Control and
Information Sciences
Edited by A.V. Balakrishnan and M.Thoma
12
lan Postlethwaite
Alistair G. J. MacFarlane
SpringerVerlag
Berlin Heidelberg New York 1979
Series Editors
A.V. Balakrishnan M. Thoma
Advisory Board
A. G. J. MacFarlane H. Kwakernaak Ya. Z. Tsypkin
Authors
Dr. I. Postlethwaite,
Research Fellow, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and
SRC Postdoctoral Research Fellow,
Engineering Department, University of Cambridge.
Professor A. G..I. MacFarlane,
Engineering Department, University of Cambridge,
Control and Management Systems Division,
Mill Laqe,
Cambridge C B 2 1RX.
Contents
CHAPTER
Introducti0n
References
CHAPTER
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.31
2.32
2.4
Preliminaries
System description
Feedback configuration
Stability
Free systems
Forced systems
Relationship between open and closedloop
characteristic polynomials for the general
feedback configuration
References
CHAPTER
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.31
3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.4
3.41
3.42
CHAPTER
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
CHAPTER
5
5.1
5.2
1
6
8
8
ii
13
13
16
17
20
58
58
60
72
75
77
77
78
N
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
CHAPTER
6
6.1
6.2
6.21
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
CHAPTER
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
81
81
86
97
99
iOO
IOO
104
109
113
115
123
126
130
132
132
135
135
138
140
Appendix
Definition
Appendix
143
of an algebraic
functipn
143
Appendix
The discriminant
147
Appendix
150
157
Appendix
Extended
Appendix
166
168
References
169
Bibliography
170
Index
174
Appendix
Principle
of the. Argume.nt
1.
Introduction
developed
led to attempts
to
industrial processes.
In many situations
successful,
particularly
this was
in cases where
indices
required to stipulate
space context.
Moreover,
techniques
if it incorporates
dynamical
in fact,
filter it has a
process
consists of a plant
In contrast,
about an operating
available,
disturbances
by i n c o r p o r a t i n g
action.
engineers brought up on f r e q u e n c y  r e s p o n s e
optimal control methods
seemed difficult
forward techniques,
To industrial
ideas the s o p h i s t i c a t e d
to use;
e s s e n t i a l l y relied on a m i x t u r e of physical
action,
filtering
is in general a c o m p l i c a t e d one;
a full K a l m a n  B u c y
from a
controlling,
point,
the controlled
these engineers
It became obvious
that a
single
[i],
Bode
industrial
variable
[3],which
applications,
timeresponse
methods
and powerful
developed
multi
for aerospace
applications.
For these reasons
methods
an optimal
approach
control
approach
characterization
[4]
and design
theory
pioneering
paper by Rosenbrock
of increasing
approach.
control
A systematic
attacks
problem.
transfer
function
diagonal
form.
controller
controller.
a cascaded
frequencyresponse
compensator
If such a compensator
to this approach
to go to such drastic
to reduce
A natural
approach
to multivariable
achieved
studying
further
single
matrix which
is necessarily
consisted
The required
matrices;
some fairly
Their procedure
techniques.
results
in a decade
loop design
analysis
Boksenbom
simply of choosing
attack
in a rejuvenated
idea of a noninteracting
usually
frequencyresponse
straightforward
gap between
a frequencyresponse
for multivariable
interest
An
of optimality.
one,
in frequencyresponse
important
domain
an interest
a complicated
is simply
lengths merely
the problem
using rational
[12]
a completely
[7]
Raymond
, [13]
Rosenbrock
sophisticated way.
[14],[15],
to classical
[9] , [iO],[ii]
however,
enable singleloop
techniques
completely.
investigators
to be employed,
interaction
Return Difference
approach of Mayne
In the noninteracting,
approach to m u l t i v a r i a b l e
deployment of classical
singleloop
is to investigate
frequencyresponse
the t r a n s f e r  f u n c t i o n
be suitably extended?
singleloop
concepts of pole,
It is to questions
complexvariable
of m u l t i v a r i a b l e
feedback
approach
systems.
A generalization
to the
zero, Nyquist
of this sort
[20]
matrix representation
frequencyresponse
and K a t z e n e l s o n
approach,
, [18]
techniques
An alternative
as in the
or partially noninteracting,
generalization
the
[163.
treatment,
Sequential
multivariable
, [15]
criterion of partial
concept.
in a more
problems,
[17]
opened up
[14]
however,
The Rosenbrock
techniques
diagonal
Kavanagh
interaction
[8] ;
of the Nyquist
[19] and,
stability
following
criterion
that heuristic
and MacFarlane
of the Nyquist
and Postlethwaite
stability
[21]
This
criterion to the m u l t i v a r i a b l e
complementary
generalizations
of the
E21],
E22],
~23],
underlying
to m u l t i v a r i a b l e
linear feedback
the techniques
systems.
of Nyquist,
E24].
as a function of gain.
In Chapter
approaches
to
approach studies
approach studies
3 it is shown how
be extended to the m u l t i v a r i a b l e
function matrices
pair of analytic
characteristic
frequency
a characteristic
function.
considered;
theorems;
w i t h basic definitions
and w i t h a fundamental
c l o s e d  l o o p behaviour
to an algebraic
In Chapter
a comprehensive
systems w h i c h is p r e s e n t e d
this criterion
such as
system being
based on the r e t u r n  d i f f e r e n c e
3 also contains
[26].
feedback
and a
functions
Riemann surface
a d e s c r i p t i o n of the type of m u l t i v a r i a b l e
Chapter
gain function
operator.
discussion of the b a c k g r o u n d
criterion
for m u l t i v a r i a b l e
in Chapter 4.
The proof of
5 a generalization
Riemann surface.
stability
criterion to the multivariable case is d e v e l o p e d which is complementary to the exposition of the g e n e r a l i z e d Nyquist criterion
the previous
the Evans'
chapter.
developed
given in
in Chapter
is extended to m u l t i v a r i a b l e
3,
systems
in Chapter
function
6;
theory.
based approach
poles of a multivariable
linear regulator
index approaches
In Chapter
optimal
of the concepts
Nyquist
loci.
of
developed
and suggestions
that
of the
are not
system is considered
'parametric'
This chapter
evident
as a parameter
feedback
duction
Information
it becomes
on a multivariable
proposals
progresses
and consequently
frequency.
timeinvariant
of
zero.
only applicable
behaviour
in algebraic
the closedloop
performance
results
concludes
and
variations
by the intro
'parametric'
of secondary
importance
in appendices.
References
in which they
are cited,
is provided.
References
[i]
H.Nyquist, "Regeneration
ii, 126147, 1932.
theory",
Bell Syst.
[23
H.W.Bode,
"Network analysis and feedback
Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1945.
amplifier
design",
[3]
systems",
Trans.
[4]
[5]
H.H.Rosenbrock,
"On the design of linear multivariable
control systems", Proc. Third IFAC Congress London, I,
116, 1966.
of control
Tech. J.,
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
R.J.Kavanagh,
"Noninteraction in linear multivariable
systems",
Trans. AIEE, 76, 95100, 1957.
[i0 ]
R.J.Kavanagh,
"The application of matrix methods to
multivariable control systems", J.Franklin Inst., 262,
349367, 1957.
[li
R.J.Kavanagh,
"Multivariable control system synthesis",
Trans. AIEE, Part 2, 77, 425429, 1958.
[12 ]
H.Freeman,
"A synthesis method for multipole control
systems",
Trans. AIEE, 76, 2831, 1957.
[13 ]
H.Freeman,
"Stability and physical realizability considerations in the synthesis of multipole control systems",
Trans.AIEE, Part 2, 77, 115, 1958.
[14 ]
H.H.Rosenbrock,
"Design of multivariable control systems
using the inverse Nyquist array, Proc. IEE, 116, 19291936,
1969.
[15
H.H.Rosenbrock,
"Computeraided control system design",
Academic Press, London, 1974.
[16
D.Q.Mayne,
"The design of linear multivariable systems",
Automatica, 9, 201207, 1973.
[17
E.V.Bohn,
"Design and synthesis methods for a class of
multivariable feedback control systems based on single
variable methods",
Trans.AIEE, 81, Part 2, 109115, 1962.
[18 ]
[19 ]
A.G.J.MacFarlane,
"Returndifference and returnratio
matrices and their use in the analysis and design of
multivariable feedback control systems",
Proc. IEE, 117,
20372049, 1970.
[20 ]
[21]
[22]
[23]
I. Postlethwaite,
" The asymptotic behaviour, the
angles of departure, and the angles of approach of
the characteristic frequency loci",
Int. J. Control,
25, 677695, 1977.
[24]
[25]
G.A.Bliss,
"Algebraic functions",
1966
(Reprint of 1933 original).
[26]
G. Springer,
"Introduction to Riemann surfaces",
AddisonWesley, Reading, Mass., 1957.
2.
Preliminaries
the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n
of the classical
input, m u l t i  o u t p u t
subsystems
connected
in series.
chapter a d e s c r i p t i o n of the m u l t i v a r i a b l e
under c o n s i d e r a t i o n
feedback
In this
system
is given.
basic definitions
of stability,
and a fundamental
operator.
System description
of a linear t i m e  i n v a r i a n t
dynamical
Ax(t)
+ Bu(t)
y(t)
Cx(t)
+ Du(t)
(2.1.1)
where x(t)
y(t)
u(t)
x(t)
S(A,B,C,D)
or S when the m e a n i n g
diagramatically
In general
statespace
is obvious,
and r e p r e s e n t e d
as shown in figure i.
S(A,B,C,D)
representation
will be considered
of several
subsystems
Si (Ai,Bi,Ci,Di) :
xi(t)
i=1,2, ...... h
Yi(t)
= C.x.l
l(t)
+ Diui(t)
as i l l u s t r a t e d
in figure
connected
in series,
example,S
as being the
(2.1.2)
2.
If, for
"I D ,I
+1
t)
u(t '
g''~~
I
1
J
I
fA
'c
I
I
S
J
r"
u{t}=u~(t}
"~
llYh(t)=
y(t)
I
'
I
I
I
.~
10
statespace
x(t)
description
= Ix l(t)]
!
[x2(t)
of S is g i v e n by e q u a t i o n s
the c o m b i n e d
ul(t)
the input to S 1 ,
y(t)
Y2(t)
the o u t p u t
B2c I
=
subsystems
A2
[ D2C 1
The s t a t e  s p a c e
with
states of both s u b s y s t e m s ,
u(t)
(2.1.1)
(2.1.3)
tB2DlJ
C2 ] ,
model
of S 2,
and D
D2D 1.
for an i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n
can be d e r i v e d
of s e v e r a l
formula
by s u c c e s s i v e
application.
The s t a t e  s p a c e
to as an i n t e r n a l
model
of a s y s t e m is o f t e n
description
of the s y s t e m ' s
internal
or i n p u t  o u t p u t
description
(2.1.1)
singlesided
s~(s)
 x(o)
since it r e t a i n s
dynamical
Laplace
structure.
is o b t a i n e d
+ B~(s)
~(s) = c~(s)
+ D~(s)
a knowledge
An e x t e r n a l
if in e q u a t i o n s
transforms
= A~(s)
referred
to give
(2.1.4)
where
~(s)
initial
denotes
conditions
the L a p l a c e
transform
of x(t).
and o u t p u t
transform
vectors
If the
so that x(o)=O,
are r e l a t e d
by
(2.1.5)
where
G(s)
I
= C(SInA)IB
is a unit m a t r i x
of a matrix.
G(s)
+ D
of o r d e r n and
(2.1.6)
( [idenotes
is a m a t r i x  v a l u e d
rational
the i n v e r s e
function
11
of the c o m p l e x
variable
function m a t r i x
the o p e n  l o o p
G(s)
~ain matrix.
can be r e g a r d e d
an e x p o n e n t i a l
the c o m p l e x
frequency
When
s, and is c a l l e d the t r a n s f e r
The t r a n s f e r
as d e s c r i b i n g
variable
each s u b s y s t e m
can be c o n s i d e r e d
consists
Gi(s ) = Ci(SIn.Ai)
to
a complex
singleoutput
case.
of h s u b s y s t e m s
has a t r a n s f e r
response
and t h e r e f o r e
as in the s i n g l e  i n p u t ,
S(A,B,C,D)
{Si(Ai,Bi,Ci,Di):
s [2],
or
function matrix
a system's
input w i t h e x p o n e n t
variable
transforms,
, as shown in figure
2,
function matrix
1Bi +
Di
(2.1.7)
and the i n p u t  o u t p u t
transform
vectors
the o b v i o u s
G(s)
relationship
of S are r e l a t e d
~(s)
(2.1.8)
for the o p e n  l o o p
= G h ( S ) G h _ l ( S ) .... Gl(S)
For the p u r p o s e
of c o n n e c t i n g
form a f e e d b a c k
loop G(s)
by
gain m a t r i x
(2.1.9)
outputs
is a s s u m e d
back to inputs
to
to be a square m a t r i x
of o r d e r m.
2.2
Feedback
confi@uration
The g e n e r a l
feedback
is shown in figure
3.
configuration
The output
of the f e e d b a c k
later
subsystems
compensators.
variable
from an e a r l i e r
system
but in p r a c t i c e
subsystem
can be t h o u g h t
The p a r a m e t e r
that w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d
in w h i c h
of as b e i n g
it
case
feedback
k is a real gain c o n t r o l
The s y s t e m ' s
input and
12
output
are r e l a t e d
e(t)
r(t)
u(t)
ke(t)
to the r e f e r e n c e

input
r(t)
by the e q u a t i o n s
y(t)
(2.2.1)
and c o m b i n i n g
closedloop
these w i t h
equations
statespace
equations
Bcr (t)
x(t)
AcX (t)
y(t)
CcX (t) +
(2.1.1)
the f o l l o w i n g
are obtained:
(2.2.2)
D c r (t)
where
AB(kIIm+D)Ic
Ac =
B c = k B  k B (kiIm+D)iD
Cc
(Im+kD) i c
Dc
(kiim+D) I D
y(t)
13
2.3
Stability
Stability
of a feedback
single requirement
timedependent
nonlinear
systems
stability
problem
systems,
however,
The
dynamical
case.
This is because:
(i)
all stability
to time,
(ii)
properties
are constant
properties
are global,
with respect
and
all stability
see equation
(2.3.2).
and broadly
speaking
these
i.e.
those
ioe. those
types of stability
associated
concerns
following
[3]
2.31
Free systems
below,
of free
the second
of forced
input.
Both
the definitions
and
Let us consider
figure 3 described
the closedloop
by equations
x(t)
stability
the behaviour
are discussed
theorems
considering
Willems
Cc=I.
concerns
in the literature
class of definitions
systems
of stability
can be divided
to the state
dynamical
(2.2.2)
problem
system of
reduces
to that of
= AcX(t)
The equilibrium
(2.3.1)
(2.3.1)
is clearly
the
14
origin
(assuming A
solution
of
is nonsingular),
time remains
and therefore
times;
The stability
state is characterized
a
at some
this solution
of the origin
definitions
Definition
called
i.
stable
2.
remain
is
from the
in a correspondingly
of the origin
called asymptotically
slightly
motions
(2.3.1)
stable
(2.3.1)
is
motions
return to
the origin.
Definition
3.
called asymptotically
asymptotically
motion
stable,
converges
which
stable
in the large,
if it is stable,
to the origin
The general
x(t
stable
solution
;x(t O),tO)
(2.3.1)
is
or globally
and if every
as t+~.
of equation
(2.3.1)
is
[3]
(2.3.2)
is the Jordan
canonical
A
stable
TJT I
Jl
(2.3.3)
with
J
in the large.
J2
Jk
If J
IS
J.
l
I.
l
1
~i ".
hi
T exp[J(tto)].Ti
[ 3] , that
(2.3.4)
with
exp [ J(tt O) ] =
exp[J 1 (tto) ]
exp [ J2 (tto)]
exp[ Jk (tto)]
and
exp [ Ji (tto)] = "i t t2/2 ' .... trI/(rl) :
0 1 t
exp[~ i (tto) ]
tr2/(r2)'
000
where ~ = (tt O )
and
r is the order of the Jordan block Ji"
The general
(2.3.5)
see
16
2.32
Forced s~stems
Let us consider the closedloop dynamical system
(T)dT
~t~O
(2.3.7)
vector [3].
(2.2.2),
we then have
II y(t)ll <
4
H Ccx(t)II
+ II Dcr(t)II
II Dcr(t) ll + II Ccexp(Act)'x(to)II
+Cfotllexp[Ac (t T)] IIllBcr(t)lld~
d +c llx(to)li+
cbMP/a
t >~ O.
17
of the equilibrium state at the origin only if the system
(2.2.2) is state controllable and state observable;
all unobservable
real parts.
or if
book
system stabilit ~
(2.2.2)
are values of 1
(2.3.8)
(2.3.8)
is called the
abbreviated as CLCP(1)
so that
CLCP(1)~ det [ IInAc]
(2.3.9)
OLCP(1),
an openloop
is defined as
~ det[IInA ]
= detflInlAl]det [ IIn2A 2] . . . .
.... det[iInhAh]
(2.3.10)
operator [ 5 ] .
polynomials
18
~(s)
(a)
P(s)
9(s)
 ~ k
i
[m~~Gl(S)k ..........,,pl~S)1
0
....
(b)
Figure 4. Feedback configuration
(a) dosedloop
(b) opentoop
19
closedloop
configuration
are represented
figure
4.
are broken
by their transfer
The corresponding
function matrices;
returndifference
see
matrix
F(s)
+ L(s)
(2.4.1)
where
L(s)
kG(s)
(2.4.2)
operator
generates
the difference
and returned
signal transforms
transform.
It plays
the essence
of signals
between
matrix
equal,
them identically
rational
feedback
detF(s)
partitioned
detF(s)
between
= det[sI
which is equivalent
to
open and
configuration.
of equation
model,
formula
determinants
and
(2.4.1)
[6]
(2.4.3)
can be rewritten
A i
and represent
we obtain
= det[Im+kC(SInA)iB+kD]
are
of the returndifference
polynomials
If we take determinants
G(s) by its statespace
and L(s)
in the relationship
characteristic
revolve
since
two sets
of a complex variable
The importance
is emphasized
closedloop
text
signal
the difference
Both F(s)
functions
injected
theory
link is making
thus making
zero.
in this
of such matrices.
between
a feedback
identically
A return
of forging
matrixvalued
matrix [5]
of
as
l+det[SInA ]
(2.4.4)
20
detF(s) = det
I
% letlSn l+etSn
Is
L~CJ, I S k
[ic ......
