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. .

: , , , ,
. .
.

. . , . .

2016

519(07)
22.17473
191
: . . , ,
,
. . . ;
. . , - ,

, . .
191
: . / . . ,
. . . : . . -, 2016. 128 .
ISBN 978-5-7638-3511-3

: , , ,
, . . .
11.00.00 , (11.03.01 , 11.03.02 , 11.03.03
, 11.05.11
), 12.00.00 , ,
(12.03.01
), 09.03.03 , 38.03.05 -, 15.03.06
, 25.05.03 .

.:
http://catalog.sfu-kras.ru

519(07)
22.17473

ISBN 978-5-7638-3511-3

, 2016


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.

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.
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.
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3


, .
, , , ,
.

1.
1.1.
,
. .
()
, . .
, . , , ()
, . , ,
. , , -,
, (,
), -, . .
, a A,
, a ( ) A, : a A. a 6 A.
. , . , , ,
.
. A B , .
A = B, A B , A 6= B .
1.1. A 1 6, B
x2 7x+6 = 0. 1, 6
, ,
, , . . A = B.
A, a1 , a2 , . . . ,
an , A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an }.
5

1.2.
A B, A B,
A B. B A. A B, A 6= B, A B, A B. , A, B, C
:
1) A A;
2) A B, B C, A C;
3) A B, B A, A = B.
, A B
: A B, B A (A = B A B, B A).
.
()
(). A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an }, a1 A, a1 6 A,
a1 A. ,
A1 , a1 , A1 = {a1 }, A1 A
{a1 } A.
, , . ,
x2 + 1 = 0 . . , . . A
A. , C = {}
, .
.
A = {a1 , a2 }, B = {b1 , b2 }, D = {A, B} , ,
a1 b1 , . . a1 6 D, A D, B D.
A = {a, b} : , {a},
{b} {a, b}. S(A) = {, {a}, {b}, {a, b}} A. ,
A S(A), A
.
A n (: |A| = n),
|S(A)| = 2n . , || = 0, |S()| = |{}| = 20 = 1.
, , ()
6

U . , , A
: A U . U . , , , U
.

1.3.
,
, ,
.
(, ). ,
. ,
. , A
[1, 3] , A = {1, 2, 3}.
B , .
, .
, . . , - . ,
N :
1) 1 N,
2) x N, x + 1 N.
: N = {1, 2, ..., n, ...}
N .
. ,
A ,
. , x. x ,
x, , x ,
. , x
: 5 x, x . ,
x2 4 = (x2)(x+2) x x,
x > 0 x. x P (x).
7

. P (x) A,
a, P (a) .
A = {x|P (x)} , A P (x). ,
1) A = {x|x , 5} = {1, 2, 3, 4};
2) A = {x|x , } =
= {, };
3) A = {x|x = 2n, n N} .

1.4.
, , .
1.1. () A B
A B, ,
A, B:
A B = {x|x A x B}.
, A B
A, B, .
: A A B, B A B.

, , . ,
: A1 , A2 , ..., An , ...

[
A = Ai = {x|x Ai , i = 1, 2, . . . , n, . . . }.
i=1

1.2. A B
A B, , A, B.
A B = {x|x A x B}.
, A B A, B. A B, AB = .
8

, A B . , : A B A, A B B.
A B ,

|A B| = |A| + |B| |A B|.
|A B| = |A| + |B| ,
A B (A B = ).

, ,
. ,
: A1 , A2 , ..., An , ...
A=

Ai = {x|x Ai , i = 1, 2, . . . , n, . . . }.

i=1

1.3. A B
A\B,
A, B:
A \ B = {x|x A, x 6 B}.
, A \ B A.
1.4. C A B
AB = (A \ B) (B \ A). ,
A B,
.
1. , AB = (A B) \ (A B).
1.2. A = {1, 2, 3, a, b}, B = {a, b, c, 0, 1, 5}. :
A B, A B, A \ B, B \ A, AB.
1.1 1.4: AB = {0, 1, 2, 3, 5, a, b, c}, AB =
= {1, a, b}, A \ B = {2, 3}, B \ A = {c, 0, 5}, AB = {0, 2, 3, 5, c}.
1.5. A A , A:
A = {x|x 6 A}.
U , A = U \ A.
X \ A = {x|x X, x 6 A}, . .
X, A, A X. , X \ A = X A.
9

.
U ,
, .
. 1 , .

AB

AB

U
A

U
A

A\B

AB

. 1

, .
A, B, C
U :
:
1. A B = B A;
:
2. A (B C) = (A B) C;
:
3. A (B C) = (A B) (A C);
:
4. A = A, A U = U ;
5. A A = U ;
:
6. A A = A;
:
7. A B = A B;

1. A B = B A.
2. A (B C) = (A B) C.
3. A (B C) = (A B) (A C).
4. A = , A U = A.
5. A A = .
6. A A = A.
7. A B = A B.
10

:
8. A (A B) = A;
:
9. A = A.

8. A (A B) = A.

3 7.
3. A (B C) = (A B) (A C).
: M = A(B C) N = (AB)(AC).
M =N M N, N M.
, M N . x M = A(B C). , ) x A ) x B C. ) , x A,
x AB x AC, . . x (AB)(AC) = N . x B C,
, x B x C. , x AB x AC, . .
) x (A B) (A C) = N . .
, N M . x N = (A B) (A C),
x A B x A C. , x A, ,
x A (B C), x 6 A, x B x C, . . x B C,
x A (B C) = M .
7. A B = A B.
x A B. x 6 AB. , x 6 A x 6 B.
, x A x B, . . x A B. , A B A B.
x AB. x A x B, , x 6 A, x 6 B. ,
x 6 A B, . . x A B. , A B A B. 7 .

1.5. .

. , , .
, .
, , . , . , ,
. :
, ,
. , ,
, , . .
.
11

. ? , , ,
: ?
, ,
-, ; -, , . .
, . ,
,
.
,
.
.
1.6. A , N . ,
A , . .
A = {a1 , a2 , ..., an , ...}.
, ,
, .
.
1.3. ,
Z = {..., n, ..., 1, 0, 1, 2, ..., n, ...}.
, ,
n > 0 2n + 1,
n < 0 2|n|, Z N.
1.4. , C = {x|x = 2n , n N}
.
C , 2n n C
N.
1.5. , 12

Q = {x|x = n/m; n Z, m N}.


, x x = n/m. |n| + m
x. , , p, . , , . . .
.
1.
.
2. .
3. .
1.7. A B (A B), .
, :
1) A A;
2) A B, B A;
3) A B B C, A C.
.
. ,
. ,
.
.
1.1. , , .
. .
,
[0, 1]:
1 = 0, a11 a12 a13 . . . a1n . . . ,
2 = 0, a21 a22 a23 . . . a2n . . . ,
3 = 0, a31 a32 a33 . . . a3n . . . ,
(1.1)
...
n = 0, an1 an2 an3 . . . ann . . . ,
...
13

ajk k- j .
= 0, b1 b2 ...bn ...
: b1 , a11 , b2 , a22 , . .
, bn , ann .
,
(1.1). , 1 , ,
, . ., ,
bn 6= ann n, j , (1.1). ,
, [0, 1], .
, [0, 1] . , [0, 1].
1.6. ,
[a, b] [0, 1].
[0, 1] [a, b]
. 2 (p q).
.
C

d
a

q 1 p

. 2

. 3

1.7. , [1, 1]
.
. 3 , p [1, 1]
d , d q
, . . (p q). ,
0 0, 1 , 1 . , . 3
[1, 1] .
, ,
, (
14

, [a, b] ). ,
.
:

.
, .
(M N )
, . , ,
.
. , ,
0 (: ). [0, 1] , .
c ( ).
, . , ? A B m(A) m(B) . A B, m(A) = m(B). A
B1 B, A , B, , m(A) < m(B). , , :
) B B1 A, A A1 B;
) A B ,
.
) A B
, . . m(A) = m(B). .
1.2 ( ). A B . A A1 , B, B B1 , A, A B
.
), , .
, A B m(A) = m(B), :
m(A) < m(B),

m(A) > m(B).


15

, , : 1) ,

; 2) , , ; 3) , ? , .
1.3. M S(M ) M . S(M )
M .
,
, . ., , , .


1. ? .
2. , {} 6= ?
3. a {{a}, {b}, {c}}?
4. A, B, C , A B,B C,
A 6 C.
5. ?
6. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} ) ; ) .
7. .
8. , A B, , A B = A.
9. , A = B, , AB = .
10. : ) A B = A B; ) A \ (A \ B) = A B;
) A(BC) = (AB)C.
11. .
12. max|AB| min|AB|, |A| = n, |B| = m m < n.
13. |A B|, |A| = 10, |B| = 7, |A B| = 12.
14. |A B|, |A| = 15, |B| = 9, B A.
15. [0; 1] (0; 1).
16. , .
17. AB, AB, A\B, B \A, A
, B .
16

2.
2.1.
A B. (a, b), , a A, b B.
, , A
B, . ,
, .
2.1. A B = {(a, b)|a A, b B}
A B
A B.
, , . . (a, b) 6= (b, a), , A B 6= B A A 6= B.
A = B, AA = A2
A.

.
2.2. () A1 , A2 , ..., An A1 A2 ... An =
= {(a1 , a2 , ..., an )|ai Ai , i = 1, 2, ..., n} n-
(a1 , a2 , ..., an ).
A1 = A2 = ... = An = A, AA...A = An
n- A.
,

|A1 A2 ... An | = |A1 | |A2 | |An |.


2.3. , .
R A1 A2 ... An , R
A1 , A2 , ..., An .
, R n- n. n = 1, ; n = 2
. A A.
17

, R
N . R N2 = {2, 4, ..., 2n, ...} N.
A , B ,
A B.
() A, B C, C . : (a, b, c), a
, b , c .
: A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 , A1 , A2 , A3
, A4 .

2.2.
2.4. A B .
R A B (R A B)
. A = B, R A (R A A = A2 )
A.
A |A|.
. ,
.
A IA = {(a, a)|a A} , UA = {(a, b)|a A, b A}
. , UA = A2 .
A2 , A .
R A B
, R,
.
2.5.
R D(R) = {a|(a, b) R}, . . D(R) () , R
(D(R) A).
2.6. R
18

E(R) = {b|(a, b) R}, . . E(R) () , R


(E(R) B).
( ). , , , , :
1) (a, b) ( (a, b) );
2) a b ( a b ).
,
, , (a = b) (a < b).
A B - , . . .
2.7. R (R AB). R1 BA,
R1 = {(b, a)|(a, b) R}.
, D(R1 ) = E(R) E(R1 ) = D(R).
2.8. R1 A B R2 B C ,
R1 R2 (a, c) , a A, c C b B (a, b) R1 (b, c) R2 .
, R1 R2 A C.
:
1. (R1 )1 = R;
2. (R1 R2 )1 = R21 R11 .

2.3.
,
, .

.
A B A = {a1 , a2 , ..., an }, B = {b1 , b2 , . . . , bm }. C = (cij ) n m
(i = 1, 2, ..., n; j = 1, 2, ..., m), cij = 1 , 19

(ai , bj ) , cij = 0.
. A2 , .
,
. . , 0, 1.
.
1. ()
A B B C , . .
C = C C . ,
0 + 0 = 0, 0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1, 1 + 1 = 1.
2. 1
, . . C1 = (C )T .
3. C = (pij ), C = (qij ) ,
A B , pij 6 qij .
2.1.
A B B C


0 1
0 1 0

C =
, C = 1 0 . 1 1 0
1 1
1
, .
( A B).


T
0 1
0 1 0
= 1 1 ,
1 2, C1 =
1 1 0
0 0





0 1
1
0
0 1 0
C =
1 0 =
. 3 1 1
1 1 0
1 1


0 1 0
, ,
.
1 0 0
A = {a1 , a2 , ..., an }. ,
A . ai aj ,
(ai , aj ) .
.

