f<5
RADAR SYSTEMS
^
SULTAN M. ZIA
B.E., B.M.S. College of Engineering
University of Mysore, India, 1962
A MASTER'S REPORT
MASTER OP SCIEfKJE
Approved by:
tjor Professor
u
UO
TABLE OP CONTENTS
.
^'^
Page
INTRODUCTION
Angle Sensing
Ratio Conversion
Angle Detection
.....
MOHOPULSE SYSTEMS
Angle Sensors
15
,
Ratio Converters
17
,.,,
19
Angle Detectors
19
Duplexing
Dualplane monopulse systems
Tio
27
beam sensing
.....,
35
35
42
51
51
,,
54
58
,,
,..*
.....
62
64
65
CONCLUSIONS
69
ACKNOV/LEDQMENT
7I
BIBLIOORAPHY
72
INTRODUCTIOH
The tracking radars are classified in three major
radar beam.
Noise
Furthermore, simul
In sequential lobing
"Rie
other technique
dequential loblng.
axis of rotation and the axis of the antenna beam is called the
squint angle.
When
and the rotation axis coincide and the resulting conical scan
modulation is zero.
However, because of the errors Involved in the above two
"monopulse
"
^"PoAirioN
TOSITION 2
Figure 1^,
SQo/^r
Figure Irt.
J^OT^TtoAt
fiii>iGL
Ami*
differences between
thera.
as follows.
Postulate 1.
received signals.
return signal.
Postulate 2
The tern
(1)
Ym(u)
(2)
iMMAt
^e
TiM
boresi^t
direction.
Postulate 3.
This postulate
boz^slght direction.
The angle output Is a function of the sensing ratio y(u).
variable y(u).
then Postulate 3
states that
Re P
y(u)
 Re F
r(u)
(3)
U(d)
^ Y(u)
Angle of
Angle
arrival
sensing
^ Yc(y)
Ratio
conversion
^He P
P(Yc)
Angle
Angle
detection
output
of Postulate
2.
Finally it is
system.
Ym(u) 
^
P(u)
or ya(u) 
?2M
(5)
Pd(u)
and Pe(u) can then be taken to be the odd and even components
of P(u) as
Po(u) I
P(u)  P(u)
(6)
Pe(u)  ^
P(u) + P(u)
(7)
The ratios rm(u) and Ta(u) are thus arbitrarily defined and are
not independent.
teirras
M^)
Ym(u)
 1
I
(8)
(9)
jrtiase
patterns respectively.
Ratio Conversion .
(10)
*^ere z
X + ly
w m u + Iv
It has the property of mapping circles'
into 'circles'.
One
toYa(u) in Equation
5.
Ratio conversion
The
.,,.
rm(u) 
bM.
'
p(u)
(n)
>o>

p(")
(12)
p(u) + p(u)
defined by
p(u) ^
P(^)
P(u)
andya(u)
<*<")
(13)
' ^
p(u) + 1
(l4)
The angle
10
identical.
r(u) .
4J^
(15)
and ya(u) 
(l6)
eJ0(u) ^ ^J0(u)
Angle information is then contained solely in the phase
Therefore
(17)
*)
rin(u) . e^^"^
andYa(u) =
tan
(18)
i^
2
(19)
.
x./';*^
i._'S'
i..
11
ir.*
y*,
Figure 2,
viANC
E(a'>
Figure 3.
TL/KNe
12
In
aire
Tan
^M . eliiLjLl
2
(20)
p(u) + 1
This equivalence between amplitude and jAiase sensing is significant In that any kind of sensor can be described In terms of
^4^
PJ"? "
p(u) +
r(u)
The symbols
'^(u)
^
(21)
^'^ 9(u)
2
In
a(u)  p(u)
p(u)
(22)
Referring to
Figure 3
n*Mw1
of a fixed
W>1^
angle detector,
1^
detection function
laay be
differencep^"'/i
L
The
suni'and difference
sensing function is
)(u)J
jriiase
sensing functions, a
Vftien
forms there are thi^ee and only three distinct classes of angle
15
MONOPOLSE SYSTEIB
In the last section a general theory was derived from three
fundaniental postulates defining the concept of monopulse, and
Some of
hejre.
The angle of
The angle
After sensing
The purpose of
It is usually
'.c^.w?:i.:
fr^:
16
VfU)
U(ft)
KH&Lt SNSOft
3>f recTOW
Figure 4,
n
following the ratio converter may be lumped together under the
The angle detector usually contains
angle detection function and that piKJduce the real part of the
angle detection function at the output.
Angle Sensors .
The two
^S
as shown by Figure 5.
Sin
(24)
Rj^
and R2.
