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LANDOLT-BORNSTEIN

Numerical Data and Functional Relationships


in Scienceand Technology

Nau Series
Editor in Chief: 0. Madelung
Group III: Crystal and Solid StatePhysics

Volume 26
Diffusion in Solid Metals
and Alloys
H. Bakker - H.P. Bonzel - C.M. Bruff * M.A. Dayananda
W. Gust - J. Horvath * I. Kaur - G.V. Kidson - A.D. Le Claire
H. Mehrer - G.E. Murch * G. Neumann - N. Stolica - N.A. Stolwijk

Editor: H. Mehrer

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York


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ISBN 3-540-50886-4
ISBN o-387-50886-4

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Kristall- und Festk6rperphysik.
NE: Landolt, Hans [Begr.]; Hellwege, Karl-Heinz IHrsg.1; Madelung. Otfried [Hrsg.]; PT
Ed. 26. Diffusion in festen Metallen und Legierungen/H. Bakker... Hrsg.: H. Mehrer. - 1990

ISBN 3-540-50886-4(Berlin . . .)
ISBN o-387-50886-4 (New York.. .)
NE: Bakker, H. IMitverf.1; Mehrer, Helmut B-Ins.1

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Editor
H. Mehrer

Institut fur Metallforschung, Universitit Miinster, W-4400 Miinster,


FRG

Contributors
H. Bakker

Natuurkundig Laboratorium der Universiteit van Amsterdam,


1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
H. P. Bonzel
Institut fur Grenzfllchenforschung und Vakuumphysik, KFA Jiilich,
W-5170 Jiilich, FRG
C. M. Bruff
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University
of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
M. A. Dayananda School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette,
IN 47907, USA
W. Gust
Max-Planck-Institut fur Metallforschung, Institut fur Werkstoffwissenschaften, W-7000 Stuttgart 1, FRG
J. Horveth
W-7000 Stuttgart 1, FRG
I. Kaur
Max-Planck-Institut fur Metallforschung, Institut fur Werkstoffwissenschaften, W-7000 Stuttgart 1, FRG
%. V. Kidson
Deep River, Ontario, KOJ IPO, Canada
A. D. Le Claire
Oxford Research Unit, The Open University, Boars Hill, Oxford
OX1 RDY, United Kingdom
H. Mehrer
Institut fur Metallforschung, Universitat Miinster, W-4400 Miinster,
FRG
G. E. Murch
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University
of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
G. Neumann
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie, FU Berlin, 1000Berlin 33, FRG
N. Stolica
Institut fiir Metallforschung, Universitat Miinster, W-4400 Mtinster,
FRG
N. A. Stolwijk
Institut fur Metallforschung, Universitlt Miinster, W-4400 Mtinster,
FRG

VIII

Preface

high precision became possible. Since then considerable experimental efforts have been
devoted to a systematic study of diffusion in all types of metals and alloys using radioactive tracers. In addition during the recent decades, the scientific development of other
techniques applicable in diffusion studies like electron microprobe analysis, secondary ion
mass spectroscopy, ion beam backscattering profiling, nuclear magnetic relaxation,
MEiBbauer spectroscopy, after effect measurements, etc., has been extraordinary. Because
of the historical development and the strict desire for a critical evaluation of the available
data, the reference lists in the various chapters start in general with references from
the 50s.
The critical compilation of data was done in collaboration with 13 experts from the
diffusion community and has resulted in tables and series of diagrams which present in
12 chapters data for the following properties: self- and impurity-diffusion in metallic
elements, self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys, chemical diffusion in binary and
ternary alloys, diffusion in amorphous alloys, diffusion of interstitial foreign atoms
like hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in metallic elements, mass and pressure
* dependence of diffusion, diffusion along dislocations, grain and interphase boundary
diffusion, and diffusion on metal surfaces. A general introductory chapter acquaints the
user of this volume of the basic concepts and experimental methods in the field.
The efforts of many people were involved in the preparation of this volume: It was
a great experience for me at the beginning, that most colleagues whom I asked were
indeed ready to make a contribution. The collaboration with coauthors continued to be
excellent. I am also grateful to them for many suggestions to the general introductory
chapter. The collaboration with the editor-in-chief, Professor O.Madelung, and with the
editorial staff of Landolt-Bernstein, in particular with Dr. W. Polzin, Mrs. I. Lenhart and
Mrs. R. Lettmann, was always encouraging. I also have benefited greatly over the years
from discussions with my colleagues in Miinster, Dr. N. A. Stolwijk, Dr. N. Stolica,
Professor Chr. Herzig, em. Professor Th. Heumann, Professor E. Nembach, with many
students who worked for their diploma or doctoral thesis and with the guest scientists
Dr. G. Erdelyi and Dr. J. Cermak. In the preparation of this volume during several years,
I have been helped by my secretary Mrs. Niehues-Korouma, by Dipl. Phys. W. Lerch and
Dip!. Phys. H. G. Hettwer, Mrs. G. Todt and Mr. M. Mevenkamp. I expressmy gratitude
to all these persons.
I am also grateful to Professor W. L. Johnson who invited me to spend several months in
1990 as a visiting professor at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena during a
sabattical leave from Mtinster. The accomplishment of the volume has benelitted from this
visit in many respects.
Last, but not least, I express my deep gratitude to my wife, Karin, and to my children,
Tobias, Julia, Simon and Lisa, for their moral support and their patience during many
weekends over several years.
Miinster, October 1990

