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Ana Zuniga

Professor Arceo-Kendall
ENGL 1302-CO2
18 October 2016
Drug Cartels an Invincible Enemy
Mexico has witnessed the increase of drug organizations since the beginning of the XX
century. Miguel ngel Flix Gallardo, a drug dealer, best known as El Padrino or the Godfather
became the tsar of cocaine in Mexico. He founded the first Cartel of Guadalajara. He came to
control all the illegal movement of drugs into the United States. Mexico has been the center of
turmoil for many years, the violence between the drug cartels has only escalated. When Ernesto
Zedillo was the president of Mexico the drug cartels gained control of many states because
Zedillo was unable to create policies that would end the traffic of illegal drugs. The Mexican
government has failed to educate its citizens on the effects of illegal drugs and has also not
legalized the most demanded illegal drugs such as (marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and heroin). As a
result, drug cartels cannot be stopped, because of the high demand for illegal drugs and the
inefficiency of the Mexican government to establish policies deterring criminal organizations
from exporting the drugs.
In 2000 Vicente Fox Quezada became the president of Mexico. His addition to the
government was seen as something great. He became the first National Action Party (PAN)
president to run Mexico in over 71 years, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) had
previously held control over the country ever since 1910. Since there was now less monopoly in
the government, many believed that the opportunity of democracy to be institutionalized could
be possible. However, this was not the case, while Fox did reduce the control of the drug cartels,

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he was unable to stop their expansion into the United Sates. Drug cartels are deeply rooted in
Mexico, they have control of municipalities across the country, they have amassed billions in
illicit revenue, their virtual impunity allows them to penetrate and corrupt the Mexican
government (Bonner 13). Maybe it is best to offer a Faustian Bargain to the drug cartels. This
will allow the drug cartels to operate above the law and as a result reduce the violence. Yet, the
Faustian Bargain does not necessarily eliminate drug cartels, just reduces the violence created by
them.
Mexico is currently facing one of the greatest challenges with the drug cartels. In January
2016, Joaquin Archivaldo Guzman Loera, El Chapo (the biggest drug lord in Mexico) was
captured by the Mexican authorities in Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Davison). His capture was believed
to help reduce organized crimes and possibly reduce the control the cartels the drug cartels had
across the country. Yet, his capture was unable to reduce any of the crime. The Cuinis, another
drug cartel has gained much attention. While they are the less known across the world, they are
the ones that are the richest. They have created their revenue by selling cocaine and
amphetamines across Europe and North America. The reason why they were able to amass so
much power was because of their tactics to operate above the law.
Every day, Mexicos criminal organizations try to traffic large quantities of drugs across
the US border, in recent years, some groups have begun to create innovative methods for moving
their merchandise (Davidson). The first narco-tunnel from Mexico into the United Sates was
discovered in Arizona back in 1990. This tunnel connected Agua Prieta, Mexico to a warehouse
in Arizona. Tis method to traffic drugs has become very popular to export the drugs into the
United States. El Chapo, was able to escape from the Altiplano maximum security prison by
using a mile long tunnel in July 2005. In this prison there are others very notable drug leaders,