= det
,
[SInA+B(kiIm+D)iC]det[Im+k~
(2.4.5)
det [SInA ]
Now from equations
(2.2.2) we have
A c = AB(kIIm+D)Ic
and it is obvious from equation
(2.4.3) that
detF(~) = det[Im+k ~
and therefore under the assumption that det F(~)~O we have
from equation
detF(s) =
det[SInAc] =
~ CLCP(s)
detF (~)
det [Sin_ A ]
OLCP (s)
(2.4.6)
The zeros of the open and closedloop characteristic
polynomials, OLCP(s) and CLCP(s), are known as the openand closedloop poles or characteristic frequencies respectively.
Relationship
in Chapter 3.
References
[I]
21
[2]
[3]
J.L.
Willems, "Stability Theory of Dynamical Systems",
Nelson, London, 1970.
[4]
5]
P.M. Cohn,
[6]
F.R. Gantmacher,
York, 1959.
"Theory of M a t r i c e ~
[7]
[8]
[9]
3.
is to show how these techniques can be extended to the multivariable case by associating with appropriate matrixvalued rational functions of a complex variable characteristic
gain functions and characteristic frequency function s.
3.1
det [SlnAc ]
det[s~n, A ]
(3.1.1)
I + kG(s)
(3.1.2)
m
If we substitute for F(s) in equation (3.1.1) we obtain
det[ SInAc] _
det[ SInA ]
det[ Im+kG(s) ]
det[ Im+kD ]
det[kiIm+G(s~
(3.1.3)
det[ kiIm+D]
and substituting for the gain variable k using the expression
g= I
where g is allowed to be complex i.e. g e ~
plane), we have
(3.1.4)
(the complex
23
det[ SInAc ]
det[ SinA ]
det[gImG (S)]
(3.1 .5)
det[ qImD ]
(3.1.6)
(3.1.4) we have
A c = A + B(gImD)Ic
S(g)
The expression
(3.1.7)
(3.1.5) can therefore be rewritten as
det[gImG(s) ]
det[gImD ]
or
(3.1.8)
det[ SInS (g)]
det[ SInS (~ ~
its eigen
The eigenvalues
(3.1.9)
S(g) = B(gImD)Ic + A
(3.1.10)
24
In figure 5 the feedback configuration of figure 4a is
redrawn with zero reference input, the statespace representation
for G(s),and the substitution
(3.1.4)
for k in order to
~ I n _
] ......
(3.1.8)
is that it shows,
(this condition
= O ~
det[gImG(s)]=O~
(3.1.11)
25
of frequency
knowledge
is equivalent
to a knowledge
the stability
of a feedback
of the characteristic
characteristic
frequency as a function of
characteristic
The inference
to determine
of the openloop
from a
(3.1.8)
= det[gImG(s)]
system
we have that
. OLCP(s)
(3.1.12)
det[gI m D]
and such an expression makes
it intuitively
obvious
of Nyquist's
gains of G(s)
that
stability
theorem
as a function
of
frequency.
3.2
A19ebraic
functions:
characteristic
9ain functions
and
function s.
equations
for G(s)
and S(g)
i.e.
d(g,s)
~ det[gI m  G(s)]
= 0
(3.2.1)
?(s,g)
~ det[sI n  S(g)]
= 0
(3.2.2)
and
are algebraic
equations
Each equation
can be considered
with coefficients
respectively,
functions
[i;
(i)
which
defines
v a r i a b l ~ s and g.
as a polynomial
functions
in g or s
in s or g
functions
i]:
a characteristic
loop characteristic
(ii)
the complex
are rational
and if irreducible
each equation
appendix
relating
9 a i n function
gain as a function
a characteristic
frequency
function
and
26
closedloopcharacteristic
In general equations
irreducible
(3.2.1)
and
frequency
simplicity of exposition
and because
usual situation
and S(g)
for G(s)
functions.
For
arising
from p r a c t i c a l
situations,
(3.2.1)
(3.2.2)
and
functions.
A l t h o u g h b o t h equation
(3.2.1)
and equation
and s(g),
(3.2.2)
equation
(3.2.2)
that ?(s,g)
will
~(g,s).
system S(A,B,C,D)
and/or u n c o n t r o l l a b l e
of view of considering the input as that of the first subsystem and the output as that of the hth sybsystem.
that if output m e a s u r e m e n t s
available
then in practice
of S(A,B,C,D)
(2)
G(s)
for earlier
subsystems
Note
are
m a y in fact be observable.
3.33.
under w h i c h equations
clearly p r e s e n t problems
(3.2.1)
and
to the d e v e l o p m e n t
27
of a Nyquistlike
stability
the characteristic
gains of G(s).
can be overcome;
is developed
of the characteristic
3.3
Nyquist
frequency
@ain
A(g,s)
4.
3.4 a similar
results
to the form
~(g,s)
factors
are polynomials
Ai(g,s)
(3.3.3)
functions
equation
in
tii
+ail(s)gi
common denominator
(3.3.2)
ti
functions
gain functiong(s)
(3.3.1)
......
rational
in a
the characteristic
= gi
study
equation
= Al(g,s)~2(g,s)
Ai(g's)
Nyquist
in a generalization
function
will be reducible
in s.
and uncontrollable
~ det[gImG(s) ] = O
~(g,s)
and
functions
In general
the
diagram.
Characteristic
A(g,s)
by relating
In section
loci of
a generalized
in chapter
a detailed
generalized
However,
of the unobservable
in termsof
by careful consideration
stability
criterion
polynomial
in s.
Then if b
lO
of the coefficients
{aij(s) :j=l,2,...,t i}
28
t.
t.i
bio(S)g i l+bil(s)g i i + ...... +biti(s)
= O
(3.3.4)
i=i,2,...,
where the coefficients
are polynomials
gi(s)
in s.
The function
defined by equation
function
[i; appendix
eigenvalues
of G(s)
i].
G(s)
i=l,2,...,Z}
(3.3.4)
of a complex variable
is called an algebraic
Thus associated
is a set of algebraic
which are directly
of G(s).
with an openfunctions
related
The characteristic
to the
gain functions
functions
{gi(s):i=l,2,...,~}.
The problem of finding
{A i(g,s):i=l,2,...,}
functions
are defined
finding an appropriate
was reducible
is closely
canonical
linear
form [2].
polynomials
to factors
the irreducible
linked
canonical
to the problem of
form of G(s).
in g then G(s)
In general
If A(g,s)
could be
Let
O O
. O aiti(s)
10
. . . O ai,ti_l(S
(3.3.5)
C(Ai)~
O 1 . . . O ai,ti_2(s)
1 ail (s)
c (A i)
=A  a l l
(s)
gain
if ti=l
(3.3.6)
29
then a transformation
G(s)
= E(s)
where Q(s)
matrix E(s)
Q(s)
E(s)
exists
i
(3.3.7)
such that
rational
matrix,
canonical
which
is
form of G(s)
and is given by
Q(s)
the irreducible
A proposed
is presented
method
in appendix
the defining
g(s)
(3.3.8)
equation
factors
Ai(g,s)
vain function
for a characteristic
gain
= O
(3.3.9)
~ O
and
bt(s)
~ 0
were to vanish,
coefficients
we could
this reducedorder
be taken as defining
an appropriate
equation
bo(S)
set of values of
s .
consider
the situation
a common
factor.
Before
when
new algebraic
the supposition
together
looking
bo(S)
The algebraic
and
and
function
would be true.
bt(s ) share a
at some specific
at the effect
bt(s)
of this,
do not share
zero when
bt(s)
(3.3.10)
be
30
and w i l l t e n d to i n f i n i t y
bo(S)
+ O
(3.3.11)
For this r e a s o n
those v a l u e s
(3.3.10) are d e f i n e d
g(s),
bo(S)
are d e f i n e d
of
which
satisfy equation
which
satisfy
(3.3.12)
to be the p o l e s of the a l g e b r a i c
should be t a k e n
the t e r m i n o l o g y
as r e f e r r i n g
s =~ r e q u i r e s
general
bo(s)
o n l y to finite poles
special
attention
case, we m u s t
share
the zeros
a common
factor.
share a c o m m o n
simply be d i v i d e d
and bt(s)
empty
set of c o e f f i c i e n t s
have a c o m m o n
not share
this c o m m o n
lefthand
side of e q u a t i o n
in the
{hi(s)
such a common
function.
factor,
Suppose
by bo(S)
bl(S) gti
b (s)
+ b~
+ "'" +
u
gtU+,
bo(S )
o" "
factor
t h e n that
Then d i v i d i n g
(3.3.9)
: i=O,2,...,t}
equation
{bu(S),bu+l(S),...,bv(S)}
factor.
when
Let us first d i s p o s e
out to get a n e w d e f i n i n g
algebraic
and
appropriate
all the c o e f f i c i e n t s
bo(S)
(3.3.1o)
case w h e n
for an a p p r o p r i a t e
and zeros.
and is dealt w i t h
and p o l e s of g(s)
of the t r i v i a l
would
g(s).
subsection.
as d e f i n i n g
and bt(s)
function
In o r d e r to be able to take e q u a t i o n s
(3.3.12)
function
the e q u a t i o n
stated otherwise
The p o i n t
of
and those v a l u e s
Unless
as
do
through
the
we get
bv(S)
tv+
"'+bo~
bt(s)
"''+bo (s) = O
(3.3.13)
Then,
as s + s w h e r e
and bt(s),
the m o d u l i
s is a zero of the c o m m o n
of the c o e f f i c i e n t
set
factor of bo(S)
31
bu(S)
bv(S)
Then as
s ~ s where s is
(3.3.9)
may be replaced by
bj(s)gtj(s)+
... + bm(~)gtm(~)
= O
(3.3.14)
where
bj(s) ~ O . . . . .
bm(S) O
= 0
(3.3.10)
and
(3.3.12)
(3.3.15)
Zg(S) ~ btl (s)
where b~(s) and bt[ (s) are the monic polynomials obtained
from bo(S) and bt(s) respectively,
by its leading coefficient.
32
of considering
g(s)
at the point
s=~
we put
s=z
i
(3.3.16)
so that
~ (g,s) =~ (g,zl)=z q ~ (g,z)
where q is the number
neighbourhood
excluded
(3.3.17)
of the value
z=O
(the point
~(g,s)=O
In any
is equivalent
to the
equation
~(g,z)=O.
Therefore if we consider the equation
&
~(g,z)=Co(Z)gt+cl(z)gtl+ .... +ct(z)=O
(3.3.18)
it follows
(i)
that:
gain function
g(s)
gain function
g(s)
system,
are considering
gain matrix
here,
for g(s)
2.1) we
to have
the eigenvalues
A!~ebraic
a physically
(see section
it is not possible
3.32
describing
which by definition
poles at infinity.
simply
G(s)
gain function
g(s)
are
of D.
definition
of poles
and zeros
for a transfer
function matrix
Let T(s)
be an mx rational m a t r i x  v a l u e d
s.
function
the SmithMcMillan
form
[3 ]
MCs)
, such
that
T(s)
= H(s)M(s)J(s)
of
(3.3.19)
33
where the mm matrix H(s) and the matrix J(s) are both
unimodular
independent of s ).
]
I
Or, Zr
(3.3.20)
I
r,r
Omr,mrJ
with
M* (S)
 diag
Cl(S )
~~~ ,
e2(s)
~2(s ) , . . . .
er(S) l
~~~j(3.3.21)
where:
(i)
(ii)
of H(s),M(s)
and J(s) we
therefore have
(3.3.22)
(3.3.21).
Idiag{ ei (s) 7
~i~s~}j Jl (s)
= Hi(s)
i=l
ci(s) t
h i(s) ~
3i(s)
(3.3.23)
where :
(i)
{hi(s)
matrix H l(s)
34
{j~(s)
(ii)
: i = 1,2,...,r}
matrix Jl(S)
We know that
r ~ min(,m)
and that
H(s)
and
J(s)
are unimodular
matrices
of full
for all s.
transfer
function matrix
vector %(s)
and output
transform
Suppose T(s)
vector ~(s).
is the
Then any
A
by
(3.3.24)
For the singleinput
y(s)
singleoutput
ke(s)
case where
~(s)
~(s)
with
a constant,
g(s)
is defined
vanishes
~(s)
as having
s is a zero of g(s),
is a pole of g(s).
II ~(s)II
of ~(s)
and becomes
~(s)
(s)
vanishes.
vanishes
arbitrarily
large when s
to characterize
becomes
of s where
the modulus
function
ks(s)
the transfer
II ~(s) II
II ~(s)ll
' where
9his natural
of
'
II "II
extension
35
form
quantities
E(s)
II 9 (s)II
II 9 (s)II+ ~
if and only if
~i (s) + O.
These considerations
definitions
[3].
Poles of T(s):
{~i(s)
: i = 1,2,...,r}.
and put
PT(S)
(sPl) (sP2)
where PT(S)
...
(SPn)
(3.3.25)
(3.3.26)
{si(s)
: i = 1,2,...,r}.
(sz)
(3.3.27)
38
of T(s)
and is given by
ZT(S)
r
~
i=l
It is important
necessarily
g. (s)
1
(3.3.28)
to remember
relatively
that ZT(S)
prime;
to simply define
ZT(S)
as the numerator
and demominator
Rules for
and PT(S)
calculatin9 pole
polynomials
polyDomials
T(s), particularly
The following
are not
it is wrong
and PT(S)
of det T(s).
and z e r o p o l y n o m i a l s
form is not always
if the calculation
as the SmithMcMillan
Pole polynomial
rule:
definitions.
PT(S)
obtained
of
rule:
of T(s)
ZT(S)
common divisor
of the numerators
obtained
of all
rank of T(s))
to have PT(S)
as thei r
common denominator
3.33
Relationship
of the openloop
between
9ain matrix
algebraically
G(s)
@ain functions
stability
criterion,
defined poles/zeros
of a generalized
it is crucially
important
complex variable
theory,
to
means to
37
the set of characteristic gain functions.
The coefficients ai(s)
det [gImG(s) ] =
in the expansion
since it is well
known that:
det [gImG (s) ]
=
(3.3.30)
if eG(s)
PG (s) = eG(S)bo/(S)
Furthermore since
det G(s)
am(S)
bm(S)
5(s)
o
~. ZG(S )
(3.3.32)
PG(S)
where a is a scalar quantity independent of s, we must have
that
38
ZG(S )
eG (s) bml(S)
(3.3.34)
of the non
minors
in which case eG(s) will be unity and the p01e and zero
polynomials
In general a squarematrixvalued
characteristic
(3.3.3) and
can be
written as
PG(S)
eG(s)
H b/lo(s)
i=l
(3.3.35)
ZG(S)
eG(s)
~ b i'ti(s)
I
i=l
(3.3.36)
and
are b!o(S)
3
and b/
(s) respectively.
3,tj
Example demonstrating th 9 p o l e V z e r o r e l a t i o n s h i p s
Let
G(s)
o]
s+l
i
si
and consequently
ZG(S)
(s+l) (s+2)
(sl) (s+l)
i
PG(S)
(sl) (s+2)
1
1
s+2
for G(s)
(s+l)(s+2)
is obviously
(sl)
is
39
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
det
equation
LgIG(s)J
for G(s)
(g
so that the i r r e d u c i b l e
is
i
1
s+l ) (g  s  ~ ) =
characteristic
Al(g,s)
1
g  ~~ =
A 2 (g,s)
1
g  s+2 =
equations
are
and
which may be w r i t t e n
as
(s+l)g  1
(s+2) g  1
and
Therefore
gain functions
pgl(S)
gl(S)
blo(s)
and g2(s)
for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
are
(s+l)
Zg I
(s)
(s)
= b21(s)
i
bll
1
Pg2 (s)
Now for
common
b 2 0 (s)
G(s)
the m o n i c p o ~ n o m i a l
denominator
all factors
e G (s)
common
=
which v e r i f i e s
PG(S)
Zg 2(s)
(s+2)
of all n o n  z e r o
bJ(s)~
to
obtained
from the
nonprincipal
I
I
(=b~'o(S)b20(s))a
least
minors
removed
with
is given
(sl)
the r e l a t i o n s h i p s
2
eG(s)
H
b.; (s)
i= 1
lO
and
ZG(S)
3.34
Riemann
eG(s)
surface
A characteristic
irreducible
2
i=iH bilJ (s)
equation
of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
gain
of the
function
form
g(s)
gain
function
is d e f i n e d
by an
by
40
in general
occurs
only if
(a)
bo(S)
t distinct
= O, because
lowered,
and as b
infinite;
or if
finite roots.
(3.3.37)
An exception
(b)
the equation
has multiple
This
last situation
can occur
roots.
vanishes.
The discriminant
function
of the equation
by Dg(S)
, and is discussed
Ordinary
points
function
g(s)
that bo(S)
Critical
plane
or both,
and
Dg(S)
or
Solutions
of
are called
(s)
discriminant
gain
plane
such
gain function
is any point of the
O,
s =~.
function.
function
at which either
(s)
gain
~ O.
3.
of the characteristic
points of t h e characteristic
(s)
it will be denoted
in appendix
[1;6]
of the
A critical
complex
point
of s if, and
coefficients;
of the characteristic
An ordinary
is then
The point
Dg(Z)
of the characteristic
at infinity
of equation
At every ordinary p o i n t t h e
function
is a branch point
(3.3.18)
equation
satisfies
(3.3.37)
gain
if the
Dg(O)
= O
defining
the
41
characteristic
the discriminant
functions
distinct roots,
since
region
functions;
Arguments
analytic continuation,
algebraic equations,
(3.3.37)
an irreducible
surface of an algebraic
defined domain R
[~
as its range
which is
its definition
An
underlying
[7 ] .
complex numbers C
work
algebraic
An elementary
called its
algebraic
of the familiar e l e m e n t a r y
algebraic
can be
function theory:
the corresponding
of
of
This is summarized
of algebraic
gain
function.
functions,
function g(s).
organized
and formation,
which is therefore
42
S u p p o s e we h a v e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
an a l g e b r a i c
function
a representation
of p a r t of one b r a n c h
in the f o r m of a p o w e r
series;
of
such
is u s u a l l y c a l l e d a f u n c t i o n a l e l e m e n t .
I m a g i n e its c i r c l e of c o n v e r g e n c e
t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s of t h e p a p e r d i s c are m a d e b e a r e r s
of the u n i q u e
f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s of the e l e m e n t s .
initital element
second power
is a n a l y t i c a l l y
series,
another
If n o w this
c o n t i n u e d by m e a n s of a
c i r c l e of c o n v e r g e n c e
can be
6.
