limits set by Dawes and Rayleigh are capable of being surpassed by the
construction of high quality telescopes. Are we capable of breaking other limits of
scientific knowledge with our advancing technology?
International mindness :
Working of a radio telescope to search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Uses of LCD are truly global and are found everywhere like in our watches, digital
clocks, calculators, televisions and many more places.
Oscillations are used to define the time systems on which nations agree so that
the world can be kept in synchronization. This impacts most areas of our lives
including the provision of electricity, travel and loca-tion-determining devices and
all microelectronics. Electromagnetic waves are used extensively for national and
international communication Characteristic wave behaviour has been used in
many cultures throughout human history, often tying closely to myths and legends
that formed the basis for early scientific studies
The art of music, which has its scientific basis in these ideas, is universal to all
cultures, past and present. Many musical instruments rely heavily on the
generation and manipulation of standing waves.
Satellite use for commercial and political purposes is dictated by the resolution
capabilities of the satellite
Radar usage is affected by the Doppler effect and must be considered for
applications using this technology
Interdisciplinary links:
The SHM equation can be obtained from the mathematical solution of the differential
equation. The concept of angle, graph plotting skills can be taught in mathematics class.
Sight ( Biology sub-topic A.2)
Fourier analysis allows us to describe all periodic oscillations in terms of simple harmonic
oscillators. The mathematics of simple harmonic motion is crucial to any areas of science
and technology where oscillations occur.
Quadratic functions (Mathematics HL sub-topic 2.6; Mathematics SL sub-topic 2.4;
Mathematical studies SL sub-topic 6.3)
Trigonometric functions (Mathematics SL sub-topic 3.4)
Astronomy relies on the analysis of the Doppler effect when dealing with fast moving
objects ( Physics option D)
Learner's profile They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer
TOKquestions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their

lab
They

reports. They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.

are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.
Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:
Lab work
Group activities
Class work
mass on a spring;
Home work
simple pendulum;
quizzes
motion on a curved air track

speed of waves in different media;


detection of electromagnetic waves from
various sources; use of echo methods (or
similar) for determining wave speed,
wavelength, distance, or medium
elasticity and/or density
observation of polarization under
different conditions, including the use of
microwaves;
superposition of waves;
representation of wave types using
physical models (eg slinky
demonstrations)
determination of refractive index and
application of Snells law;
determining conditions under which total
internal reflection may occur;
examination of diffraction patterns
through apertures and around obstacles;
investigation of the double-slit
experiment
observation of standing wave patterns in
physical objects (eg slinky springs);
prediction of harmonic locations in an air
tube in water; determining the frequency
of tuning forks;
observing or measuring vibrating
violin/guitar strings

investigation of simple or torsional


pendulums;
measuring the vibrations of a tuning fork;
By using the force law, a student can,
with iteration, determine the behaviour
of an object under simple harmonic
motion. The iterative approach
(numerical solution), with given initial
conditions, applies basic uniform
acceleration equations in successive
small time increments. At each
increment, final values become the
following initial conditions.
observing the use of diffraction gratings
in spectroscopes; analysis of thin soap
films;
sound wave and microwave interference
pattern analysis
End of unit - test
Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies
Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all

meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address


information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.

Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links


(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.
Resources

Worksheets/handouts
You tube video
Ppt
Different lab equipments for the following labs.
1.Pendulum lab
2.Spring motion simulation
3.Determunation of velocity of sound lab
4.paper clip pendulum design lab
5. Velocity of sound lab
6.Diffraction by grating lab
7. resolution lab.
8.Meldes experiment
9. investigate property of a rubberband
Reflections and Evaluations
Students understood most of the concepts of chapter 4. They were comfortable with the
mathematical part because they understand the concept of differentiation and
integration. Vikram had difficulty in solving problems. They all were asked to solve
problems from past papers and show. Analysis of spring motion using java simulation
helped the students to understand better. The lab writing skills is improving for the
students.
Problems from IB question bank allowed the students to demonstrate the learning
objectives
of the chapter. Students did non graded lab activities as formative assessment.
They were finding it hard to answer questions according to IB expectations.
Resources
All the resources were appropriate and relevant.

PREPARED BY ALKA MAHAJA

SCOTTISH HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner

Subject, Grade, Level: IB2 HL


Unit No. and/or Title: Electric currents (Topic 5)
Time Frame and Duration: Term -3, 7 hours)
Teacher: ALKA MAHAJAN_ ________________________
Significant concept(s): 5.1 Electric potential difference, current and resistance, 5.2 Electric
circuits
Learner's profile
The students should be/will be able to
Define current in terms of the force per
unit length between parallel current
carrying conductors.
Aware that R = V/I is a general definition
of resistance. It is not a statement of
Ohms law.
Understand what is meant by resistor.
Draw the IV characteristics of an ohmic
resistor and a filament lamp.
Understand combinations of resistors and
also complete circuits involving internal

Understanding (s)/aims
Aim 2: electrical theory lies at the heart of
much modern science and engineering
Aim 3: advances in electrical theory have
brought immense change to all societies
Aim 7: use of computer simulations would
enable students to measure microscopic
interactions that are typically very difficult in
a school laboratory situation
Aim 2: electrical theory and its approach to
macro and micro effects characterizes much
of the physical approach taken in the analysis
of the universe

resistance.
Recognize and use the accepted circuit
symbols.
Explain sensors which include lightdependent resistors (LDRs), negative
temperature coefficient (NTC)
thermistors and strain gauges.
Appreciate that many circuit problems
may be solved by regarding the circuit as
a potential divider.
Aware that ammeters and voltmeters
have their own resistance.

Aim 3: electrical techniques, both practical


and theoretical, provide a relatively simple
opportunity for students to develop a feeling
for the arguments of physics
Aim 7: there are many software and online
options for constructing simple and complex
circuits quickly to investigate the effect of
using different components within a circuit.

Aim 8: although cell technology can supply


electricity without direct contribution from
national grid systems (and the inherent
carbon output is-sues), safe disposal of
batteries and the chemicals they use can
introduce land and water pollution problems
Aim 10: improvements in cell technology has
been through collaboration with chemists

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):


Students will be able to:
5.1.1 Define electric potential difference.
obj. 1
5.1.2 Determine the change in potential energy when a charge moves between two points at
different potentials.
obj.3
5.1.3 Define the electronvolt.
obj.1
5.1.4 Solve problems involving electric potential difference.
obj. 3
5.1.5 Define electric current.
obj. 1 5.1.6 Define resistance.
obj.1 5.1.7 Apply the equation for resistance in the form R= L/ A where is the resistivity of
the material of the resistor.
obj. 2
5.1.8 State Ohms law.
obj.1
5.1.9 Compare ohmic and non-ohmic behaviour.

obj. 3 5.1.10 Derive and apply expressions for electrical power dissipation in resistors.
obj. 3
5.1.11 Solve problems involving potential difference, current and resistance.
obj. 3
5.2 Electric circuits 3 hours
5.2.1 Define electromotive force (emf).
obj.1
5.2.2 Describe the concept of internal resistance.
obj. 2
5.2.3 Apply the equations for resistors in series and in parallel.
obj. 2 5.2.4 Draw circuit diagrams.
obj. 1 5.2.5 Describe the use of ideal ammeters and ideal voltmeters.
obj. 2
5.2.6 Describe a potential divider.
obj. 2 5.2.7 Explain the use of sensors in potential divider circuits.
obj. 3
5.2.8 Solve problems involving electric circuits.
obj. 3

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):


Theory of knowledge:

Early scientists identified positive charges as the charge carriers in metals, however the
discovery of the electron led to the introduction of conventional current direction. Was
this a suitable solution to a major shift in thinking? What role do paradigm shifts play in
the progression of scientific knowledge?
Sense perception in early electrical investigations was key to classifying the effect of
various power sources, however this is fraught with possible irreversible consequences
for the scientists involved. Can we still ethically and safely use sense perception in
science research?
Battery storage is seen as useful to society despite the potential environmental issues
surrounding their disposal. Should scientists be held morally responsible for the long-term
consequences of their inventions and discoveries?
International-mindedness:
A set of universal symbols is needed so that physicists in different cultures can readily
communicate ideas in science and engineering
Battery storage is important to society for use in areas such as portable devices,
transportation options and back-up power supplies for medical facilities

Interdisciplinary links:
Chemistry The chemistry of electric cells ( Chemistry sub-topics 9.2 and C.6).
Transferring energy from one place to another (Chemistry option C and Physics topic 11)
Impact on the environment from electricity generation (Physics topic 8 and Chemistry
option sub-topic C2)
Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab
reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.
They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.

Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:
Group activities like labs
Lab work
Class work
use of a hot-wire ammeter as an
Home work
historically important device;
comparison of resistivity of a
variety of conductors such as a
wire at constant temperature, a
filament lamp, or a graphite
pencil;
determination of thickness of a
pencil mark on paper;
investigation of ohmic and nonohmic conductor characteristics;
using a resistive wire wound and
taped around the reservoir of a
thermometer to relate wire
resistance to current in the wire

and temperature of wire


Investigation of simple electrolytic
cells using various materials for
the cathode, anode and
electrolyte;
software-based investigations of
electrical cell design; comparison
of the life expectancy of various
batteries
End of unit -tests
Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies
Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.

Resources

Worksheets/handouts
Text book(T sokos and Oxford study guide)
U tube video
Ppt
Different lab equipments and simulations

Reflections and Evaluations


Students were very comfortable with the basic concepts of this chapter as they had
already done most of it in class 10th. They did not face any difficulty in solving
problems related to this topic. Problems from IB question bank/past year papers allowed
the students to demonstrate the learning objectives of the chapter. Students did graded
lab activities as formative assessment.
They were comfortable in answering questions according to IB expectations. Since it
was a combined class, I decided not to do the related AHL topic 12 after finishing topic
5.
Resources
All the resources were appropriate and relevant.
PREPARED BY
ALKA MAHAJA

SCOTTISH HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner

Subject, Grade, Level: IB1 SL/HL


Unit No. and/or Title: Field and Forces (Topic 6)
Time Frame and Duration: Term 2, 2 hours)
Teacher: ALKA MAHAJAN_ ________________________

Significant concept(s):6.3 Magnetic force and Magnetic field


Understanding (s)/aims
The students will get ideas about
Magnetic field and its direction
Magnetic lines of force
Magnetic force on a current carrying
conductor
Magnetic force on a moving charge
Fleming left hand rule
Magnetic field at a point distant r from a
straight current carrying conductor
Magnetic field at a point at the centre of
a current carrying coil.
The force between two current carrying
wires.
Definition of 1 Ampere
Aim 9: models developed for electric and
gravitational fields using lines of forces allow
predictions to be made but have limitations in
terms of the finite width of a line
Aim 2: Newtons law of gravitation and
Coulombs law form part of the structure known
as classical physics. This body of knowledge
has provided the methods and tools of analysis
up to the advent of the theory of relativity and
the quantum theory.
Aim 4: the theories of gravitation and
electrostatic interactions allows for a great
synthesis in the description of a large number of
phenomena
Aim 2: electrical theory lies at the heart of
much modern science and engineering
Aim 3: advances in electrical theory have

DP Unit Question(s):

State that moving charges give


rise to magnetic fields and
draw magnetic field patterns
due to currents.
Determine the direction of the
force on a current carrying
conductor in a magnetic field
and on a charge moving in a
magnetic field.
Define the magnitude and
direction of a magnetic field
and solve problems involving
magnetic forces, fields and
currents.

brought immense change to all societies


Aim 7: use of computer simulations would
enable students to measure microscopic
interactions that are typically very difficult in a
school laboratory situation
Aim 2 and 9: visualizations frequently provide
us with insights into the action of magnetic
fields, however the visualizations themselves
have their own limitations
Aim 7: computer-based simulations enable the
visualization of electro-magnetic fields in threedimensional space
Aim 4: the theory of gravitation when combined
and synthesized with the rest of the laws of
mechanics allows detailed predictions about the
future position and motion of planet
Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):
Students will be able to:
6.1.1 State Newton's universal law of gravitation.
obj. 1
6.1.2 Define gravitational field strength
obj. 1
6.1.3 Determine the gravitational field due to one or more point masses.
obj. 3
6.1.4 Derive an expression for gravitational field strength at the surface of a planet, assuming
that all its mass is concentrated at its centre.
obj. 3
6.1.5 Solve problems involving gravitational forces and fields.
obj. 3
6.2.1 State that there are two types of electric charge
obj. 1
6.2.2 State and apply the law of conservation of charge.
obj. 2
6.2.3 Describe and explain the difference in the electrical properties of conductors and
insulators. 3
6.2.4 State Coulomb's law.
obj. 1
6.2.5 Define electric field strength.

obj. 1
6.2.6 Determine the electric field strength due to one or more point charges.
obj. 3
6.2.7 Draw the electric field patterns for different charge configurations
obj. 1
6.2.8 Solve problems involving electric charges, forces and fields.
obj. 3
6.3.1 State that moving charges give rise to magnetic fields
obj. 1
6.3.2 Draw of magnetic field patterns due to currents.
obj. 1
6.3.3 Determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field.
3
6.3.4 Determine the direction of force on a charge moving in a magnetic field.
obj. 3
6.3.5 Determine the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field.
obj. 1
6.3.6 Solve problems involving magnetic forces, fields and currents.
obj. 3

obj.

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):


Theory of knowledge
The concept of fields in science is well worth exploring.
Monopoles and dipoles
Although gravitational and electrostatic forces decrease with the square of distance and
will only become zero at infinite separation, from a practical standpoint they become
negligible at much smaller distances. How do scientists decide when an effect is so small
that it can be ignored?
The laws of mechanics along with the law of gravitation create the deterministic nature of
classical physics. Are classical physics and modern physics compatible? Do other areas of
knowledge also have a similar division between classical and modern in their historical
development?
Field patterns provide a visualization of a complex phenomenon, essential to an
understanding of this topic. Why might it be useful to regard knowledge in a similar way,
using the metaphor of knowledge as a map a simplified representation of reality?
Early scientists identified positive charges as the charge carriers in metals, however the
discovery of the electron led to the introduction of conventional current direction. Was
this a suitable solution to a major shift in thinking? What role do paradigm shifts play in
the progression of scientific knowledge?

International mindedness:
There is evidence in ancient Greek and Chinese writing that people knew about
magnets more than 2600 years ago. The investigation of magnetism is one of the
oldest studies by man and was used extensively by voyagers in the Mediterranean
and beyond thousands of years ago.
Electricity and its benefits have an unparalleled power to transform society
Interdisciplinary links:
Chemistry-Transferring energy from one place to another ( Chemistry option C and
Physics topic 11),Impact on the environment from electricity generation (Physics topic 8
and Chemistry option sub-topic C2)
Biology: Modern medical scanners rely heavily on the strong, uniform magnetic fields
produced by devices that utilize superconductors
Geography: The global positioning system depends on complete understanding of
satellite
motion ,Geostationary/polar satellites ,The law of gravitation is essential in describing
the
motion of satellites, planets, moons and entire galaxies
Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab
reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.
They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.

Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Lab work(Plan an investigation
into atleast one of the factors that
affect the strength of your
electromagnet.)
Investigating magnets,
Verifying the equation F = BIL
using a current balance
demonstrations showing the
effect of an electric field (eg.
using semolina);
simulations involving the

Formative Assessment Tasks:


Group activities like labs
Class work
Home work
quizzes

placement of one or more point


charges and determining the
resultant field
unit test
Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies
Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.
Resources
Worksheets/handouts, Text book(mainly IBID and Oxford study guide) ,U tube video and
Ppt
Reflections and Evaluations
Arjun and Yuvraj were comfortable with the basic concepts of chapter 6. Vikram and Rahul took
more time to understand and had difficulty in solving problems related to this topic.
Problems from IB question bank/past year papers allowed the students to demonstrate the

learning objectives of the chapter. Students did non graded lab activities as formative
assessment.
They were finding it hard to answer questions according to IB expectations.
Resources : All the resources were appropriate and relevant.
PREPARED BY ALKA MAHAJA

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner

Subject, Grade, Level: Physics SL/HL


Unit No. and/or Title: Atomic and Nuclear Physics (Topic 7)
Time Frame and Duration: Term 3, 9 Hours
Teacher(s): Alka Mahajan

Significant concept(s):What is/are the big idea(s)? What do we want our students to retain for
years into the future?
The structure of an atom and its nucleus, as well as the forces involved within the particles in a
nucleus.
Understanding (s)/aims (from Subject
Guide):
Students will understand that:

This is/are an aim(s) or goal(s), not an


objective. List the big ideas or concepts
that you want them to come away with,
not facts that they must know

Students should be in a position to look


at databases, use spreadsheets, explore
simulations and perform data-logging

DP Unit Question(s):

What leading questions can you ask of


students to get them to understand
the significant concept(s) big idea(s)?

