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Simple Seismic processing

workflow
By: Ali Ismael AlBaklishy
Senior Student, Geophysics Department,
School of sciences, Cairo University

Content
Introduction.
Processing Workflow:

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Content
Processing Workflow:

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Introduction

Seismic Prospecting
Seismic
Processing

Seismic
acquisition

Seismic

Seismic
Interpretation
Interpretation

Content
Introduction.
Processing Workflow:

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Data Initialization

Data Reformat (Transcription)

Field data format


SEG Y
SEG D

Internal format of
the co.
Ex.: DIO (Omega)

Data Initialization

Geometry update

Objective :
Insert the X,Y,Z coordinates for each
shot and geophone group by merge the
Navigation/SPS file with the data file .

Data Initialization

Trace Editing
Objective :

1- Remove bad traces.


2- Remove bad shots.
3-Remove Duplicated traces.
4- Polarity Revers.

Data Initialization

Trace Editing
before

after

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Amplitude Processing

Amplitude Recovery And Gain

Energy is attenuated due to the spherical divergence


effect.

Amplitude Processing

Before And After Amplitude Recovery

Before

after

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Noise Attenuation
1- Ground Roll Attenuation.

Before

Noise Attenuation
Ground Roll Attenuation

After

Noise Attenuation
2- Swell Noise Attenuation.
Before

After

Noise Attenuation
3- Liner Noise Attenuation
By using FK filter & Radon (tau p)

Noise Attenuation

Tau p Radon transform

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Deconvolution

Objective:
To get rid of the energy wavelet so that get the earths
Reflectivity.

Deconvolution

Deterministic Deconv. (de-signature Deconv.)


(known Wavelet)

Statistical Deconv. (Gap Deconv).


(Unknown Wavelet)

Deconvolution
Before

Deconvolution
After

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Multiple Attenuation
Water Bottom Multiples Attenuation

After

Before

Multiple Attenuation
Surface Multiples Attenuation

After

Before

Multiple Attenuation
Interbed Multiples Attenuation

Short period and residual Multiples


Attenuation
By using Deconvolution

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Velocity Analysis And NMO

Objective :
1- Determine NMO Velocity.
2- Determine stack velocity.
3- Determine Migration velocity.

Velocity Analysis And NMO

MVFS

Velocity Analysis And NMO


In case of wrong Velocity

Velocity Analysis And NMO

Stretch Muting

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Migration

Objective:
Is to reposition the data from its apparent reflection
point (due to Non Horizontal Reflectors) to its true
reflection point.

Migration

Migration classification According to its position in the


workflow

Post stack
Migration
Less time.
Low cost.
Loss in data.

Pre-Stack
Migration
Take long time.
High cost.
No data losses.

Migration

Pre-stack and post stack


Migration

Migration

Migration classification According to its types:

Time
Migration

Depth
Migration
Time and space
Domain.

Dont takes ray


bending & lateral
velocity change into
account.
Take shorter time.

Depth Domain.
takes ray bending
& lateral velocity
change into
account.
require greater
computer time.

Migration

1- Time Migration
Time migration is the repositioning of reflected seismic data to their
true reflection points in space and time.
Ex: Kirchhoff Migration

Migration

2- Depth Migration.
In depth migration, data are migrated in depth domain
and the input data for the process is unmigrated seismic
data in time domain. The output is migrated data in the
depth domain.
take into account the bending of ray paths by
refraction within a complex geology.

Migration

Time Migration and depth Migration

Migration

Migration Examples

Migration

Migration Examples

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Stacking

Stacking

Content
Introduction.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References.
Q&A.

Data Makeup

Data Filtering
Amplitude Scaling

Stacking

Stacking

Content
Introduction.
Processing Workflow:

Q&A.

Data Initialization.
Amplitude Processing.
Noise Attenuation.
Deconvolution.
Multiple Attenuation.
Velocity Analysis and NMO.
Migration.
Stack.
Data Makeup.

References:
Exploration Geophysics, Mamdouh R. Gadallah Ray
Fisher,2009.
Seismic data Processing, OZ Yilmaz.
Seismic Data Analysis And Techniques in Hydrocarbon
Exploration, ENWENODE ONAJITE, 2014
Seismic Reflections: Marine Processing - Part 5 | Direct
Arrivals, Refractions, and Linear Noise
Seismic Reflections: Marine Processing - Part 4 | Swell Noise
Removal

Q&A