The p a r t s p a s t e d t o g e t h e r
m a d e b e a r e r s of the same f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s
t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e r e g i o n
and are a c c o r d i n g l y
c o v e r e d o n c e w i t h values.
is c a r r i e d out,
is s i m i l a r l y p a s t e d on to the p r e c e d i n g one.
that,
are
continuations,
If a
a further disc
Now suppose
one of the d i s c s
43
preceding analytic continuation,
as shown in figure 7.
functional values.
If,however,they
bear different
functional
functional
1
Figure 7 Repeated anatytic continuation
Continuing
surfacelike
this process
configuration
is obtained covering
t "sheets"
joined together
This m a y
such
to give a p e r f e c t l y
Although
configuration
of the m u l t i p l e  v a l u e d
satisfactory
required.
algebraic
function.
This
surface
On the Riemann
44
surface the entire domain of values of the algebraic
function is spread out in a completely
singlevalued manner
4.
is given in
Let an algebraic
points { a l , a 2 , . . , a r } .
function g(s)
have r critical
Let
L .
analytic
i
continued,
functions
(3.3.37)
define
by standard procedures,
can be
across the
of analytic c o n t i n u a t i o n
satisfies
an algebraic
of definition,
that if an analytic
equation
into w h i c h it is a n a l y t i c a l l y
function
continued.
in every region
We must therefore
have that:
(i)
analytic
equation
functions
Ci,
(ii)
analytic
{~i(s)
of any of these
45
analytic function which also satisfies
equation.
It follows
must be a
functions
Therefore by
algebraic function,
This function
is of course the
on opposite
an appropriate domain
singlevalued m a p p i n g
analytic
is its Riemann
and
surface.
this
constructed
values form a s i n g l e  v a l u e d
standard relationships
theory generalize,
and properties
characteristic
of the Argument
surface which
surface;
function
to the
the Principle
of
an extension
of
in appendix
5.
Many
surface concept,
is developed
of analytic
in p a r t i c u l a r
The Riemann
on which its
function of positio n.
the Principle
function,
characteristic
46
frequency plane or splane.
3.35
is a function of
contours
of g(s)
on the frequency
surface.
phase and m a g n i t u d e
The frequency
possible
contours
If
4 is used to
of constant
closedloop
characteristic
frequencies
associated
is c h a r a c t e r i z e d
between a closedloop
loop gain,
characteristic
frequency
is constructed
from m
characteristic
gains.
(3.1.4) we have
= 1
(3.3.38)
and an open
of the c l o s e d  l o o p poles
(characteristic
Equation
(3.3.38)
equation
phase contours
is a direct generalization
of g(s)
of the defining
are the m u l t i v a r i a b l e
of g(s).
The 180
the variation
variable k.
root loci
'live'
47
on a Riemann
surface explains
their c o m p l i c a t e d b e h a v i o u r
singleoutput
Riemann surface).
case
(a trivial,
The m u l t i v a r i a b l e
to as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
frequency loci.
Recall that in section
characteristic
equations
for G(s)
and S(g)
are in general
These
factors
factors therefore
The degenerate
these factors
the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
on the frequency
frequency
surface.
loci are g e n e r a t e d
of S(g)
In common
i
Example of frg~uency
frequency
This approach
3.36
loci.
as g traverses
loci
As an i l l u s t r a t i v e
variable feedback
example
configuration
openloop gain m a t r i x
48
~,.':':~
Root
Cut
....
Root
Cut
I
3
loci
Ioc
49
G(s)
The matrix
1
1.25(s+i) (s+2)
constant phase
8 and 9.
and magnitude
are represented
characteristic
frequency
contours of g(s),
contours
of g(s)
by
in figures
by discontinuities
by thick black
lines;
in the
and the
are identified
The characteristic
the appropriate
The cuts,identifiable
contours,
s]
s2
[si
6
frequency
by a diamond
loci indicate
k, upwards
symbol.
that variation
from zero,
causes
stability,
instability
again.
is clearly
This phenomenon
Characteristic
frequency
It is an algebraic
characteristic
function
gain matrix
there
functions
the characteristic
(3.4.1)
directly
frequency
equation
the
modes.
~ det[SInS(g) ] =
(at s=~4).
characterized
by its openloop
or uncontrollable
and stability
study of the
in the previous
and g reversed.
The Riemann
frequency
@surface.
50
gain plane or gplane
loop characteristic
value of g.
frequency
(closedloop
openloop
gain matrix
closedloop
G(s)
characteristic
characteristic
exhibit
the behaviour
for every
of as the
gains of the
frequencies.
fashion
superimposing
poles)
can be thought
associated
of closed
In a similar
it is convenient
to
constant
contours
s(g)
the frequency
s(g)
of
function
is quite
different.
3.41
Generalized
Each
phase
'sheet'
Nyquist
of a gain surface
and magnitude
corresponding
contours
surface
(or equivalently
poles.
contours
Therefore
loop Nyquist
k) correspond
between
are a natural
diagram
In practice
into regions
given
closed
such a
of s(g).
generalization
regions
the characteristic
of
closedloop
of s(g)
by constant
frequencies.
The boundary
is clearly
characterized
of s(g)is divided
to left halfplane
loop characteristic
calibrated
diagram
gain loci.
of G(s)
as s traverses
in the splane.
of the imaginary
in this context
Suppose
axis.
that we consider
to the eigenvalues
j = /2i )
gl(j~),...,gm(j~)
51
frequency,
(ii)
say
of G(j~ a)
(v)
{gi(J~a)}
involved.
in chapter
a g e n e r a l i z e d Nyquist
4 the Nyquist D  c o n t o u r
clockwise
direction.
As an illustrative
gain matrix considered
minimal statespace
is
~ain loci
3.35 w h i c h has a
realization
=
0.6
1
O.5
the appropriate
contours
i0 and ii.
~9~phase
crosses.
The characteristic
contours of s(g),
of s(g)
in figures
52
....
Charocteristic
gain loci
mmmm
Cut
Characteristic
gain loci
b C~%
53
Right. half
plane region
Left. half
plane region
.
.....
Choract,erbtic
gain loci
Cut. between
branch points.
"l
0"8~.533
192
533
1<3,2
54
In figures
12 and 13 sketches
made to emphasize
closedloop
From these
sketches
value of g moves
regions
of
it is easy to
iO and ii are
poles.
infer bounds
of figures
k positively
k for stability.
from zero the
On sheet
plane region
for 1.25<k<2.5
k, g never moves
the closedloop
If k is increased
of g
moves
region.
for 0~k<1.25
negatively
Therefore
and 2.5<k<~.
on each sheet.
halfplane
i, g is in a right half
the origin
regions
for ~<k~1.875.
k, which corresponds
to positive
Therefore
feedback,
for negative
the closed
for 1.875<k~0.
If the calibrated
gain surface
is projected
onto the
representation
of the characteristic
contours
plane
representing
regions.
Stability
1
(~+30).
be difficult
contours.
regions
However,
to comprehend
Therefore,
because
although
is not fundamental
to system
by considering
to a single
this presentation
Nyquist
[i0~,
in relation
stability
of
of encirclements
criterion
stability
critical
will in general
of the overlapping
the counting
of
in the generalized
Saeks
value
[chapter
4]
as pointed out by
method of predicting
55
closedloop stability
system.
stability of
unity
k.
It is convenient
by constant
characterized
for this
14 and 15.
closedloop poles be
ezj8
(in magnitude)
negative
imaginary
real contour
I, values of
contour.
From
0.05 and 8 = O
so that
sd ~
0.05
By hand calculation
sd = 0.0528
Also from a gain surface
characteristic
frequency
loci.
it is possible to determine
Apart
from possible
the
single
point loci, the root loci are simply the values of s at which
the characteristic
Therefore
Similarly,
from a calibrated
it is possible to determine
the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
as they cross
r~
c~
U}
.Q
cO
m.
cs
O~
~ql
QJ E
U~
LL
57
I ~ a l contours
labll~:l thus :
Irnoginary contours
labelled thus : 0.5
oe
1.5
Characteristic
gain oci
0.7
.......
........
Cut
I'0
06
0.5
0,4
05
0.3
i.s ~
,.o
o:s..~fo'
,!o
4
1.5
:2/ (lll :
,o
0.9
,'0
I.5
Ill
[2]
[3]
[4]
[2]
[0]
[7]
[8]
[9]
iO]
1966
1973.
58
4.
A generalized Nyquist
criterion
The Nyquist
fundamental
stability
results
to the multivariable
and design,
by Barman
ignored
quantities
Nyquist
a rigorous
criterion
on the
an appropriate
the essential
of this chapter
feedback
applied
Riemann
surface
stability
the usefulness
of each depending
are given
Generalized
Nyquist
If the subsystems
of figure
stability
statement
defined
on
in section
4.2.
criterion
of the general
function
the Principle
4.1
theory:
based on
[ appendix 5].
are characterized.
in section
stability
configuration
to an algebraic
simplicity
is to give
Nyquistlike
in complex variable
Two Nyquistlike
proved,
and obscured
proof of a generalized
result
but their
The purpose
of the Argument
[4;5]
theorem was
of the
complicated,
a fundamental
systems
properties
of the result.
called
stability
involved;
technically
case is of
for feedback
and Katzenelson
systems
but no satisfactory
approach
feedback
the Characteristic
undertaken
Such a generalization
by MacFarlane[2]
analysis
criterion
stability
feedback
configuration
by a statespace
of the criterion
model
is applicable.
59
Statement
I.
feedback
configuration
is closed
encirclements
of the
loop stable
(i)
The general
if and only if:
critical point
(~+jO)
by the set
of characteristic
the characteristic
critical point
(3)
the
(~+jO);
infinity
poles of G(s);
passing through
gain
the eigenvalues
system S(A,B,C,D),
of the characteristic
gain loci
and
of the Amatrix,
which correspond
of the openloop
and/or uncontrollable
of view of considering
are
function matrices,
axis,
are completely
characterized
or if it is known
modes
statement
by
that
and/or
including
the
of the criterion
applies.
Statement
2.
feedback
configuration
is closed
encirclements
of the
loop stable
(i)
The general
if and only if:
critical point
(~+jO)
gain
poles
60
(2)
the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
critical
(3)
point
(kl+jO); and
t h e number of branches
of the characteristic
on the imaginary
gain
(3) do not
stable
stability criterion
characteristic
CLCP(s)
OLCP (ssT
(4.2.1)
This fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p
stability
criterion
is based.
The first stage in the proof is to consider the
eigenvalue
equation of the r e t u r n  d i f f e r e n c e
matrix
F(s),
that is
det[fI m  F(s)]
which in general,
(4.2.2)
equation of
as a product of irreducible
of the form
t.
t.i
dio (s)f i i+dil(s)f'i i + .... + dit
algebraic
equations
(s)
i
i=i,2,...,~
functions
{fi(s)
(4.2.3)
: i=l,2,,..,i}
61
Therefore,
as in subsection
eF(s)
of F(s) can
of the algebraic
as follows
~ d io
! (s)
i=l
and
(4.2.4)
ZF(S)
eF(s)
By definition
K di;tl (s)
i=l
the openloop
characteristic
polynomial
is given by
OLCP(s)~det[SInA ]
=det[Sin~Al]det[sin2A2]
(4~2.5)
and it is easily shown [6] that
det[SIn[Ai] =
where pG
l
matrix Gi(s)
(4.2.6)
for the transfer
function
frequencies
(eigenvalues)
and/or unobservable.
polynomial
The openloop
as
of the subsystem
62
PG(s)Px(S)
where Px(S)
PGl(S)PG2(s)...p~(s)
(4.2.8)
zeros of Px(S)
The
and
where the
Pd(S) where
(4.2.9)
OIX2P(s)
= PG(S)Pd(S)
OLCP(s)
or
and if we combine
relationship
CLCP (s)
expression
(4.2.1) we obtain
=
(4.2.12)
have that
detF(s)
= ~. ZF(S)
PF (s)
(4.2.13)
and from
(4.2.14)
(4.2.1214)
is given by
the closedloop
83
ZF(S)
CLCP
(s)
Pd(S)PG(S)
(4.2.15)
P F (s)
Pd(S)eG(s)
H b/lo(S) H
i=l
i=l
d / (s)
iti
(4.2.16)
~d~o (s)
i=l
shift theorem
[ 8] , on equation
i=i,2,... ,}
gain functions
fi(s) =
functions
i=1,2...,}
{gi(s) :
l+kg i(s)
by
i=1,2 .... ,
(4.2.17)
that is
dio/(s)
~
i=l
i=l
and therefore from
CLCP (s)
b~o(S)
(4.2.18)
(4.2.16) we have
Pd(S)eG(s)
H dit.l (s)
i=l
(4.2.19)
(4.2.19) implies
eG(s)
(b)
H dilt (s)
i=l
i
(c) Pd(S)
= O
64
condition similar
functions
{fi(s) : i=i,2,...
(4.2.3).
together to f o r m ~ f
Therefore
in the region,
is equal to the
(the
If we therefore consider
65
all the right halfplane regions o n ~ f
3
extended Argument Principle to each, we have that
N(fj , O)
Zf.
Pf.
(4.2.20)
where:
(i)
Trn (s)
S plane
')///4/
Radius r where
..,......~ r,oobut#00
/ _
Re (s)
x
Poles
Zeros
z~
Branch points
66
of the Extended
in practice
the Dcontour
viewpoint
are
in the development
Principle
5] and
the Dcontour
axis.
Condition
stability
is equivalent
i=1,2,...,~}
be replaced
Zf. = 0
l
(4.2.21)
or on the imaginary
axis,
and can
by
i=1,2,...,~
or
(4.2.22)
N(fi,O)
= Pf.
l
i=1,2,...,
that the algebraic
functions
axis.
(4.2.21)
Conditions
(4.2.22)
i=l
so that the necessary
loop stability
~
i=l
(4.2.23)
and sufficient
can be rewritten
conditions
as
(a')
(b')
(c')
i=iZN(fi'O)
(d )
{fi(s):
axis;
and
(e')
Pd(S)
Now,as
=i~l P %
for G(s).
roots;
axis;
(3.3.35)
for closed
{fi(s):
i=1,2,...,}
and
(4.2.18),e(s)
combining
conditions
67
(a') and
i=l
equivalent
condition
N ( f i ' O ) = PG
(4.2.24)
of right
and s u f f i c i e n c y
stability
are satisfied
when
is p r o v e d
poles
of c o n d i t i o n
conditions
of G(s).
(4.2.24)
for
(b'),(d I) and
(e')
as follows.
From e q u a t i o n s (3.3.35)
PG = e +
E
Pfi
i=l
where e is the n u m b e r
halfplane
and
(4.2.18)
we have
that
(4.2.25)
of right
halfplane
zeros
of eG(s),
so that c o m b i n i n g
Z Zf  Z Pf
i
i=l
ii=l
these
(4.2.26)
two e v p r e s s i o n s
Z N(fi,O) = ~iZfi + e  PG
i=l
i
where
i=ZlZfi'e and PG are all p o s i t i v e
To e s t a b l i s h
suppose that
N(fi'O)
i=l
the n e c e s s i t y
(4.2.27)
integers,
of c o n d i t i o n
that
implies
(4.2.24)
condition
that
(4.2.24)
stability.
For s u f f i c i e n c y
Z N(fi,O)
=
i=l
then from e q u a t i o n
or zero.
PG
~Zf ~O
and/or
e ~ 0
i=l i
for closedloop
we have
suppose
that
PG
(4.2.27)
iZl= Zf i = e = O
we m u s t
have that
is n e c e s s a r y
68
of condition
We have therefore
are necessary
(a")
(b")
(4.2.24)
stable.
Thus the
is established.
and sufficient
for closedloop
conditions
stability:
Z N(fi'O) =  PG ;
i=l
[fi(s) : i=1,2 .... ,} have no zeros on the imaginary
axis;
(c")
eG(s)
(d")
Pd(S)
From equation
the Nyquist
Dcontour
simply related
condition
Z
(4.2.17)
and
zeros.
sets in ~ of
fi(s)
by a unit shift in C
N (kgi, i)
axis;
and kgi(s)
are
The stability
be replaced by
PG
(4.2.28)
i=l
where N(kgi,l)
encirclements
As in the classical
k is avoided by counting
gain
(b") is equivalent
gi(Jw)
~~
and in practice
gain
the
condition
(4.2.28)
point
by
(4.2.29)
to
i=i,2, .... i
this corresponds
(4.2.17)
criterion
1
(~ + jO), and hence replacing
1
N(gi' k)
= PG
i=l
From equations,
Nyquist
gain loci
through
(4.2.30)
to the characteristic
the critical
point
(~+jO).
by a more practical
69
The p o l e p o l y n o m i a l
test.
(3.3.35),
PG(S)
where
for G(s)
equation
as
H b/ (s)
i=l
Io
= eG(s)
(4.2.31)
gain f u n c t i o n
gj(s).
Therefore
loci is equal
Note
branches
to the n u m b e r
axis
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of poles of G(s)
that for a b r a n c h
on the i m a g i n a r y
the number of i n f i n i t e
axis.
is given,
if,
gain
on the i m a g i n a r y
also be a b r a n c h
returning
from i n f i n i t y
and s u f f i c i e n t
can t h e r e f o r e
Z N(gi'
i=l
(2)
the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
critical p o i n t
the n u m b e r
passing t h r o u g h
Pd(S)
to:
gain
through
the
(kl+jO);
of b r a n c h e s
infinity
G(s) on the i m a g i n a r y
(4)
be r e d u c e d
for c l o s e d 
1
k ) =  PG;
(i)
(3)
conditions
has only
This c o m p l e t e s
Nyquist s t a b i l i t y
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
is equal
axis;
to the n u m b e r
criterion.
loci
of poles of
and
left h a l f  p l a n e
the p r o o f
gain
zeros.
of s t a t e m e n t
1 of the g e n e r a l i z e d
70
If the s u b s y s t e m s
their t r a n s f e r
descriptions
are c o m p l e t e l y
function matrices
will
characterized
then t h e i r
each be o b s e r v a b l e
by
statespace
and c o n t r o l l a b l e
so
that
p d I (s) = p d~ (s)
.... = p d h(s)
(4.2.32)
and h e n c e
Pd(S)
= Px(S)
Condition
(4) of s t a t e m e n t
then e q u i v a l e n t
This
situation
by their
(4.2.32)
to Px(S)
information
modes
axis.
information
about
Pd(S)
zeros.
are c h a r a c t e r i z e d
has no u n o b s e r v a b l e
situations
decoupling
is
or on the
conditions
to give a c r i t e r i o n
To s h o w this we w i l l
(i)
subsystems
in the right h a l f  p l a n e
In these
if the
subsystem
criterion
only left h a l f  p l a n e
descriptions
that each
uncontrollable
imaginary
having
also arises
statespace
1 of the N y q u i s t
(i) and
which needs
no
zeros.
first of all p r o v e
that when
= Px(S)
(4.2.34)
or
(ii) Pd(S)
where
the
Px(S)P~ (S)Pd 2( s )
zeros
of
{pd
.... p d h (s)
(4.2.35)
are
(a'),
N(fi,O)
i=l
where
PG~
(c I) and
h
= Z
PG
i=l
is the n u m b e r
The n e c e s s i t y
(e I ) are e q u i v a l e n t
to
(4.2.36)
i
of r i g h t h a l f  p l a n e
and s u f f i c i e n c y
of c o n d i t i o n
p o l e s of Gi(s).