A = {a1 , a2 , ..., an } -. ai A Ai
A, , . .
20

Ai = {x|x A, (ai , x) } ( ai ).
Ai (i = 1, 2, ..., n) A A/.
A, () A/, , .
2.2. A = {a1 = 2, a2 = 3, a3 = 4,
a4 = 6, a5 = 12}, :
a A b ((a, b) )
, a b, a b. .
.
A2 .
1. : =
= {(2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 12), (3, 6), (3, 12), (4, 12), (6, 12)}.
2. :
12
3

0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1

.
0
0
0
0
1
C =

0 0 0 0 1
4
2
6
0 0 0 0 0
. 4
3. . 4 .
4. - A/ =
= {{4, 6, 12}, {6, 12}, {12}, {12}, }.
5. D() =
{2, 3, 4, 6}, E() = {4, 6, 12}.
, . , . 4,
, -.

2.4.
, , , ,
.
, ,
21

, , . ,
.
2.9.
A. :
(1) , (a, a) ( : a a)
a A;
(2) , (a, a) 6 a A;
(3) , (a, b) , (b, a) (:
a b b a);
(4) , (a, b) (b, c) , (a, c)
(: a b b c a c);
(5) , (a, b) (b, a) ,
a = b (: a b b a a = b).
,
1) , 1 = ;
2) , 1 IA ;
3) , .
2.3. , () A.
,
(X X), (X Y Y Z X Z) (X Y Y X X = Y ).
2.4. , (<) .
, , .
,
, . , A IA
, . , , .
: (x, y) x y. , p q
r, : (p, r) , (r, p) 6 , . . . ,
(p, q) (q, p, ) , p q (p 6= q).
22

, , 2.9
.
, :
) , , ();
) ,
, ;
) , , , ,
;
) ,
,
;
) ,
x, y z, , x y
y z, x z.
C = (cij )nn , :
) cii = 1 i;
) cii = 0 i;
) cij = 1 cji = 1;
) cij = cji = 1 i = j;
) cij = 1 cjk = 1 cik = 1.
, , 2.2
C .

2.5.
2.10. A , , .
A, , a, A, b A, a b.
, a,
[a] Ca . : [a] = {b|b A a b}.
23

.
1. . , . .
x [x] = {x}.
2. .

.
3. .
.
4. , Z : x y ,
x y n N ,
n x y (mod n).
2.5. , n
.
Z, x xx = 0 = 0n. , xy n, yx
n. . n. x y (mod n),
r x y = rn. y z (mod n),
q y z = qn. , : xz = (r +q)n, . . xz n,
(r + q) . , x z (mod n).
:
a a+kn, k . , 0,
1, 2, . . . . n 1 : [0], [1], [2],
. . . , [n 1]. n.
a a = qn+r, 0 6 r 6 n,
.
A :
1. a A, a [a] (. . A ).
2. a, b A a b, [a] = [b] (. . ).
3. a, b A, [a] = [b] [a] [b] = (. .
24

).
, , a a , , a [a].
. c [b]. c b
, c a, . . c [a]. [b] [a].
, [a] [b], , [a] = [b].
,
, . .
c, c [a] [b]. , a c, b c,
[a] = [c], [b] = [c]. , [a] = [b].
,
A

. A
.
2.11. A Ak , A
, . . A = Ak , k K Ai Aj = i 6= j.
,
.
2.1. .
, .
2.2. A
: a b , a b
.
, , , . . a b b c, a, b A1 , b, c A2 ,
A1 A2 A. b A1 A2 ,
, A1 = A2 a c.
,
()
,
(), , . () .
25

2.6. , , A = {a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 }, ,
A,

1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 0 0

.
1
1
1
0
0
C =

0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 1
C . A1 = {a1 , a2 , a3 }, A2 = {a4 , a5 }. A = A1 A2
A. 2.2 , , ,
.

2.6. .

2.12. , A, , :
1) ( a A a a);
2) ( a b b c, a c);
3) ( a b b a , a = b).
,
6.
,
:
1) a 6 a a;
2) a 6 b b 6 c, a 6 c;
3) a 6 b b 6 a, a = b.
a 6 b , (a, b) ((a, b) AA). a , ( ) b , b. 1 , (a 1 b b a), . (6)1 6
>. a < b, a 6 b a 6= b. , ,
.
26

2.13. , .
,
: A hA; 6i.
, . .
. ,
hA; (6)1 i.
2.7. , M = {a, b, c, 0, 1}
P = {(0, 0), (0, a), (0, b), (0, c),
(0, 1), (a, a), (a, 1), (b, b), (b, 1), (c, c), (c, 1), (1, 1)} .
P , , ,
. P , (x, y) P (y, z) P (x, z) P
x, y, z M . x = 0, y, z M
(0, z) P . x 6= 0 P
(x, x) (x, 1), ,
. , P M ,
.
2.8. , N
: a b b a ,
.
, . , . b a, c b, c a, . .
. . a b
b a, , b = ak a = bm, k m . a = akm, km = 1, k = m = 1,
, a = b. ,
, hN; i
.
, N 6 (a 6 b b a > 0) . ,
N, : hN; 6i
hN; i.
, A = {2, 4, 6, 10, 60} , 2.8, 27

, ,
2.7, . , A (2 0, 4 a, 6 b, 10 c,
60 1), 2.7. ,
, A M , ,
. , .
A A0 g
A A0 . g , , a 6 b (a, b A), ,
g(a) 6 g(b).
2.14. g A A0 ,
A A0 ,
g(a) 6 g(b) , a 6 b (a, b A).
hN; 6i hN; i
2.8 g, .
g(n) = n (n N). , ab (a, b N a b), ,
g(a) 6 g(b) a 6 b. . , hN; 6i , . . m n m 6 n, n 6 m.
hN; i , ,
m = 5 n = 3 ((5, 3) 6 (3, 5) 6 ).

. ,
, ,
.
.
2.15. hA; 6i
,
, . . a b A a 6 b, b 6 a.
hN; 6i .
28

2.7 2.8 . ,
2.8 2
, 2.7
a, b, c.
.
,
, , , , , .
, . .
2.16. a A (), b 6 a ,
b = a. c
A (), c 6 b .
b = c.
2.17. , () .
(6) , , ( ) .
[0, 1] (
) 0
1, , ,
, .
N ( ) ,
1. , , N ,
.
, ()
.
( ),
, . , 29

,
. XIX ,
.
2.9. , : hA; 6i hA; i, A = {1, 2, 3, 5, 30},
a b b a .

30
30
5
2

2
1

. 5

. 6

, .

2.7.
2.18. A B
f A B, . . (a, b) f (a, c) f b = c.
, . .
, , , :
f g (f = g), .
, .
2.19. f X Y ,
(x, y) f y = f (x) , y , x, y x f .
x y.
2.20. f X Y (f X Y )
.
.
30

2.21. f X n Y (f X n Y ) n- X Y n
(y = f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )).
2.22. f AB, D(f ) A, A B .
E(f ) B, f A
B .
, f
A B. :
f
f : A B A B.
2.23. f A B. A,
b B, (, , ) b f 1 (b), . . f 1 (b) = {a|a A f (a) =
= b}.
2.24. f A B
,
b B a A, . .
f (a1 ) = b f (a2 ) = b a1 = a2 .
2.25. f A B
, , . . A
B.
, f1 (x) = arctg x
R , . ,
y x,
f11 (y) = tg y . , f1 (x) . f1 (x) ,
R. f2 (x) = x3 x ,
, , f21 (0) = {1, 0, 1} , E(f2 ) = R. R
f3 (x) = x3 .
M A, M f : A B
f (M ) = {x|x B, x = f (m) m M }, . .
M .
C B f 1 (C) = {a|a = f 1 (c)
c C} C, . . f 1 (C) 31

A, C.
c C , f 1 (C) = .
.
2.3. :
f 1 (A B) = f 1 (A) f 1 (B).
:
f 1 (A B) = f 1 (A) f 1 (B).
2.3
( ) .
2.4. :
f (A B) = f (A) f (B).
2.4
, . .
.
, f
Ox, A = {0 6 x 6 1, y = 0} B = {0 6 x 6 1, y = 1} (AB = ), , , (f (A) = f (B)).

2.8. .
.
2.26. f A A A. f (a) A f
.
R :
1) : f (x) = x1 , x 6= 0,
: f = {(x, x1 )|x R, x 6= 0};
2) : f (x) = x,
: f = {(x, x)|x R};
3) f = {(x, 0)|x R},
x 0.
2.27. An A n- (n-) A.
32

n = 2 , n = 3 . R3
, .

R. ,
: f = {((x, y), x + y)|x, y R}.
2.28. : A F , A.
: J, R . .
R = hA; F i A ,
F .
, N c (+), () o: R =
= hN; +, i. : F = {+, }.
, ,
, , .
() M
: RK =
= hS(M ); , , i. ,
(0-) :
M .
1.4, (19).
RK = hS(M ); , , , , M i .
, ,
, , .
, .
.
2.29. B , ,
0, I , a, b,
c B :
1 a b = b a, a b = b a
2 a (b c) = (a b) c,
a (b c) = (a b) c

();
();

33

3 a (b c) = (a b) (a c),
a (b c) = (a b) (a c)
4 a a = a, a a = a
5 a (a b) = a, a (a b) = a
6 a 0 = 0, a 0 = a, a 1 = a, a 1 = 1
7 a a = 0, a a = I
A8 a
=a
A9 a b = a b, a b = a b

();
();
();
( );
(
);
( ).

, .
B ( :
, , : 0, I) 19 , (). ,
() .
, .
, ,
, .

. , . . , . , , 4, 8,
9 . , . ,
:
a (b (a c)) = (a b) (a c),
a (b (a c)) = (a b) (a c),

15. ,
3, 2, 5 3,
a (b (a c)) = a ((b a) (b c)) = (a (b a)) (b c) =
= a (b c) = (a b) (a c).
,
.
,
, :
34

, , , , .
, 1 9
.
.
2.30. R1 = hA1 , F1 i R2 =
= hA2 , F2 i ,
fm (a1 , ..., an ) = a (fm )((a1 ), ..., (an )) = (a),
a1 , ..., an , a A1 , fm F1 , (a1 ), ..., (an ), (a) A2 , (fm ) F2 .
R1 R2 .
R1
R2 .
RK = hS(M ); , , , , M i, ,
() , , , , 0, M I. ,
M .
2.5.
.


1. |A B|, |A| = 4, |B| = 5.
2. xOy A B, A = [0; 1], B = [1; 1]?
3. A, B, C:
) (AB)C = (AC)(B C), ) (AB)C = (AC)(B C).
4. P = {(a, b)|a A, b B, 2a+b < 10},
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {2, 3, 5, 6, 7} .
5. P = {(a, b)|a A, b B, a + b
}, A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {2, 3, 5, 6, 7} .
6. P Q
P = {(a, b)|a A, b B, a b}, Q = {(b, a)|a A, b B, b
a > 3}, A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}.
7. ?
35

8. ?
9. :
) , , ;
) , , ;
) , .
10. ?
11. A
?
12. ?
13. ( )? .
14. ?
15. 4 : , , : ) , , ) , , )
.
16. A B (|A| = m, |B| = n) :
) A B;
) A B.
17. ?
: , , .
18. ,
? . , ?
19. y = x2 x , , , 1) x [0; 1], 2) x [1; 1]?
20. B, |A| = n
f A B .

36

3.
3.1.
,
. , ,
. , ,
.

.
, , ,
. . , , ,
. ,
() , .
() M .
M ,
, , , (
).
: , , ,
..., ..., . ,
() .
:
(),
& (),
(),
( ..., ...),
( ).

37

.
, . , ,
, .
.
M
, . 3- (
).
3.1. , :
1) , . . M ;
2) F1 F2 (F1 , F2 ), (F1 ), (F1 &F2 ), (F1 F2 ),
(F1 F2 ), (F1 F2 ) ;
3) .
3.1.
: , .
: A
, B ( ) .
: ((A) B). 3.1. , A
B , ( 1 3.1), 2
(A) ((A) B). (A B), (A) B
, 3.1,
(A),
((A) B). 3 3.1.
,
, 3.1. .
, : , ,
, . ,
.
, F = (A ((C (A&B)))), , :
F = A (C A&B).
38

3.2.
.
,
. , , ,
,
, . ,
( ), .
1, 0. , ( ) : 1 0.
, , , ,
. ,
1 3.1 ( ), . , , A, A&B, A B, A B, A B
.
. . 1
,
.
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

A
1
1
0
0

A&B
0
0
0
1

AB
0
1
1
1

1
AB AB
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1

, . ,
, n ,
2n , . . 2n .
3.2.
F = (A B) (A&B).
39

, F . 3.1 ( 2) A,
A B .
A&B F = (A B) (A&B).
F , , F .
F .
.
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

(A)
1
1
0
0

(A B)
1
0
0
1

((A)&B)
0
1
0
0

2
(A B) ((A)&B)
0
1
1
0

: , , , , ,
B = {0, 1}
. ()
. , . .