Helmut Mehrer

Ref. p. 301

1.1 Ficks laws, flux of particles, isotropic and anisotropic diffusion

1 General introduction
1.1 Ficks laws, flux of particles, isotropic and anisotropic diffusion
The law governing diffusion processesand hence the redistribution of concentrations is Ficks first law,
which for an isotropic medium or a cubic crystal can be written as
J= -D grade.

(1.1)

J is the instantaneous flux of particles of a certain speciesand c is the concentration of the same species.The
negative sign in (1.1) indicates the opposite direction of the flux compared to the concentration gradient. The
factor of proportionality D is denoted as diffusion coeficient or as diffusivity.
Jis expressedin number of particles or moles per unit area and unit time and c in particles or moles per unit
volume. Consequently D has the dimension length2 time- l. In the international system of units (SIU) used in
this volume, diffusion coefficients are expressedin m 2s- . In the cgs-systemwhich is still used in the literature,
too, they are expressedin cm s-I . D depends on temperature, pressure and in general also on concentration.
Many metallic elements and alloys are cubic. Therefore, in many casesD is indeed a scalar quantity.
For anisotropic media and non-cubic crystals Ficks first law generalizes to
J= - BVc,

(I.3

where 9 is a symmetric second rank tensor denoted as the diffusion coefficient tensor. Equation (1.2)meansthat
the diffusion coefficient varies with direction. The diffusion flux is parallel to grade only along the three
orthogonal principal axes of diffusion. If x1, x2, xj denote these principal axes and J1, J, and J3 the pertaining
components of the diffusion flux, (1.2) may still be written as
JI=-D,;
J=-D
2

i
2 ax,

J,=-D,&.
3
D,, D,, D, denote the principal diffusion coefficients. In general the diffusion flux and grad c are not parallel.

However, if yl, yZ, y3 denote the direction cosines of grad c a diffusion coefficient for the direction (rl, yZ, y3)may
be defined as
(1.4)
D(Y,,Yz,Y~)=Y:.D~+Y~Dz+Y~D~.
Therefore, anisotropic diffusion is completely described by the three principal diffusion coefficients.
For crystals with orthorhombic and higher symmetry the principal axes of diffusion coincide with the axes
of crystallographic symmetry.
In uniaxial (tetragonal, hexagonal, trigonal) crystals with the unique axis parallel to the x, axis, we have
D, = D, =l=D,. The diffusion coefficients for both directions perpendicular to the unique axis are the sameand
are usually denoted as D,. The diffusion coefficient parallel to the unique axis is denoted as D,,. For uniaxial
crystals (1.4) reduces to
D(0) = D,, cos2 0 + D, sin2 8,
(I.3
where ~9is the angle between diffusion direction and crystal axis. For cubic crystals we have D, = D, = D, = D
and (1.2) reduces to (1.1).
Equation (1.1) and its three dimensional generalizations provide a formal definition of the diffusion coefhcient as the ratio of the flux and the concentration gradient. The steady state methods for measuring diffusion
are based directly on Ficks first law.