(4.2.3 6 ) for
7~
closedloop stability when conditions
(b') and
(d') are
(4.2.9),(4.2.18)
and
(4.2.31) we have
that
h
i=l
PG
+ Z Pfi + P
i=l
x
(4.2.37)
i=iZN(fi,O)
zeros of Px(S),
(4.2.38)
Pd = Px
and equation (4.2.38) becomes
h
Z N ( f i , O ) = ~ l Z f i + e + Pd  2 PGi
i=l
i
i=l
To establish the necessity of condition
(4.2.40)
(4.2.36)
suppose that
h
7 N(fi,O ) ~
i=l
il~1PGi
Z Zfi ~ O, or e ~ O, or Pd ~ 0
i=l
or any combination of these and thus that the system will
be closedloop unstable.
(4.2.36)
h
Z N(fi,O ) =  __ZIPGi
i=l
i
stability.
72
then from e q u a t i o n
i~iZfi
(4.2.40)
= e = Pd = O
is c l o s e d  l o o p
of c o n d i t i o n
We have t h e r e f o r e
(4.2.34)
we m u s t have that
or c o n d i t i o n
(4.2.36)
stable.
Thus the
is e s t a b l i s h e d .
shown that w h e n e i t h e r
(4.2.35)
is s a t i s f i e d
the f o l l o w i n g
h
(a"~
Z N(f i O) =  Z PG
;
i=l
'
i=l
(b"')
stability.
{fi(s) : i = 1 , 2 , . . . , }
axis;
condition
and
(c i'') eG(s)
But we have
already
shown,
in p r o v i n g
axis.
statement
1 of the
s t a b i l i t y criterion, that
Z N(fi,O)
~
Z N(gi,!)
k
i=l
i=l
that c o n d i t i o n
gain
(b"')
is e q u i v a l e n t
loci not p a s s i n g
and that c o n d i t i o n
infinite
branches
(c"')
generalized
4.3
the c r i t i c a l
is e q u i v a l e n t
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
equal to the n u m b e r
This t h e r e f o r e
through
to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of poles of G(s)
completes
Nyquist
point
to the n u m b e r
gain
of
loci b e i n g
on the i m a g i n a r y
the p r o o f of s t a t m e n t
stability
(~+jO);
axis.
2 of the
criterion.
Example
To i l l u s t r a t e
example
already
the g e n e r a l
openloop
the s t a b i l i t y
criterion
u s e d in s u b  s e c t i o n s
feedback
gain m a t r i x
configuration
consider
the
is c h a r a c t e r i z e d
where
by its
73
0s
By d e f i n i t i o n
the c o n f i g u r a t i o n
Therefore e i t h e r
of the p r o b l e m
as c o n s i s t i n g
statement
is d i r e c t l y
statement
of just one
1 or s t a t e m e n t
for G(s)
closedloop
net sum of a n t i  c l o c k w i s e
gain
encirclements
no
gain
or on the i m a g i n a r y
is e n s u r e d
infinite
loci is zero,
through
branches.
17 from w h i c h
For
is stable
point
the f o l l o w i n g
for O ~k<1.25.
and t h e r e f o r e
the
gain
system
loci pass t h r o u g h
is c l o s e d 
for k = 1 . 2 5
of, or
1
~ = 0.8 the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
loop u n s t a b l e
the
are obtained.
the c r i t i c a l
the c r i t i c a l p o i n t
and
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
1
For ~< ~ < 0.8 there are no e n c i r c l e m e n t s
passage through,
if the
of the c r i t i c a l
in figure
stability c o n d i t i o n s
(ii)
stability
by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
if the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
loop system
Gl(S)=G(s).
(s+l) (s+2)
axis and t h e r e f o r e
(i)
subsystem
is
in the right h a l f  p l a n e
(~+jO)
we can c o n s i d e r
2 of the s t a b i l i t y
point
or u n c o n t r o l l a b l e
applicable.
The pole p o l y n o m i a l
PG(S)
s2
the s y s t e m has no u n o b s e r v a b l e
modes and by v i r t u e
criterion
i s i6s
1.25(s+i) (s+2)
point
there
is one c l o c k w i s e
and t h e r e f o r e
the s y s t e m
encirclement
is c l o s e d 
74
Im
60
",=05
__
jl.O0.
~=10
]o.5o
~=2.0.
S ,,. 00
~=0.05.
60
I.00
~=0.05
050
60
IRe
~= 20'0
60
~=10
~ =2.,
]o.5o
~ j l O=_o.s
"
0
Figure17. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c
= I.0
gain loci
75
(iv)
1
For ~ = 0.4 the characteristic gain loci pass through
1
For ~=O the characteristic gain loci pass through
of the critical point and therefore the system is closedloop unstable for ~<k<1.875.
(viii) For ki=O.533 the characteristic gain loci pass through
the critical point and therefore the system is closedloop
unstable for k=1.875.
(ix)
For O . 5 3 3 <  ~
passage through,
References
i]
2]
~3]
76
4]
5]
[6]
7]
8]
A.G.J. MacFarlane,
London, 1970.
~9]
77
5.
A generalized
In this chapter a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n
stability
feedback
criterion
systems is developed
criterion
singleoutput
c o n f i g u r a t i o n which is complementary
feedback
to the exposition
4.
The development
is based on an association
gain functions,
and a corresponding
set of
gain loci.
main
stability
feature of the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n
criterion,
of a set of algebraic
given in chapter
functions
A(g,s)
4, is the association
 the characteristic
of N y q u i s t ' s
gain
function m a t r i x G(s)
equation
= d e t [ gl m  G(s) ]
(5.1.1)
If G(s)
exists,
function G(s)
characteristic
i
equation
given by
A(g,s)
If A(g,s)
= det[gI m
G(s) I] =
is regarded as a polynomial
(5.1.2)
in g with coefficients
functions
{gi(s) : i=1,2,...,}
is also irreducible
(5.1.2)
gain functions.
78
functions
g(s),
like g(s),has
surface
characteristic
as its domain
an appropriate
suitably
joined together.
of a matrix
In fact,
are reciprocal
gain function
Riemann
splane
to the eigenvalues
of the matrix
inverse
g(s)
1
g(s)
and therefore
(5.1.3)
g(s)
and g(s)
surface
domains.
characteristic
gain function
inverse Nyquist
is the foundation
stability
criterion
is based.
5.2
Polezero
relationships
In this section
a number
of polezero
relationships
stability
criterion,
the eigenvalues
of the eigenvalues
set of inverse
of a matrix
of the matrix
characteristic
inverse
by pg*(s) and
pg.* (s)
Zg*(s),
=
gain function
5.4.
gain functions
section
are simply
set, and vice
of gi(s),
expressible
as
z~=.(s)
denoted
(5.1.4)
and
~
(s)
pg
(s)
(5.1.5)
i=l,2,...,i
From subsection
loop gain matrix
G(s)
3.32
there exists
a canonical
form,
the
79
SmithMcMillan
G(s) = HG(S)MG(S)JG(S)
where HG(S)
and JG(S)
the SmithMcMillan
MG(S)
Consequently
PG(S)
diag
(5.1.6)
form MG(S)
[ ~l
(s)1(s)
and
is given by
~2
(s)e2(s)'
~m~
)em(s) ]
(5.1.7)
and
ZG(S)
m
H
i=l
ei(s)
(5.1.9)
(5.1.6)
can be
inverted to give
G(s) 1 = JG(S)IMG(S)IHG(S) I
which using the elementary
(5. i. lO)
transformation
matrix E, of order
m, and given by
...
...
...
...
i
can be rewritten as
G(s)
i
H~(s)M6(s)J~(s)
i
(5.1.12)
or
G(s) I
(5.1.13)
(5.1.11)
80
where
H~(s) = JG(S)iE
J~Cs) = EHG(S)
(5.1.14)
i
(5.1.15)
and
M~(s) = EMG(S)IE
= diag
[ ~m (s)
e~~) '
~mi (s)
.
~I (s) ]
em_l(S) ' " "' el(S )
form for G(s) I.
(5.1.16)
The pole
m
 i=iH s.1(s)
z~(s)
zG(s)
(5.1.17)
PG(S)
(5.1.18)
and
m
where p*(s)G
H ~i(s)
i=l
of G(s) i respectively.
In subsection
zero polymomials
of the characteristic
PG(S) =
eG(s)i=l
K b ti(s)
ZG(S) =
eG(s)
{gi(s) :i=1,2,...,}
= eG(s)i~iPgi (s)
by
(5.1.19)
and
K b ! (s) = eG(s) ~ z (s)
i=l iti
i=l gi
(5.1.20)
81
using pg*(s)
and z*(s),
g
then relationships
(5.1.19)
(5.1.20)
(5.1.18)
to give
PG(S)
= z~(s)
ZG(S)
= P*(s)=eG(S)Zg(S)G
and
(5.1.17)
= eG(S)pg(S)=eO(s)z~(s)
and
(5.1.21)
and
These polezero
= eG(s)p~(s)
relationships
stability
5.3
Inverse characteristic
inverse Nyquist diagrams
The inverse
the eigenvalues
traverses
Dcontour
generalized
Statement
i.
loop stable
The general
(clockwise)
stability
the
criterion.
stability
criterion
feedback
configuration
by a statespace
of the criterion
feedback
model
is applicable.
configuration
is closed
critical
as s
of the general
statement
G(s)
gain loci,
of each of
in the standard
Generalized i n v e r s ~ Nyquist
of figure
(la)
gain matrix
are plotted
inverse Nyquist
If the subsystems
that at step
5.4
gain
for computing
later.
of the numbers
presented
The algorithm
that given
criterion
of the openloop
the Nyquist
direction.
characteristic
(5.1.22)
point
(k+jo),
encirclements,
of the
characteristic
82
encirclements,
characteristic
gain loci,
(k+jo) ;
and
the imaginary
the eigenvalues
system S(A,B,C,D),
axis;
and
of the A matrix,
of the openloop
and/or uncontrollable
left halfplane.
Alternatively
conditions
(la) and
(3a) m a y be replaced
by:
(ib)
encirclements
point
characteristic
is equal to the n u m b e r
(3b)
of right halfplane
are completely
function matrices,
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by their
and/or uncontrollable
in the right h a l f  p l a n e
including
the following
statement
of the criterion
Statement
The general
zeros of G(s);
If the subsystems
transfer
gain loci
of the inverse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of the critical
feedback
the imaginary
modes
axis, then
applies.
configuration
is closedloop
stable
83
critical point
encirclements
charactezistic
of the
encirclements,
gain loci,
the inverse
characteristic
(k+jo);
and
gain
condition
(3b), as in statement
are square,
1 of the criterion,
then condition
(ib)
axis.
critical point
as inputs,
encirclements
of the
characteristic
G2(s) . . . . ,
and Gh(S).
(2) and/or condition
(3a)/(3b)
do
stable,
gain loci
84
approach infinity as
s approaches
function.
infinity,
and s=~ is
Therefore,
in practice,
it
not
of encirclements
As an example,
of the critical
characteristic
gain
loci
(5.4.1)
(s+l)
is not n e c e s s a r y
if we use conditions
m a y actually
(la) conditions,
is therefore
or left halfplane
to the circular
exist.
right halfplane
criterion.
(la), rather
of the stability
loci, corresponding
axis,
surface of g(s)
curves formed
to the gplane,
This
X and Y, X walking
along
image
image point,
right.
and Y walking
is conformal.
85
*I~h
20~
~j_ plane
 3;0
"~x~=.2. 4
I0
J
2~0
$=0
20.
(o)
I.O
~
,o( o,::
f.,~ = 6 o
~ I ~ ,03
0.5 0.5
l.~l
(b)
86
5.5
closedloop transfer
feedback configuration
of figure 3 the
relationship
R(s) = kG(s) [ Im4kG(s)]i
(5.5.1)
= 1 G(s)
(5.5.2)
+ I
of R(s) I by
the eigenvalue
{~i(s) :i=l,2,...,Z}
shift theorem[3]
to equation
we can apply
(5.5.2) with
1 gi(s)+ 1
(5.5.3)
i=I,2, . . . ,
Then if the poleand zero polynomials
algebraic functions
monic polynomials
~r(S)
{ri(s):i=l,2,...,Z}
MR (s)lG (s)
set of
*
Zr(S)
respectively,
~g(s)
Now postmultiplying
we have that
(5.5.4)
equation
Im+kG (s)
r(s)
this we obtain
det F(s)
= k m det[
l]
det[G(s) I]
=y z~(s)
g( )
(5.5.6)
of
87
= S ~(s)
8 zf(s)
PF{S)
where
pf(s) and
of s.
But
(5.5.7)
pf ('s)
functions
{fi(s):i=1,2,...,}
and therefore
(5.5.8)
and
=
z f(s)
z*(s)
r
p*(s)
)
(4.2.18)
pg(S)
pf(s)
and
(5.5.9)
(5.1.21)
z*(S)g
(5.5.10)
(5.5.4)
and
(5.5.9)
we obtain
Izf(s)
*(s)I
In chapter
closedloop
(5.5.11)
zr
4, equation
(4.2.19),
characteristic
polynomial
= Pd(S)e~s) R d ! (s)
i=l iti
CLCP(s)
or equivalently, u s i n g
CLCP (s)
and therefore
CLCP(s)
Pd(s)es(S) Zr(S) ]
(5.5.12)
for closedloop
in this chapter,
(5.5.13)
(5.5.11) we have
(5.5.14)
are necessary
stability:
(a)
eG(s) = 0
roots;
(b)
Zr(S)
= 0
roots;
(c)
Pd(S)
= 0
roots.
and
and
88
Suppose now that a Nyquist Dcontour,
as shown in figure
pieced
together
t o f o r m t h e Riemann s u r f a c e s
{I~.:i=1,2,...,}
1
are defined.
corresponding to ~j(s).
Let us consider
When the surface
r.]
of the origin
in
I f we t h e r e f o r e
consider
all
by t h e image o f t h e
the right
halfplane
regions
and
Z~j
P*
rj
(5.5.15)
where:
(i)
rj
by p i e c i n g
together
the appropriate
3
Z~. is the number of right halfplane
3
zeros of rj (s);
89
and
p*
r.
(iii)
, O)
inverse characteristic
P~j
(5.5.16)
where:
(i)
N(gj,O)
the o r i g i n
in C by the inverse
corresponding
(ii)
~j
(iii) ~ j
of clockwise encirelements
characteristic
gain
loci
to gj(s);
halfplane
zeros
of gj(s);
Equations
N(rj,O)N(gj,O)
(5.5.15)
N(rj,O)
and
= Z,  P,
rj
rj
(5.5.16)

Z,
gj
(5.5.17)
(5.5.4) becomes
 N(gj,O)
(5.5.18)
= Z~j  Z~j
{ri(s):i=l,2,...,}
we have
Z
,
,
Z N(ri,O) Z N(gi,O)
i=l
i=l
Now condition
Z Z*
i=l ri
 Z Z*
i=l gi
(5.5.19)
stability is equivalent
therefore be replaced by
N(ri,O)
i=l
of
N(gi,O)
i=l
= 
~ Z*
i=l gi
(5.5.20)
and
90
plus the c o n d i t i o n t h a t
on t h e
imaginary
conditions
rewritten
{ri(s):i=l,2,...,}
axis.
The
for c l o s e d  l o o p
necessary
have no zeros
and
stability
sufficient
can t h e r e f o r e
be
as
(ai )
eG(s)
(b! )
eG(s)
= O has no right h a l f  p l a n e
(c ! )
Z N(ri,O)
i=l
(d I )
{r*
axis;
and
(e I )
Pd(S)
= 
Z Z*
i=l gi
The p o l e  z e r o
axis;
Z N(gi,O)
i=l
(s):i=i,2,...,}
roots;
relationship
zeros.
(5.1.21)
n o w leads us to c o n s i d e r
combining
,
N(ri,O) Z N(gi,O) = PG
(5.5.21)
i=l
i=l
where
PG is the n u m b e r of right h a l f  p l a n e
The n e c e s s i t y
closedloop
and s u f f i c i e n c y
stability
are s a t i s f i e d
is p r o v e d
From relationship
PG = e +
where
of c o n d i t i o n
conditions
(bl),
(5.1.21)
s u p p o s e that
,
N(ri,O)
i=l
and
(e I )
we have that
(5.5.22)
of right h a l f  p l a n e
Z
.
 Z N(gi,O)
i=l
To e s t a b l i s h
(d')
for
as follows
this w i t h e q u a t i o n
.
Z N(ri,O)
i=l
of G(s).
(5.5.21)
Z Z*
i=l gi
e is the n u m b e r
combining
when
poles
condition
(5.5.19)
poles
gives
Z Z* + eP G
i=l ri
the n e c e s s i t y
of c o n d i t i o n
,
2 N(gi,O)
i=l
PG
fl
of eG(s),
(5.5.23)
(5.5.21)
and
91
then
from e q u a t i o n
7. Z*
~ O
i=l r i
(5.5.23)
and/or
and h e n c e we c o n c l u d e
for c l o s e d  l o o p
this
that c o n d i t i o n
from e q u a t i o n
7. Z,
=
e
i=l r.
l
(5.5.23)
=
the s y s t e m
of c o n d i t i o n
that
=PG
this
implies
is c l o s e d  l o o p
(5.5.21)
stable.
for c l o s e d  l o o p
(b")
(c")
eG(S)=O
(d")
Pd(S)
has no roots
Also
have
(a")
(k+jO);
hence
in s t a t e m e n t
axis
to c o n d i t i o n
(la)
criterion.
we have that
if, and only
{ri(s):
i=i,2,...,}
if the inverse
the c r i t i c a l
(b") is e q u i v a l e n t
1 of the s t a b i l i t y
F r o m the p o l e  z e r o
and
zeros.
is e q u i v a l e n t
loci pass t h r o u g h
condition
axis;
axis;
(5.5.24)
(5.5.3)
zeros on the i m a g i n a r y
gain
stability:
k)
conditon
from e q u a t i o n
conditions
it is clear that
1 of the s t a b i l i t y
characteristic
sufficiency
on the i m a g i n a r y
on the i m a g i n a r y
left h a l f  p l a n e
F r o m e q u a t i o n (5.5.3)
,
~
,
7. N ( r i , O ) =
7 N(gi,
i=l
i=l
and c o n s e q u e n t l y
Thus the
has only
that
is e s t a b l i s h e d .
are n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t
,
~
,
in s t a t e m e n t
is n e c e s s a r y
We have t h e r e f o r e
(a")
(5.5.21)
stability.
s u f f i c i e n c y suppose
,
,
N(ri'O)  7. N(gi'O)
i=l
i=l
and h e n c e
that
e ~ 0
For
then
implies
point
to c o n d i t i o n
criterion.
relationships,
(5.1.21)
and
(5.1.22),
92
condition
(c")
is c l e a r l y
and also c o n d i t i o n
equivalent
(3b) in e i t h e r
to c o n d i t i o n
statement
(3a)
of the s t a b i l i t y
criterion.