3.3.
F = A B
H = A B.
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

(A)
1
1
0
0

AB
1
1
0
1

3
(A) B
1
1
0
1

. 3 ,
A B F H .
3.2. F H
, . ,
F H , F = H.
40

, . 3
A B = A B.
, . .
3.3. A ( ),
(A = 1).

,
1. , , .
,
A A A
1, . . .
, A&A
0 (). (A&A) 1 (), . . .
A&A,
.
(). , A , A .
.
1. A, A B , B.
2. A , A1 , A2 , ..., An , B A 1 ,
2 , . . . , n A1 , A2 , ..., An , B , . . .
3.3. , F = A (B A)
.
, . ., A (B A) = 0. , A = 1, B A = 0.
B A = 0 , B = 1, A = 0. , A = 1.
, 3.3,
41

.
1 = C&A 2 = C A. F 3.3 A 1 , B 2 ,
. F1 = C&A (C A C&A),
2 . , .
A
0
0
1
1

C
0
1
0
1

(C)
1
0
1
0

(C) A
1
0
1
1

C&A
0
0
0
1

4
(C) A C&A F1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

F A 1 ,
F2 = C&A (B C&A).
2. ,
F2 .
3.2
(=), ,
, , . ,
, , . , 1, ,
0. , .
, ,
, ()
. . ,
, ,
.
.
1. :

A&B = B&A, A B = B A.

2. :

(A&B)&C = A&(B&C)
(A B) C = A (B C).
42

A&(B C) = (A&B) (A&C),

3. :

A (B&C) = (A B)&(A C).


4. :

A&A = A, A A = A.

5. :

A&1 = A, A&0 = 0,
A 1 = 1, A 0 = A.

6. :

A&A = 0.

7. : A A = 1.
8. :

(A) = A.

9. :

(A&B) = A B,
(A B) = A&B.
A&(B A) = A, A (B&A) = A.

10. :

(1, 5, 6, 7, 8) ,
.
,
.
3.4. : A&(B A) = A.
F = A&(BA). A = 1, ,
BA = 1 B, A&(BA) = 1 . A = 0, A&(B A) = 0 B. ,
F A,
, . . F = A.
, ()
: F
H , . . F = H, ,
F H .

3.4.

. ,
, ,
. .
, 43

.
1. A B = A B.
2. A B = (A B)&(B A).
3. A&B = (A B).
4. A B = (A&B).
3.3 A B = A B
(. 3). , 3 4 , , ,
(. 3.3 9 8). , 2.
2 .
1. A B . A B = 1,
A B = 1, B A = 1. (A B)&(B A) = 1. ,

.
2. A B . A B = 0, A B B A 0, (A B)(B A) = 0. ,
.
, 1 , , .
2 ,
&, .
{&, , } . ( 3 4), {&, }
{, }. , {&, } {, } ,
. . , .
3. :
A B = A B,

A&B = (A B).

{, }.
,
(),
, . ,
. | :
44

A
0
0
1
1

5
B A|B
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0

. 5 , A&B = (A|B), , A = A|A, A&B = (A|B)|(A|B). ,


{&, } , ,
.

3.5.

() ,
110 3.3 14 3.4.
,
A1 = A2 , A2 = A3 , ..., Ak1 = Ak , A1 = Ak .
: A1 = A2 = A3 = ... = Ak1 = Ak .
, , ,
.
3.1. ( ). FA , A . FB FA A B. , A = B,
FA = FB .
3.2. ( ). X:
FX = HX FA HA X A. FA = HA , . .
.
FX = HX , FX HX
, 3.2 ( 3.3, 2). 3.1 3.2
[7] 1.1.2.
, . , a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b) 45

: (ca+cb)(ab) = c(ab)(a+b) = c(a2 b2 )


( ). ,
: sin2 xb2 = (sin xb)(sin xb) ( a sin x).
. , .

, ,
.
, , , .
3.5. ((A B) A B)&B.
:
((A B) A B)&B = (((A B)) A B)&B =
= (A B A B)&B = (A B)&B = B.
. , 1 ( 3.4). , . 8 A (AB).
, 4
A (AB). , ,
.
() .
3.6.
F = (A B) ((B C) (A B C)).
:
F = (A B) ((B C) ((A B) C)) =
= (A)&B (B)&(C) (A&B C) =
= (A&B) (B&C) (A&B) C =
= (A&B) (A&B) (B&C) C =
= (A A)&B (B C)&(C C) = 1&B (B C)&1 =
= B B C = 1 C = 1.
A B = A B, .
46

. B
B&C C. ,
, .

3.6.
. , ()
(1 0),
(1 0).
3.4. n
( ) n-
f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ), B = {0, 1}
B.
, , .
0 1, ,
, . , n-c
3.4. P2 , P2 (n)
n . R = hB; P2 i,
B = {0, 1} , . (, ) n
, 2n
, .
3.7.
,
, , .
47

x1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

x2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

x3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

6
f (x1 , x2 , x3 )
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

, f = 1,
. ,
.
, , , ,
, , .
n
. 2n ,
|P2 (n)| n
2n , . .
n

|P2 (n)| = 22 .

(3.1)

xk f (x1 , ..., xk1 , xk , xk+1 , ..., xn )


,
f (x1 , ..., xk1 , 0, xk+1 , ..., xn ) = f (x1 , ..., xk1 , 1, xk+1 , ..., xn )
. , ,
, ,
(n 1) . .
,
. ,
(3.1) , P2 (n) n , .
. x , .
x
0
1

0
0
0

7
1 2 3
0
1
1
1
0
1
48

0 3 0 1, . , . . x . 1 (x) = x, 2 (x) , . . 2 (x) = x.


16, .
x1
0
0
1
1

x2
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
1

2
0
0
1
0

3
0
0
1
1

4
0
1
0
0

5
0
1
0
1

6
0
1
1
0

7
0
1
1
1

8
1
0
0
0

9
1
0
0
1

10
1
0
1
0

11
1
0
1
1

12
1
1
0
0

8
13 14 15
1 1 1
1 1 1
0 1 1
1 0 1

0 (x1 , x2 ) = 0 15 (x1 , x2 ) = 1 , . .
. 3 (x1 , x2 ) = x1 , 5 (x1 , x2 ) =
= x2 , 10 (x1 , x2 ) = x2 12 (x1 , x2 ) =
= x1 , . . 8
, , 1 (x1 , x2 ) 1 (x1 , x2 ) =
= x1 &x2 , 7 (x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2 , 9 (x1 , x2 ) =
= x1 x2 , 13 (x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2 .
: 6 (x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2
(), 8 (x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2 ,
14 (x1 , x2 ) = x1 |x2 .
, .
4. :
2 (x1 , x2 ) = (x1 x2 ), 4 (x1 , x2 ) = (x2 x1 ), 8 (x1 , x2 ) = (x1 x2 ),
11 (x1 , x2 ) = x2 x1 , 14 (x1 , x2 ) = (x1 &x2 ).
, 11 (x1 , x2 ) = 13 (x2 , x1 ), . . 11
, 14
12 (x1 , x2 ) 1 (x1 , x2 ), x1 , . . 14 (x1 , x2 ) = (x1 &x2 ) = 12 (1 (x1 , x2 ), x2 ).
, .
f f1 , f2 , ..., fm ,
. , ,
. .
49

= {f1 , f2 , ..., fm , ...} , . . P2 . fi


. f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) n
A1 , A2 , ..., An , ,
f (A1 , A2 , ..., An ) . .

3.7.
.
()
, , , .
: x0 = x, x1 = x. ,
0 1. , x = 1 x = .
3.3. f (x1 , ..., xn ) :
f (x1 , ..., xm , xm+1 , . . . , xn ) =
=

x1 1 & . . . &xmm &f (1 , ..., m , xm+1 , . . . , xn ),

(3.2)

1 ,...,m

m 6 n, 2m 1 ,. . . ,m .
.
(3.2) : xi = 1 , i = 1, 2, . . . , n. ,
f (1 , . . . , n ). 2m x1 1 & . . . &xmm
(3.2) : 1 = 1 , ...,
m = m . x = 1 x = , 1,
0. : a0 = 0 a&1 = a
(3.2) :
m
11 & . . . &m
&f (1 , ..., m , m+1 , . . . , n ) = f (1 , ..., . . . , n ).

(3.2)
x1 , ..., xm .
, . .
xy x&y,
50

, . . x = x. .
f (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) (n = 4) x1 , x2 (m = 2).
f (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = x1 x2 f (0, 0, x3 , x4 ) x1 x2 f (0, 1, x3 , x4 )
x1 x2 f (1, 0, x3 , x4 ) x1 x2 f (1, 1, x3 , x4 ).
m = 1 (3.2) () , :
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = xk f (x1 , . . . xk1 , 0, . . . , xn ) xk f (x1 , . . . xk1 , 1, . . . , xn ).
(3.2)
(m = n).
, 0 1, ,
, 1. , :
_
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) =
x1 1 x2 2 . . . xnm ,
(3.3)
f (1 ,...,n )=1

(1 , ..., n ), . () f .
(3.3), :
1) , . .
, 1;
2) , . . ,
, 1 ,
0;
3) .
3.8. () f (x1 , x2 , x3 ), . 9.
x1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

x2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

x3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

9
f (x1 , x2 , x3 )
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
51

,
: (0, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1), (1, 0, 1), (1, 1, 1). ,
(3.3)
:
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x01 x12 x03 x01 x12 x13 x11 x02 x13 x11 x12 x13 =
= x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
3.3
3.4. f (x1 , ..., xn ),
0, ( ) .
, , ,
.
.
3.5.
() f (x1 , ..., xn ) F , x1 , ..., xn , :
1) n ;
2) ;
3)
;
4)
.

3.8. .
3.6. f (x1 , ..., xn ) f (x1 , ..., xn ),

f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = f (x1 , . . . , xn ).

(3.4)

(3.4)
x1 , ..., xn , ,
f (x1 , ..., xn ) f (x1 , ..., xn ), . . . ,
.
52

3.7. ,
, . . f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = f (x1 , . . . , xn ).
, . 3.6 , , 0
1, ,
f (x1 , . . . , xn ).
3.9. ,
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ), . 10.
x1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

x2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

x3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

10
f (x1 , x2 , x3 )
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1

. 10 0 1, ,
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ).
x1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

x2
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

x3
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

11
f (x1 , x2 , x3 )
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

x y = x y
: x y = x y. ,
. , 1 0,
.
5. ,
) x1 x2 x1 x2 , ) x1 x2 x1 |x2 .
: F , f ,
53

, F f , f .
,
[7] 1.1.4.
3.5. F G (F = G),
F G (F = G ).
: F , f ,
, ,
0 1, 1 0, F , f , f . 3.5 . ,
AA = 1 , A&A = 0.
1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10
, 3.3.
6. , f (x, y, z) = xy xz yz .


().
,
(. 3.5).
3.8. F (), x1 , ..., xn ,
:
1) n ;
2) ;
3)
;
4)
.
, F f (x1 , ..., xn ), F f (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= f (x1 , . . . , xn ). , .
f (x1 , ..., xn )
54

, xk , xk = 1
. , f 3.8 :
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 ).
, 3.4.
3.6. f (x1 , ..., xn ),
1, ( ) .
,
() ,
.

3.9.
.
, ,
. , , , .