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

1.2.1 Sandwich solution and thin layer solution

[Ref. p. 30

In non-steady state situations the diffusion flux and the concentration vary with time t. In such situations
in addition to Ficks first law a balance equation is necessary.For particles which undergo no reactions this is
the equation of continuity

Combining (1.2) and (1.6) yields


8C

ar = div (3 Vc)

(1.7)

which is denoted as Ficks second law. When the concentration varies only along a certain direction denoted
by x (1.7) becomes

If furthermore D is independent of concentration and hence of position x in the sample (1.8) reduces to
(1.9)
For most diffusion experiments either (1.1) or its generalization to the anisotropic case(1.2),and in non-steady
state situations either (1.8) or (1.9), respectively provide appropriate descriptions of the diffusion process.

1.2 Solutions of diffusion equations for constant diffusivity


The diffusion coefficient is independent of concentration and position when diffusion occurs in chemically
homogeneoussystems.Such measurementsare possible e.g.through the use of radioactive tracer elements.Since
these measurementsrequire extremely small amounts of tracers, the system remains essentially homogeneous
during the diffusion. The diffusion of an interstitial solute in a metal or alloy solvent may be also described by
a constant D as long as the concentration differences are small. In section 1.2 some simple analytical solutions
of the equation (1.8) for various initial and boundary conditions are described. For more comprehensive
collections of solutions we refer to several textbooks [55H, 59C, 63S, 645,66A, 7X, 85P, 89Sl].

1.2.1 Sandwich solution and thin layer solution


A very thin layer of the diffusing speciesof total amount M per unit area is deposited at the boundary x = 0
between two identical samples. After diffusion for time t the concentration is described by
M

exp
(1.10)
2&E
provided that the thickness of the deposited layer is much smaller than 2(D t) *2. (1.10)is often also called either
instantaneous sowce solution or Gaussian concentration
profile. A plot of (1.10)in linear scalesis shown in Fig. 1
for 4 different values of 2 fi.
The quantity 2(0 t)12 is a measurefor the penetration depth and occurs in most
diffusion problems. It is often denoted as d@sion length.
Instantaneous source diffusion also occurs when a quantity M per unit area is placed as a source on the
surface of a sample and if the diffusing speciesis consumed only by diffusion into the sample.The concentration
profile is then given by
c(x, t) = ~

-- *
c(x,
t)=-& exp
( 4Xdt
>

(1.11)

The thin layer solution is often used in radiotracer experiments for the determination of D from the concentration profile (seesubsection 1.6.1.2.1).The thin layer solution differs by a factor 2 from the sandwich solution
since in (1.11) diffusion occurs into a half-space.
Casesin which the thin film condition is violated becauseof low solubility of the diffusing speciesare not
uncommon in impurity diffusion. In such casesoften (1.14)can be used instead of(l.11). For a detailed discussion
of solubility-limited diffusion the reader is referred to [63 M].

Mehrer

Land&-B6mstein
New Series 111126

Ref. p. 301

1.2.2 Constant surface concentration and semi-infinite sample

0.6

Fig. 1. Instantaneous source (Gaussian) diffusion profiles.


The concentration normalized to the total amount Mis plotted versus penetration distance x for four different values of
the diffusion length 2 @.

0.5

1.0

1.5

x-

2.0

2.5

1.2.2 Constant surface concentration and semi-infinite sample


If at t = 0 the concentration in a semi-infinite sample was c(x, 0) = c0 and if at t > 0 the surface concentration is maintained at ~(0, t) = c, the appropriate solution is
c - c,

In (1.12)

(1.12)

= erf(x/2 J&)
co - c,

erfz = -?- 5 e-du


(1.13)
fro
denotes the error function. A sample may be considered as semi-infinite as long as (D t)l is very much smaller
than the sample dimension in diffusion direction.
For co = 0 (1.12) leads to
,
(1.14)
cfc, = erfc(x/2 JiYt)
where the complementary error function is defined by
erfcz = 1 - erfz.

(1.15)

Equation (1.14) describes the in-diffusion of a certain speciesfrom a surface concentration maintained at c,. A
plot of (1.14) in linear scales is shown in Fig. 2 for 4 different values of 2(Dt)/2. Figure 3a and 3b show
comparisons between the instantaneous source concentration profile (1.11)and the constant surface concentration profile (1.14) in logarithmic scales either as a function of the penetration distance or as a function of the
penetration distance squared.
For c, = 0 (1.12) leads to
c/co = erf(x@ @) .
(1.16)
(1.16)is the appropriate solution e.g.for the evaporation of a volatile solute element of initial concentration co
from a non-volatile solvent, or for the decarburization of a metal in an oxidizing atmosphere.
The diffusion flux per unit area which penetrates the surface is D cJ~
in the caseof (1.14)and - D co/
,/&% in the case of (1.16).The total amount of diffusing substance M(t) which penetrates into the sample is
&f(t) = 2c, JzJi