Therefore
stability
(ib)
to c o m p l e t e
criterion
is e q u i v a l e n t
the p r o o f of s t a t e m e n t
s h o w that w h e n c o n d i t i o n s
the c o n d i t i o n
,
E N(r i, O)
i=l
where
ZG = e
To do this we will
(c") and
(d")
zeros of G(s),
for c l o s e d  l o o p
(5.1.22)
are s a t i s f i e d ,
(5.5.25)
=  Z G,
of r i g h t h a l f  p l a n e
and s u f f i c i e n t
From relationship
(a").
(b"),
,
Z N(gi,k)
i=l
Z G is the n u m b e r
is n e c e s s a r y
1 of the
stability.
we have that
+ Z P,
i=l gi
(5.5.26)
where
and h e n c e
=
Z
Z P*r.
i=l
l
If we
now
combine
which
is v a l i d
(5.5.27)
equation
(5.5.27)
for { j = 1 , 2 , . . . , } ,
Z N(ri,O)~. =
Z Z*r.
i=l
i=l
1
To e s t a b l i s h
the n e c e s s i t y
with equation
we have
(5.5.28)
 ZG
of c o n d i t i o n
that
,
F N(ri,O ) ~
i=l
then from e q u a t i o n
i
iZ#l~
~
i
Z G
(5.5.28)
and/or
this
e ~
implies
O
(5.5.15),
that
(5.5.25)
suppose
93
that c o n d i t i o n
from e q u a t i o n
Z*
= e
i=l ri
and hence
(b"),
sufficiency
This
inverse
(5.5.28)
=
(c")
Nyquist
Statement
we have
and
(d")
the p r o o f
providing
Thus
the
is established.
of s t a t e m e n t
1 of the g e n e r a l i z e d
criterion.
2 of the s t a b i l i t y
in w h i c h
stable,
are satisfied.
(5.5.25)
stability
see chapter 4]
that
is c l o s e d  l o o p
of c o n d i t i o n
completes
that
conditions
is n e c e s s a r y
stability.
For s u f f i c i e n c y suppose
,
N(ri,O) = Z G
i=l
then
(5.5.28)
criterion
applies
to systems
either
(i)
Pd(S)
= Px(S)
(5.5.29)
(ii)
Pd(S)
= Px(S)
where
the zeros
or
all
In these
and
in the
situations
Pd I
(s)
Pd 2
(s).
"''Pd h
(s)
(5.5.30)
of {Pdi(S) :i=i,2,...,}
are
left halfplane.
it is possible
to combine
conditions
(la)
94
The n e c e s s i t y
and s u f f i c i e n c y
loop s t a b i l i t y
is p r o v e d
when
of c o n d i t i o n
conditions
(2) and
(5.5.31)
(3) are s a t i s f i e d
as follows.
F r o m e q u a t i o n s (4.2.37) and
h
PG
= e +
Z P
+
i=l
i
i=l
f
i
But the poles
of {fi(s):
poles of {gi(s):
the zeros of
(4.2.39)
Pd
(5.5.32)
i~l,2,...,Z}
i=1,2,...,}
we have that
which
{gi(s) : i = 1 , 2 , . . . , } ,
(5.5.32) can be r e w r i t t e n as
h
~iPGi = e +
Z Z*
+ Pd
i
i=l
gi
Equation
for c l o s e d 
(5.5.33)
to give
,
Z N(ri,O)
i=l
equation
(5.5.33)
can now be c o m b i n e d w i t h e q u a t i o n
,
Z N(gi,O)
i=l
(5.5.19)
h
= Z Z* + e + Pd  Z=IPGi
i=l
ri
i
(5.5.34)
w h i c h u s i n g e q u a t i o n (5.5.24) b e c o m e s
,
i
,
Z N(gfk)  2 N(gi,O) =
Z Z*
+ e +Pd
i=l
i=l
i=l ri
h
 __ZIPGi
i
(5.5.35)
To e s t a b l i s h
s u p p o s e that
,
N(gi,k)
i=l
then
the n e c e s s i t y
,
 Z N(g,O)
i=l
of c o n d i t i o n
(5.5.31)
h
~ Z
PG.
i=l
l
Z Z*
~ O, or e ~ O, or Pd ~ O
that
i=l rl
or any c o m b i n a t i o n
closedloop
is n e c e s s a r y
of these,
unstable.
and thus
that the s y s t e m w i l l be
H e n c e we c o n c l u d e
for c l o s e d  l o o p
stability.
that c o n d i t i o n
(5.5.31)
95
For s u f f i c i e n c y s u p p o s e t h a t
,
,
h
N(gi,k) Z N(gi,O) = Z PG
i=l
i=l
i=l
i
then f r o m e q u a t i o n (5.5.35) we m u s t h a v e t h a t
Z Z*
= e
= Pd
= 0
i=l r i
and h e n c e the s y s t e m is s t a b l e p r o v i d i n g
and
(3) are s a t i s f i e d .
(5.5.31)
2 of the
that w h e n c o n d i t i o n s
i.e.
i
,
Z N(ri,O)
i=l
where
T h u s the s u f f i c i e n c y of c o n d i t i o n
to c o m p l e t e the p r o o f of s t a t e m e n t
between conditions
(ib)
(2)
is e s t a b l i s h e d .
Therefore
stability
conditions
(ib).
(2) and
(3) are s a t i s f i e d ,
,
~ N(gi,k)
i=l
To do t h i s we w i l l
h
=  ~
ZG.
i=l
l
show
condition
(5.5.36)
zG
is the n u m b e r of r i g h t h a l f  p l a n e p o l e s of G. (s), is
i
1
n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t for c l o s e d  l o o p s t a b i l i t y .
From equation
Z N(ri,O)
i=l
(5.5.15), w h i c h
Z N(gi,k)
i=l
is v a l i d for
Z Z*
i=l ri
{j=1,2,...,},
 Z P*
i=l
ri
(5.5.37)
of
{gi(s):
i=1,2,...,~}
are
equation
(5.5.37)
Z Z*
i=l ri
If the s u b s y s t e m s
 Z P*
i=l gi
as
can be
{Gi(s):
(5.5.38)
i=l,2,...,h}
are e a c h s q u a r e
t h e n P x ( = P d ) is the n u m b e r of r i g h t h a l f  p l a n e
G(s)
same
as
Z N(gi,k)
i=l
poles)
the
w h i c h are lost t h r o u g h p o l e  z e r o
is formed.
Therefore
zeros
cancellations
(or
when
if the n u m b e r of r i g h t h a l f  p l a n e
96
zeros of G(s)
ZG
is g i v e n [ e q u a t i o n
9,
(3.3.36)] by
(5.5.39)
i=l gi
t h e n we m u s t h a v e
h
ZG.
= e
i=l
l
or,
~ Z
i=l 9i
zeros,
Pd
(5.5.40)
are i d e n t i c a l l y
e q u a l to the
of gi(s),
h
ZG
i=l
Z P*
i=l g i
Consequently
equations
to g i v e
,
Z N(gi,k)
i=l
(5.5.38)
Z
~
Z*
i=l
ri
Pd
(5.5.41)
and
(5.5.41)
Pd
can be c o m b i n e d
h
 ~iZGi
i
(5.5.42)
To e s t a b l i s h the n e c e s s i t y of c o n d i t i o n
(5.5.36)
suppose
that
Z
.
Z N(gi,k)
i=l
then
~ ZG
i=l
i
f r o m e q u a t i o n (5.5.42) t h i s i m p l i e s
E Z*
~ O, or e ~ O, or Pd ~ O
i=l r i
that
unstable.
is n e c e s s a r y
H e n c e we c o n c l u d e t h a t c o n d i t i o n
for c l o s e d  l o o p
stability.
For s u f f i c i e n c y s u p p o s e that
,
h
N(gi,k) =  Z ZG
i=l
i=l
l
then f r o m e q u a t i o n (5.5.42) we m u s t h a v e t h a t
Z*
= e
=
Pd
= O
i=l r i
and h e n c e the s y s t e m is c l o s e d  l o o p
conditions
(2) and
stable,
(3) are s a t i s f i e d .
providing
T h u s the s u f f i c i e n c y
97
of c o n d i t i o n
(5.5.36)
This c o m p l e t e s
inverse N y q u i s t
5.6
the p r o o f of s t a t e m e n t
stability
2 of the g e n e r a l i z e d
criterion.
Example
To i l l u s t r a t e
example
the
stability
used in c h a p t e r s
G(s)
The p o l e
G(s)
is e s t a b l i s h e d .
Gl(S)=
criteria
consider
the
system
3 and 4 w h e r e
1
1.25(s+i) (s+2)
and zero p o l y n o m i a l s
[ si
6
s ]
s2
for the o p e n  l o o p
gain m a t r i x
are
PG(S)
(s+l) (s+2)
and
zG(s)
= 1
gain
so that
PG = O
and
The i n v e r s e
There
Z G = O.
characteristic
are no u n o b s e r v a b l e
and t h e r e f o r e
is d i r e c t l y
either
statement
applicable.
and/or
uncontrollable
1 or s t a t e m e n t
19.
modes
2 of the c r i t e r i o n
In fact, b e c a u s e we have e f f e c t i v e l y
there
is no d i f f e r e n c e
between
the two
statements.
Testing
generalized
the c o n d i t i o n s
inverse N y q u i s t
the c l o s e d  l o o p
1.875
O
2.5
These
bounds
stability
stability
is stable
as o u t l i n e d
criterion
by the
we find that
for
< k ~ 0
< k<
and
obtained
system
for s t a b i l i t y
1.25
< k <
on the g a i n c o n t r o l
in s e c t i o n
4.3
using
variable
k agree w i t h
the g e n e r a l i z e d
those
Nyquist
criterion.
It is i n t e r e s t i n g
to n o t e that
an i n v e r s e N y q u i s t  l i k e
98
gplane
ca.~ 5.o~
~.,, "%.
\ ..... . /
99
stability criterion has recently been used by Mees and Rapp
[6] to establish stability criteria for multipleloop nonlinear
feedback systems.
References
[1]
[2]
[3]
MacFarlane,
1970.
[4]
Is]
[6]
6.
Multivariable
The Evans'
established
design
root loci
graphical
technique
systems
as a function
singleinput
for estimating
steps towards
characteristic
frequency
loci
[6]
point of view.
In this chapter
well established
results
to be determined
and
behaviour
of the
is developed,
function
theory
using
[7;8;9],
of the characteristic
from a Laplace
loci
transfer
frequency
loci
function matrix
of the system.
the asymptotic
behaviour
a multivariable
on the input
small numbers
timeinvariant
closedloop
linear regulator
criterion
seems particularly
of inputs
can be utilised
of the optimal
in the performance
The method
6.1
frequency
and approach
a method
enough
interest
in algebraic
the asymptotic
and approach
description
Its generaliza%ion
considerable
of the characteristic
departure
poles
behaviour
which allows
and
singleoutput
to the multivariable
asymptotic
is a well
of linear timeinvariant
feedback
[1;2;3]
useful
to find
poles of
as the weight
approaches
zero [ io].
background
feedback
configuration
of figure
3 it
I01
frequency
contours
loci
(multivariable
root loci)
of the characteristic
gain function
det [gI m  G ( s ) ]
(6.1.1)
or the equation
~(g,s)
= bo(S)~(g,s)
(6.1.2)
coefficients
in s.
of exposition,
= O
and because
for transfer
situations,
function matrices
gain function
control variable
g(s)
functions
and solutions
for g in equation
= k m F(k,s)
= O
we have
(6.1.4)
= O
(6.1.5)
of the closedloop
apart
real k, determine
the dependence
from possible
of this dependence
no singlepoint
equivalent
(6.1.2)
of
frequency
The
(6.1.3)
~(kl,s)
description
in s.
so that substituting
Therefore,
is
F(k,s)
arising
characteristic
singlepoint
constitutes
system.
loci,
the graphical
the characteristic
is directly
to
CLCP(s)~det[SInAc]=
k.
det[SInS(kl)]
= O
(6.1.6)
I02
and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
frequency
E a c h of the n b r a n c h e s
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
loci can in t h e o r y be r e p r e s e n t e d
si(k)
where
j= ~
branches.
point
= ui(k)
The t a n g e n t
s I approaches
i are labels
as the l i m i t i n g
the branch,
that
position
20),
(SlSo)./~k, w h e r e 8 k > O ,
of the
Sl=Sr(ko+~k)
is as gk+O.
SlS can be r e p r e s e n t e d
from s O to s I (figure
for the v a r i o u s
of the loci at a
s o and a n o t h e r p o i n t
s o along
the c o m p l e x n u m b e r
(6.1.7)
to the rth b r a n c h
is d e f i n e d
line t h r o u g h
in the form
i=l,2, .... n
and the s u b s c r i p t s
So=Sr(ko)
straight
+ Jvi(k)
frequency
and the v e c t o r
as
NOW
by the v e c t o r
corresponding
to
as that vector.
Si= 5 (ko+6k)
i\soo
o
Figure 20. To derive a brmuta for the tangent to
the characteristic frequency loci
It follows
therefore
that the v e c t o r
st(k) = dkdSr(k)Jk
o
~kOlim
corresponding
sl~_kso
to
103
lim
6kO
Sr(ko+~k)
Sk
argument
Formula
(6.1.8)
e between this
{Sr(ko) }
(6.1.9)
(6.1.9)
is fundamental
to the determination
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
 Sr(k O)
(6.1.3)
therefore
loci terminate
implies
frequency
frequency
equation
of
system,
and
(6.1.9) w i t h ko=O.
For k=~,
that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
at system zeros.
Therefore
zero,
frequency
for a branch
formula
(6.1.9),
If a branch terminates
at an infinite
(6.1.9)
because expressions
frequency
function
for the p r a c t i c a l
theory
[7;8;9],
construction
of a given point.
of
there exists
However,
a method
series representations
function
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
a "Newton diagram"
once,
of the characteristic
in the series.
real axis.
loci cannot
in algebraic
to
Therefore,
approximations
terms
can be obtained
104
characteristic
or zero
s
where
frequency
loci in the v i c i n i t y of a p o l e
(finite or i n f i n i t e ) ,
of the f o r m
(k) ~ a + bk ~
(6.1.10)
a and b are c o m p l e x n u m b e r s ,
number,
and w h e n e
understood.
~ is a r a t i o n a l r e a l
is f r a c t i o n a l the p r i n c i p a l
For the n e g a t i v e
feedback configuration
c o n s i d e r a t i o n k is real and p o s i t i v e ,
real,
and t h e r e f o r e
(6.1.10)
applying
root of k is
under
~k eI w i l l a l w a y s be
formula
(6.1.9)
to the a p p r o x i m a t i o n
we h a v e
0 =
argument
{b}
+ ~180
(6.1.11)
where
[
when
e >
when
~ <
as a r e s u l t of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
In the f o l l o w i n g
approximations
sections
b e h a v i o u r of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
in
frequency
the
loci
Asymptoti q behaviour
The N e w t o n d i a g r a m is a g r a p h i c a l
representations
algebraic
which
(6.1.10)
and h e n c e to d e t e r m i n e
and a l s o the a n g l e s of d e p a r t u r e
6.2
to k.
it is s h o w n h o w to o b t a i n
the v i c i n i t y of a p o l e or zero,
asymptotic
with respect
significant
which
t e r m s in the
for the p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h e s
f u n c t i o n q(v),
approach
construction
of an
zero as v a p p r o a c h e s
zero.
Therefore,
whether
f i n d i n g the a s y m p t o t i c b e h a v i o u r or the a n g l e s of d e p a r t u r e
and a p p r o a c h of the
the p r o b l e m ,
loci,
our f i r s t aim is a l w a y s
by a c h a n g e of v a r i a b l e s
to r e d u c e
in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
105
equation,
to one of f i n d i n g a p p r o x i m a t i o n s
an a l g e b r a i c
variable approaches
for b r a n c h e s of
z e r o as the i n d e p e n d e n t
zero.
To d e t e r m i n e the a s y m p t o t i c b e h a v i o u r of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
frequency
loci we n e e d to o b t a i n an a p p r o x i m a t i o n
(or b r a n c h e s )
infinity.
i
(6.2.1)
in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
(g,s)
= ~ (g,z I)
equation
= z q
(6.1.2)
to o b t a i n
~(g,z)
(6.2.2)
q $ n is the n u m b e r of p o l e s of g(s),
neighbourhood
excluded
as k a p p r o a c h e s
F o r this p u r p o s e we w i l l put
s=z
where
s =~,
to the b r a n c h
of the v a l u e
f r o m the region)
z = 0
so that in any
(the p o i n t
z = 0 itself
the e q u a t i o n # ( g , s ) = O
is
is e q u i v a l e n t
to the e q u a t i o n
~(g,z)
= E~xygXzy
For a s t r i c t l y p r o p e r
= O
system,
(6.2.3)
that
is one w h e r e D is zero,
or if D is s i n g u l a r
oo
(6.2.4)
= 0
o t h e r w i s e C o o is n o n  z e r o which,
the N e w t o n d i a g r a m ,
behaviour.
corresponds
N o t e t h a t if D is n o n  s i n g u l a r
g(s)
has t h e same
n u m b e r of f i n i t e z e r o s as p o l e s a n d t h e r e f o r e we w o u l d not
expect
any c l o s e d  l o o p p o l e s to a p p r o a c h i n f i n i t y .
The n e x t
~(g,z)
, from which
approximations
of the f o r m
(6.2.5)
z ~cg ~
can be o b t a i n e d ,
real n u m b e r .
where
c is a c o m p l e x n u m b e r ,
The p r o c e d u r e
N e w t o n d i a g r a m is as f o l l o w s
In a
for c o n s t r u c t i n g
and ~ a r a t i o n a l
the a p p r o p r i a t e
[8].