,rT^;,
18
rAfi6r
WAV FfiONT
Figure 5,
jecu>
T
fsCU)
Figure 6,
qt>
19
the
nsins AS
shown by Figure 9.
Ratio Convertex^ .
Mqr te ccm verted into any of the others by the use of ratio
eonverters.
In its
It nay
Ctoly
so
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
KU)
S.'n
(itW
kcu)
>
>>Cu)
'*"^[>>cuwKa)]
Figure 9.
21
sura
There Is an
channels is maintained.
90*^
in
>)
(^^"v
/
^)(u)
tlie
The ratio is
amplifiers.
The
the sum channel and used to control the gain of both channels.
The result in effect, is to normalize both the sumanddifference
S2
ji^;u)
<K>
>
0
T?F =
ASC
LO
Zldi)
<SH>
*^
Figure 10.
Linear
if
/^MPu/r/cRs
23
the ratio
(u)
^MJf^
fdiase
Ttys
r +
rJpi
.4^1
(25)
,.
The Kirkpatrick
The detection portion
(26)
V,
Current i
B^,
itself.
Ne^^sfe.,
24
v;
+0
o
:R.
ift
ie^
o
.O
Re F
"^
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
tio
circuits.
and V2
generated
eWl
V^l .
V1
Hence by super position
Ji^l
Y + e
Re P
re'i^^ + 1
But Y
(27)
(28)
Hence
Re P =
i.^^e'^'^A
(u)
2.
Itien i^l
detector.
''T/g,
j^e'^^^+l
M
I
(29)
However
26
R.F
;P^=J
Figure 13.
rp
nccetveR
AAirA//VA
TV
^
ATP
TRANsmrreR
Figure 14.
27
for pi
< ^/_
Duplexing .
Thm
"'yijv^
28
On transmission the
shorts the TR switches to feed the full power into the sum arm
On
'7
A complete system
The
The
^e
automatic tracking.
output from the sum channel may be fed into an autontie range
tracking unit.
29
>
ft
Figure 15.
30
svna
signal.
either A^ cos
w^^^t
or A^ cos
Wj^^t
(Ag > 0,
A^j
>
0) depending
CNt^
monopulse beam is
<J(e)
 0^^ exp
id^re Qq is the
9
(aV/g)
aadmna antenna
(30)
gain.
a^ B constant  2,776 9 g
tdiere 9u is antenna beam width measured between 3  db or
half~power points of antenna patterns.
Beferrlng to the diagram of Figure l6
(%)^
(Rd)^ (0
>
9^
+ (Rt^^ " ^
^Vt
*^
^^ "
^^
^^^^
9^ +9^22
q9^.
(32)
31
3'dfc
CoNTOui^
Axis op
/?or/r/o/v
Figure 16.
32
nierefore
e%  Hd\ +
0^)
 ^
q't
(33)
Hence
0(9)  Oo^
[
h (\
^
^^
a%9t
exp
(3^)
By synnuetry, th
aj
exp r i
(9\
^ 2^)1 exp
(a^d^)
(35)
2 0^2 ejq?
^ (^, * ^\)
eos h a^d^e
q^t
(36)
(9^n
Sin h a^dq^
^\)
^
(37)
2 K
Mbt&re
ejcp
a^(e^^ +
q
'
^\)
' t
sin h 2
aVe^
cos 2 f^^t
(38)
radar equation.
The two way antenna pattern of tte sum channel is
4S 9X9
a^ (9^^ +
8\)
COS
2 2
ha
9
9^
(39)
33
Cj^
exp
2a^(9^
cos h^a^9
+ 9^^)
9.
q t
sin h 2a
9.
(4o)
X.
Where
c^^
In the system
34
Figure 17.
35
pattern.
taking the sum of two adjacent feeds and subtracting this from
the
sura
generate the sum channel, the azimuth difference channel and the
extract the angle error information, one for azimuth and the
Range information is extracted from the
The
unsymmetrical character,
<
..
36
V3
<
o
><
<
SKvJ
9.
V111 11
k
V)
^1
fir
<
X
or
<
q
J
*s
Lg
Figure l8.
37
This approximation
r^i
''
38
AZIMUTH
't'(u^t)
LvfiiTiot<4
^'
Figure 19,
("Cu.o
39
'm&:
/
Figure 20.
'
.*'..'
'
AN/FPS
'A
V,
40
IfeiSht
12,000 pounds
Azimuth coverage
continuous 3^0
Elevation coverage
Size
PMd
4 horn roonopulse
Oain
45 db
Beam width
1.1
magnetron
Antenna System
Transmitter
Type
Frequency
Peak power
Neix.