(1.17)

in case of (1.14) and the amount escaping from the sample in the case of (1.16) is
M(t) = 2c, JEqi

(1.18)

Equations (1.17)or (1.18)may be used in in- and out-diffusion experiments to determine D either from the total
amount of material taken up by or lost from a sample.
The solutions given in subsections 1.2.1and 1.2.2are applicable as long as (D t)1/2is very much smaller than
the sample dimensions in diffusion direction. Under such conditions the samplesmay be considered as infinite
or semi-infinite.
Land&-Bibstein
New Series III/26

1.2.3 Diffusion in a membrane

[Ref. p. 30

0.8
0.6
I L.7
:

0.4

0.2
2.5
i0
1.5
2.0
xFig. 2. Constant surface concentration (erfc) diffusion proIiles. The concentration normalized to the constant surface
conccntraction r/c, is plotted versusdistance from the surface
for four different values of the diffusion length 2 fi.
0.5

1.0-

1
10
;;I 10-2
II
; 10-s
u
lo-
10.5
0

0
1.5
3.0
k.5
6.0
15
9.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
30
b
a
I= x2/1,Lit z=x/zyzFig. 3. Instantaneous source (Gaussian) and constant surface concentration source (erfc) diffusion profiles in a semilogarithmic plot. The concentration normalized to the surface concentration is plotted in (a) versus the distance from the surface
normalized to the diffusion length z = x/2 ,/% and in (b) versus z*.

1.2.3 Diffusion in a membrane


In this subsection we consider two casesof one dimensional diffusion in a membrane of thickness L bounded
by two parallel planes. If the surfaces of the membrane at x = 0 and x = L are maintained at constant concentrations c, and c2 as illustrated in Fig. 4a, after some delay time of the order of L2/6D(seebelow) a stead~~
sr~te is reached which is described by

c-c,
c,=c,=

(1.19)

According to (1.19)the concentration changeslinearly from c1 to c2 through the membrane.The flux acrossthe
membrane is given by

J = D(c, -Q/L.

(1.20)

Provided that c,, c2 and L are known, D can be determined from (1.20) by measuring .I.
If the region of the membrane - L/2 < x < L/2 is initially at uniform concentration c0 and the surfacesare
kept at constant concentration c, either desorption (c, < c,J or ahsorption (c, > cO)can occur as illustrated in
Fig. 4 b. The ~~ort-srca~~~
srnre solution of (1.9) is described by
c - co
-,1-T!
cs - co

C-1)
n 2=. 2n

cos[(2n + 1)

Mehrer

nx/L] exp[-(2n

+ l)2n2Dt/L2].

(1.21 a)

land&BBmstcin
New Series III,26

Ref. p. 301

1.2.3 Diffusion

in a membrane

Solution (1.21 a) is particularly useful for large timessince then only few terms in the sum contribute significantly.
The appropriate solution for small times is

c - co

F (- 1y erfcW + 1) WI - x + 2 (- 1y erfcIOn + 1) WI + x

cs- co

n=O

n=O

2JDt

(1.21 b)

2JDt

Equations (1.21 a) and (1.21 b) can be written in terms of the dimensionless parameters D t/L and x/L. Graphs
of (c - co)/(c, - co) versus x/(L/2) are shown in Fig. 4c for various values of 4 D tJL2.
The total amount M(t) of the diffusing species which has entered the membrane at time t with respect to the
corresponding quantity M(co) after infinite time obtained by integration of (1.21 a) is

M(t)

M(a)
and by integration

= 1

8 m
1
FO
exp[- 2
(2n + 1)27?

(2n + 1)2x2Dt/LZ]

(1.22a)

of (1.21 b) is
I/&

+ 2 jJ (- I) ierfc nL
n=O
2JDt

where
ierfc z = 7 erfc u du
I

(1.22b)

(1.22c)

denotes the integral of the complementaryerror function.


For c, = 0 the expressions (1.21) and (1.22) can be used to describe the outgassing of a gaseous or volatile
solute from a membrane. The case co = 0 describes the uptake of a gas or a solute by a thin slab of solvent
material.

in.

x-

-L/2

L/2

X-

Fig. 4. Concentration distributions in plane sheet membranes of thickness L.