( g , z )  p l a n e we p l o t the p o i n t s
(x,y)
for w h i c h
106
~xy ~ 0 in equation
(6.2.3).
(lz+2z225z3+29z4)g 2 +
As an example,
coincide
the smallest
gaxis point P
zaxis
is shown
The tangent
about
(the point
on figure
21)
(2,0)
the points
is then rotated
away from P1
clockwise
in figure
about
another point P2 of
is repeated
The complete
Po and PI"
the points
Newton diagram
for equation
22.
of the acuteangle
zaxis
line
the first
the straight
value of p , etc.
zaxis
determines
diagram
For a particular
mations
clockwise
it passes through
The procedure
is reached.
(6.2.6)
zaxis,
A straight
P1 and P2"
(6.2.6)
the vertical
our net.
A horizontal
towazds
A straight
for
(z22z2+199z321Oz4)g
(33z3594z 4)
are shown in figure 21.
the points
exponent
approxi
of the form
zitcitg
~t
(6.2.7)
then it is understood
being considered.
To determine
Pt is a
root is
cit it
107
Zl
4,
3:
a
tJ
3P,
108
is n e c e s s a r y
equation
to s u b s t i t u t e
(6.2.3)
z = cg
corresponding
~t
in the terms of
to the p o i n t s
' to e q u a t e
of our net
equation.
(6.2.3)
Let
have the
form
x
x
y~
g
oy~
gXlzY 1
+ .....
correspond
x~x I
Therefore
similar
and ~ is a p o s i t i v e
less than
Then b e c a u s e
YOIYl
........
Y2  Yl
for the d e t e r m i n a t i o n
~t
of the e x p r e s s i o n
as a r e s u l t of the s u b s t i t u t i o n
equation
integer
Xo_lXl
YcYl
(6.2.8)
"+ ~xlY 1
(6.2.8)
z = cg
of the c o e f f i c i e n t
Ut
become
, and h e n c e
cit we o b t a i n
an
of t h ~ a f o r m
Yl
~xgy c
or d i v i d i n g
by
........ + ~XlY 1 c
Yl
= O
(6.2.9)
(c ~ O) we o b t a i n
Y~Yl
~xay
+ ....
+~XlY 1 =
w h i c h has y a  y I solutions.
difference
between
Consequently
enables
axis.
(6.2.10)
Note that
the o r d i n a t e s
it is equal
on to the o r d i n a t e
of the p o i n t s
to the p r o j e c t i o n
This
is a u s e f u l
us to see at a g l a n c e how m a n y
corresponding
to the e x p o n e n t
w i t h the p o i n t w h e r e
YoYl
the final
~t"
is the
Pt and Ptl"
of the link P t _ i P t
fact since
coefficients
there are
A l s o the o r d i n a t e
link reaches
it
associated
the v e r t i c a l
axis
109
considering
all exponents.
the number of
(6.2.7)
(6.1.3)
and
(6.2.1)
sit  bit k
representing
from equations
form
~t
(6.2.11)
approximations
to the characteristic
frequency
(6.1.9) we
group into B u t t e r w o r t h
configurations.
6.21,
equation
= O.
B u t t e r w o r t h Patterns
In this subsection
configurations.
results
in algebraic
The proof
function
[8]
(6.1.5)
i.e.
polynomial
110
F (k,s)
in w h i c h
point
(6.2.12)
we a l l o w k to be complex.
k c the a l g e b r a i c
(6.2.12)
has
a p fold root
in a n e i g h b o u r h o o d
where
function
N of k
defined
that
at a
by e q u a t i o n
of s(k)
{s.(k):i=l,2,...,p,...,n}
l
{si(kc)=Sc:i=l,2,...,p}.
If we a n a l y t i c a l l y
{si(k)
: i=p+l,...,n}
we return
continue
Sl(k)
say,
around
around
and after
encirclements
constitute
function
t . . . .
a second
a finite
function
cyclical
The
number
~i' of
Sl(k).
(6.2.13)
system
in N.
cyclical
: i=2,3,...,p}
of b r a n c h e s
of the a l g e b r a i c
N of kc).
s l+l(k)
Repeating
system
and a n a l y t i c a l l y
the p r e v i o u s
of branches,
after one
the functions
(in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
we a n a l y t i c a l l y
{si(k)
S~l (k)
it around
we obtain
k c then
After
to the original
point
encirclement
say that
one e n c i r c l e m e n t
If, however,
s3(k ) say.
a cyclical
s(k)
after
we return
k c in N, then
function.
another
case we shall
Sl(k)
the critical
we obtain
{si(k ) : i=3,4,...p},
In this
continue
to the o r i g i n a l
encirclement
s2(k)
s(k)
suppose
Also
arguments
namely
(6.2.14)
will be sorted
into
systems.
functions
of each
according
cyclical
system
to the cyclical
pass
consecutively
law when
k goes
111
round the m u l t i p l e
p o i n t k c.
of b r a n c h e s
defines
function.
The n u m b e r
function
at a p o i n t
Hence
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
of v a l u e s
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
comprising
considered.
a single b r a n c h
the c o r r e s p o n d i n g
and i d e n t i c a l
Suppose
analytic
N of k
radial
the c y c l i c a l
analytic
s y s t e m being
comprises
a cyclical
the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
N is r e p l a c e d
that each n e i g h b o u r h o o d
23.
N is c i r c u l a r
point k
Then the n e i g h b o u r h o o d s
continue
the jth b r a n c h
(j<p)
around
after one e n c i r c l e m e n t
can be j o i n e d
if we a n a l y t i c a l l y
across
The pile of n e i g h b o u r h o o d s
obviously
falls
containing
functions
defined
To d e n o t e
an a n a l y t i c
function
one or m o r e
is a d o m a i n
function
corresponding
When we c o n s i d e r
as shown
in
by a c y c l i c a l
subscript.
For e x a m p l e
to the c y c l i c a l
by the symbol
the a s y m p t o t i c
to
N of k .
c
determined
numerical
w i l l be d e n o t e d
sheets
(j+l)th
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
etc.
and has a
eventually
into cycles
sheet,
: i=l,2,...,n}
to its p e r i p h e r y ,
together
(j+l)th
{si(k)
the p a i r [k,si(k) ] .
in figure
b r a n c h on the
by a p i l e of
as shown
figure
system,
f u n c t i o n w i l l be s i n g l e  v a l u e d
we move
an
N is equal to the
system
w i t h this branch.
n such regions,
Also
cyclical
g i v e n by this a n a l y t i c
n u m b e r of b r a n c h e s
When
every
behaviour
system
si(k).
of the
112
L cut
of the algebraic
infinity,
branches
branches
systems.
Theorem
Suppose we have
will be arranged
into several
arguments
cyclical
The infinite
constituting
critical
infinity.
theorem
Each cyclical
function,
function
as k approaches
infinite
the
frequency
branches
a cyclical
point kc=~,
of the algebraic
function
in their totality
constitute
s(k),
of its
an analytic
113
i
s I = k 9 (bO + b I k
2
V +b2k
~ +...)
(6.2.15)
in the cycle,
and I is a
integer.
Consequently
particular cyclical
corresponding
system in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
be a p p r o x i m a t e d by an analytic
to a
of k =~, can
1
m
s I (k) ~bok~
(6.2.16)
The characteristic
algebraic
function
s(k)
frequency
Therefore
the infinite
corresponding
themselves
of order
by angles of
into a B u t t e r w o r t h
as already discussed,
systems of branches
and therefore
configuration
equally
spaced
.360.
(~), in the complex plane.
In general,
cyclical
(6.2.16)
to a cyclical
system arrange
~ ;
of the form
the asymptotes
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
of the characteristic
of k = ~,
frequency
into several B u t t e r w o r t h
configurations.
6.3
the characteristic
and approach of
114
of the
system.
departure
We w i l l
first
f r o m the o p e n  l o o p
Suppose
for the
consider
poles
the
of the
characteristic
angles
system.
equation
~(g,s ) = O
we
have
s'=s8
a pole
the
d = s' = O,
we
and
If w e
are e x a m i n i n g
#(g,s)
so t h a t
(6.3.1)
equation
construct
now
to the
reduces
of
to o = O
the N e w t o n
diagram
of the
s =
From
substitution
approximation
case w h e r e
(excluding
(6.3.3)
for the e q u a t i o n
(or a p p r o x i m a t i o n s
in the
case
of
form
is a c o m p l e x
equation
departing
number
(6.1.3),
g = d I
to the b r a n c h
loci
(6.3.2)
(6.3.4)
where
number.
to the e q u a t i o n
ed ~
is o b t a i n e d ,
frequency
d  m H ( d , s ')
= O is e q u i v a l e n t
Z ~ x y d X s 'y = O
poles)
s'
a n d the
g = d 1,
= O an a p p r o x i m a t i o n
multiple
real
substitution
We w i l l m a k e
for e q u a t i o n
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
equation
H(d,s') =
Z(d,s')
at s = ~.
variable
~(dl,s'+B)
situation
itself)
independent
pole)
becomes
~(g,s)
The
(6.3.1)
(or m u l t i p l e
the n e w
of
, we
the
change
therefore
(or b r a n c h e s )
from
and m a r a t i o n a l
the p o l e
of v a r i a b l e ,
arrive
at an
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
B , in the
form
Hd
s  B + bdk
If w e n o w a p p l y
given
(6.3.5)
formula
(6.1.9)
the
angle
of d e p a r t u r e
8d is
as
ed
We w i l l
argument
now
{b d}
consider
(6.3.6)
the
angles
of
approach
to the
finite
115
zeros
of the
equation
(6.3.1)
We w i l l
that
system.
take
we h a v e
~(g,s)
a zero
characteristic
(or m u l t i p l e
reduces
the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
of s = 7
~xy
construct
approximation
x(g,s')
to the
= O is e q u i v a l e n t
x(g's')
zero)
variable
where
real n u m b e r .
we
(excluding
to the
gXs'Y= O
branches)
the
zero
g = s' = O,
y itself)
af the
= 0
oo
diagram
given
that
(6.3.8)
for x(g,s')
an
a n d n is a r a t i o n a l
a n d the c h a n g e
of v a r i a b l e
to the b r a n c h
frequency
loci
(or
approaching
form
s 
y + b ak~a
formula
(6.1.9)
Ua w i l l
180 t e r m
definition
at the
Example
Consider
(6.3.10)
the
argument
always
angle
of a p p r o a c h
8 a is
angle
which
zero,
{b a} ~ 180 (6.3.11)
be n e g a t i v e
in f o r m u l a
for the
definition
positioned
6.4
equation
as
of the
usual
number
(6.1.3)
characteristic
ea
Note
in
(6.3.9)
at an a p p r o x i m a t i o n
, in the
If w e n o w a p p l y
and
equation
p is a c o m p l e x
arrive
s = y
so
form
From equation
therefore
(6.3.7)
oase w h e r e
the N e w t o n
of the
s' ~ pg~
is o b t a i n e d
at s = y
becomes
= ~(g,s'+y)
The s i t u a t i o n
If we
for the
the e q u a t i o n
~(~s)
Suppose
and h e n c e
(6.3.11).
of a p p r o a c h
Also
differs
is the d i r e c t i o n
to see the
locus
1
an o p e n  l o o p
gain matrix
the
note
by
you would
arrive.
presence
that
180
look,
this
f r o m the
when
116
0s
[3s3+s21s
s4+5s32s244s+40
8s22s+l 1
s3+79s2+44s868
4s34s2+4Os32
w h i c h has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e q u a t i o n
~(g,s)
( s 4 + 5 s 3  2 s 2  4 4 s + 4 0 ) g2 +
(s3+l16s432)g
12 (s22s+2)
(a)
T_o d e t e r m i n e
Putting s = z
~(g,z)
= O
the a s y m p t o t i c b e h a v i o u r
i
in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
(l+5z2z244z3+4Oz4)g 2 +
e q u a t i o n we o b t a i n
(z+l16z3432z4)g
12 (z22z3+2z 4) = O
The N e w t o n d i a g r a m for ~(g,z)
we o b t a i n
is s h o w n in f i g u r e 25 from w h i c h
~ = 1 , and h e n c e the a p p r o x i m a t i o n
z  cg
The c o e f f i c i e n t
c is c a l c u l a t e d
in s e c t i o n
to h a v e the v a l u e s
6.2)
(using the m e t h o d
71 and ~1 .
resubstituting
for z and g =  k I
approximations
for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
s 
4k
and
Two b r a n c h e s
3k
as
described
Therefore,
, we h a v e the f o l l o w i n g
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
frequency
loci
frequency
loci t h e r e f o r e
\
o
117
(b)
To
find
The
system
s = i,
Pole
at
the
an@les
has
s = 2
of departure
four
openloop
, s = 4+2j
, and
s = 4~
s = 1
Putting
equation
we
~l(d,s')
s' = s  i
and g = d
i
characteristic
The Newton
we
in t h e
obtain
12(s'2+l)d 2 = O
which
poles
diagram
obtain
for
Hl(d,s')
is
shown
e I = 1 , and hence
in
figure
the
approximation
(using
the method
26
from
s' ~ e l d
The
coefficient
in s e c t i o n
following
e I is
6.2)
calculated
to h a v e
approximation
the
value
to t h e
the
the p o l e
Pole
at
pole
s = i.
in t h e
frequency
loci
Therefore
the
angle
of departure
from
s = 1 is 0 .
s = 2
Putting
equation
we
E2(d,s' ) =
s'
= s2
and
g=
d I
The N e w t o n
we
in
the
characteristic
obtain
(s,4+13s,3+52s,2+4Os
,) +

which
resulting
characteristic
s  1 + 10.86
about
10.86,
described
diagram
obtain
for
~2 =
E2(d,s')
, and
(s'3+6s'2+128s'192)d
12(s'2+2s'+2)d
is
hence
shown
the
in
2 = O
figure
27
from
approximation
s' ~ e 2 d
The
coefficient
resulting
in t h e
frequency
loci
e 2 is c a l c u l a t e d
following
to have
approximation
the
value
to t h e
4.8,
characteristic
118
s24.Sk
about
the pole
the pole
Pole
s = 2 .
Therefore
the angle
of d e p a r t u r e
from
s = 2 is 1 8 0 .
a t s = 4+2j
Putting
s' = s+42j
a n d g = d I in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
equation
we obtain
H3(d's')
= [s'4+(ll+j8) s'3+(lOj60)s'2+(88+j104)s']
+ [s' 3+ (_12+96) s' 2+ (152j 48) s ' + (912+9 320)] d
diagram
we o b t a i n
for
23(d,s')
~3 = i, a n d h e n c e
s' ~
The
is s h o w n
coefficient
in f i g u r e
28 f r o m
the approximation
3d
e 3 is c a l c u l a t e d
to h a v e
the value
912  j 3 2 0
88 + j l O 4
resulting
in the
frequency
loci
following
approximation
s  4+2j
about
the pole
s = 4+2j.
s = 4+29
argument
Pole
(912+j320)
(88+9104)
Therefore
the
angle
110.9
of d e p a r t u r e
is
912+j32Q~
{ 88+9104 j
at s =  4  2 j
By symmetry
s = 42j
(c)
to the characteristic
angle
of d e p a r t u r e
is  1 1 0 . 9 .
To f i n d
The
the
the angles
system
has
two
s = l+j
of a p p r o a c h
finite
and
zeros
s = lj
119
4i
3
2,
\
L
=d
Figure 27 Newton
diagram for E2(d,s')
$'
$'
4'
,\
0
"d

2/
6'0
7"0
120
Zero at s = i ~
Putting
s' = slj
in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
e q u a t i o n we
obtain
(g,s')
[ S , 4 + ( 9 + j 4 ) s , 3 + ( 1 3 + j 2 9 ) S , 2 + ( _ 5 8 + j 4 6 ) S , + ( _ 1 8 _ j 3 8 ) ] g2
+[s'3+(3+j3)s'2+(l16+j8)s'+(318+j118)] g
12[s2j2s '] =
The N e w t o n d i a g r a m
w h i c h we o b t a i n
for x(g,s')
is shown
n = 1 , and h e n c e
in f i g u r e
29 f r o m
the a p p r o x i m a t i o n
s'  pg
The c o e f f i c i e n t p is c a l c u l a t e d to h a v e the v a l u e
318 + jl18
j24
resulting
in the f o l l o w i n g a p p r o x i m a t i o n
to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
f r e q u e n c y loci
s  1 + j +
a b o u t the z e r o s = l+j.
to the
(318jI18)
j24
k i
T h e r e f o r e the a n g l e of a p p r o a c h
zero s = l+j is
argument
f318jl18% _
L j24
~ +
180 E
69.64
Zero at s = lj
By s y m m e t r y the a n g l e of a p p r o a c h
to the zero at
s = lj is  6 9 . 6 4 .
To c h e c k the r e s u l t s
frequency
f r e q u e n c y plane,
a b o u t the p o l e
poles
in f i g u r e
the c o m p l e t e
characteristic
Branches
s = 1 m a k i n g the m o v e m e n t
difficult
to c o m p r e h e n d .
The
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n s t a n t p h a s e
c o n t o u r s of g(s)
is t h e r e f o r e
of the loci c o i n c i d e
of the c l o s e d  l o o p
frequency surface
and c o n s t a n t m a g n i t u d e
shown
in f i g u r e s
31(a),
(b)
121
ChQracterJstic
:" ~: frequency loci
(a)
I Cutjoining
branch points
(b)
122
2.1
f
405
1.95
4'0
I
3"95
]
3"9
0.98
0.9~
094
0"9~
0"90
0.90
123
Small regions
s = 4+2j
in the neighbourhood
of the characteristic
Asymptotic
behaviour
In this section
to determine
of the pole
angles
of departure
zero.
the optimal
The method
characteristic
of an appropriate
is equivalent
simplicity
algebraic
function
Consider
closed
linear regulator,
criterion
is based on an association
of
function.
Although
to that given by K w a k e r n a ~
of the approach
is used
of the optimal
timeinvariant
frequency
algebraic
poles
approach
32 and
and approach.
of optimal, closedloop
the asymptotic
frequency
is emphasized
the procedure
theory.
the stabilizable
and detectable
timeinvariant
linear system
dx(t)
dt
y(t)
A x(t)
where
(6.5.1)
(6.5.2)
=
and
criterion
/o~T(t)Qy(t)+puT(t)
R
are positive
Bu(t)
= C x(t)
Ru(t) ]
definite
denotes
at
(6.5.3)
symmetric
the transpose
(e.g.