Address the heart of the discipline, are


framed to provoke and sustain
students interest; unit questions
usually have no one obvious right
answer

Describe the nuclear model of atom

experiments (aim 8).

There are moral, social and


environmental aspects to consider here.

Aim 8: the use of radioactive materials poses


environmental dangers that must be addressed
at all stages of research
Aim 9: the use of radioactive materials requires
the development of safe experimental practices
and methods for handling radioactive materials
Aim 5: some of the issues raised by the use of
nuclear power transcend national boundaries
and require the collaboration of scientists from
many different nations
Aim 8: the development of nuclear power and
nuclear weapons raises very serious moral and
ethical questions: who should be allowed to
possess nuclear power and nuclear weapons and
who should make these decisions? There also
serious environmental issues associated with the
nu-clear waste of nuclear power plants.
Aim 1: the research that deals with the
fundamental structure of matter is international
in nature and is a challenging and stimulating
adventure for those who take part
Aim 4: particle physics involves the analysis
and evaluation of very large amounts of data
Aim 8: scientific and government organizations
are asked if the funding for particle physics
research could be spent on other research or
social needs

and give evidence to support it.

Describe the interactions in the


nucleus of an atom.

Describe and give details about the


three types of natural radioactive
decay (, , )

What makes a nucleus stable or


radioactive?

What is carbon-dating and how does it


work?

What is nuclear fission and fusion?


How can they provide energy?

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):


Students will be able to:

These are observable, measurable learning objectives/outcomes that students should be


able to demonstrate and that you can assess. Your assessment evidence in Stage 2 must

show how you will assess these

Your learning activities in Stage 3 must be designed and directly linked to having students
be able to achieve the understandings, answer the essential questions, and demonstrate
the desired outcomes

Describe a model of the atom that features a small nucleus surrounded by electrons.

Outline the evidence that supports a nuclear model of the atom.

Outline one limitation of the simple model of the nuclear atom.

Outline evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels.

Explain the terms nuclide, isotope and nucleon.

Define nucleon number A, proton number Z and neutron number N.

Describe the interactions in a nucleus.

Describe the phenomenon of natural radioactive decay.

Describe the properties of alpha () and beta () particles and gamma () radiation.

Describe the ionizing properties of alpha () and beta () particles and gamma ()
radiation.

Outline the biological effects of ionizing radiation.

Explain why some nuclei are stable while others are unstable.

State that radioactive decay is a random and spontaneous process and that the rate of
decay decreases exponentially with time.

Define the term radioactive half-life.

Determine the half-life of a nuclide from a decay curve.

Solve radioactive decay problems involving integral numbers of half-lives.

Describe and give an example of an artificial (induced) transmutation.

Construct and complete nuclear equations.

Define the term unified atomic mass unit.

Apply the Einstein massenergy equivalence relationship.

Define the concepts of mass defect, binding energy and binding energy per nucleon.

Draw and annotate a graph showing the variation with nucleon number of the binding
energy per nucleon.

Students should be familiar with binding energies plotted as positive quantities.

Solve problems involving mass defect and binding energy.

Describe the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

Apply the graph in 7.3.6 to account for the energy release in the processes of fission and
fusion.

State that nuclear fusion is the main source of the Suns energy.

Solve problems involving fission and fusion reactions.

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):


Theory of Knowledge:
Correlation and cause, and risk assessment of radiation can be looked at.

Nuclear research and restriction on it.


The role of luck/serendipity in successful scientific discovery is almost inevitably

accompanied by a scientifically curious mind that will pursue the outcome of the
lucky event. To what extent might scientific discoveries that have been described as
being the result of luck actually be better described as being the result of reason or
intuition?

The acceptance that mass and energy are equivalent was a major paradigm shift in
physics. How have other paradigm shifts changed the direction of science? Have there
been similar paradigm shifts in other areas of knowledge?

Does the belief in the existence of fundamental particles mean that it is justifiable to
see physics as being more important than other areas of knowledge?
International-mindedness:

The geopolitics of the past 60+ years have been greatly influenced by the
existence of nuclear weapons
Research into particle physics requires ever-increasing funding, leading to debates
in governments and international research organizations on the fair allocation of
precious financial resources
Interdisciplinary links:

Knowledge of radioactivity, radioactive substances and the radioactive decay law are
crucial in modern nuclear medicine
How to deal with the radioactive output of nuclear decay is important in the debate
over nuclear power stations (Physics sub-topic 8.1)
Carbon dating is used in providing evidence for evolution (Biology sub-topic 5.1)
Exponential functions ( Mathematical studies SL sub-topic 6.4; Mathematics HL subtopic 2.4
The chemistry of nuclear reactions (Chemistry option sub-topics C.3 and C.7)
Relation to IB Chemistry (structure of the atom) and IB Biology (health dangers and
issues to be considered for radioactivity.

Learners profile:
Students are thinkers when they solve problems related to atomic physics correctly.
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab

reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.
They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.

Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:

What tasks allow students the


opportunity to respond to the unit
question? How will the students
demonstrate their understanding?

IB or teacher-derived rubrics can be used


to guide students in teacher, peer, or selfassessment of their performance

unit test,

data collection lab.

Can be individual or group based

Can include informal (games, oral


responses, over-the-shoulder
advice/guidance etc) and formal
methods (quizzes, answers to
questions on a worksheet, homework,
written reflections, etc)

Peer assessment on Ib exam-like


questions

students could investigate the scattering


angle of alpha particles as a function of
the aiming error, or the minimum
distance of approach as a function of the
initial kinetic energy of the alpha
particles.

Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies

Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading about
the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room discussions,
take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big ideas
separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address information
literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software, Simulations using java
applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they found
hard. This will also help them to be reflective
Resources

Worksheets/handouts

Specific material needed: audio-visual, lab equipment , props, art supplies

Specific research resources: magazines, books, databases,

Internet sites/resources

SL Book (Chris Hamper)/IB Physics HL book

Computers with access on the internet

Phet Simulations

Reflections and Evaluations


Teacher led and group discussions will help students understand the main concepts of the unit as
well as the TOK links.
Practical work should be done in pairs, without any help from the teacher. Students in IB2 should
be in a position to design, conduct, interpret, analyse and report experiments without any
teacher guidance. They are also being assessed (IA) on that.
Detailed feedback on their lab reports is given to the students so that they improve the following
ones.
Problem solving is done in class, as well as homework which is been checked and solved in class.
Database lab report is asked to be written, so that students plot a graph of the binding energy of
a nucleus and the nucleon number. The interpretation should be detailed and will be assessed for
criterion DCP of their IA.
Students with good knowledge of chemistry found this topic easier. A good idea would be to pair
up students that take IB Chemistry with those that don't for peer-teaching.
Before the end of unit test I gave them an open book test. That helped because the students who
dont study at all actually passed in the actual test. Students found this topic relatively easier as
compared to last year students.
Students liked learning about nuclear energy, fission and fusion. They found it challenging to
understand the strong force interaction since it is a concept that requires deep understanding of
physics and it is very difficult to visualize due to the small scale phenomena that are related.
There was a clear understanding of the relationship between chemistry and physics and students
understood that for such research an interdisciplinary approach is required in universities and
research centers. The time was adequate for both the theory and lab works.
Resources
The school does not have any radioactive elements at school, so that was a limitation for our

students who wanted to measure radioactivity with the Geiger-Muller detector.(We still dont
have one ).PHET simulation helped students to visualize chain reaction and alpha scattering.

PREPARED BY ALKA
MAHAJAN

SCOTTISH HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner

Subject, Grade, Level: Physics HL/SL


Unit No. and/or Title: Energy and climate changes (Topic 8)
Time Frame and Duration: (18hrs.)
Teacher(s): ALKA MAHAJAN
Significant concept(s):
What is/are the big idea(s)? What do we want our students to retain for years into
the future?
Sources of energy
Climate Changes
Understanding (s)/aims (from Subject
DP Unit Question(s):
Guide):

What leading questions can you ask of


Students will understand that:
students to get them to understand

This is/are an aim(s) or goal(s), not an


the significant concept(s) big idea(s)?
objective.