.
.
, 3.8 ,
, :
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 ) =
= ((x1 x2 ) x3 x3 )((x1 x3 ) x2 x2 ) = (x1 x2 )(x1 x3 ).
, . .
,
1) 3.8.
(), ()
().
3.9. n
, .
55

3.10. (H)
F , ( ) .
, .
3.10. F = (x y) xy.
x y , F =
= (x y) xy F , .
, :
F = x (y xy) = x y(1 x) = x y.
,
.
.
3.11. n
, . () F , ( )
.
(), f (x1 , ..., xn )
, (),
(), .
F (x1 , ..., xn ), ()
.
1. F (x1 , ..., xn ) , . .
, 1, 2 3.4, .
2. ( 9, 3.3)
,
( 8, 3.3).
3. ( 3,
3.3) .
56

4. , ( 4, 6, 7, 3.3)
.
5. 5, 3.3, 0 1.
, . . A(BC) = ABAC, F .
: A BC = (A B)(A C) F .
, , , ,
:
A = AB AB.

(3.5)

, :
A = (A B)(A B).

(3.6)

3.11. F = (xy z)(x yz)


.
,
1.


1. F = (xy z)(xyz) = A B = A B = (xyz)(xyz).
.



2. F = (xyz)(xyz) = AB = A B = ((xy)z)(xyz).
, .
3. F = ((x y) z)(x yz) =
= (x y z)(x yz) = xx xyz yx yyz zx zyz.
4. F = xxxyzyxyyzzxzyz = 0xyzyx0zxyz. AA = 0 AA = A.
5. 0A = A, F = 0xyzyx0zxyz = xyzyxzxyz.
F .
:
F = xy xz xyz yz = xy xz (x 1)yz = xy zx yz.
,
. (3.5)
,
xy xz yz = xyz xy z xyz xyz xyz xyz = |A A = A| =
57

= xyz xy z xyz xyz.


F .
F ,
.
:
F = (xy z)(xyz) = |AB C = (A C)(B C)| = (xy z)(xy)(xz).
, , , . z, y,
(3.6):
F = (x y z)(x y)(x z) =
= (x y z)(x y z)(x y z)(x y z)(x y z) =
= (x y z)(x y z)(x y z)(x y z).
F G , . . F = G.
, , F
G . 3.4 . F , , G ,
F G.
, .
3.7. F G F G c ( 110, 3.3).
, . , , , .
,
H.
,
.
, .
, , ,
58

, . . (., [14]).
x , , .
. ,
n x1 1 . . . xnn , k {0, 1}, k = 1, 2, ..., n.
.
.
,
: x1 1 , x2 2 , . . . , xnn , n1 n
: x1 1 x2 2 , x1 1 x3 3 , . . . , x11 xnn , x2 2 x3 3 , . . . , x2 2 xnn , . . . , xn1
xn ,
,
.
x1 1 . . . xnn , j-
f (x1 , ..., xn ),
, f (1 , ..., n ) = 0. ,
.
.
1. , ,
f (x1 , ..., xn ). .
2. , 1.
3. ,
1, ,
.
4. ,
.
5. , 4, .
, ,
, , , ,
.
59

.
3.12.
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
.
.
x1
x3


x2
x3


12
x1
x2
x3


x1


x2


x3


x1
x2


x1 *

x2 *

x3 *

x1 x2 *

x1 x3

x2 x3

x1 x2 x3 **

x1
x3


x2
x3


x1
x2
x3


x1


x2

x3


x1
x2


x1 *

x2 *

x3 *

x1 x2 *

x1 x3

x2 x3 *

x1 x2 x3 **

x1 *

x2 *

x3 *

x1 x2

x1 x3 *

x2 x3 *

x1 x2 x3 **

x1 *

x2 *

x3 *

x1 x2

x1 x3 *

x2 x3

x1 x2 x3 **

x1

x2

x3


x1

x2

x3

x1
x2

x1
x2


x1
x3

x1
x3


x2
x3

x2
x3


x1
x2
x3

x1
x2
x3


. 12 , , . * , 2, ** ,
3.
:
13
x1 x3

x2 x3

x1 x3
x1 x2
x1 x2

x2 x3

4. .
(1) x1 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 x1 x2 = x1 x3 x1 x2 ;
(2) x1 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 x2 x3 = x1 x3 x1 x2 x2 x3 ;
(3) x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 x1 x2 = x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 ;
(4) x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 x2 x3 = x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 .
60

, , f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x3 x1 x2 . , , , :
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x3 x1 x2 = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
.
n 2n
, 2n n x1 , ..., xn .
x1 , ..., xk , xk+1 , ..., xn ,
.
. 7 8
, . , xi ,
xi = 1, xi ,
xi = 0. , . 7 a
010 x1 , x2 , x3 . . 8
.
{{x1 , x2 }, {x3 , x4 }}, {{x1 }, {x2 , x3 , x4 }}.
x1
z}|{

x1
z }| {

x1
z }| {

b


x3 {
a
| {z }
x2

x4


c
| {z }
x2

x3

x3

d
e

f
g


x4


x2

x4

. 8

. 7

, , . , ,
. ,
. 8 b c x3 , . .
.
61


1-, . . ,
1
1

1. . 9

x4

1
1
, f (0, 0, 1, 1) =
x3 = f (0, 1, 0, 0) = f (0, 1, 1, 0) =

1
1
= f (0, 1, 1, 1) = f (1, 1, 0, 0) =
| {z }
= f (1, 1, 1, 0) = 1.
x2
,
. 9
, k
2 1-, nk , k
2k . k-. , 1- k-
, .
b c . 8 1-, x1 x2 x4 . {d, e, f, g} 2-,
x1 x4 .

x1
k-,
z }| {
1- .
n
3.13. 1
x3
, 1
1 1
. 9.

| {z }
x2
f (x , x , x , x ) = x x x x x .
z

x1
}|

2 4

1 3 4

. 10

.
3.14.
3.12.
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
(. 10) 1-
.
1- k-. 1-. x1 x3 ,
62

x1 = 1, x3 = 0, x1 x2
x1 = 0, x2 = 1. ,
f (x1 , x2 .x3 ) = x1 x3 x1 x2 .

3.10.
,
, , , .
3.12. x1 ,
..., xn , 0, 1, x1 , ..., xn
(&),
2 () , .
, P (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (x1 x3 )(x2 x3 x3 1)x1 x3
. , ,
, .
3.13.
x1 , ..., xn :
P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = a0 a1 x1 a2 x2 an xn a12 x1 x2 . . .a12...n x1 . . . xn ,
a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , a12...n {0, 1}.

a(b c) = ab ac

(3.7)


a a = 0.

(3.8)

3.15.
P (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (x1 x3 )(x2 x3 x3 1) x1 x3 .
:
P (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (x1 x3 )(x2 x3 x3 1) x1 x3 =
63

= x1 x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 x3 x3 x1 x3 =
= 0 1 x1 0 x2 0 x3 0 x1 x2 0 x1 x3 1 x2 x3 1 x1 x2 x3 .
,
: a0 = a2 = a3 = a12 = a13 = 0, a1 = a23 = a123 = 1.
P (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
3.8. , ,
.
. , .
7. a = a 1,
a b = ab a b.
3.16. ,
F = (x y) xz.
1 3.4,
7.
F = (x y) xz = (x y) xz = ((x 1) y) xz =
= ((x 1)y (x 1) y) xz =
= ((x 1)y (x 1) y)xz ((x 1)y (x 1) y) xz.
3.9. .
3.8 3.9 .
3.10. .
3.17.
3.16.
3.16
(3.7) (3.8)
F = ((x 1)y (x 1) y)xz ((x 1)y (x 1) y) xz =
= (xy y x 1 y)xz xy y x 1 y xz =
= (xy x 1)xz xy x 1 xz = xyz xz xz xy x 1 xz =
= xyz xz xy x 1.
3.18.
x1 x2 .
64

.
P (x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2 = a0 a1 x1 a2 x2 a12 x1 x2 .
, .
P (0, 0) = 0 0 = 1 = a0 a1 0 a2 0 a12 0 0 a0 = 1,
P (0, 1) = 0 1 = 0 = 1 a1 0 a2 1 a12 0 1 a2 = 1,
P (1, 0) = 1 0 = 0 = 1 a1 1 1 0 a12 1 0 a1 = 1,
P (1, 1) = 1 1 = 0 = 1 1 1 1 1 a12 1 1 a12 = 0.
, P (x1 , x2 ) = x1 x2 = 1 x1 x2 .

3.11.
1910 . .. -
(). ,
.
,
,
.
, , , ,
. ,
,
.
, .
, :
1) , (, ,
. .), , , . .;
2) ;
65

3) (,
). .
, . . .
, .
, X
A B ( ),
X, X ,
( ) X
( ) ( 1).
X
1

( ) .
X Y X
Y , ( 2).
X

Y
2

, ,
X Y , . . X & Y .
X Y X Y
( 3).
Y
X
3

,
X Y , . . X Y .
(-)
1, 2, 3 .
66


, : , , ,
- , ,
- .
3.19. : , , ,
. , , . .
.
,
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ), xk : k-
(k = 1, 2, 3).
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ), , :
x1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

x2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

x3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

14
f (x1 , x2 , x3 )
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

:
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
4 ,
x1

x2

x3

x1

x2

x3

x1

x2

x3

x1

x2

x3

:
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 =
67

= x1 x2 (x3 x3 ) x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 = x1 x2 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 =
= x1 (x2 x2 x3 ) x1 x2 x3 = x1 (x2 x3 ) x1 x2 x3 =
= x1 x2 (x1 x1 x2 )x3 = x1 x2 (x1 x2 )x3 .
:
f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 (x1 x2 )x3 .
, , (. 5).
x1

x2
x1
x3
x2
5

. . ,
n m (m, n N ).
( 0 1).
0 1. ,
. , ,
.
, ,
6.
(c = a),
(c = a&b)
(c = a b).
a
a

a
&

. , . .
68

1 , 1, 1 ,
1. .
.
3.20. 7,
.
a

&

y
7

, x y
:
x = a(a b) y y = b c.

x = a(a b) b c = a b c
( ).

, 8.
a

b
c

69


x = a b c,

x = a(b c)
9, .
a

b
c

,
.
, .
, (
) .
, , , ,
. , , .
3.21. , 3 a, b, c.
3 ,
4 .
1. 3- ,
, .
2. c a
.
3. a b .
70

4. b
.
, .
, , ? , a, b, c?
:
A = a;
B = b;
C = c;
X = ;
Y = ;
Z = .
:
1) A B C X Y Z;
2) AC X;
3) AB Z XY ;
4) (A B C B)X Y .
14 , ,
:
(AB C X Y Z)(AC X)(AB Z XY )((A B C B)X Y ) = 1.
, :
(A B C X Y Z)(AC X)(AB Z XY )((AB C)B X Y ) = 1.
X = 1,
Y = 0, Z = 0, :
(A B)((A B C)B) = (A B)((AB CB) = A BC = 1.
, A = 0, B = 0, C = 1. , C. .

3.12.
, n ,
, ()
.
71

3.14. n (n- ), = {(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )}, .


x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
.
:
1) P (x, y) = x ( ) y ,
N N. , P (6, 3) = 1, P (9, 2) = 0.
2) L(x, y) = y 6 x2 , x, y R ,
R R. , L(1, 1) = 1,
L(1, 0) = 0.
3) Q(x) = x2 +1 = 0, x R ,
R. , Q(x) = 0
x.
3.15. n- P , = {(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )}, I(P ) ,
. , , .
,
.
3.22. ,
.
1. P (x, y) =
x ( ) y
NN. I(P ) = {(x, y)|x = ky, x N, y N, k N}.
2. L(x, y) =
Y
= y 6 x2 , x, y R R R.
,
y = x2 , (. 11).
O
X
3. Q(x) = x2 +1 =
= 0, x R . . 11
R.
, ,
. , 72

, , . . .
, :
. .
3.16. . xP (x) ( x P (x))
, P (x) .
3.17. . xP (x) ( x P (x))
, P (x) .

, All , Exist . ,
, .
A.
P () = ab(((a, b) &(b, a) ) a = b).
3.23. : 1) xyP (x, y), 2) yxP (x, y), 3) xyP (x, y), P (x, y)
x y, x, y N.