[12])
matrices,
of a matrix
=  !
P
RIB T Px(t)
or
(6.5.4)
semidefinite
solution
of
124
+ ~PBRIBTp = cTQc
P
Kwakernaak
[ii, equation
(6.5.5)
for the
~c(S)~c(S)
where I
inputs,
= ~o(S)~o(S)
(s) QG (s) ]
det [I m + IRIGT
P
(6.5.6)
and
G(s)
C(sI  A)IB
(6.5.7)
are values of
(6.5.8)
where
H(s) ~ RIGT (s) QG (s)
(6.5.9)
~ d e t [ q I s H(s)]
(6.5.10)
= D m + al(s2)n mI + . . . . .
+am(S2)
(6.5.11)
where the coefficients {ai(s2)
; i=i,2, .... ,m} are rational
2
2
functions in s .
The coefficients are functions in s because
125
~ (~,s)
 det [ nI m
=
(6.5.12)
det [ HI m  RGT(s)QG(S)R ]
; i=l,2,...,m}
then from
(6.5.11)
In general,
(6.5.11)
However,
for simplicity
(6.5.11) and
(6.5.8) and
(6.5.10) we see
p
(6.5.14)
If we now consider p
(6.5.13) we obtain
126
To determine
characteristic
are
(6.5.8)).
to the
p approaches
zero.
1
in equation
For this
section 6.2.
6.6
Example 2
To demonstrate the procedure the asymptotic behaviour of
S(s)
s + 2
6],
s + 3
1
(s+l) (s+2) (s+3) (s+4)
Q = I
and
pR = pI
From this data we have
H(s) ~ RIGT (s)QG (s)
2s 2
13
7s
15
7s
151
SO that
37
127
A(~,s)
A= det[ni 2
H(s)]
( 2s 2 + 50)
n +
(25s 2 + 256)
(s2 i) (s2 2) (s2_3) (s2_4)
(s2_l) 2(s2_2)2(s2_3)2(s2_4)
If we now substitute
of the coefficients,
(s21) 2(s22)2(s23)2(s24)2p2+(s21)
+
(25s 2
The substitution
s = z
i
throughout by the
256)
we obtain
O.
now gives
+ 256z 2) = 0
The Newton diagram for this last equation is shown in figure 34,
from which we obtain
1
1
1
~i =~ ' ~2 = 8 ' and hence the approximationszelP 6 and
1
1
z=e2P~_ . To find the values of e I we substitute z = e.p 6 i n t o
I
p2 _ 2z6p
to the
of the Newton
giving e I = 6/~~
If we substitute
O.891
=
exp
1
e2P 8
(j2kn), k=O,1,2,3,4,5.
6
into
25z 14  2z6p = 0 t
we obtain
e 2 = 8/0.08
to the
0.729 exp
~o
LQ
~o
Q.
m7
T~
~D
m~
~Q
O
c~
129
Im (s)
. . . .
40
20
J~
. . . . . .
.....
20
4 0 "Re'(S)
20
40
a)
40
20
R (sl
(b)
Figure 35. Asymptotic behaviour of the optimal characteristic
frequency loci (plus right halfplane image)displayed
on the Riemann surface domain of q(s)
(a) sheet 1 of the surface
(b)sheet 2 of the surface
130
If we now substitute back for s, and take only left halfplane solutions, we obtain the following expressions
asymptotic behaviour of the optimal characteristic
for the
frequency
loci
s~l.12 [ e x p

i
( j ~
k~ )]j p ~ ,k =
2,3,4
and
s~ 1.37 [ e x p
I
j (w+2kz)] p 8 , k = 2,3,4,5.
8
The optimal
References
Trans.
i]
2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
D.H. Owens,
rootloci",
6]
[7]
McGrawHill,
New
U. Shaked, "The angles of departure and approach of the rootloci in linear multivariable systems", Int. J. Control, 23,
445457, 1976.
G.A. Bliss, "Algebraic Functions",
(reprint of 1933 original).
1966
131
[8]
[9]
[i0]
[ii]
[12]
7.
A feedback
Sometimes
or damage;
due to ageing,
in other instances
economic reasons,
in a control
is uncertain perhaps
The stability
deterioration,
it may be desirable,
to change a p a r a m e t e r value.
for
In both
the relative
stability
gain functions
and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
In this Chapter c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
are introduced,
root loci and
Nyquist
frequency
parameter
'parametric'
functions:
functions
'parametric'
can be determined.
In the final section of this chapter a few tentative
proposals
7.1
and suggestions
Characteristic
freqUency
and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
parameter
functions
The feedback c o n f i g u r a t i o n
36, where A(k2,k3,...,kq),
considered
B(k2,k3,...,kq),
is shown in figure
C ( k 2 , k 3 , . . . k q)
(ql)
real,
t i m e  i n v a r i a n t parameters
and k I is
133
a scalar,
timeinvariant
gain parameter
~ID(k2.....kq),l
The closedloop
are solutions
of
det
[ si n  S(k) ] =
(7.1. i)
where
S (k) ~A (k 2 .... ,kq) B (k 2 .... kq)~lllm+D(k2
is the closedloop
....
parameters
are substituted
into equation
a complex variable,
If
as
1:34
defines
and kj(s).
characteristic
algebraic
function
of exposition
a pair of algebraic
The algebraic
frequency
function
will be regarded
functions [ i],
function
s(kj)
kj(s)
is called
as
is called
to kj,
the characteristic
the
and the
parameter
for k .
(Note that the characteristic frequency
3
s(g) and the characteristic gain function g(s),
function
introduced
in chapter
3, are equivalent
to s(kll)
and
kl(S)i respectively).
The branches
variation
of the closedloop
clearly define
root loci.
the
to kj, and
Alternatively,
contours
Nyquist
loci or characteristic
branches
of k.(s)
]
Alternatively,
parameter
as s traverses
loci which
the imaginary
the characteristic
parameter
contours
surface
for s(kj)
for k..
3
If, for a particular
axes.
loci can be
of s(kj)
are the
on the Riemann
the parameter
surface
values
system,
introduced.
we can determine
with respect
surfaces.
generalizations
to stability
which,
by looking
are
135
?.2
of s(kj)
on the p a r a m e t e r
surface
Parameter
min{d.:
i
l
is defined as
surface
Let
the corresponding
phase margin
7.3
(characteristic parameter
is defined as min{~i:
l
Then the p a r a m e t e r
Example
In this section an inverted p e n d u l u m p o s i t i o n i n g
(see figure
37) is considered
system
analysed
136
ndutum
PlV~ll
kJ
/I/I////
iage
k2
Cannon[3],
by the f o l l o w i n g
x(t)
where
u(t)
and E l g e r d [ 4 ] .
linearized
~F
~
the m o v e m e n t
equation[2]
ro]u(t )
I~ I
(7.3.1)
I 
l:I
o
is a force e x e r t e d
with
x(t)+
be m o d e l l e d
can
state d i f f e r e n t i a l
The s y s t e m
and S i v a n
F is the f r i c t i o n
coefficient
by
L'
J + mL 2
mL
(7.3.2)
137
w h e r e m is the m a s s of the p e n d u l u m ;
the p i v o t
L is the d i s t a n c e
to the c e n t r e of g r a v i t y of the p e n d u l u m ;
is the m o m e n t of i n e r t i a of the p e n d u l u m w i t h
from
and J
r e s p e c t to
the c e n t e of g r a v i t y .
The s y s t e m is s t a b i l i z a b l e
using state
f e e d b a c k of the
form
u(t)
(7.3.3)
= Kx(t)
and u s n g the n u m e r % c a l v a l u e s
F
i
kg I
L'
(7.3.4)
=
11.65 s
L' =
2
O.842m
it can be f o u n d [2] t h a t
= [86.81, n.21,
stabilizes
118.4,  3 3 4 4 ]
the l i n e a r i z e d s y s t e m p l a c i n g
poles at  4 . 7 0 6 ~ j
(7.3.s)
the c l o s e d  l o o p
1.382 and  1 . 9 0 2 ~ j 3 . 4 2 0 .
affect
of the m a s s
magnitude
from w h i c h
a b o u t an o p e r a t i n g p o i n t
surface,
four s h e e t s
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n s t a n t p h a s e
c o n t o u r s of s(M),
are s h o w n in f i g u r e s
the f o l l o w i n g s t a b i l i t y m a r g i n s
parameter
(mass)
parameter
(mass) p h a s e m a r g i n = 60
and
3841,
are o b t a i n e d :
g a i n m a r g i n = 1 kg
The g a i n m a r g i n of ikg c o r r e s p o n d s
mass to zero b e f o r e
The
to r e d u c i n g
i n s t a b i l i t y occurs.
the c a r r i a g e
The p a r a m e t e r
138
~.
:~(M)
,.,~
"l'r~(l~l)l
~L   ] 0
~ ~0
4,
ifD
70
,z ReC~
t I0
"~C
5"d~
4
139
J..~cr43
M~
~.C
IOaB
18o"
]
4. o
1"70
...~c
,4o~
140
for stability,
indicates
7.4
of 2.125 kg.
Future research
It is thought that parameter
in which a p a r t i c u l a r p a r a m e t e r
range of altitudes.
controllers
suffers
For example,
for
large variations
the controller of an
satisfactorily
over a wide
(i)
(ii)
to obtain an altitude
interpolation",
(iii)
system.
dependent
at a number of altitudes,
controller by "matrix
and finally
surface".
and frequency.
To obtain stability
problem,
that v a l u a b l e
functions
but
is a c o m p l i c a t e d
significance.
It is felt
of several
complex variables.
and m u l t i  d i m e n s i o n a l
digital
as image processing,
filters
dimensional
are used w i d e l y
and geophysics
digital filters
in many fields,
for the p r o c e s s i n g
Twosuch
of seismic,
threedimensional
[5].
filters in holography.
for example,
The stability
tests
141
a deeper understanding
may
lead to s u i t a b l e
possibly
of t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s
adaption
by c o n t r o l e n g i n e e r s
for u s e in the c o n t r o l
field;
in the s t u d y of s t a b i l i t y u n d e r m u l t i  p a r a m e t e r
variations.
A constant
theme throughout
a s s o c i a t i o n of a m u l t i v a r i a b l e
more
algebraic
appropriate
algebraic
with
s y s t e m w i t h one or p o s s i b l y
f u n c t i o n s e a c h of w h i c h
Riemann
function
"handles",
surface.
A Riemann
is t o p o l o g i c a l l y
surface
[6]
to be an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
it m a y be r e l a t e d
of a m u l t i v a r i a b l e
of s i n g l e  i n p u t ,
output
singleoutput
zero,
for an
to a s p h e r e
is k n o w n as the
The g e n u s n u m b e r m a y p r o v e
of a s y s t e m and it is felt
that
systems.
is e f f e c t i v e l y
a set
single
(one sheeted)
frequency
trivial
to r e d u c i n g
is, the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n
A singleinput,
so that to d e c o u p l e
a multivariahle
an m  s h e e t e d
Riemann
w i t h a g e n u s n u m b e r g r e a t e r t h a n or e q u a l to zero,
to a set of
Consequently
the e s t a b l i s h m e n t
point
equivalent
s y s t e m to a s y s t e m w h i c h
s y s t e m w o u l d be e q u i v a l e n t
surface,
surface
to " d e c o u p l i n g " ,
s y s t e m has a c o r r e s p o n d i n g
s u r f a c e of genus
is d e f i n e d on an
and the n u m b e r of h a n d l e s
g e n u s n u m b e r of the
that
trivial Riemann
singularities
topological
of r e l a t i o n s h i p s
as the g e n u s number)
line of r e s e a r c h .
interesting relationship
between branchsuch
and decoupling
In a p p e n d i x
is d e v e l o p e d w h i c h
p o i n t on a g a i n s u r f a c e c o r r e s p o n d s
shows
an
that a b r a n c h
to a b r a n c h p o i n t or
s t a t i o n a r y p o i n t on the c o r r e s p o n d i n g
v i c e versa.
e a c h of zero genus.
(whose n a t u r e a n d l o c a t i o n d e t e r m i n e
properties
c o u l d be a f r u i t f u l
surfaces
frequency
surface
and
142
References
[i]
G.A.Bliss,
"Algebraic Functions", Dover, New York,1966
(reprint of 1933 original).
[2]
[3]
[4]
O.I.Elgerd,
"Control Systems Theory",
New York,
1967.
[ 53
E. I. Jury,
"Inners and Stability of Dynamical Systems",
Wiley,
New York,
1974.
[ 6]
G. Springer,
"Introduction to Riemann Surfaces",
AddisonWesley,
Reading,
Mass., 1957.
McGrawHill,
142
References
[i]
G.A.Bliss,
"Algebraic Functions", Dover, New York,1966
(reprint of 1933 original).
[2]
[3]
[4]
O.I.Elgerd,
"Control Systems Theory",
New York,
1967.
[ 53
E. I. Jury,
"Inners and Stability of Dynamical Systems",
Wiley,
New York,
1974.
[ 6]
G. Springer,
"Introduction to Riemann Surfaces",
AddisonWesley,
Reading,
Mass., 1957.
McGrawHill,
143
Appendix
i.
Definition
Let A(q,v)
A(q,v)
where
of an a l g e b r a i c
be a p o l y n o m i a l
function
in q of the form
{fi(v):
polynomial
in v w i t h
numbers.
T h e n an a l g e b r a i c
defined
for v a l u e s
(Al.1)
i=l,2,...,m}
coefficients
is itself
in the d o m a i n of c o m p l e x
function
is a f u n c t i o n
q(v)
of v in the c o m p l e x v p l a n e by an e q u a t i o n
of the form
A(q,v)
= O
The p o l y n o m i a l
with
(AI.2)
A(q,v)
coefficients
when considered
function
can be r e w r i t t e n
which
are t h e m s e l v e s
in this w a y e q u a t i o n
which
neighbourhood
of v
expansions
It is a s s u m e d
an i r r e d u c i b l e
are called
o
(AI.2)
A p p e n d i x 2.
has
and in the
are r e p r e s e n t a b l e
by p o w e r
would
in
(q,v),
as a p r o d u c t
then d e f i n e
or t a l g e b r a i c
In this a p p e n d i x
that A(q,v)
in
any m  s q u a r e m a t r i x
The m e t h o d
(q,v).
of t p o l y n o m i a l s
t algebraic
functions
method
is
If
in
(q,v),
functions
to the i r r e d u c i b l e
a proposed
is
or more p o l y n o m i a l s
A reduction
form.
(AI.2)
of q(v),
in the above d e f i n i t i o n
of two
canonical
an a l g e b r a i c
[i].
was e x p r e s s i b l e
reducing
in q, and
defines
equation
branches
the b r a n c h e s
polynomial
not the p r o d u c t
equation
in v
v(q).
m solutions
A(q,v)
polynomials
(Ai.2)
series
as a p o l y n o m i a l
rational canonical
is g i v e n
to its i r r e d u c i b l e
u s e d is a v a r i a t i o n
for
rational
on that g i v e n
form
144
by A y r e s
square matrix.
matrix
The r a t i o n a l
G is s i m i l a r
diagonal
rather
the r a t i o n a l
blocks
outlined
canonical
to the i r r e d u c i b l e
correspond
for f i n d i n g
form e x c e p t
factors.
factors
the r a t i o n a l
canonical
X,GX,G
of gIG,
given
form is
definitions.
If the v e c t o r s
X,GX,G2X,...,GtIx
are l i n e a r l y
that its
The p r o c e d u r e
b e l o w along w i t h some n e c e s s a r y
Definitions:
form of a
form of a s q u a r e
to the i n v a r i a n t
than the i r r e d u c i b l e
b y A y r e s [2]
canonical
(A2.1)
independent
but
X,...,GtIx,GtX
(A2.1)
(A2.2)
is c a l l e d a c h a i n of length
t having
as its leader.
Procedure:
(i)
For a g i v e n m  s q u a r e
for all m  v e c t o r s
(ii)
over
length
(any m e m b e r
preceding members
which
matrix
of a chain C m of m a x i m u m
length
F ;
leader of a c h a i n Cm_ 1 of m a x i m u m
of w h i c h
is l i n e a r l y
are l i n e a r l y
G over any f i e l d F :
for all m  v e c t o r s
length
(any m e m b e r
preceding
vectors
members
over
of w h i c h
and those
which
of the v e c t o r s
of the
over F
;
m
let Xm_ 2 be the l e a d e r of a chain Cm_ 2 of m a x i m u m
(iii)
independent
independent
is l i n e a r l y
of C
independent
of the
are l i n e a r l y
independent
of the v e c t o r s
of C m and Cm_ 1 ;
and so on.
E =
Then,
for
t.I
[ Xj,GXj .... G 3 ~ j + l , G X j +
...
tj+liXj+l ;
1 .... ,G
t i
; X m , G X m ..... G m
Xm ]
145
the chains of m a x i m u m
form of G.
length are used
factors.
of the irreducible
characteristic
equations
canonical
form.
maximum
Therefore,
factors
rational
length those of m i n i m u m
the
rational
canonical
form Q.
is that no
m a x i m u m or m i n i m u m
except that in
respectively.
subspaces
Therefore
dimension.
It also happens
dimensional
invariant
subspace
eigenvalue,
a tdimensional
suhspaces
(eigenvector)
invariant
of those of m i n i m u m dimensions)
of
picks out an
subspace
(s+3)
(s+l) 2
(s3)
(s+l)
i
(s+l)
rational
canonical
(s+2) 2
(s+l)
2
(s+l)
 (s+2)
  2
2 (s+l)
s+l
form of
146
Let
( O 0 1 )t,
1
then GX = (s+l)
and
Let Y = ( O 1 0
then Gy = [
s+2
(s+l) 2
2
(s+l) 2
(s+2)
I
2 (s+l) 2
and G2y = [
s+2
(s+l)3
s2
(s+]93
(s+2)
2(s+i)3
1
 (s~
s
GY + (s+l)3 Y
chains.
The transformation
[x
='o
s+2
(s+l)
O
2
(s+l)
1
2
2
(s+2)
2 (s+l)
and
Q(s)
EI(s)G(s)E (s)
s+l
s
(s+l) 3
1
(s+l)
(g,s) = g
~(g,s)
= g
(s+l) g
(s+l)
Note that these are also obvious from the dependence relations
obtained when finding the chains of minimum length.
'r47
A~pendix
3.