Address the heart of the discipline, are

They must be able to compare the


framed to provoke and sustain

advantages and disadvantages of the


students interest; unit questions
different sources of energy and be aware
usually have no one obvious right
of the recent climate issues.
answer
Aim 4: the production of power involves many

What could be the best source of


different scientific disciplines and requires the
energy of the future world?
evaluation and synthesis of scientific information
Aim 8: the production of energy has wide
economic, environmental, moral and ethical
dimensions
Aim 4: this topic gives students the opportunity
to understand the wide range of scientific
analysis behind climate change issues
Aim 6: simulations of energy exchange in the
Earth surfaceatmosphere system
Aim 7: A spreadsheet should be used to show a
simple climate model. Computer simulations
could be used to show more complex models
(see OCC for details).
Aim 8: while science has the ability to analyze
and possibly help solve climate change issues,
students should be aware of the impact of
science on the initiation of conditions that
allowed climate change due to human
contributions to occur. Students should also be
aware of the way science can be used to
promote the interests of one side of the debate
on climate change (or, conversely, to hinder
debate).
Topic 8: Energy, power and
climate change
Learning objectives/outcomes
Students will be able to:
(from Subject Guide):
8.1.1 State that thermal energy may be
8.1 Energy degradation and power
completely converted to work in a single
generation
process, but that continuous
conversion of this energy into work
requires a cyclical process and the
transfer of some energy from the
system.
8.1.2 Explain what is meant by degraded

8.2 World energy sources

energy. Students should understand that,


in any process that involves energy
transformations, the energy that is
transferred to the surroundings (thermal
energy) is no longer available to perform
useful work.
8.1.3 Construct and analyze energy flow
diagrams (Sankey diagrams) and identify
where the energy is degraded. It is
expected that students will be able to
construct flow diagrams for various
systems including those described in subtopics 8.3 and 8.4.
8.1.4 Outline the principal mechanisms
involved in the production of electrical
power.
Students should know that electrical
energy may be produced by rotating coils
in a magnetic field. In sub-topics 8.2 and
8.3 students look in more detail at energy
sources used to provide the energy to
rotate the coils.
8.2.1 Identify different world energy
sources. Students should be able to
recognize those sources associated with
CO2 emission.
Students should also appreciate that, in
most instances, the Sun is the prime
energy source for world energy.
8.2.2 Outline and distinguish between
renewable and non-renewable energy
sources.
8.2.3 Define the energy density of a fuel.
Energy density is measured in J kg1.
8.2.4 Discuss how choice of fuel is
influenced by its energy density.
The values of energy density of different
fuels will be provided.
8.2.5 State the relative proportions of

8.3 Fossil fuel power production

8.4 Non-fossil fuel power


production

world use of the different energy sources


that are available. Only approximate
values are needed.
8.2.6 Discuss the relative advantages and
disadvantages of various energy sources.
The discussion applies to all the sources
identified in sub-topics 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4.
8.3.1 Outline the historical and
geographical reasons for the wide spread
use of fossil fuels. Students should
appreciate that industrialization led to a
higher rate of energy usage, leading to
industry being developed near to large
deposits of fossil fuels.
8.3.2 Discuss the energy density of fossil
fuels with respect to the demands of
power stations.
Students should be able to estimate the
rate of fuel consumption by power
stations.
8.3.3 Discuss the relative advantages and
disadvantages associated with the
transportation and storage of fossil fuels.
8.3.4 State the overall efficiency of power
stations fuelled by different fossil fuels.
Only approximate values are required.
8.3.5 Describe the environmental
problems associated with the recovery of
fossil fuels and their use in power stations.
8.4.1 Describe how neutrons produced in a
fission reaction may be used to initiate
further fission reactions (chain reaction).
Students should know that only lowenergy neutrons ( 1 eV) favour nuclear
fission. They should also know about
critical mass.
8.4.2 Distinguish between controlled
nuclear fission (power production)
and uncontrolled nuclear fission

(nuclear weapons).
Students should be aware of the moral and
ethical issues associated with nuclear
weapons.
8.4.3 Describe what is meant by fuel
enrichment.
8.4.4 Describe the main energy
transformations that take place in a
nuclear power station.
8.4.5 Discuss the role of the moderator
and the control rods in the production of
controlled fission in a thermal fission
reactor.
8.4.6 Discuss the role of the heat
exchanger in a fission reactor.
8.4.7 Describe how neutron capture by a
nucleus of uranium-238 (238U) results in
the production of a nucleus of plutonium239 (239Pu).
8.4.8 Describe the importance of
plutonium-239 (239Pu) as a nuclear fuel. It
is sufficient for students to know that
plutonium-239 (239Pu) is used as a fuel in
other types of reactors.
8.4.9 Discuss safety issues and risks
associated with the production of nuclear
power. Such issues involve:
the possibility of thermal meltdown and
how it might arise
problems associated with nuclear waste.
problems associated with the mining of
uranium.
the possibility that a nuclear power
programme may be used as a means to
produce nuclear weapons.
8.4.10 Outline the problems associated
with producing nuclear power using
nuclear fusion. It is sufficient that students

appreciate the problem of maintaining and


confining a high-temperature, highdensity plasma.
8.4.11 Solve problems on the production
of nuclear power.

Solar power
8.4.12 Distinguish between a photovoltaic
cell and a solar heating panel.
Students should be able to describe the
energy transfers involved and outline
appropriate uses of these devices.
8.4.13 Outline reasons for seasonal and
regional variations in the solar power
incident per unit area of the Earths
surface.
8.4.14 Solve problems involving specific
applications of photovoltaic cells and solar
heating panels.
Hydroelectric power
8.4.15 Distinguish between different
hydroelectric schemes. Students should
know that the different schemes are based
on:
water storage in lakes
tidal water storage
pump storage.
8.4.16 Describe the main energy
transformations that take place in
hydroelectric schemes.
8.4.17 Solve problems involving
hydroelectric schemes.
Wind power
8.4.18 Outline the basic features of a wind
generator. A conventional horizontal-axis
machine is sufficient.
8.4.19 Determine the power that may be

delivered by a wind generator, assuming


that the wind kinetic energy is completely
converted into mechanical kinetic energy,
and explain why this is impossible.
8.4.20 Solve problems involving wind
power.

Wave power
8.4.21 Describe the principle of operation
of an oscillating water column (OWC)
ocean-wave energy converter.
Students should be aware that energy
from a water wave can be extracted in a
variety of different ways, but only a
description of the OWC is required.
8.4.22 Determine the power per unit
length of a wavefront, assuming a
rectangular profile for the wave.
8.4.23 Solve problems involving wave
power.

8.5 Greenhouse effect

Solar radiation
8.5.1 Calculate the intensity of the Suns
radiation incident on a planet.
8.5.2 Define albedo.
8.5.3 State factors that determine a
planets albedo.
The greenhouse effect
8.5.4 Describe the greenhouse effect.
8.5.5 Identify the main greenhouse gases
and their sources.
The gases to be considered are CH4, H2O,
CO2 and N2O. It is sufficient for students
to know that each has natural and manmade origins.
8.5.6 Explain the molecular mechanisms
by which greenhouse gases absorb
infrared radiation. Students should be
aware of the role played by resonance.
The natural frequency of oscillation of the
molecules of greenhouse gases is in the
infrared region.
8.5.7 Analyze absorption graphs to
compare the relative effects of different
greenhouse gases. Students should be
familiar with, but will not be expected to
remember, specific details of graphs
showing infrared transmittance through a
gas.
8.5.8 Outline the nature of black-body
radiation. Students should know that
black-body radiation is the radiation
emitted by a perfect emitter.
8.5.9 Draw and annotate a graph of the
emission spectra of black bodies at
different temperatures.
8.5.10 State the StefanBoltzmann law
and apply it to compare emission rates
from different surfaces.
8.5.11 Apply the concept of emissivity to
compare the emission rates from the

different surfaces.
8.5.12 Define surface heat capacity Cs.
Surface heat capacity is the energy
required to raise the temperature of unit
area of a planets surface by one degree,
and is measured in J m2 K1.
8.5.13 Solve problems on the greenhouse
effect and the heating of planets using a
simple energy balance climate model.
Students should appreciate that the
change of a planets temperature over a
period of time is given by:(incoming
radiation intensity outgoing radiation
intensity) time / surface heat capacity.
Students should be aware of limitations of
the model and suggest how it may be
improved.