. P (x, y)
N, xyP (x, y) = 0. Q(y) =
= xP (x, y) N ( x = y), yxP (x, y) = 1. ,
x, y,
xyP (x, y) = 0 ( yP (x, y) = 0
N).
, , ,
.
8.
xyP (x, y) yxP (x, y).
3.18. , , .
x
73

x x, . .
3.19. , .
3.24.
xyP (x, y) yQ(x, y, z).
x y P (x, y),
y Q(x, y, z). , y
, x , .
z .
3.20. M ,
. M , .
, x(|x| > y) ( y = 1 ), ( y = 1 ).
, .
3.11.
:
1) xP (x) = xP (x) xP (x) = xP (x) ;
2) xyP (x, y) = yxP (x, y) xyP (x, y) = yxP (x, y)
;
3) x(P (x)&Q(x)) = xP (x)&xQ(x) x(P (x) Q(x)) =
= xP (x) xQ(x) ;
4) F , F ,
, = F .
. 3.
, P (x)&Q(x) . P (x) Q(x)
. P (x) xQ(x) , . . . , P (x)&Q(x) = 0 x.
, P (x) Q(x) x
. , , 74

xP (x)
xQ(x).
. ,
xyP (x, y) Q(x, y, z) y t y, y
, ,
.
xyP (x, y) Q(x, y, z) = xyP (x, y) tQ(x, t, z).
3.21. , , , . .
Q1 x1 Q2 x2 . . . Qn xn P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , xn+1 , . . . , xk ),
Qi .
3.25.
yxP (x, y) yxS(x, y).
3.11 ( 3)
y(xP (x, y) xS(x, y)). , xP (x, y) xS(x, y)
x(P (x, y)S(x, y)). , P (x, y) =
= x 6 y, S(x, y) = x > y, xP (x, y)xS(x, y) = 0 y, x(P (x, y) S(x, y)) . , xS(x, y)
( 3.11, 4).
y(xP (x, y) xS(x, y)) = y(xP (x, y) zS(z, y)) =
= yxz(P (x, y) S(z, y)).
. . a {xn }

N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )),
, n, N , . , a
{xn },
, . .
N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )) = 1.
, 1 3.11 .
N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )) = N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )) =
75

= N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )) = N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )) =


= N n((n > N ) (|xn a| < )) = N n((n > N )&(|xn a| < )) =
= N n((n > N )&(|xn a| > )) = 1.
, , a
{xn } , N , n > N ,
|xn a| > .


1. ? ,
.
2. A 2 , B
. , A B.
3. ( )
(A B) ((B C) (A C)).
4. : A A, A, AA, AA, A A
, A .
5.
( )?
6. , x1 x2 , x1 x3 x2 x3 ,
x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 , (x1 x2 )x3 , ?
7. , x1 x2 , (x1 x2 x3 )(x1 x2 x3 ),
x1 x3 x2 x3 , (x1 x2 )x3 , ?
8. x1 x2 , x1 |x2 .
9. ?
h&, i?
10. ()
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )?
11. ?
12. ? .
13. , :
xP (x), xP (x), x(P (x)&Q(x)), xP (x) Q(x).
14. : x
y , xy = 1.
76

4.
4.1.
.
, .
1736 .
. ( ).
XIX . - , , . 1857 .,
,
, , . ,
.
XX .
,
. - .
1936 .
.
, ,
, .
. :
, , , , , , ,
, , , , .
4.1. G , G = hV, Ei,
V , , E
, .
V = {v1 , ..., vn } , |V | = n 77

G, E = {(vi , vj )|vi , vj V vi 6= vj }, |E| = m


G (, (vi , vj ) = (vj , vi ),
), G
(n, m)-.
4.1 E G V (E V V ), . . V .
, (v, v) 6 E
. , V , E,
G = hV, Ei.
,
:
G V c
, E V V .

((vi , vj ) 6= (vj , vi ) i 6= j), . vi , vj
e = (vi , vj ) E, . ,
, .
, .
, E ,
,
. e G k , k
e. , , ,
, .
, (v, v) (), .
4.2. E
G = hV, Ei . (v, u) E,
v, u V .
, , :
78

V E E.
4.3. G = hV, Ei v V e E
, e = (v, w) ( e = (w, v))
w V .
4.4. e1 e2 G = hV, Ei , v V ,
. . e1 = (v, u), e2 = (v, w).
.
4.5. v G = hV, Ei (v), , .
4.6. v G , (v) = 0, (), (v) = 1.
, .
4.1. G = hV, Ei , ,
X
(v) = 2|E|.
vV

. ,
e = (v, w) v
w, . . .
. .
. V1 , V0 G = hV, Ei.
V = V1 V0 V1 V0 = , ,
X
X
X
(v) =
(v) +
(v).
vV

vV1

vV0

(v0 ) = 2k (k ),
,
vV
P
P
(v) = 2|E|,
(v) = 2(|E| k) .
vV

vV1

, v, : , v
, , v .
4.7. v
G = hV, Ei (v), ,
79

. v G = hV, Ei
+ (v), ,
.

, .
4.8. H = hV1 , E1 i G = hV, Ei, V1 V E1 E. V1 = V , H .
, .
4.9. H = hV1 , E1 i , V1 (V1 6= ) G = hV, Ei, v w V1 , G,
H, . . (v, w) E, (v, w) E1 .
, , V1 , ,
V1 .
4.1. G = hV, Ei, V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 , v6 , v7 , v8 ,
v9 }, E = {(v1 , v2 ), (v1 , v4 ), (v1 , v6 ), (v2 , v3 ), (v2 , v5 ), (v2 , v9 ), (v3 , v5 ), (v3 , v8 ),
(v7 , v8 )}. , V1 = {v1 , v3 , v5 , v6 , v8 }.
G, ,
H = hV, E1 i,
V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 , v6 , v7 , v8 , v9 },
E1 = {(v1 , v2 ), (v1 , v6 ),
(v2 , v3 ), (v2 , v9 ), (v3 , v5 )}.
, V1 ,
, . G1 = hV1 , E2 i, V1 = {v1 ,
v3 , v5 , v6 , v8 }, E2 = {(v1 , v6 ), (v3 , v5 ), (v3 , v8 )}.

4.2. .
, , . G = hV, Ei : v V , , (v, w) E, , v w, ( ).
, . , . . 80

,
. ,
, .
, , , ,
.
G ,
, , .
4.2. G = hV, Ei, V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 }, E = {e1 =
= (v1 , v2 ), e2 = (v1 , v3 ), e3 = (v1 , v4 ), e4 = (v2 , v3 ), e5 = (v2 , v4 ), e6 = (v3 , v4 )} .
v1

v2

v1

v2
v4

v3

v4

. 12

v3
. 13

G,
. 12 e2 e5 , , . 13 . , G
, . 13 .
, .
,
. .
. (n, m)- G = hV, Ei.
V = {v1 , ..., vn } E = {e1 , ..., em }. .
4.10. (n, m)- G C = (cij ) n (i, j = 1, 2, ..., n),
cij = 1, vi vj ((vi , vj ) E) cij = 0
((vi , vj ) 6 E).
, (cij = cji )
81

(cii = 0). , . , (vi , vi ) cii = 2.


4.11. (n, m)- G
B = (bij ) n m (i = 1, 2, ..., n;
j = 1, 2, ..., m), bij = 1, vi ej
bij = 0 .
, vi i- .
,

.
G
. , .
: bij = 1, vi ej , bij = 1,
vi ej bij = 0, vi ej .
()
( ) . ,
() ,
.
,
(), .
() . ,
.
,
().
4.3.
G 4.2.
C(G) 4, B(G) 4 6.

0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1

, B(G) = 1 0 0 1 1 0 .
C(G) =
1 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
0 0 1 0 1 1
82

4.4. G = hV, Ei, V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 }, E = {e1 =


= (v1 , v3 ), e2 = (v3 , v2 ), e3 = (v3 , v4 ), e4 = (v4 , v2 )} . .
. 14 . C(G) B(G)
4.

0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

, B(G) = 0 1 0 1 .
C(G) =
0 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1
,
v1
v2
() ( ). , ,
v4
v3
.
. 14
V
V .
.
4.12. G = hV, Ei H = hX, Y i (G
= H),
, , . . :
V X , (v, w) E , ((v), (w)) Y .
4.12 :
1) (|V | = |X|);
2) (|E| = |Y |);
3) v (v) G
H (v) , . .
.
,
. G H ,
. , , . G
,
83

, G.
. . ,
, .
.
G H C(G) C(H),
. G
= H, H G
. , C(G),
C(H). ,
, n! (n ) , .
.
, () (). ,

.
4.5. . 1519.

. 15

. 16

. 17

. 18

. 19

5 , ,
. 18, 7 , 6 . ,
.
. 19 ,
1. , . 4
, 3. ,
. ,
, . 20 ( ).
4.6. , 84

0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0

C(G2 ) = 0 0 1 1.
C(G1 ) =
1 1 0 1
1 1 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
, , , C(G1 ) , C(G2 ).
C(G1 ), .
C(G2 ), , .
v2

v4

v5

v4

v3

v1

v1

v5

v3

v2

. 20

4.13. G = hV, Ei
G = hV, Ei, (v, w) E , (v, w) 6 E.
G , ( ), . . G
= G.
G ,

, G. , cij = 1
, cij = 0 (i 6= j)
G. . 21 .

. 21

9. , . 21 , .
85


: , , .
, G c
, ;
.
, . , G ,
.
, .
:
4.2. G , G,
G .
. v G, . v
G, G, , , , v1 , v2 , v3 v G. -
v1 , v2 , v3 G, v . G, G
v1 , v2 , v3 .

4.3. , ,

, . . , .
4.14. G = hV, Ei .
k v w ( (v, w)-) G hv0 , v1 , ..., vk i ( ) vi V , v0 = v, vk = w, (vi1 , vi ) E i = 1, 2, ..., k.
v w (v , w )
, .
, :
he1 = (v0 , v1 ), e2 = (v1 , v2 ), ..., ek = (vk1 , vk )i.
.
4.15. , , (,
86

) .
4.16. hv0 , v1 , ..., vk i
(v0 = vk ), . ,
hv0 , v1 , ..., vk i, hv1 , ..., vk , v0 i, ..., hvk , v0 , v1 , ..., vk1 i . , .
4.7. , , ,
, . 22.
, v1
v2
, hv1 , v2 , v6 , v3 , v4 , v2 , v6 i. v5
v6
,
. v4
v3
, , . 22
hv1 , v2 , v6 , v3 , v4 , v2 , v5 i. hv1 , v2 , v6 , v3 , v4 i. , , hv1 , v2 , v6 , v3 , v4 , v2 , v5 , v1 i.
hv2 , v6 , v3 , v4 , v2 i .
.
, .
, .
.
:
1) v 6= w (v, w)-
(v, w)-;
2) ;
3) (v,w)- .
([14] 4.3).
4.3. C(G) G,
(i, j)- C k (G) = C(G) C(G) (vi , vj )|
{z
}
k

k.
1. G (vi , vj ) (i 6= j), (i, j)- C(G) + C 2 (G) + . . . +
+C n1 (G) (n ).
87

2. G ,
vi , (i, i)- C(G) + C 2 (G)+
+ . . . + C n1 (G) .
4.8. , (v

2 , v4 )-

0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0

G, C(G) =
1 0 0 1.
0 0 1 0
c24 = 0, (v2 , v4 )- 1 .

0
1
C 2 (G) =
1
0

1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1


0
0

0
1
1 1
0
0

1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1


0
2

0
= 0
1 0
0
1

0
1
1
0

0
1
2
0

1
0
.
0
0

C 2 (G) 0, (v2 , v4 ) 2 .

2
0
C 3 (G) =
0
1

0
1
1
0

0
1
2
0


1
0

0
1
0 1
0
0

1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1


0
0

0
= 2
1 0
0
2

2
0
0
1

0
0
0
1

2
1
.
1
1

G (v2 , v4 )- 3, C 3 (G) 1. hv2 , v1 , v3 , v4 i.



.
4.17. G = hV, Ei,
V1
V2 (V1 V2 = ) , G .
,
.
. 23 24 ,
. 24 .
.
4.4. ,
.
4.9. , , 88

0
1

C(G) =
0
1
0

1
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0

1
0
1
0
1

0
0

0
.
1
0

. 23

. 24

4.3 . 3,
C 3 (G).