The d i s c r i m i n a n t
In this a p p e n d i x
two m e t h o d s
are g i v e n for f i n d i n g
the d i s c r i m i n a n t of an e q u a t i o n of the f o r m
~(g,s)
Method
= bo(S)gt + bl(s)gtl+
1 (Barnett [ 3 ] )
The r e s u l t a n t
a(g)
... +bt(s)
R[ a(g),c(g)]
of two p o l y n o m i a l s
and c ( g ) , g i v e n by
nl+
a(g)
a o g n + alg
c(g)
Cog
where
... + a n
mi
+ clg
+ ... + c m
e C ,is the d e t e r m i n a n t
ai,c i
aO
aI
a2
...
an
aI
...
an_ 1
an
m
rows
R[a(g),c(g)]
.oo
. , o C
a i
n
Cm_ 1
cm
co
c I ..
cI
c 2 0 . cm
O
n
ooo
rows
co
The p o l y n o m i a l s
a(g)
C1
if and o n l y if the
R [ a(g),c(g) ]
..
a n d c(g)
d e g r e e g r e a t e r t h a n zero)
determinant
c2
is zero,
be d e n o t e d by a' (g).
polymonial
a(g)
order
that a
zero.
L e t the d e r i v a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t
a(g)
provided
(n+m)
(of
to g of the p o l y n o m i a l
T h e n the d i s c r i m i n a n t
is the d e t e r m i n a n t
of the
D g ( a o , a l , . . . , a n) d e f i n e d
148
by
_
Dg(ao'''''an)
[ a(g)
a' (g) ]
The p o l y n o m i a l
a(g)
the d i s c r i m i n a n t
where
factor
a polynomial
the coefficients
g is found
in s.
{bi(s)
(s) again
_
Dg(S)
called
b (s)
are all
of this p o l y n o m i a l
from D g ( b o , b l , . . . , b t) as d e f i n e d
t > O
:i=l,2,...,t}
The d i s c r i m i n a n t
b o , . . . , b t by bo(S),...,bt(s)
function
if
of the type
= b o ( S ) g t + b l ( S ) g tI +...+bt(s)
polynomials
if and only
D g ( a o , . . . , a n) is zero.
Now consider
@(g,s)
has a r e p e a t e d
above
respectively.
Thus
the d i s c r i m i n a n t
in
by r e p l a c i n g
there
is a
and defined
by
R[~(g,s),~'(g,s)]
where
of
#'(g,s)
is the d e r i v a t i v e
with
respect
to g
~(g,s)
Method
(Sansone
and G e r r e t s e n
Consider
the p o l y n o m i a l
a(g)
dog
where
ai e ~
algni
[4])
+ ... + a n ,
then the d i s c r i m i n a n t
n > O
of a(g)
is given by
the e x p r e s s i o n
Dg(ao'''''an )
where
ao2n2p
P is a d e t e r m i n a n t
P
given by
So
~I
""
G1
o2
...
{~
(~

ani gn
and the elements
On1
a2n_ 2
: i = 1,2,...,2n2}
are functions
of
149
the
{a.
l
coefficients
: i = O,l,...,n}
=
o
The
elements
o1,...,an_
On,...,a2n_2
can
aI
ao~ 1
2a 2 + al(l 1
ao~ 2
aoan_ 1 =
...
aoa n
ana I
an_lO 2
...
aoOn+ 1 =
a n_ i m + l +
..
now
as
has
zero,
elements
polynomial
defined
above
by
respectively.
repeated
where
are
this
factors
P is
determinant
of
the
aoOn+ m
...
given
replacing
of
by
+ bt(s)
in g is
if a n d
functions
The
. 2t2
DO
(S)
the
~(g,s)
the polynomial
by bo(S),...,bt(s)
is
...
an_l$1
D g ( b o , . . . , b t)
Dg(S)
from
discriminant
therefore
found
anO o
Consider
The
be
from
anO m
~(g,s)
and
(nl)an_ 1 + an_2~ 1
and
found
bo,...,b t
polynomial
only
~(g,s)
if
a matrix
coefficients
from
whose
{bi(s)
: i = O,l,2,...,t}
150
A p p e n d i x 4.
(i.e. there is
it is still a p r o b l e m to choose a
In this a p p e n d i x
The
Also,
so
151
C o n t i n u i n g this process
I m (s)
5 plane
x
indicates continuity
between eigenvalues
Re (s)
152
figures
43
(a) and
(b).
Eigenvalues
of s in the upper h a l f  p l a n e
in the lower h a l f  p l a n e
across
corresponding
are c o m p l e x
and t h e r e f o r e
conjugate
continuity
to v a l u e s
to those
of e i g e n v a l u e s
if the e i g e n v a l u e s
Therefore
real axis
is n e c e s s a r y w h e n e v e r
are complex.
Again
a cut a l o n g
situated
point
as s h o w n in f i g u r e
x indicates continuity
between eigenvalues
i
I
the
to00
i Cut
~~
Cut
BrQnch points
/
< I"
Branch
~T~
t
~
point
(a)
(b)
Figure 43. Cuts parallel to the imaginary axis
(a) finite (b) infinite
Cut.
Im (s)
Cut
R = Real invalue
44.
153
The stitching
obvious by matching
eigenvalues
in general,
is
sheets
the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
Computationally
sorting the e i g e n v a l u e s
of real
c a l c u l a t i o n and
to %he imaginary
cuts are
G(s)
5s2
3s18
for
2sl]
s8J
46.
1.25(s+i) (s+2)
the arbitrariness
The
this
154
Ira(s}
,Y,
X
~K
S plane
X
)
:K
I
:_
Re
is)
155
.....
Root
Cut
Cut
3_o
loci
156
,,*~.~
Root
loci
Cut
e
;~;w.~'~': R o o t loci
Cut
157
Appendix
5.
in the literature,
valued analytic
Evgrafov
chapters
4 and 5, an appropriately
Argument
is developed here.
A5.1
Therefore,
although
Introduction
The extension required is nontrivial,
problems
to be overcome.
in general,
source of difficulty
consider a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
associated with a
from
g(s)
2 2
gain function
Further
[6; 7] of the a s s o c i a t e d
Riemann surface
(splane)
number sphere),
figures
(Riemann
[6];
does
52 and 53.
and
a torus,
as illustrated
in
corresponds
to the interiors
of the
158
[s)~
~=Bronchpoint
between
159
connected
closed
of the
of the Cauchy
Principle
in a derivation
is more directly
function;
in its interior.
in
of residues
of a
of a region
This p r o b l e m is
Generalized
form of Cauchy's
Residue Theorem
is a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n
of Cauchy's
function,
generalization
work
Such a
Two observations
may be useful
surface theory to
Each n o n  s i n g u l a r place
surface of an algebraic
function
(or point)
f(s)
on the Riemann
is uniquely defined by a
160
pair of values
T(f,s)
equation
and f is defined.
(ii)
The Riemann
an orientable
positive
surface.
for an algebraic
visualize
some region ~ .
this procedure
the boundary ~
function
to "enclose"
lies
surface
is
define a
can be traversed so as
is to imagine
on a t w o  d i m e n s i o n a l
manifold
in which
The positive
which
someone walking
side.
will
be the Riemann
and ~ a portion o f ~
having a boundary
surface of an algebraic
not n e c e s s a r i l y
consisting
function
except possibly
is analytic on
~, we have
2~j"
~(f,s)ds
Z residues
~(f,s)
in
(A5.2. i)
of
~.
is traversed
in the positive
sense with
161
To derive
the e x t e n d e d A r g u m e n t
apply the G e n e r a l i z e d
where
f' (s) d e n o t e s
Residue
Principle
Theorem
the d e r i v a t i v e
we w i l l
to the f u n c t i o n
of f(s)
with
first
f' (s)/f(s),
respect
to s,
to give
1 /~
2~j
~
Note that
which
f' (s) ds
f(s)
are r e f e r r e d
For the p u r p o s e s
also e x c l u d e
calculate
A5.3
of d e r i v i n g
the r e s i d u e s
Calculation
or b r a n c h
an A r g U m e n t
from
zeros
represented
by a series w h i c h
clearer
step
is to
are s i n g u l a r i t i e s
as this
section
all the b r a n c h p o i n t s
of f(s)
(not i n c l u d i n g
with a b r a n c h point)
For a pole Pi of o r d e r t p i t h e
where
of f(s)
of a pole or a zero
are a s s o c i a t e d
f(s)
we w i l l n o w
are relevant.
those w h i c h
i.e.
Principle
~.
~.
and b r a n c h p o i n t s
In the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
f(s)
(either of
The next
in
represented
points
of R e s i d u e s
We w i l l c o n s i d e r
zeros of f(s)
in
on the b o u n d a r y
~.
of f' (s)/f(s)
f'(s)
f(s) , a fact w h i c h w i l l b e c o m e
progresses.
f'(s)
f(s)
of
to as s i n g u l a r places)
The poles,
of
= Z residues
defines
f(s)
a singlevalued
algebraic
function
can be
function.
can be
by
E
n=t
a n ( S  P i )n, a_t
Pi
~(s) t
(sPi) Pi
(A5.3.1)
Pi
(A5.3.2)
is a n a l y t i c
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
162
of Pi"
This gives
t
f'(s)
f(s)
Pi
~pi
~'(s)
(A5.3.3)
~(s)
and since
<s)
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
the f u n c t i o n
is a n a l y t i c
~(s)
of D.
"l
t
at
Pi
Pi"
For a zero s. of o r d e r
i
be r e p r e s e n t e d by the series
the a l g e b r a i c
function
can
zi
co
f(s)
Cn (szi)n,
n=t
ct
(A5.3.4)
z.
Z.
1
t
i.e.
f(s)
where
of
e(z i) ~ 0 and
z..
This
zi
(s  z i)
(A5.3.5)
e(s)
8(s)
is a n a l y t i c
in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
gives
t
f'(s)
f(s)
zi
(s  z i)
at
z.
1
f'(s)
f(s)
has a s i m p l e ~ l e
(A5.3.6)
of r e s i d u e
z..
1
To d e t e r m i n e
the r e s i d u e s
necessary
to m a k e
procedure
is as follows.
a change
In the n e i g h b o u r h o o d
the a l g e b r a i c
form [8],
S' (s)
e(s)
function
at a b r a n c h p o i n t
of v a r i a b l e [6,
page
of a finite b r a n c h
can be r e p r e s e n t e d
it is
81].
The
p o i n t b.
l
by a series
of the
163
oo
f(s)
dn(r  s/ ~ i
)n
(A5.3.7)
n___o~
expansion
f(s)
Similarly
if
n~_t~id n(r s  ~ i ) n ,
the
branch
point
is
d_tbpi ~ O
zero
of
(A5.3.8)
order
tb
z,
we
1
have that
o0
f(s)
Z b dn(r s  ~ i ) n
n=t z.
1
, dtb
z.l
(A5.3.9)
n , do
(AS. 3. iO)
otherwise
0o
f(s)
dn(r s _ ~ i )
n=O
These expansions
suitable
are multivalued
for determining
residues.
the substitution
s = b. + x r
(A5.3.11)
(A5.3.8,
9 and i0)
become
f(x)
Z
dnxn , d_tb ~
n=t~i
Pi
(A5.3.12)
f(x)
n~tb
(A5.3.13)
Zi
and
dnxn'
dtb
Z,
164
co
f(x)
darn, d O ~
(A5.3.14)
n=O
respectively,
f(x)
where
f(b i
it is to be understood that
+
The substitution
x r)
(A5.3.15)
it can be represented by a
series expansion.
By definition
in a n e i g h b o u r h o o d
(residue)bl
f(s)
of b. except possibly at b. itself is
1
1
A 1
= 249
Sf'(s)
 cf(~
ds
(A5.3.16)
(A5.3.11)
1
27
is
If we substitute
for s
we find that
A
(residue)b. =
i
_
f'(s)
f(s)
N of b i in which
1 / f ' (s)
2~j I f ( s )
ds
C
f' (x) dx
f(x)
as
ds
c
X
1 f
f' (x)
dx
2~j , / f(x)
C
x
where C
is a closed p o s i t i v e l y
(A5.3.17)
o~ented
xplane bounding a n e i g h b o u r h o o d
f'( (s)
of s~
f
residue of
of the origin.
The residue
equal to the
165
f'(x)
f(x)
is e a s i l y o b t a i n e d f r o m its s e r i e s e x p a n s i o n . F o l l o w i n g
(x) in the
as b e f o r e we n o t e t h a t f'
f(x[
the same p r o c e d u r e
neighbourhood
(i)
of the o r i g i n has:
t b
, if the b r a n c h
Pi
p o i n t is a p o l e of o r d e r t b
; or
Pi
a s i m p l e p o l e w i t h r e s i d u e t; , if the b r a n c h
(ii)
p o i n t is a zero of o r d e r t b
l;
zi
otherwise
A5.4
f'(x)
f(x)
is a n a l y t i c .
Extended Principle
Combining
equation
the r e s u l t s of s e c t i o n A 5 . 3 w i t h that of
(A5.2.2)
2~j
of the A r g u m e n t .
we h a v e t h a t
f(s)
Pi
Pi
~n
=
where
# Z
and
~ P
~P
are r e s p e c t i v e l y
in
(A5.4.1)
the total n u m b e r of p o l e s
~ e n c l o s e d by the b o u n d a r y %~ t r a v e r s e d
sense w i t h r e s p e c t to
~,
s u r f a c e of the a l g e b r a i c
WZ
and w h e r e ~ lies
function
f(s).
Note
indicate.
The l e f t  h a n d
side of e q u a t i o n
(4.1)
is e q u i v a l e n t
of a c u r v e
set F
F is the image of ~
f(s).
D e n o t i n g this n e t sum of c l o c k w i s e e n c i r c l e m e n t s
N(F,O),
we f i n a l l y o b t a i n the r e q u i r e d e x t e n d e d P r i n c i p l e
the A r g u m e n t
N(F,O)
in the f o r m
=
# Z
~ p
to
(A5.4.2)
under
by
of
166
Appendix
6.
Multivariable
equation
pivots
~(g,s)=O
C o n s i d e r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
~(g,s)
equation
and a s s u m e we h a v e
characteristic
from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
(A6. i)
f o u n d an a p p r o x i m a t i o n
frequency
loci a b o u t s =m,
for a b r a n c h of the
as k ~m, of the f o r m
s  bk ~
(A6.2)
If p is the p i v o t
s = p +
to this a s y m p t o t e
bk ~
1
or
k
corresponding
(A6.3)
(A64)
The d e p e n d e n c e
equation
(6.1.5),
F(k,s)
Therefore
of the c l o s e d  l o o p p o l e s on k is g i v e n by
i.e.
= O
(A6.5)
substituting
obtain
a relationship
k and
p.
for k or s in e q u a t i o n
between
s and
S i n c e the o r d e r of s w i l l
the case of s u b s t i t u t i n g
(A6.4)
Z(p,s)
we r e q u i r e
for k.
into equation
in g e n e r a l be m u c h
(A6.5), we w i l l c o n s i d e r
Substituting
for s =~,
for k from
(A6.5) we o b t a i n the e q u a t i o n
(A6.6)
= 0
p
(A6.5) we
p or a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
g r e a t e r t h a n the o r d e r of k in e q u a t i o n
equation
then for k =~
and so w e put
s=z
i
in e q u a t i o n
(A6.6)
to g i v e
Z(p,s)
= Z ( p , z I) = ztn(p,z)
w h e r e t is the m a x i m u m o r d e r of s in
~(p,O)
= O
= o
(A6.6).
(A6.8)
The e q u a t i o n
(A6.8)
167
p.
Example
Consider the openloop gain matrix
G(s)=
s4s3+2s225s+29
~s311s229s+92
2Os2+35s+70
33s2170s+l18
41s2s91
F(s,k)=~4s3+2s225s+29)+(s3+22s2199s+210)k+(33s+594)k2=O
and substituting for k in this we obtain
Z(p,s)=332(s4_s3+2s2_25s+29)_33(_s3+22s2_199s+210) (_2ps +p2)
33s2(22s2199s+210)+(33s+594) (4s3p+6s2p24Sp3+p4)
+594s4=0
Putting s=z 1 we find
~(p,z)=332(lz+2z225z3+29z 4)
33(l+22z199z2+210z3) (2p+p2z)33(22199z+210z 2)
+(33+594z) (40+6zp24z2p3+z3p4)+594=O
188
Therefore
(p, O) = 3 3 2  6 6 p  3 3 x 2 2 + 3 3 4 p + 5 9 4 = O
f r o m w h i c h we
find
p=14.5
Appendix
7.
Association
points
on the v a i n and f r e q u e n c y s u r f a c e s
Let us s u p p o s e t h a t
f r o m an o p e n  l o o p g a i n m a t r i x
we h a v e o b t a i n e d an a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n
gain variable
g, and the c o m p l e x
F ~ f(g,s)
G(s),
in t e r m s of the c o m p l e x
frequency variable
= O
s, g i v e n b y
(A7.1)
an d stationary
following equations
i n v o l v i n g the
of F:
and
t ~F ~
<T J

CA7.3
The v a l u e s
(A7.1 and
of s s i m u l a t a n e o u s l y
the v a l u e s of g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y
satisfying equation
on the f r e q u e n c y
satisfying equations
b e i n g the b r a n c h p o i n t s on the g a i n
surface;
(A7.1and
.3)
surface.
If we c o n s i d e r g as a f u n c t i o n of s, the t o t a l d e r i v a t i v e
of F w i t h r e s p e c t to s is
dF
ds
~F
Alternatively
dF
~F
dg
ds
we can c o n s i d e r
~F
SF
s
N o w from e q u a t i o n
(A7.4)
s as a f u n c t i o n of g, a n d o b t a i n
ds
g
(A7.1), F is i d e n t i c a l l y
zero and
therefore
169
its total d e r i v a t i v e s
(A7.4 and
m u s t also be zero,
so that
from e q u a t i o n s
8F
DE
g
dg
(A7.6)
ds
and

ds
d~
If we have a b r a n c h
(A7.3)
(A7.7)
is s a t i s f i e d
p o i n t on the gain
and h e n c e
from e q u a t i o n
surface
(A7.6)
equation
we have
that
(~_FF~
%~gJ s
which
or
dg
ds
b r a n c h p o i n t or a s t a t i o n a r y
surface
branch
surface
(A7.7)
s u r f a c e we have e i t h e r
point
corresponding
to the gain
point.
Alternatively
equation
if we have a b r a n c h
(A7.2)
is s a t i s f i e d
p o i n t on the f r e q u e n c y
and h e n c e
from equation
we have that
(~~F
)s g =
which
ds
dg
or
p o i n t or a s t a t i o n a r y
surface
point
corresponding
to the f r e q u e n c y
b r a n c h point.
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[3]
S.Barnett,
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1947.
"Theory of Functions",
Van Nostrand
Addison
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