8.6 Global warming

8.6.1 Describe some possible models of


global warming.
Students must be aware that a range of

models has been suggested to explain


global warming, including changes in the
composition of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere, increased solar flare activity,
cyclical changes in the Earths orbit and
volcanic activity.
8.6.2 State what is meant by the
enhanced greenhouse effect. It is
sufficient for students to be aware that
enhancement of the greenhouse effect is
caused by human activities.
8.6.3 Identify the increased combustion of
fossil fuels as the likely major cause of the
enhanced greenhouse effect.
Students should be aware that, although
debatable, the generally accepted view of
most scientists is that human activities,
mainly related to burning of fossil fuels,
have released extra carbon dioxide into
the atmosphere.
8.6.4 Describe the evidence that links
global warming to increased levels of
greenhouse gases. For example,
international ice core research produces
evidence of atmospheric composition and
mean global temperatures over thousands
of years (ice cores up to 420,000 years
have been drilled in the Russian Antarctic
base, Vostok).
8.6.5 Outline some of the mechanisms
that may increase the rate of global
warming.
Students should know that:
global warming reduces ice/snow cover,
which in turn changes the albedo, to
increase rate of heat absorption
temperature increase reduces the
solubility of CO2 in the sea and increases
atmospheric concentrations
deforestation reduces carbon fixation.

8.6.6 Define coefficient of volume


expansion. 1 Students should know that
the coefficient of volume expansion is the
fractional change in volume per degree
change in temperature.
8.6.7 State that one possible effect of the
enhanced greenhouse effect is a rise in
mean sea-level.
8.6.8 Outline possible reasons for a
predicted rise in mean sea-level.
Students should be aware that precise
predictions are difficult to make due to
factors such as:
anomalous expansion of water
different effects of ice melting on sea
water compared to ice melting on land.
8.6.9 Identify climate change as an
outcome of the enhanced
greenhouse effect.
8.6.10 Solve problems related to the
enhanced greenhouse effect.
Problems could involve volume expansion,
specific heat capacity and latent heat.
8.6.11 Identify some possible solutions
to reduce the enhanced greenhouse
effect.
Students should be aware of the following:
greater efficiency of power production
replacing the use of coal and oil with
natural gas
use of combined heating and power
systems (CHP)
increased use of renewable energy
sources and nuclear power
carbon dioxide capture and storage
use of hybrid vehicles.
8.6.12 Discuss international efforts to
reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect.
These should include, for example:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC)
Kyoto Protocol
Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean
Development and Climate (APPCDC).
Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):
Climate models and the variation in detail/processes included
Environmental chemistry (Chemistry option topic C)
Climate change (Biology sub-topic 4.4 and Environmental systems and societies
topics 5 and 6)
The normal distribution curve is explored in Mathematical studies SL sub-topic 4.1
Energy density ( Chemistry sub-topic C.1)
Carbon recycling ( Biology sub-topic 4.3)
TOK:
Does global warming really exist?
Nuclear research in different countries should be banned or not? Who owns the
knowledge?
The use of nuclear energy inspires a range of emotional responses from scientists and
society. How can accurate scientific risk assessment be undertaken in emotionally
charged areas?
The debate about global warming illustrates the difficulties that arise when scientists
cannot always agree on the interpretation of the data, especially as the solution would
involve large-scale action through international government cooperation. When scientists
disagree, how do we decide between competing theories?
The use and importance of computer modeling can be explained as a powerful means by
which knowledge may be gained.
International-mindedness:
The production of energy from fossil fuels has a clear impact on the world we live in and
therefore involves global thinking. The geographic concentrations of fossil fuels have led
to political conflict and economic inequalities. The production of energy through
alternative energy resources demands new levels of international collaboration.
The concern over the possible impact of climate change has resulted in an abundance of
international press coverage, many political discussions within and between nations, and
the consideration of people, corporations, and the environment when deciding on future
plans for our planet. IB graduates should be aware of the science behind many of these
scenarios.

Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab
reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.
They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.

Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:

What tasks allow students the

Can be individual or group based


opportunity to respond to the unit

Can include informal (games, oral


question? How will the students
responses, over-the-shoulder
demonstrate their understanding?
advice/guidance etc) and formal

IB or teacher-derived rubrics can be used


methods (quizzes, answers to
to guide students in teacher, peer, or selfquestions on a worksheet, homework,
assessment of their performance
written reflections, etc)

End of Unit -Test

Homework

Group 4 project IA

Presentations on energy forms


Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies
Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading about
the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room discussions,
take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big ideas
separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all

meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address information


literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software, Simulations using java
applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they found
hard. This will also help them to be reflective
Resources
Worksheets/handouts, Specific material needed: audio-visual, lab equipment , props, art
Supplies, Specific research resources: magazines, books, databases, Internet
sites/resources

Books, Java applets (PhET) andUTube videos

Reflections and Evaluations


Students were able to grasp the significant concept and answer the unit question(s) as desired?
The learning objectives were met?
Students were very interested in this topic. They could relate it to their group four project topics.
The students who have learnt chemistry found the topic easier. The students found it difficult to
draw a sankey diagram in some cases. Next time more practice is need on that.
Have not gone far enough to completely assess students, as much time has been dedicated to
the group 4 project and energy generation.
The assessment tasks (both formative and summative) used IB exam-like questions. Test results
showed that students need to work harder on learning the definitions and using a more
appropriate scientific language when describing/explaining phenomena. Everyday language is
not acceptable for this level.
The students liked this topic. They were discussing about the future source of energy of India.
Due to much loss of classes that occurred while students were in IB1, there was an extremely
overloaded schedule for the students when in IB2. That meant that all topics had to be taught in
a much less time as IBO proposed in the guide. However, students chose to spend some of their
free time in the physics class, and that helped to cover the syllabus. However, no time for
reflection and deep discussions was available.
Resources
Resources were appropriate. YouTube accessibility is necessary as well as java applets (PhET).

PREPARED BY
ALKA MAHAJAN

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner

Subject, Grade, Level: IB1&2


Unit No. and/or Title: Unit Motion in fields (AHL) Unit -9
Time Frame and Duration: Term 2 and Term 3 (8hours)
Teacher: _Alka Mahajan
Significant concept(s):
9.1Projectile motion, 9.2 Gravitational field, potential and energy, 9.3 Electric field, potential and
energy, 9.4 Orbital motion
Understanding (s)
Gravitational fields
Electrostatic fields
Electric potential and gravitational potential
Field lines
Equipotential surfaces
Potential and potential energy
Potential gradient
Potential difference
Escape speed
Orbital motion, orbital speed and orbital
energy
Forces and inverse-square law behaviour
Projectile motion

Aims
Aim 7: technology has allowed for more
accurate and precise measurements of
motion, including video analysis of real-life
projectiles
Aim 2: Newtons law of gravitation and
Coulombs law form part of the structure
known as classical physics. This body of
knowledge has provided the methods and
tools of analysis up to the advent of the
theory of relativity and the quantum theory.
Aim 4: the theories of gravitation and
electrostatic interactions allows for a great
synthesis in the description of a large number
of phenomena
Aim 9: models developed for electric and
gravitational fields using lines of forces allow
predictions to be made but have limitations in
terms of the finite width of a line

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):


9.1.1 State the independence of the vertical and the horizontal components of velocity for a
projectile in a uniform field.
obj. 1
9.1.2 Describe and sketch the trajectory of projectile motion as parabolic in the absence of air
resistance.
obj. 3
9.1.3 Describe qualitatively the effect of air resistance on the trajectory of a projectile.
obj. 2
9.1.4 Solve problems on projectile motion.
obj. 3
9.2.1 Define gravitational potential and gravitational potential energy.
9.2.2 State and apply the expression for gravitational potential due to a point mass
obj. 2
9.2.3 State and apply the formula relating gravitational field strength to gravitational potential
gradient.
obj. 2
9.2.4 Determine the potential due to one or more point masses.
obj. 3
9.2.5 Describe and sketch the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to one and two point
masses. 3
9.2.6 State the relation between equipotential surfaces and gravitational field lines.
obj. 1
9.2.7 Explain the concept of escape velocity from a planet.
obj. 3
9.2.8 Derive an expression for the escape speed of an object from the surface of a planet.
obj. 3
9.2.9 Solve problems involving gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential.
obj. 3
9.3.1 Define electric potential and electric potential energy
obj. 1
9.3.2 State and apply the expression for electric potential due to a point charge.
obj. 2
9.3.3 State and apply the formula relating electric field strength to electric potential gradient.
obj. 2
9.3.4 Determine the potential due to one or more point charges.
obj.3
9.3.5 Describe and sketch the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to one and two point
masses. 3