0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
2 0 2 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0

0 1 0 1 0 = 2 0 2 0 1 ,
0
1
0
1
0
C 2 (G) =

1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 3 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1

2 0 2 0 1
0 1 0 1 0
0 4 0 5 0
0 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 4 0 2

0 1 0 1 0 = 0 4 0 5 0 .
C 3 (G) =
2
0
2
0
1

0 2 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 0 5 0 3
1 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1 0

0 2 0 3 0

C 3 (G) 0, , 3 .
5, C 5 (G).

0 18 0 23 0
18 0 18 0 10

5
.
C (G) =
0
18
0
23
0

23 0 23 0 13
0 10 0 13 0
5 ,
C 5 (G) 0. 5 , , . ,
.
89

4.4.
, , .
4.18. G ,
(v 6= w) (v, w)-.

.
4.5. G ,
, v
w (v, w)-.
1) 87
(v, w)- 4.5
(v, w)- .
: G
G, G .
G = hV, Ei
R : (v, w) R ,
v = w G (v, w)-. ,
R , , . .
V . R V , . .
V = V1 V2 . . .Vk , Vi Vj = i 6= j. Vi , Gi = hVi , Ei i (i = 1, 2, ..., k),
Vi , G.
G. , .
4.6. G , . .
G = G1 G2 Gk .
.
4.19. (n, m)- G C = (cij ) n (i, j = 1, 2, ..., n),
cii = 1, i 6= j cij = 1, (vi , vj )-
cij = 0 .
90

, 1. ,
.
, k , . . .
, .
4.7. G = hV, Ei e
G (e E). :
1) e - G, G \ e
;
2) e , G \ e
.
4.8. G = hV, Ei (n, m)- (|V | = n, |E| = m) k , :
1
n k 6 m 6 (n k)(n k + 1).
2
, (k = 1) :
1
n 1 6 m 6 n(n 1).
2
, 4.7 G \ e , G e
. v G v, .
4.20. , ;
.
,
4.20.
4.9. v G = hV, Ei. :
1) v G;
2) u w, v, v (u, w)-;
91

3) V \ {v}
U W , u U w W v
(u, w)-.
4.10. e G = hV, Ei. :
1) e G;
2) e G;
3) G u w, e
(u, w)-;
4) V U W , u U w W e (u, w)-.
(), , (). , v G, G \ v
.
.
4.11. ,
, , .

.
4.21. ,
, . .
. 25 . , .

. 25

, , . ,
u v ,
v u. , v u, u v .
92

,
.
4.10. ,
. 26.
, v1 v1
v2
, 0. , , ,
v1 .
v4
v3
. 26
.

0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0

D(G) =
0 1 0 1 .
0 1 0 0
, 4.3 . G n
D(G) = C(G) + C 2 (G) + . . . + C n1 (G).
: , . .
4.22. hv0 , v1 , ..., vk i G , (vi , vi+1 ) (vi+1 , vi ) .
4.11. ,
. 27.
hv1 , v2 , v3 ,
v1
v2
v6 , v5 , v4 i . , (v1 , v2 ),
v5
v6
(v2 , v3 ), (v6 , v3 ), (v5 , v6 ), (v5 , v4 ).
4.23. G v4
v3
, , ,
. 27
, .
4.24. G ,
, .
, ,
93

.
4.12. ,
.
, .
, .
, . 27, ,
(, 4.11),
, v1 v6
.
4.25.
. .
.
4.11 . 28 29, .
v2

v2
v5

v4

v3

v6
v4

. 28

v3
. 29

4.5. .

4.26. G , , .
4.27. (n, m)- G W = (wij ) n (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n),
wij (vi , vj ) wij = 0 wij = , (vi , vj )
.
, (vi , vj ) i 6= j,
, , wij ,
0, .
94

4.12. , . 30.
, ,
V1
V2
1
. 30,

0 1 1
4
1 0 1 4
1
1
.
W =
1 0 3
1 4 3 0
3
V4
V3
. 30
, . . , .
4.28.
vi vj G ,
(vi , vj )-.
, ,
, 1. ,
vi vj (vi 6= vj )
(vi , vj )-.
vi , vj (vi , vj ). , (vi , vi ) = 0.
:
1) (vi , vj ) > 0;
2) (vi , vj ) = 0 , i = j;
3) (vi , vj ) = (vj , vi );
4) (vi , vj ) 6 (vi , vk ) + (vk , vj ) ( ).
4.29.
P = (pij ) n (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n), pij = (vi , vj ).
4.30. e(vi ) = max (vi , vj ) vj V

vi . G
d(G) = max e(vi ). vi V

G r(G) = min e(vi ).


vi V

4.31. v ,
d(G) = e(v) , r(G) = e(v).
.
4.13. ,
4.12 (. 30).
95

.
(v1 , v2 ) = 1, (v1 , v3 ) = 1 + 1 = 2, (v1 , v4 ) = 1,
(v2 , v3 ) = 1, (v2 , v4 ) = 1 + 1 = 2, (v3 , v4 ) = 3.

0 1 2 1
1 0 1 2

P =
2 1 0 3 .
1 2 3 0
: e(v1 ) = 2, e(v2 ) = 2, e(v3 ) = 3, e(v4 ) = 3.
, d(G) = 3, r(G) = 2. v1 v2
, v3 v4 .

. (vi , vj )-
G = hV, Ei W .
1. D1 = {d11 , . . . , d1n }, d1i = 0, d1j = wij , i 6= j.
2. V1 = V \ {vi }.
3. k Dk Vk .
vj Vk , , dkj = min dkl .
vl Vk
k+1

k+1
4. Vk+1 = Vk \ {vj }, D = {dk+1
1 , . . . , dn },
(
min{dkl , dkj + wjl }, vl Vk+1 ,
k+1
dl = k
dl , vl 6 Vk+1 .

5. k = n 1 Dn1
vi .
4.14.
v1

0 4 1
4 0 2 1 2

2 0 1 1

W =
1 0 6 .

1 1 6 0 5
1 2 5 0
, v1
(. 31).
1. V1 = V \ {v1 } = {v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 , v6 }, D1 = {0, 4, , , , 1}.
96

V1

V6

V2

V5

V3

V4

. 31

2. d1j = min d1l = d16 = 1 v6 , V2 =


vl V1

= V1 \ {v6 } = {v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 }. D2 . v1 , v6 6 V2 , d21 =


= d11 = 0, d26 = d16 = 1.
d22 = min{4, d16 + w62 = 3} = 3; d23 = min{, d16 + w63 = } = ;
d24 = min{, d16 + w64 = } = ; d25 = min{, d16 + w65 = 6} = 6.
, D2 = {0, 3, , , 6, 1}.
3. , d2j = min d2l = d22 = 3 v2 , V3 =
vl V2

= V2 \ {v2 } = {v3 , v4 , v5 }. D3 . v1 , v2 , v6 6 V3 , d31 =


= d21 = 0, d32 = d22 = 3, d36 = d26 = 1.
d33 = min{, d22 + w23 = 5} = 5; d24 = min{, d22 + w24 = } = ;
d35 = min{6, d22 + w25 = 4} = 4.
, D3 = {0, 3, 5, , 4, 1}.
4. , d3j = min d3l = d35 = 4, V4 = V3 \ {v5 } = {v3 , v4 }, D4 = {0, 3, 5,
vl V3

6, 4, 1}.
5. V5 = V5 \ {v3 } = {v4 }, D5 = {0, 3, 5, 6, 4, 1}.
D5 v1
. , (v1 , v4 ) = 6.
(v1 , v4 )- hv1 , v6 , v2 , v5 , v3 , v4 i.
e(v1 ) = max (v1 , vj ) = 6.
vj V

4.6.
,
, ,
,
( ) .
97

. ,
, . 32.
, ,
.

. 32

1736 . . , , (), (),


. (, , ), . 33.
,
, . . .

, ,
.

:
G , ? , ,
. 33
, . , , ,
. , .
.
4.13. , .
, , [16] 7.
(. 33)
98

. , .
, . .
, ,
v w.
4.14. , ,
.
,
, [7] 4.2.7.
: , ,
. : ,
. .

. G ,
. G ,
. , .
, ( )
.
.
. , ,
( ), . ,
. (n, m)- G v (v) = n 1,
: m = n(n1).

.
4.15. (n, m)- G n > 3 (v)+(w) > n v w
, G .
99

4.16. (n, m)- G n > 3 n


v (v) > , G .
2
[16] 7.

G .
([7] 4.2.8).
4.17. G ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
. 34 , 4.13 , . 35 ,
(. 4.17). , . 36, , .

. 34

. 35

. 36


V = {v1 , v2 , . . . , vn } G. , . , , , .
G. v1 , vi1 , .... vin 1
V , , v1 , vi1 , ....
vin 1 , v1 G. , n! ,
(n 1)! .
G. , ,
G. 100

vi1 , ..., vik , vi1 V , vi2 G(vi1 ) \ {vi1 },


vi3 G(vi2 ) \ {vi1 , vi2 }, . . . ,vik G(vik1 ) \ {vi1 , . . . , vik1 }, ,
G(vik ) \ {vi1 , ..., vik } = . , k = n,
vi1 , ..., vin G. , k = n vi1 G(vn ), vi1 , ... vin G. G(v) G = hV, Ei, v, . . G(v) = {w|w V
(v, w) E}.
, .

4.7.
.
, , -, ( ), -,
.
4.32. , .
. 37 ( )
.

. 37

4.33.
( ). .
, ([16], 4).
4.18. (n, m)- G :
(1) G ;
(2) G m = n 1;
(3) G () m = n 1;
101

(4) G ;
(5) G :
, G .
:
n > 2
( ).
, V = {v1 , ..., vn } v1
v2
G d1 , ..., dn v5
v6 , d1 + ... + dn =
= 2m = 2(n 1). n
, , v4
v3
, 1.
. 38
1, . . .
,
, , n = 2 .
4.19. ,
.
, [16] 4, ,

.
4.34. u , u .
u
. ,
.
4.15. ,
. 38.
v2 ,
2, v1 v2
3.
4.35. G H, G
.
G (n, m)-, ( ) n1 (c. 4.18). ,
G 102

m (n 1) = m n + 1 . m n + 1
G
(G).
, , . . ,
n nn2 .
4.36. H G.
G , H G.
G .
G , . .
, (). (G) G, ,
(G) = mn+k, n , m , k
G. (G)
G. :
(1) (G) = 0 , G ;
(2) (G) = 1 , G ;
(3) G, m n
(m > n), .
,
1
1 6
6
G = hV, Ei.
2
3
1. G1 = hV , E1 = {e1 }i, e1
.
2. Gi+1 3
2 4
4
, Gi
ei+1 , ,
5
Gi . 39
Gi .
. 39 .
, . .

103


1. , ?
.
2. G = hV, Ei, V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 }, E = {e1 = (v1 , v2 ), e2 = (v1 , v3 ), e3 =
= (v1 , v4 ), e4 = (v2 , v3 )}.
3. ?
?
?
4. G = hV, Ei, V =
= {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 }, E = {(v1 , v2 ), (v1 , v3 ), (v1 , v5 ), (v2 , v3 ), (v2 , v4 ), (v3 , v4 ),
(v4 , v5 )} .
5.
? ?
6. (. 4)
.
7. ,
( ).
8. , ? .
9. ?
?
10. ? ?
11. ? , ()?
12. , : n , m , k
.
13. . , .
14. ? ? .
15. ? . ?
16.
? ?
104


1. ( ) A, B, C.
.
1.1.

A (B \ C) = (A B) \ C

1.2.

(A \ B) \ C = (A \ C) \ (B \ C)

1.3.
1.5.

A (B \ C) = B \ (A C)
A \ (B C) = (A \ B) \ C

1.4.
1.6.

A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) (A C)
A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C)

1.7.

A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C) 1.8.

(A B) \ C = (A C) \ (B \ C)

1.9.