(a) Steady state distribution with constant surface concentrations c1 and c2 according to (1.19).
(b) Schematic non-steady state distribution according to (1.21a) for the casesof absorption c, > c,, and desorption cs < cO.
(c) Concentration distribution at various times in a membrane -L/2 < x < L/2 with an initial uniform concentration c0 and
surface concentration c, from (1.21) according to [75C]. The numbers on the curves are values of the dimensionless
quantity 4 D t/L'.

Land&-Bhmstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

1.2.4 Diffusion in a cylinder; 1.2.5 Diffusion in a sphere

[Ref. p. 30

1.2.4 Diffusion in a cylinder


We consider a long circular cylinder of radius R in which diffusion occurs everywhere radially. Concentraion is then a function of distance r from the cylinder axis and of time t. If the concentration is initially uniform
and equal to c0 throughout the cylinder and if the surface concentration at r = R is maintained at c, for t 2 0,
:he solution of (1.9)
. , is
c - co
m exp(- D~,2t) JO(cl,r)
-=
(1.23a)
+
n
1
a, Jl 6%RI
.
cs - co
In (1.23)J,(z) and J,(z) are the Besselfunctions of the first kind with orders zero and one, respectively. The
r, are roots of
J,(cc,R) = 0

which are tabulated in tables of Besselfunctions. Solutions for small times can be found in [75C]. The solution
or a cylinder can be written in terms of the dimensionless parameters Dt/R* and r/R. The corresponding
graphical representation is given in Fig. 5.
The quantity M(t) of the diffusing specieswhich has entered or left the cylinder in time t with respect to the
:orresponding quantity M(co) at infinite time is obtained from (1.23) as

-=M(t)
M(a)

(1.24)
$ -$exp(-Daft).
n n
Equations (1.23) and (1.24) can be used for cylindrical samples to describe the outgassing or the uptake of
Ysolute.

/I

1 -f

//n/llrr

Fig. 5. Concentration distribution at various times in a cylinder of radius R with an initial uniform concentration cOand
constant surface concentration c, according to [7X3 The
numbers on curves are values of the dimensionless quantity
DrjR.

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

r/R -

1.2.5 Diffusion in a sphere


We consider a sphere of radius R and restrict ourselves to a case where diffusion is radial. If the surface
concentration for t 2 0 is maintained at c, and if the sphere is initially loaded with a uniform concentration co
the solution is
c - co =,+E
cs - co

2 iI....?
n
xr =I

sin y

exp[- n*rr* Dt/R*]

(1.25)

where r denotes the distance from the centre of the sphere.The total amount of the diffusing speciesM(t) at time
t entering or leaving the sphere obtained by integration of (1.25) is given by

MO)
-=
M(a)

1 - -$ el -$ exp(- n27c2Dt/R2)

(1.26)

where M(m) denotes the total amount at infinite time. Curves showing the solution of (1.25) as a function oi
r/R for different values of the dimensionless parameter Dt/R* are reproduced in Fig. 6. Equation (1.25)and (1.26)
can be used to describe the outgassing or the uptake of a solute from or by a sphere.
Mehrer

laooll-Bomslel
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 301

1.3 Diff. eq. for cont.-dependent diffusivity;

Fig. 6. Concentration distribution at various times in a


sphere of radius R with an initial uniform concentration cO
and constant surfaceconcentration c, according to [75C]. The
numbers on curves are values of the dimensionless quantity

1.4.1 Self-diff. coefficient

0.2

Dt/R2.

0.2

OA

0.6

0.8

'

r/R -

1.3 Diffusion equation for concentration-dependent diffusivity


In general the diffusion coefficient will depend on the concentration of the species,which also means that
the diffusion coefficient changes with position in the sample. In this case according to (1.8) Ficks second law
must be written as
(1.27)
In (1.27) we have used d for the chemical diffusion coef$cient (seesection 1.4). The solution of (1.27) in closed
form is (apart from special casesof b(c)) usually not possible and numeric or graphic integrations of (1.27) are
necessary.The most frequently used method of analysis is the Boltzmann-Matano method which was proposed
by Matano [33M] and is based on a transformation of (1.27)which is due to Boltzmann [1894B]. This method
is described in subsection 1.6.1.2.2.

1.4 The various diffusion coefficients


In this section various experimental situations and the various diffusion coefficients which they entail are
described. In order to permit a clear distinction between the various diffusion coefficients in the present chapter
the symbol "D" is used for the diffusion coefficient in combination with lower and upper indices. However, the
indices are dropped again in the following sections of chapter 1 and in the data chapters of the whole volume
whenever it is clear which diffusion coefficient is considered.