9.3.6 State the relation between equipotential surfaces and gravitational field lines.
obj. 1
9.3.7 State the relation between equipotential surfaces and Electric field lines.
obj. 1
9.3.8 Solve problems involving electric potential energy and electric potential.
obj. 3
9.4.1 State that gravitation provides the centripetal force for circular orbital motion.
obj. 1
9.4.2 Derive Kepler's third law
obj. 3
9.4.3 Derive expressions for the kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy of an orbiting
satellite.
obj. 3
9.4.4 Sketch graphs showing the variation with orbital radius of the kinetic energy, gravitational
potential energy and total energy of a satellite
obj. 3
9.4.5 Discuss the concept of 'weightlessness' in orbital motion, in free fall and in deep space.
obj. 3
9.4.6 Solve problems involving orbital motion.
obj. 3

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):


Theory of knowledge:
The independence of horizontal and vertical motion in projectile motion seems to be counterintuitive. How do scientists work around their intuitions? How do scientists make use of their
intuitions?
Although gravitational and electrostatic forces decrease with the square of distance and will
only become zero at infinite separation, from a practical standpoint they become negligible at
much smaller distances. How do scientists decide when an effect is so small that it can be
ignored?
This topic includes how fundamental concepts may be applied to different phenomena.
International mindedness : The global positioning system depends on complete
understanding of satellite motion Geostationary/polar satellites
Interdisciplinary links:
The acceleration of charged particles in particle accelerators and in many medical imaging
devices depends on the presence of electric fields ( Physics option sub-topic C.4)

Knowledge of vector analysis is useful for this sub-topic (Physics sub-topic 1.3)
Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab
reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.
They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.
Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:
Group activities
Lab work
Class work
Home work
analyzing projectile motion,
Design an experiment on projectile
Potential gradient lab
motion
quizzes
End of unit - tests
Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies
Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links

(TOK, other subjects)


At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective
Resources
Worksheets/handouts,You tube video , Ppt
Reflections and Evaluations
Students found some of the concepts of chapter 9 difficult. They were not very comfortable with
the topics especially projectile motion. Vikram had difficulty in solving problems. They all were
asked to solve problems from past papers and show. The lab writing skills is improving for the
students.
Problems from IB question bank allowed the students to demonstrate the learning objectives of
the chapter. Students did graded lab activities as formative assessment.
They were finding it hard to answer questions according to IB expectations.
Resources All the resources were appropriate and relevant.

PREPARED BY ALKA
MAHAJAN

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner

Subject, Grade, Level: IB1, HL


Unit No. and/or Title: Unit 10 ( thermal Physics)
Time Frame and Duration: Term 2 (6 hours)

Teacher: _Alka Mahajan


Significant concept(s):
10.1 Thermodynamics, 10.2 Processes, 10.3 Second law of thermodynamics and entropy
Understanding (s)
Equation of state
Difference between real and ideal gas
Absolute zero of temperature
Work involved in a volume change of a
gas at constant pressure
First law of thermodynamics
Isochoric, isobaric, isothermal and
adiabatic changes
PV diagram of thermodynamic processes
Second law of thermodynamics
Entropy

Aim 3: an understanding of thermal concepts


is a fundamental aspect of many areas of
science
Aim 3: this is a good topic to make
comparisons between empirical and
theoretical thinking in science
Aim 5: development of the second law
demonstrates the collaboration involved in
scientific pursuits
Aim 10: the relationships and similarities
between scientific disciplines are particularly
apparent here

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):


10.1 Thermodynamics
2 hours
Gas laws
10.1.1 State the equation of state for an ideal gas.
obj. 1
10.1.2 Describe the difference between an ideal gas and a real gas.
obj. 2
10.1.3 Describe the concept of the absolute zero of temperature and the Kelvin scale of
temperature.
obj. 2
10.1.4 Solve problems using the equation of state of an ideal gas.
obj. 3
10.2 Processes
3 hours
The first law of thermodynamics
10.2.1 Deduce an expression for the work involved in a volume change of a gas at constant

pressure.
obj. 3
10.2.2 State the first law of thermodynamics.
obj. 1
10.2.3 Identify the first law of thermodynamics as a statement of the principle of energy
conservation.
obj. 2
10.2.4 Describe the isochoric (isovolumetric), isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic changes of state
of an ideal gas.
obj. 2
10.2.5 Draw and annotate thermodynamic processes and cycles on PVdiagrams.
obj. 2
10.2.6 Calculate from a PV diagram the work done in a thermodynamic cycle.
obj. 2
10.2.7 Solve problems involving state changes of a gas.
obj. 3
10.3 Second law of thermodynamics and entropy
1 hour
10.3.1 State that the second law of thermodynamics implies that thermal energy cannot
spontaneously transfer from a region of low temperature to a region of high temperature.
obj. 1
10.3.2 State that entropy is a system property that expresses the degree of disorder in the
system.
1
10.3.3 State the second law of thermodynamics in terms of entropy changes.
obj. 1
10.3.4 Discuss examples of natural processes in terms of entropy changes.
obj. 3
Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):
Theory of knowledge:
Observation through sense perception plays a key role in making measurements. Does
sense perception play different roles in different areas of knowledge?
When does modelling of ideal situations become good enough to count as
knowledge?
International-mindedness:
The development of this topic was the subject of intense debate between scientists of
many countries in the 19th century
The topic of thermal physics is a good example of the use of international systems of
measurement that allow scientists to collaborate effectively
Transport of gases in liquid form or at high pressures/densities is common practice across
the globe. Behaviour of real gases under extreme conditions needs to be carefully
considered in these situations.

All natural processes increase the entropy of the universe. The possibility of the heat
death of the universe is based on ever-increasing entropy
Interdisciplinary links:
This work leads directly to the concept of the heat engines that play such a large role in
modern society
Chemistry of entropy (Chemistry sub-topic 15.2)
Particulate nature of matter (Chemistry sub-topic 1.3) and measuring energy changes
(Chemistry sub-topic 5.1)
Water (Biology sub-topic 2.2)
Consideration of thermodynamic processes is essential to many areas of chemistry
(Chemistry sub-topic 1.3)
Respiration processes ( Biology sub-topic D.6)
Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab
reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems.

They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.
Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):

Lab work
transfer of energy due to
temperature difference;
calorimetric investigations;
energy involved in phase changes
verification of gas laws;
calculation of the Avogadro
constant;
virtual investigation of gas law
parameters not possible within a
school laboratory setting
End of unit - tests

Formative Assessment Tasks:


Group activities
Class work
Home work
quizzes

Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies

Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.
Resources
Worksheets/handouts,You tube video , Ppt
Reflections and Evaluations
Students understood most of the concepts of chapter 10. Enough practice was given in the class.
Students were asked to solve all questions from past year papers. They were comfortable with
the numerical part of this unit.
Problems from IB question bank allowed the students to demonstrate the learning objectives of
the chapter. Students did non graded lab activities as formative assessment.
They were comfortable in answering questions according to IB expectations.
ResourcesAll the resources were appropriate and relevant.
PREPARED BY
ALKA MAHAJAN

SCOTTISH HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner
Subject, Grade, Level: IB2 HL
Unit No. and/or Title: Electromagnetic induction (Topic 12)
Time Frame and Duration: Term -3, 6 hours)
Teacher: ALKA MAHAJAN_ ________________________
Significant concept(s): 12.1 Induced electromotive force, 12.2 Alternating current
Aims
Understandings/learner's profile
Aim 2: the simple principles of
Students should be able to
electromagnetic induction are a
derive the expression induced emf = Blv
powerful aspect of the physicists or
without using Faradays law.
technologists armoury when
understand, without any derivation, that
designing systems that transfer
the induced emf is sinusoidal if the
energy from one form to another
rotation is at constant speed.
Aim 7: Computer simulations of ac
compare the output from generators
generators are a useful means to
operating at different frequencies by
assess understanding.
sketching appropriate graphs.
Aim 7: construction and observation
know that the rms value of an alternating
of the adjustments made in very large
current (or voltage) is that value of the
electricity distribution systems is best
direct current (or voltage) that dissipates
carried out using computer-modeling
power in a resistor at the same rate. The
software and websites
rms value is also known as the rating.
Aim 9: power transmission is modeled
aware that, for economic reasons, there
using perfectly efficient systems but
is no ideal value of voltage for electrical
no such system truly exists. Although
transmission.
the model is imperfect, it renders the
aware that current experimental
maximum power transmission.
evidence suggests that low frequency
Recognition and ac-counting for the
fields do not harm genetic material.
differences between the perfect
system and the practical system is
appreciate that the risks attached to the
one of the main functions of
inducing of current in the body are not
professional scientists.
fully understood. These risks are likely to
be dependent on current (density),
frequency and length of exposure.
Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):