5480 + 35
5450 to 5825 MC
PRP
duty cycle
0.001
0.0016
Internal
External
Pulse width
Coding
Receiver System
Band widths
lldb
41
Local oscillators
AFC
amge Tracking
Ifeuc
System
tracking rat
Automatic lockon
track rate
Data Outputs
Potentiometer
and Navy speeds
Synchro
Array
Digital
Displays
Range
Angle
dials
digital  octal numeral
Cabinets
Transmitter
42
Of
With the
Ttie
43
These
These fluctuations
44
scRvo
V)
"
A: coMPosire
Figure 21.
nir6fi
Radar
roR
10,000
looo
100
T<LAT/v
Ran6
scGiutNrfAL
L<0/f^6
/vo/S/
_
45
Senro noise is
tli*
square of the range, due to the inverse fourthpower law for the
However this
1^
following is the
o^
(42)
N^
1 Lf
2. Targst glint
'^B
~ T
"f
^''^^
WW
3. Servo lag
lAierc
'^
+
7  =rKy
Kg
L
(^)
46
L^ m Span of targst
R Ranse of target
K^
This is a complex
its best when the target separation increases beyond O.85 times
This
This
problem occurs idien the z^dar sees the target plus its image
reflected from the surface and serious resultant elevation
tracking errors render the elevation data almost useless.
47
'.
'
'
i/
\i
i/
'
XI
cai
fc)
Figure 22.
48
shown below.
E  (1)
2
izi!
2
1
+ 2a cos {0
 0^)
Where
0.
+ a
(45)
Therefore there is
of the error.
In concluding the discussion on scintillation noise the
tracklng techniques,
2. Angle noise is a function
49
^4
r'
,
^'
360
ISO
^,_ <^^
Figure 23.
0.662
/A*
1>6KS
50
3.
angle noise can cause the target to appear many target spans
This phenomenon
"V.^
51
equliMsent can be the same for both the systems, but the exact
Antenna parameters.
y
.
m Beam separation
m Beam width
< 9 <
0**
n.
90**
<
0>
9 < 90
e
sin
^^)
9nA
i>^**..ii
< NA + ^
'i
(^^6)
52
4
It
16
Hi
20
2?
<
52
ft:
Figure 24.
//v
Tie
6nE^
53
^)
,ln ^(
OjjB
<
<
d^
(47)
ni
t ii
SMLjL expression^
If the value of
Y A* 11,
it can be cotaputed
Kp is
form
irtiich
of lobe patterns
g,^
and
 i ( + Y)
9^
i
(^Y)
^^
54
sln^"^^(l
+Y) 49
i (e
(49)
+ J)
$ i {c
V)
^
T + p
2
(^v)
(1  r)
(50)
4 e 4 i (^ + v)
It has been assumed that an equal
Sin
(1 +
J),
sin
(1
^).
cos
11
(51)
these
signals are not l80 outof phase, and will produce a resultant
output where magnitude is (Cohen & Steinraetz, 1959)
sin
(1 +
)
yS
(1  cos y)
(52)
2 cos ( 1) sin

55
The null depth is defined as the ratio of the level in the null
to the level at the peak of the difference pattern.
The peak
occurs at
?+(l+*)
^ sin
d9
(53)
< ^
pattern when
< ^ <
"
(5^)
2e
^2
domain
<
<
It
9jjg
^/2 is
sin
20 log^Q
t;
2_)
(55)
sin ^Y
o**
56
Figure 25,
57
null depths pre comparator phase shifts must be kept small and
for a given amount of phase shift in the feed, better null
Using
ratio.
phase center separation of the feed horns and dish size will
Equation 52.
C, M, Steinmetz, 1959)
UD
Tan
1
sin Y sin
in
~+
Tr0
TT
r^
2 (1
^
h
r)
7r&
(1 
^)
 sin
1(1
+ r)
eos Y
(56)
^S
TT
H>
sin Y sin
= Tan"^
sin
^^
I (11)1+
Sin
^^(1+)
eos Y
(57)
38
rmynal
The pliaa*
point
of the detector,
2^
phsM
with varying Y.
ratio; and,
It can be seen
from the plots of Figure 26a and 26b that the phase of the
isore
pz<e comparator
ratio.
However the
Hence the
^^
msgnitude
i.e.:
sin
(1
+ 1) . sin
(1  1)
(58)
59
01
4S
...
nerecTon THASt
Vs S
'lis
A/v2)
<8o
S
^
3
Z
I
+5
+4
+2
fl
Figure 26a.
YrO
*Jo
2>frCTOI!f
7>HA.St
fffvcft&AL
"Point
033
lar
'8o
5
3
2
Figure 26b.
(
/f*
n
1_
+J
^3
f*
l_
^5
3>&KS
5'
60
Riis
!^^2 (wJ)].Ksin[l^.(l.)]