A (B \ C) = (A \ B) \ C

1.10. A (B C) = (A \ B) (A C)

1.11. (A B) \ C = A \ (B C)

1.12. A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A C)

1.13. A (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C) 1.14. (A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B C)
1.15. A \ (B C) = (A B) (A \ C) 1.16. A \ (B C) = (A C) (A \ B)
1.17. A \ (B C) = (A \ B) C

1.18. (A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B \ C)

1.19. (A \ B) \ C = (A \ C) \ (B C) 1.20. (A B) C = (A \ C) (B \ C)
1.21. A (B C) = A \ (B \ C)

1.22. A (B \ C) = (A B) \ (A C)

1.23. A \ (B C) = (A B) (A \ C) 1.24. (A \ B) C = (A C) \ (B C)
1.25. A \ (B C) = A (B C)
2.1. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(A)|,
= {x|x Z, |x + 5| 6 4}, B = {x|x Z, x > 5}, C = {4, 5, 7, 10}.
2.2. C (A B), (A B) C, |A C|, |S(B)|,
= {x|x Z, |x + 2| < 4}, B = {x|x Z, x > 2}, C = {1, 1, 2, 4, 5}.
2.3. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(C)|,
= {x|x Z, |x 4| 6 4}, B = {x|x Z, x 6 4}, C = {2, 2, 4, 8, 10, 13}.
2.4. A (B \ C), (B \ C) A, |A B|, |S(A)|,
= {1, 13, 15, 17}, B = {0, 11, 12, 23, 24, 25}, C = {10, 23, 26, 29}.
2.5. C (A B), (A B) C, |A C|, |S(B)|,
= {x|x Z, |x 4| < 7}, B = {x|x Z, x 6 4}, C = {2, 1, 1}.
2.6. A (B C), (B C) A, |B A|, |S(C)|,
= {1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11}, B = {1, 3, 5, 6, 8}, C = {1, 4, 5, 7}.
2.7. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(A)|,
= {x|x Z, |x 4| 6 5}, B = {x|x Z, x > 4}, C = {0, 1, 5, 7}.
2.8. A (C \ B), (C \ B) A, |A B|, |S(B)|,
= {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, b, c, e, f, h}, C = {a, e, h, n}.
2.9. C (A B), (A B) C, |A C|, |S(C)|,
= {x|x Z, |x 3| 6 8}, B = {x|x Z, x < 3}, C = {0, 4, 8, 9, 10}.
105

A=
A=
A=
A=
A=
A=
A=
A=
A=

2.10. B (A \ C), (A \ C) B, |C B|, |S(A)|, A =


= {a, b, c, e, g}, B = {a, b, d, e, r}, C = {a, b, d, r}.
2.11. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(B)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x+4| < 6}, B = {x|x Z, x > 4}, C = {5, 2, 1, 3, 6, 10}.
2.12. B (A C), (A C) B, |B C|, |S(C)|, A =
= {1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10}, B = {1, 2, 4, 6, 7}, C = {0, 1, 4, 6, 7}.
2.13. C (A B), (A B) C, |(A B) C|, |S(A)|,
A = {x|x Z, |x 2| > 6}, B = {x|x Z, x > 2}, C = {3, 0, 3}.
2.14. A (B \ C), (B \ C) A, |A B|, |S(B)|, A =
= {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, b, c, e, f, n}, C = {a, e, h, n}.
2.15. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(C)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x 5| < 7}, B = {x|x Z, x 6 5}, C = {5, 6, 9, 11}.
2.16. B (A \ C), (A \ C) B, |C B|, |S(A)|, A =
= {a, b, c, d, g}, B = {a, b, d, e}, C = {a, b, g, r}.
2.17. C (A B), (A B) C, |A C|, |S(B)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x + 5| < 7}, B = {x|x Z, x < 5}, C = {0, 4, 7, 10, 14}.
2.18. A (B C), (B C) A, |B C|, |S(C)|, A =
= {a, b, c, d, g}, B = {a, b, d, e}, C = {a, b, g, r}.
2.19. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(A)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x 2| 6 5}, B = {x|x Z, x > 2}, C = {5, 2, 2, 6, 9, 10}.
2.20. A (B \ C), (B \ C) A, |A B|, |S(B)|, A =
= {1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10}, B = {1, 2, 4, 6, 7}, C = {0, 4, 6, 7}.
2.21. C (A B), (A B) C, |A C|, |S(C)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x + 4| 6 8}, B = {x|x Z, x 6 4}, C = {3, 6, 10}.
2.22. C (A B), (A B) C, |(A B) C|, |S(A)|,
A = {x|x Z, x < 3}, B = {x|x Z, x > 5}, C = {5, 4, 0}.
2.23. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(A)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x 2| < 5}, B = {x|x Z, x > 2}, C = {4, 1, 1, 5}.
2.24. C (A \ B), (A \ B) C, |A C|, |S(B)|, A =
= {x|x Z, x 6 0}, B = {x|x Z, x 6 4}, C = {0, 2, 3, 6, 9}.
2.25. C (A B), (A B) C, |A C|, |S(A)|, A =
= {x|x Z, |x + 4| 6 5}, B = {x|x Z, x < 4}, C = {0, 4, 5, 6, 8}.
3. AB, B A.
(). : 1) 1 , , , ;
2) 1 ; 3) .
3.1. A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 10}, B = {1, 4, 6, 10}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
b = 2a}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6 a}.
3.2. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, a+b =
106

= 10}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.


3.3. A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 10}, B = {4, 6, 7, 10}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
2a < b}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6 a}.
3.4. A = {2, 3, 4}, B = {4, 6, 10, 12}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, 3a > b},
= {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6= a, b a}.
3.5. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, ab =
= 3}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.6. A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a = 2b}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b + a = 7}.
3.7. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b }, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.8. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, a b
, 1}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b + a =
= 9}.
3.9.
A = {3, 4, 7, 11},
B = {2, 3, 4, 8},
= {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b 5}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b < a}.
3.10. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b 3}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.11. A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 10}, B = {1, 4, 6, 10}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
b = 3a}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6 a}.
3.12. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b = 8}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.13. A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 10}, B = {4, 6, 7, 10}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
2a > b}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6 a}.
3.14. A = {2, 3, 4}, B = {4, 6, 10, 12}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, 3a < b},
= {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6= a, b a}.
3.15. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a b = 2}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.16. A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a < 3b}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b + a = 7}.
3.17. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b }, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.18. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, a b
, 1}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b + a =
= 7}.
3.19. A = {3, 4, 7, 11}, B = {2, 3, 4, 8}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b 4}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b < a}.
3.20. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b 4}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
107

3.21. A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 10}, B = {1, 4, 6, 10}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,


b < 2a}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6 a}.
3.22. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a + b = 9}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
3.23. A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 10}, B = {4, 6, 7, 10}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
3a < b}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6 a}.
3.24. A = {2, 3, 4}, B = {4, 6, 10, 12}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B, 2a > b},
= {(b, a)| b B, a A, b 6= a, b a}.
3.25. A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 10}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5}, = {(a, b)| a A, b B,
a b = 2}, = {(b, a)| b B, a A, b a}.
4. , P .
(, , , , ) P . .


4.1. P = (x, y)| x, y R, xy > 1 .
4.2. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x2 + y 2 = 1 .
4.3. P = (x, y)| x, y R, y = |x| .

4.4. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x2 + x = y 2 + y .
4.5. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x y Z
.
4.6. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x + y = 2 .
4.7. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x2 + y 2 = 4 .
4.8. P = (x, y)| x, y R, y < x
1 .
2
4.9. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x = y .
4.10. P = (x, y)| x, y R, x2 > y .
4.11. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x2 + y 2 = 1 .
4.12. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x + y 3 .
4.13. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x y
2 .

4.14. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, 2x = 3y .

4.15. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x + y
.
4.16. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x y
.

4.17. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, 5x = 2y .
4.18. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x = y
.
4.19. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x + 1 = y .
4.20. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, y > x 2 .
4.21. P = (x, y)| x, y N, (x,
y) 6= 1 .
4.22. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x 6= y .
4.23. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x2 = y .
4.24. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x2 6= y .
4.25. P = (x, y)| x, y Z, x2 > y .
108

5. , .
5.1.
5.4.

(A B) C.
(A B) C.

5.2.
5.5.

(A B) C.
A (B C).

5.3.
5.6.

(A B) C.
A (B C).

5.7.

A (B C).

5.8.

A (B C).

5.9.

(A B) C.

5.10.

(A B) C.

5.11.

(A B) C.

5.12.

(A B) C.

5.13.

A (B C).

5.14.

A (B C).

5.15.

A (B C).

5.16.

A (B C).

5.17.

(A B) C.

5.18.

(A B) C.

5.19.

(A B) C.

5.20.

(A B) C.

5.21.

A (B C).

5.22.

A (B C).

5.23.

A (B C).

5.24.

A (B C).

5.25.

(A B) C.

6. ) , )
. .
6.1.
6.3.
6.5.
6.7.
6.9.
6.11.
6.13.
6.15.
6.17.
6.19.
6.21.
6.23.
6.25.

(y (x z)) (y x)
(x (z y)) (z y)
(y (z x)) (z y)
(x|(y z)) (x y)
(z (x y)) (x y)
(z (y x)) (y x)
(z (y x)) (z x)
(y (x|z)) (x y)
(x (z y)) (x y)
(x (z|y)) (x z)
(y (x z)) (x z)
(z (y|x)) (z x)
(z|(x y)) (z y)

6.2.
6.4.
6.6.
6.8.
6.10.
6.12.
6.14.
6.16.
6.18.
6.20.
6.22.
6.24.

(z|(y x)) (z y)
(z (x y))|(z y)
(x (y z))|(x z)
(y (z x)) (y z)
(z (x y)) (x y)
(y (z|x)) (z y)
(z (y x)) (z y)
(y (z x)) (z|x)
(x (z y)) (x z)
(z|(y x)) (y x)
(y (z x)) (z y)
(x (z y)) (x y)

7.
f (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ), 1 .
7.1.
7.4.
7.7.
7.10.

(0, 5, 8, 9, 13)
(0, 4, 5, 10, 11)
(1, 2, 3, 9, 14)
(0, 4, 6, 7, 12)

7.2.
7.5.
7.8.
7.11.

(1, 3, 5, 6, 7)
(1, 3, 5, 7, 9)
(2, 6, 8, 11, 9)
(2, 3, 6, 10, 13)
109

7.3.
7.6.
7.9.
7.12.

(1, 4, 5, 6, 7)
(1, 3, 5, 8, 9)
(2, 6, 9, 12, 14)
(2, 3, 6, 11, 13)

7.13.
7.16.
7.19.
7.22.
7.25.

(2, 4, 6, 8, 10)
(1, 5, 8, 9, 13)
(2, 3, 5, 10, 11)
(1, 2, 5, 9, 14)
(0, 2, 3, 9, 13)

7.14.
7.17.
7.20.
7.23.

(1, 6, 7, 10, 14)


(0, 3, 5, 6, 7)
(1, 2, 5, 7, 9)
(2, 5, 7, 10, 14)

7.15.
7.18.
7.21.
7.24.

(1, 4, 7, 9, 15)
(0, 3, 4, 6, 7)
(0, 2, 5, 7, 9)
(0, 4, 6, 8, 12)

8. , , . .
8.2.
8.1.
C
B
A
C
C
B

C
B

8.4.

8.3.
A

A
C

A
C

8.6.

8.5.
B
B

A
A

8.7.

A
C

8.8.
C

C
A

C
A

8.10.

8.9.
B

B
A

C
C

8.11.

8.12.
C

110

8.13.

8.14.
A

8.15.

8.16.
A
C

C
B

8.17.

8.18.
C

A
B

A
8.19.

B
8.20.

B
C

C
8.22.
A

8.21.
A

B
C
A

C
8.23.

B
8.24.