Induced electromotive force


3 hours
12.1.1 Describe the inducing of an emf by relative motion between a conductor
and a magnetic field.
obj.2
12.1.2 Derive the formula for the emf induced in a straight conductor moving in a
magnetic field.
obj.3
12.1.3 Define magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage.
obj.1
12.1.4 Describe the production of an induced emf by a time-changing magnetic flux.
obj.2
12.1.5 State Faradays law and Lenzs law.
obj.1
12.1.6 Solve electromagnetic induction problems.
obj.3
12.2 Alternating current
2 hours
12.2.1 Describe the emf induced in a coil rotating within a uniform magnetic field.
obj.2
12.2.2 Explain the operation of a basic alternating current (ac) generator.
obj.3
12.2.3 Describe the effect on the induced emf of changing the generator frequency.
obj.2
12.2.4 Discuss what is meant by the root mean squared (rms) value of an alternating
current or voltage.
obj. 3
12.2.5 State the relation between peak and rms values for sinusoidal currents and
voltages. -1
12.2.6 Solve problems using peak and rms values.
obj.3
12.2.7 Solve ac circuit problems for ohmic resistors.
obj. 3
12.2.8 Describe the operation of an ideal transformer.
obj.2
12.2.9 Solve problems on the operation of ideal transformers.
obj. 3
12.3 Transmission of electrical power
1 hour
12.3.1 Outline the reasons for power losses in transmission lines and real transformers.
obj.2

the

12.3.2 Explain the use of high-voltage step up and step-down transformers in the
transmission of electrical power.
obj.3
12.3.3 Solve problems on the operation of real transformers and power transmission.
obj.3
12.3.4 Suggest how extra-low-frequency electromagnetic fields, such as those created by
electrical appliances and power lines, induce currents within a human body.
obj.3
12.3.5 Discuss some of the possible risks involved in living and working near high-voltage
power lines.
obj.3
Theory of knowledge:
Terminology used in electromagnetic field theory is extensive and can confuse people
who are not directly involved. What effect can lack of clarity in terminology have on
communicating scientific concepts to the public?
The use of risk assessment in making scientific decisions and the issues of correlation
and cause, and the limitations of data, are also relevant here.
There is continued debate of the effect of electromagnetic waves on the health of
humans, especially children. Is it justifiable to make use of scientific advances even if we
do not know what their long-term consequences may be?
International-mindedness:
The ability to maintain a reliable power grid has been the aim of all governments since
widespread use of electricity started .
Interdisciplinary links: Applications of electromagnetic induction can be found in many
places including transformers, electromagnetic braking, geophones used in seismology,
and metal detectors
Learner's profile
They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab
reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems
They are principled when they write their lab reports on their own.

Assessment Evidence

Summative Assessment Task(s):


Lab work
construction of a basic ac generator;

Formative Assessment Tasks:


Group activities like labs
Class work

investigation of variation of input and


output coils on a transformer;
observing Wheatstone and Wien bridge
circuits
frequency of ac mains
tests

Home work
quizzes

Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies

Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading
about the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room
discussions, take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big
ideas separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address
information literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software,
Simulations using java applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they
found hard. This will also help them to be reflective.
Resources
Worksheets/handouts
Text book(T sokos and Oxford study guide)
U tube video

Ppt
Different lab equipments and simulations for the labs.
Reflections and Evaluations

Even though there were parts of the content that students found hard to understand (direction of
emf), by the end of the unit, and with practice, most of them were in a position to achieve well.
Time was not enough in any of the topics due to much loss of classes, there was an extremely
overloaded schedule for the students in IB2. That meant that all topics had to be taught in a
much less time as IBO proposed in the guide. However, no time for reflection and deep
discussions was available.
Problems from IB question bank/past year papers allowed the students to demonstrate the
learning objectives of the chapter. Students did non graded lab activities as formative
assessment.
They were finding it hard to answer questions according to IB expectations.
Resources
Resources were appropriate. YouTube accessibility is necessary as well as java applets (PhET).
PREPARED BY
ALKA MAHAJAN

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner
Subject, Grade, Level: Physics SL/HL
Unit No. and/or Title: Quantum Physics and Nuclear Physics (Topic 13)
Time Frame and Duration: Term 3 (15hours)
Teacher(s): Alka Mahajan
Significant concept(s):

What is/are the big idea(s)? What do we want our students to retain for years into the
future?

Quantum physics

Nuclear physics

Understanding (s)/aims (from Subject


Guide):
Students will understand that:

This is/are an aim(s) or goal(s), not an


objective. List the big ideas or concepts
that you want them to come away with,
not facts that they must know

Computer simulations showing the link


between energy level transitions and
spectral lines assist understanding (Aim
7).
Matter behaves in two ways (As a wave
and as a particle). Electrons and other
subatomic particles show wave behavior
under certain circumstances.

DP Unit Question(s):

What leading questions can you ask of


students to get them to understand
the significant concept(s) big idea(s)?

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):

Address the heart of the discipline, are


framed to provoke and sustain
students interest; unit questions
usually have no one obvious right
answer
What makes a nucleus
stable/unstable?
How can the absorption spectrum of
elements be explained?

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):


Theory of Knowledge:

Correlation and cause, and risk assessment of radiation can be looked at.

Nuclear research and restriction on it.

The role of luck/serendipity in successful scientific discovery is almost inevitably


accompanied by a scientifically curious mind that will pursue the outcome of the
lucky event. To what extent might scientific discoveries that have been described as
being the result of luck actually be better described as being the result of reason or
intuition?

The acceptance that mass and energy are equivalent was a major paradigm shift in
physics. How have other paradigm shifts changed the direction of science? Have there
been similar paradigm shifts in other areas of knowledge?

This topic raises fundamental philosophical problems related to the nature of


observation and measurement.

International-mindedness:
The geopolitics of the past 60+ years have been greatly influenced by the existence of nuclear
weapons
Research into particle physics requires ever-increasing funding, leading to debates in
governments and international research organizations on the fair allocation of precious financial
resources
Interdisciplinary links:

Knowledge of radioactivity, radioactive substances and the radioactive decay law are
crucial in modern nuclear medicine
How to deal with the radioactive output of nuclear decay is important in the debate over
nuclear power stations (Physics sub-topic 8.1)
Carbon dating is used in providing evidence for evolution (see Biology sub-topic 5.1)
Exponential functions ( Mathematical studies SL sub-topic 6.4; Mathematics HL sub-topic
2.4

The chemistry of nuclear reactions (Chemistry option sub-topics C.3 and C.7)
Relation to IB Biology (health dangers and issues to be considered for radioactivity.

Assessment
Summative Assessment Task(s):

Teacher-derived rubrics will be used to


guide students in teacher, peer, or selfassessment of their performance

Test

Java application /IA practical work

Evidence
Formative Assessment Tasks:

formal methods (quizzes, answers to


questions on a worksheet, homework,
written reflections, etc)

Worksheets with rubrics

Homework

Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies


Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading about
the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room discussions,
take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big ideas
separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address information
literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software, Simulations using java
applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they found

hard. This will also help them to be reflective.

Resources
Worksheets/handouts
Specific material needed: audio-visual, lab equipment , props, art supplies
Specific research resources: magazines, books, databases,
Internet sites/resources, Books/Java applets (PhET)/UTube videos
Reflections and Evaluations

Quantum physics is generally a topic that puzzles students since it requires them to think in a
way which is different from what their common sense and the laws of classical physics tell them.
However, with a good understanding of the wave phenomena, and various applications and
simulations, most students became familiar with and understood the content. Student struggled
with the idea of Schrodingers model of an atom.
The assessment tasks (both formative and summative) used IB exam-like questions. Test results
showed that students need to work harder on learning the definitions and using a more
appropriate scientific language when describing/explaining phenomena. Everyday language is
not acceptable for this level.
Even though there were parts of the content that students found hard to understand
(Heisenbergs principle), by the end of the unit, and with practice, most of them were in a
position to achieve well.
Time was not enough in any of the topics .Due to loss of classes, all topics had to be taught in
much less time as IBO proposed in the guide. However, students chose to spend some of their
free time in the physics class, and that helped to cover the syllabus. However, no time for
reflection and deep discussions was available.
Resources
Practicing exercises in class and at home. All are checked and explained in class, and
rubrics are given to the students for revising at home.
This topic is one that requires the use of ICT for animations of the interactions in a nucleus
and to model situations that can not be seen or observed with the schools equipment
Resources were appropriate.
YouTube accessibility is necessary as well as java applets (PhET). No need for any
additional equipment.
Last year I have taken longer time to finish this topic, but this time I finished the topic in
less time without any problem.