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such as Miguel ngel Trevio Morales known as "El Z-40", ex leader of Los ZetasServando
Gmez Martnez, known as La Tuta, leader of the Knights Templar. It is clear, that even with
the capture of the Leaders of the cartels, there is still no end to organized crime.
In the presidency of Felipe Calderon (2006-2012) there was great expectations, the
majority of the voters chose him because he had promise and end to violence. In 2011, when an
analysis came about Felipe Calderon presidency, the majority where not satisfied with his term
(Bonner 35). His attempts at stopping crime were seen as favorable but not enough. Then in
2012, Enrique Pea Nieto became president, the majority of the voters were confident that his
term would be successful at combating organized crimes. While there has been many changes
proposed to create legislation that makes the production of illegal drugs harder the cartels still
have managed to operate above the law (Velasco 35). Enrique Pea Nieto currently has an
approval rate of 23%, the lowest for any president since 1975. The majority of the Mexican
public believe that Pea Nieto has done the minimal to combat crime. In August 28, 2016, Pea
Nieto invited Donald Trump into the country. In doing so he received the disapproval and
contempt across the country. The reason as to why Donald Trump visit to Mexico drug cartels is
that Pea Nieto is focusing on other things and not on his country. Trump is known for having
atrocious views of the Mexican people, therefore it was a blow further into the priorities of the
Mexican citizens.
Mexico is currently battling a war against powerful drug cartels, the outcome could
determine who gets control of the countrys law enforcement, judicial and political institutions
(Bonner 36). However, Mexico has been unable to stop illegal drug trafficking. Some believe
that the United Sates should come and assist Mexico in combating illegal drug trade. The United
Sates DEA was able to stop the cartels of Colombia, which were under the control of Pablo

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Escobar. This method has been contemplated but, there has been little negotiations between
Mexico and the United Sates. It is essential that Mexico realizes, that there efforts are not
enough, it is very impressive that it has taken them so long to combat organized crime. Some of
the factors that contributed to the rise of the Mexican Cartels were, preexisting corruption, weak
law enforcement and the demand for illegal drugs in the United Sates.
The results of organized crime can be seen all across the country and in the United States.
Mexico, is a big drug producer and exporter, while their consumption is quite low they have few
resources to reduce the demand for drugs (Velasco 5). The effects of the cartels are analyzed
using an economic theory. This theory shows how production and drug trafficking create
criminality. The reality is that none of the policies are really working because the war between
the government and the cartels has created mass murder and destruction. I t is 2016 and Mexico
is still suffering the consequences from organized crimes. There has been minimal change in how
the system works to prevent the illegal sale of drugs across borders. Take into consideration the
2014 Iguala mass kidnapping that occurred in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Forty-three
students from the Atyozinapa Rural College, where handed over by police to the Guerreros
Unidos (a local crime organization) and presumably killed. The Authorities said that the Mayor
of Iguala Jose Luis Albarca Velasquez was behind the kidnapping. However, others believe that
the federal government was involved, because the Mexican army failed to provide any help to
the student. As of today, the forty-three students remain missing, just like the thousands of other
who are never going to be seen again ( Davidson).
There is no sign in 2016, that there will be a reduction of organized crime in Mexico.
People are still not educated on the subject of illegal drugs and the dangerous effects drugs pose
on the human being. Every night there are news surrounding Mexico and the downfall of their

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government system. The Sinaloa Cartel, has managed to maintain control across the country,
despite El Chapo captivity. There is really no positive outlook for the stability of Mexico.
There need to be intervention from the United States, but primarily, illegal drugs should be
legalized. The latter, is the only possible way that organized crime could be stop. Since, there has
been no policies or legislation allowing for the legalization of Marijuana, opiates, amphetamines
and heroin, there will never be an end to drug cartels.

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Works Cited
Bonner, Robert C. "The Cartel Crackdown: Winning the Drug War and Rebuilding Mexico in the
Process. Foreign Affairs 91.3 (2012): 12-16. Web. 05 Oct. 2016.
---."The New Cocaine Cowboys: How to Defeat Mexico's Drug Cartels." Foreign Affairs 89.4
(2010): 35-47. Web. 05 Oct. 2016.
Davison, Janet, and Kazi Stastna. "Mexico's Cartels: Behind the Drug War." CBCnews.
CBC/Radio Canada, 26 Feb. 2014. Web. 05 Oct. 2016.
Velasco Pavn, Juan Carlos Prez. "Consideraciones Sobre El Combate A Los Crteles De La
Droga El Caso De Mxico." Economa Mexicana(2013): 5-64. Academic Search
Complete. Web. 02 Oct. 2016.