B
C

C
A

8.25.
C

C
B

A
111

9. .
9.1. 2 .
9.2.
, , .
9.3. 3- .
9.4. .
9.5. .
9.6. .
9.7. .
9.8. .
9.9. .
9.10.
.
9.11. .
9.12. ( f (x) M , L, x M |f (x)| < L).
9.13. ( f (x) , x
f (x) = f (x)).
9.14. ( f (x)
, x
f (x) = f (x)).
9.15. ( f (x) M , x1 x2 ,
M , x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 )).
9.16. ( f (x) M , x1 x2 , M , x1 < x2
f (x1 ) < f (x2 )).
9.17. ( f (x)
x = a, , x
f (x) > A A > 0).
9.18. ( f (x) x = a,
112

, x f (x) <
> 0).
9.19. (
{xn } , M ,
|xn | 6 M ).
9.20. ( S
M ,
x M x 6 S).
9.21. ( S
M ,
x M x > S).
9.22. ( f (x) , T > 0,
x x + T x T , f (x T ) = f (x)).
9.23.
( {xn } ,
n1 n2 n1 < n2
xn1 > xn2 ).
9.24. : f1 (x)(= 0 f2 (x) = 0.
f1 (x, y) = 0
9.25.
f2 (x, y) = 0
10. .
10.1. xyz(((x N ) (y N )) ((z N ) (xz = y))).
10.2. xyz(((x R) (y R) (x 6= 0)) ((z R) (xz = y))).
10.3. AB((A B = B) (B A)) (A B ).
10.4. AB((A B = B) (A B)) (A B ).
10.5. AB((A \ B = A) (A B = )) (A B ).
10.6. abc(((a||b) (a||c)) (b||c)) (a, b c ).
10.7. abc(((ab) (ac)) (bc)) (a, b c ).
10.8. abc((a||b) ((ac) (bc)) (a, b c ).
10.9. abcx(((a R)(b R)(c R)) ((x R)(ax2 +bx+c =
= 0))).
10.10. abx(((a R) (b R)) ((x R) (ax + b = 0))).
10.11. xyz(((x N ) (y N )) ((z N ) (x2 + y 2 = z 2 ))).
10.12. AB((|A B| = |B|) (B A)) (A B ).
10.13. AB((|A B| = |A|) (B A)) (A B ).
113

10.14. AB((A \ B = ) (B 6= A)) (A B ).


10.15. ABC((A \ B = C) (C 6= )) (A, B C ).
10.16. AB((|A B| > |A|) (B \ A 6= )) (A B ).
10.17. lmA((A l) (A m)) (l m , A ).
10.18. lAm((A l) ((A m) (lm))) (l m , A
).
10.19. ABl((l A) (l B)) (A B , l ).
10.20. xy((x N ) ((y N ) (x + y = 100))).
10.21. xy((x N ) ((y Z) (x + y = 10))).
10.22. xy((x + y N2 ) (xy N2 )), N2 .
10.23. abx(((a R \ {0}) (b R)) ((x R) (ax + b = 0))).
10.24. xy((x N ) (x + y N2 )), N2 .
10.25. xyz(((x N ) (y N )) ((z N ) (x2 + y 2 = z 2 ))).
11. .
11.1. P (x) = yz((y N ) ((z N ) (xz = y))).
11.2. P (x) = yz((y R) ((z R) (xz = y))).
11.3. P (x) = yz(((y R) (y > 0)) ((z R) (x < z) (z < y))).
11.4. P (b, c) = x((b R) (c R) (x R) (x2 + bx + c = 0)).
11.5. P (x, y) = z((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) (x + y = z) (xy = z)).
11.6. P (x, y) = z((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) (x + y + z = 20)).
11.7. P (x, y) = z((x R) (y R) (z R) (x + y + z = 20)).
11.8. P (x, y) = z((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) ((x + y z = 7) (x+
+y + z = 15))).
11.9. P (x) = yz(((y R)(z R)) ((x R)(x > sin z +cos y))).
11.10. P (x) = yz(((y R) (z R)) ((x R) (x > sin z cos y))).
11.11. P (x, y) = z((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) ((x + y)z = 15)).
11.12. P (x, y) = z((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) ((x y)z = 6)).
11.13. P (x) = yz((x N )(y N )(z N )(xy = 15)(xz = 20)).
11.14. P (x) = yz((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) (xy = 8) (xz = 12)).
11.15. P (x) = yz((y R) ((z R) (x + z = 2y ))).
11.16. P (x) = yz((y N ) ((z R) (y x < y z ))).
11.17. P (x) = yz(((y R)(z R)(|y| < 5)(|z| < 3)) (y 2 +z 2 <
< x)).
11.18. P (x) = yz(((y R)(z R)(|y| > 2)(|z| > 5)) (yz < x)).
11.19. P (x) = yz((y N ) ((z N ) (x + y + z N2 ))), N2 .
11.20. P (x) = yz((x N )(y N )(z N )(x+y = 5)(xz = 12)).
114

11.21.
11.22.
11.23.
11.24.
11.25.

P (x, y) = z((x R) (y R) (z R) (xy > |z|)).


P (x, y) = z((x R) (y R) (z R) (x + y > |z|)).
P (x, y) = z((x R) (y R) (z R) (|x + y| > | sin z|)).
P (x, y) = z((x N ) (y N ) (z N ) (xyz = 60)).
P (x) = y((x N ) (y N ) ((xy = 54) (x + y = 4))).

12. G 3- : )
AG (12.112.8), ) BG (12.912.16),
) (12.1712.25).
G: (1) ; (2)
; (3) .
, , , .
G G: (1) , , , , , ; (2) , .

12.1.

12.3.

12.5.

0
1

0
AG =
1

1
0

0
1

AG = 1

0
0

0
1

1
AG =
1

0
0

1
0
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

1
1
0
0
1
0

1
1
0
1
0
0

0
0

0
0

0 0
0 0

1 1

0 0

1 1

0 1
1 0

0
0

0
0

1
0
1
1
1
0
0

1
1
0
1
0
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0

1
1
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
1
0

0
1
1
1
0
0

12.2.

12.4.

12.6.

115

0
0

0
AG =
1

1
0

0
1

AG = 1

0
0

0
0

0
AG =
1

1
0

0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1

1
0
0
0
1
0

1
1
1
1
0
0

0
1

0
0

0 0
0 0

1 1

0 0

0 0

0 1
1 0

0
1

0
0

1
0
1
1
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
1
1

1
1
0
0
1
0
0

1
1
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1

0
1
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
1
0
0

12.7.

0
1

0
AG=
1

0
0

12.9.

0
1

BG =
1
0
0

1
0

0
12.11. BG=
0

0
0

1
0

12.13. BG=1

0
0

1
0

1
12.15. BG=
0

0
0

1
0
1
1
1
0

1
1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
1
1
0

1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
1

1
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
1
0

1
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
1
0
1
0

12.8.

12.10.

0
1

1
12.12.
0

0
0

0
0

0 12.14.

1
0

0
0

0
12.16.
1

1
0
116

0
1

1
AG =
0

0
1

1
0

0
BG=
0

0
0

1
0

1
BG=
0

0
0

1
0

B G = 0

0
0

1
1

0
BG =
0

0
0

1
0
0
1
1
0

1
0
0
1
1
0

0
1
1
0
0
1

0
1
1
0
0
1

1
0

1
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0

0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
0
1
0

1
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
1
0
1
0

0
0

0
1

0 1 0
0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 1

0 1 1
1 0 0

0 0
0 0

1 1

0 0

0 0

0 1
1 0

1
0

1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0

12.17.

12.18.

12.19.

12.20.

12.21.

12.22.

12.23.

12.24.

12.25.

13. G 3- : ) (13.113.8), ) AG (13.913.16),


) BG (13.1713.25). G: (1)
, (2) , (3)
, (4) () , (5) .
13.1.

13.2.

117

13.3.

13.4.

13.5.

13.6.

13.7.

13.8.

13.9.

13.11.

13.13.

13.15.

0
1

0
AG =
0

0
0

0
0

0
AG =
0

0
0

0
0

0
AG =
0

0
0

0
1

0
AG =
0

0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
1

1
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
0

1
0
1
0
1
1

0
1
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
1

1
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

13.10.

13.12.

13.14.

13.16.

118

0
0

0
AG =
0

0
1

0
0

0
AG =
0

0
1

0
1

1
AG =
0

0
0

0
1

0
AG =
0

0
1

1
0
0
0
1
0

0
1
0
0
1
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

0
1
1
1
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
1

0
1

1
0

0
1

0
0

0
1

1
0

0
1

1
0

13.17.

BG =

13.18.

BG =

13.19.

BG =

13.20.

BG =

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1

119

13.21.

BG =

13.22.

BG =

13.23.

BG =

13.24.

BG =

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

120

13.25.

BG =

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

14. . ,
. , .

14.1.

0
4

14.3.

0
2

1
2

14.5.

2
4

4
0
2

2
0

0
3

2
2
0
4
6
1

4
0
3

6
3
0
3

3
0

0
3

3
0
3

3
0
4

2
4

4
0

2
4
6
1
0
2

2
0

3
0
3
6

3
0
1
4

14.2.

14.4.

14.6.

121

4
0
3

6
3
0
3

3
0
4

0
2

2
0
4
6
1
2

4
2

0
3

3
0
3

3
0
4
1

4
0
2

2
4

2
0

0
4

4
0
4
7

4
0
2
5

3
5
7
2
0
3

3
0

3
5

4
2

4
0

3
5

0
4
4
7

4
0

0
2

5
1

2
0
3

6
3
0
1
4
7

0
6

1
2

6
0
1
4
7
3

1
0
2

2
6

0
2

5
2
0
2

2
0

0
3

6
1

3
0

2
0
2

3
4

2
0

6
1

0
3
2

1
3
6
3
0
5

5
0

14.7.

14.9.

14.11.

14.13.

14.15.

0
2

0
2
5

3
7
5
2
0
3

3
0

1
0
2

4
2
0
2

2
0

5
4
2
0
2

1
7

2
0

2
3

14.8.

14.10.

0
4

4
0

0
2
5

7
5
2
0
3
3

5
3
0
5

5
0

2
0
6

5
1

3
6
0
1
4
7

1
0
2

5
4
2
0
2

2
0

0
2

4
5
2
0
2

7
1

2
0

3
2

0
2

14.12.

14.14.

14.16.

122

0
6

7
3

6
0

5
1
2

2
5

0
2

4
2
0
2

2
0

0
3

5
1

3
0

2
0

6
1

0
3
2

3
1
6
3
0
5

5
0

0
2

3
4

0
1

1
0
2

2
2
0
2
6

2
0
3

6
3
0
3

4
2

3
0

0
2

2
0

2
1

0
3

3
0
3

3
0
4

2
1

4
0

1
3

0
4

4
0
4

4
0
5

5
0
2

3
3

2
0

0
4

4
0

0
5

5
0
2
1

7
3

2
0
3

3
0

5
0
2
1

2
0
3
7
3

2
1
3
0

0
4

4
0

14.17.

14.19.

14.21.

14.23.

14.25.

0
5

14.18.

14.20.

14.22.

14.24.

123

0
2

2
1

2
0
2
6

2
0
3

6
3
0
3

3
0
4

1
2

4
0

0
3

3
0

2
1

0
4

4
0
4

4
0
5

2
1

5
0

0
4

4
0
4

4
0
5

5
0
2
1

3
7

2
0
3

3
0

0
5

2
4

5
0
2
1

2
0
3
7

2
1
3
0

4
4



- (),
. , .
,
, ,
( )
.
, , . , , .

:
, ,
;
, ;
- ;

;
:
;
.
, , , .

124


1. , . . :
/ . . , . . , . . . , ,
2006.
2. , . . / . . ,
. . , . . , . . . , 2015.
3. , . . : , ,
/ . . . .: , 2009.
4. , . . /
. . . .: , 2009.
5. , . . , / . . , . . . .: , 2009.
6. , . . . .
- / . . , . . .
.: , 2009.
7. , . .
/ . . . , 1998.
8. , . . / . . . .:
, 2011.
9. , . . . , , , / . . . , 2013.
10. , . . / . . ,
. . . .: . , 1992.
11. , . / . ; . . , 2009.
12. , . . /
. . . , 2009.
13. , . . . /
. . . -, 2013.
14. , . . : / . . , . . . :
, 2010.
15. , . . .
/ . . , . . ,
. . . , 2013.
16. , . / . . , ,
2015.
17. , .. / . . . .: , 2010.
125


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.5. . . . . . . . . 45
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.7. . () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.9. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
126

4.3. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.5. . . 94
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
124
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125

127

. .
. .

15.09.2016. . 6084/16
. . . . 8. 100 . 1903

-

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