PREPARED BY ALKA MAHAJAN

Scottish High International School


IB Diploma Programme: Unit Planner
Subject, Grade, Level: Physics SL/HL
Unit No. and/or Title: Option G Electromagnetic Waves (Option G)
Time Frame and Duration: (22 hours)
Teacher(s): Alka Mahajan
Significant concept(s):
What is/are the big idea(s)? What do we want our students to retain for years into the future?
Nature of EM waves and light sources
Optical instruments
Two-source interference of waves

Diffraction grating
X-rays
Thin-film interference
Understanding (s)/aims (from Subject
Guide):
Students will understand

The nature of electromagnetic waves

Properties of em waves - dispersion,


scattering, absorption and transmission

Different regions of em waves

Coherent and monochromatic sources of


light

Laser light - coherent light

Thin lenses

Converging and diverging lenses

Converging and diverging mirrors

Ray diagrams

Real and virtual images

Linear and angular magnification

Optical compound microscopes

Simple optical astronomical refracting


telescopes

Spherical and chromatic aberrations

Wavefronts and rays

Youngs double-slit experiment - Doubleslit interference

Interference patterns

Path difference

Diffraction through a single-slit and


around objects

The nature of single-slit diffraction

Multiple slit and diffraction grating


interference patterns

Thin film interference

DP Unit Question(s):

What are the regions of the EM


spectrum, how are they produced and
what can each be used for?

How do the optical instruments


(magniyfying glass, microscope,
telescope) work?
Aim 3: the theories of optics, originating with
human curiosity of our own senses, continue
to be of great value in leading to new and
useful technology
Aim 3: images from microscopes and telescopes both in the school laboratory and obtained via the internet enable students to
apply their knowledge of these techniques
Aim 2: there is a common body of knowledge
and techniques involved in wave theory that
is applicable across many areas of physics
Aim 4: two scientific concepts (diffraction
and interference) come together in this subtopic, allowing students to analyze and
synthesize a wider range of scientific
information
Aim 9: the ray approach to the description of
thin film interference is only an
approximation. Students should recognize the
limitations of such visualization.
Aim 8: Some uses of thin films raise
environmental and ethical issues
Aim 7 There are many computer simulations
of interference, diffraction and other wave
phenomena.

Learning objectives/outcomes (from Subject Guide):

Interdisciplinary links and learning objectives (from subject Guide):


TOK: Students could consider the possible health hazards associated with transmission
lines.
This is a good opportunity to show how the unifying concept of waves leads to a powerful
synthesis.
Scientists often transfer their perception of tangible and visible concepts to explain similar
non-visible concepts, such as in wave theory. How do scientists explain concepts that
have no tangible or visible quality?
I Wavefronts and rays are visualizations that help our understanding of reality,
characteristic of modelling in the physical sciences. How does the methodology used in
the natural sciences differ from the methodology used in the human sciences?
How much detail does a model need to contain to accurately represent reality?
Could sign convention, using the symbols of positive and negative, emotionally influence
scientists?
However advanced the technology, microscopes and telescopes always involve sense
perception. Can technology be used effectively to extend or correct our senses?
Are explanations in science different from explanations in other areas of knowledge such
as history?
Most two-slit interference descriptions can be made without reference to the one-slit
modulation effect. To what level can scientists ignore parts of a model for simplicity and
clarity?
Huygens and Newton proposed two competing theories of the behaviour of light. How
does the scientific community decide between competing theo-ries?
International-mindedness:
Optics is an ancient study encompassing development made in the early Greco-Roman and
medieval Islamic worlds
The use of the radio interferometer telescope crosses cultures with collaboration between
scientists from many countries to produce arrays of interferometers that span the continents
Electromagnetic waves are used extensively for national and international communication
Characteristic wave behaviour has been used in many cultures throughout human history, often
tying closely to myths and legends that formed the basis for early scientific studies
Link to other DP subjects :
Cell observation (Biology sub-topic 1.2)
The information that the astronomical telescopes gather continues to allow us to
improve our understanding of the universe
Emission spectra are analyzed by comparison to the electromagnetic wave
spectrum ( Chemistry topic 2 and Physics sub-topic 12.1)

Sight (Biology sub-topic A.2)


X-ray diffraction is an important tool of the crystallographer and the material
scientist.
Compact discs are a commercial example of the use of diffraction gratings
Thin films are used to produce anti-reflection coatings
A satellite footprint on Earth is governed by the diffraction at the dish on the
satellite
Applications of the refraction and reflection of light range from the simple plane
mirror through the medical endoscope and beyond. Many of these applications
have enabled us to improve and extend our sense of vision.
The simple idea of the cancellation of two coherent light rays reflecting from two
surfaces leads to data storage in compact discs and their successors
Learner's profile They are thinker and open minded when they try to answer TOK questions.
They are reflective when they peer evaluate each others lab and try to improve their lab reports.
They are enquirers and knowledgeable when they explore different problems. They are principled
when they write their lab reports on their own
Assessment Evidence
Summative Assessment Task(s):
Formative Assessment Tasks:
End of unit test

Worksheets with rubrics


Practical work for IA

Homework
Determination of focal length of a convex lens by two

Exercises (examples) solved in


methods ,
class
Refractive index of water
magnification determination using an optical bench;
investigating real and virtual images formed by
lenses;
observing aberrations
speed of waves in different media
detection of electromagnetic waves from various
sources
observing the use of diffraction gratings in
spectroscopes;
analysis of thin soap films; sound wave and
microwave interference pattern analysis
examination of diffraction patterns through apertures
and around obstacles;
investigation of the double-slit experiment

Learning Plan and Teaching Strategies


Students will be given the details of the learning outcome of the unit in the
beginning of the unit. Every day at the beginning of the class, expected
questions/goal will be written on the board.
Brain storming and mind mapping before starting a topic helps to get an idea
about the students prior knowledge. They will be asked to do a prior reading about
the topic so as to enable them to actively participate in class room discussions,
take notes in systematic way, and write important formulae and big ideas
separately and complete assignments on time.
Study on regular basis, by completing homework on time and by solving questions
from past papers.
Details comments on non graded lab reports will help the students to learn how to
write proper IB lab report. Hand outs with sample problems and more and more
practices of IB past paper questions related to the topic will help to improve
problem solving and application skills.
The HL students will practice more difficult numerical problems. The students who
finish all the class works fast will get some challenging problems to solve. For the
others I will solve some typical problems step by step in class so that the students
know about the method of problem solving. Steps to be followed, writing all
meaning of important vocabularies on board, using ICT and/or address information
literacy, U tube videos , ppt, use of graph plotting software, Simulations using java
applets.
Classroom discussions about TOK questions. Incorporating interdisciplinary links
(TOK, other subjects)
At the end of each chapter students will fill out a self assessment form and
comment on the part of the topic they enjoyed and the part of the topic they found
hard. This will also help them to be reflective.
Resources
Worksheets/handouts

Specific material needed: audio-visual, lab equipment , props, art supplies

computer lab, library, or other resources rooms

Specific research resources: magazines, books, databases,

Internet sites/resources
Reflections and Evaluations
Students generally could grasp the main idea of the unit. Due to the fact that the unit requires in
depth knowledge of the structure of atoms and of electricity, some students found it difficult
when asked to explain certain phenomena (such as the production of X Rays) and LASER.( THIS
YEAR I REVIEWED CHAPTER 5 AND 7 WHICH ARE ELECTRICITY AND ATOMIC PHYSICS BEFORE

STARTING THIS TOPIC AND THE STUDENTS FOUND THAT HELPFUL). Angular magnification for
compound microscope was hard for students , I have to make a clear note on that)
Test was prepared in such a way to check students understanding of the phenomena as well as
their verbal explanations and descriptions. Their mathematical and analytical skills were tested
as well, since this topic required a great deal with mathematics.
Students found hard to understand the thin film and the Wedge film interference. Thats mainly
due to the mathematical aspect of this section. Furthermore it is always difficult for students to
understand the necessity of simplifying certain phenomena to make them simpler for analysis
and prediction. Phet Simulation help them to understand LASER production.
Resources
The available lab equipment is sufficient for this unit.

PREPARED BY ALKA MAHAJAN