*"
^'J
^
2
sin
'
(59)
"
B =
(l^^) andC(l
^,
^),
K sin
(A + C),
By grouping terms
A
tan"'''
^^^
K sin C  sin B
(60)
cos B  K cos C
e.
u^)
K sin
tan1
 sin
L2
(^ ^^^
(1  r)
ees
tan
TT
o (1 + F)
mc
*****
K cos
(61)
various
bye,
61
e.03
oox
.ei
oes
O'04
004
Figure 27.
1 k
^"^^s
NX.
\y
yT
\^
's
I//
^/
4./
V/
Z
lio
Figure 28,
ISO
110
90
to
30
^V
**
3o
'
\,
X^L
V/
^^
y^^
+40
qo
lio
nyo
+180
62
degrees.
voltage unbalance.
Phase sensing monopulse system.
Bonopulse system
separation
'd'
lie
In a phate sensing
due to the
. 2 ^d sin 9
(62)
The antenna
A  Ki sin (w^t + 0)
(63)
B  Ki sin
(64)
w^.t
Ed  K^
sin (wt + 0)
sin Wgt
(65)
This
(66)
63
where
Kj^
K^^
(cos
(6?)
and
oln " Tan
1
sin
cos
(68)
1
it0
0 <
o(j5+i^
0*'<
<^D*
or
,..+
aD
(69)
<^ 180^
(70)
O>0>
J0
1*
< 360O
180
(71)
hh
r
Kg Kg sin (w^t +
o(g)
where Kg
%y
(l + cos
and
o^g
 Tan"^
sura
sin
1 +
The
m 2K^ COS
(72)
fS
(74)
COS
may be expressed as
o/  i0
180
>
>
 180**
(75)
6h
mm
are plotted
'^S
 1^ 
^D
+ 1^  
0*>
<
J2r
<+
180
(76)
o(j.
K,
Sin
m Tan 1
sin
cos
 sin Y
i
(79)
cos Y
180**
oro^g^  i (0  Y)
(78)
>
+ Y
>
 180
(80)
 Tan^ sin
1
cos
o^jj
+ sin Y
 cos Y
0^
"l
o^Uj 221 
(Y
 0)
<:
(81)
Y +
0 > Y +
1^
< + 180
(82)
>
(83)
 180^
65
o<fa
 o{q
^1
o^
^1
^1
. o(d
"l
221
>Y
^2^
>
 1800
(85)
The two conditions, before and after the null, are similar to
those calculated before, except that the phase reversal occurs
ten
00.
because of a
pi*e comparator
phase shift of y +
10**,
2^d
"IT'
It Is observed that
This
66
v= o,
~1
~a.7o
lo"
v,o
255
2U lis.
1
'
'
.j.
20
IS
10
.ISO
OS
5"
+10
fOi
US.
//y
+(5
t>ce,KS
ISO.
.IZS.
/20
y.
Figure 29.
o\
lo'
Phase difference vs. angle in a phasesensing system (Cohen & Steinmetz, 1959).
67
change as follows.
\ \

where
K^^
" Tan
ando^ij,
/(cos
1
Lr
g^" ^ )
cos j^  L
+ (sin
(86)
0)'
(87)
sin
(88)
> L
eo8
aura
we find
sin w t + Tan"^
aln p
L 4 cos
(89)
where K.
(90)
fills In.
unbalance Is Increased.
phase transition at
system.
0^0
which would
68
OT
It*
Figure 30.
tk
\
\
or
to*
V"^ oi
'^^^
y
6303
^^oi
Figure 31.
15
/a
^
'
IS
19
69
CONCLUSIONS
of ease in operation.
nrare
iS

'j
"
'
^'
'
70
The
In the
*.
.4'
71
ACKNOWLEOQMENT
The author wishes to express his deep appreciation of the
''
72
BIBLIOaRAPHY
1.
2.
Skolnlk, Merril I.
Introduction to radar aystens,
Coiv>ny Inc., 1962.
Rhodes, D. R.
Introduction to rnonopulse.
Inc., 1959.
HcQrawHill Book
3.
Page, R. N.
Honopulse radar, IRE convention record, part 1,
pp. 132136, 1955.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Barton, D. K.
Accuracy of a rnonopulse radar, proc. third national
convention on rail, electronics by POME of IRE, 1959.
9.
10. Meade, J. E.
;
.^
hr
SULTAN N. ZIA
B.., B.M.S. College of Engineering
University of Mysore, India, 1962
MASTER OP SCIENCE
1965
ABSTRACT
Ate techniques for extracting angle as well aa range
infomiatlcm for tracking a target from the return of a alngle
These
It is shown
that there are three and only three distinct classes of angle
and sun)>and'>difference.
perfomanee.
also included.