1.4.1 Self-diffusion coefficient


1.4.1.1 Pure elements
If in a solid of element A the diffusion of A atoms is studied, one speaks about self-diffusion. Studies of
self-diffusion usually utilize tracer atoms A* of the same element. In most experiments tracers are marked by
their radioactivity. A typical situation for a radiotracer experiment is shown in Fig. 7a. The isotopic mass or
the nuclear spin is sometimes used as tag for tracer atoms as well. The tracer self-&&ion coefficient DF is in
a microscopic picture according to

DA
=fI
A

62

related to the jump length 1of atomic jumps and to the mean residence time of atoms r on a certain site in a
,crystalline solid. The correlation factor f is in the caseof self-diffusion often only a numeric factor which depends
on the crystal structure and on the diffusion mechanism [7OLl]. Tracer self-diffusion data in pure metallic
elements are listed in chapter 2.
Land&Biimstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

1.4.1 Self-diffusion coefficient

a
Fig.
sion
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

[Ref. p. 30

7. Various situations
for diffusion
experiments
which entail different diffucocflicients:
thin layer of A* on A: tracer self-diffusion
in pure elements
thin layer of B* on A: impurity
diGsion
in pure elements
thin layer of A* or B* on AB alloy: tracer self-diffusion
in homogeneous
alloys
diffusion
couple of metals A and B: interdiffusion
of two metals A and B.

1.4.1.2 Homogeneous alloys


In a homogeneous binary AB alloy two tracer self-diffusion coefficients for both A* and B* tracer atoms can
be measured.They are denoted as Dii and DAB;),respectively. A typical experimental situation is illustrated in
Fig. 7c. Since in a radiotracer experiment the concentration of A* or B* is usually negligible the alloy composition is not modified by the diffusing species.In general the tracer self-diffusion coeflicients depend on the alloy
composition.
Results on self-diffusion in &/tlte binary alloys containing small atomic fractions X, are frequently represented in terms of
(1.29a)
0;; = D,^;(X,) = D,^[l + b,X, + b2X; . ..I.
Then D:rf is denoted as the sol~~t seljrdtj%oa coeffjcient and DIi as the solute diJiusion coeflcienf. Experimenare usually well represented by (1.29a) and b,, b, etc. are denoted as solvent
tal measurements of Dii(X,)
enhnrtcet~lcnrfictors. D,A(O) is the tracer self-diffusion coefficient in the pure solvent. b, is largely determined by
perturbations due to isolated solute atoms, b, by pairs of solute atoms, and so on.
For similar reasons,the soltrt~ dijirsion coejkient DrR at low concentrations, can be representedby a power
seriesdependence
D:f
Dy is then also denoted as impurity
solute enhnncement factors.

= D,;(X,)

Dr[l

+ B, X, + B,X; . ..I.

(1.29b)

diffusion coefficient of speciesB in solvent A. B,, B, etc. are denoted as

Depending on the specific alloy system, the one component is more or less soluble in the other component,
i.e. the primary and terminal phases extend over wider or smaller composition ranges. A primary phase of an
alloy AB is the solution of element B in A and thus has the same crystal structure as element A, whereas the
terminal phase crystallizes in the crystal structure of element B. For higher concentrations these alloys exhibit
usually short-range or even long-range atomic order, which may cause substantial deviations from the behaviour represented by the equations (1.29a, b). Attempts to describe the diffusion coefficients in these concentrared alloys as a function of composition theoretically or even empirically are less successful than for dilute
alloys [84Bl]. For a limited number of alloy systems the primary/terminal phase extends over the whole
composition range, sometimes with a tendency of atomic long-range order at higher concentrations and lower
temperatures. This ordering has a profound influence on the diffusion coefficients of both components. An
example is the Fe-Co system.
In contrast, many alloy systemsexhibit intermediate phases. In the phase diagram these phasesare separated
from the primary or terminal phases or from each other by two-phase regions. They usually crystallize in
ordered structures. These may be completely different from the crystal structures of the pure components.
Therefore the self-diffusion coeilicients in these materials can not be related to those in the pure constituents at
all. A scarcenumber of theseintermediate phasesshow an order-disorder transition at higher temperatures with
a considerable influence on the diffusion characteristics. Ordered intermediate phasesare also called intermetallit compods.
The number of measurementsof self-diffusion coefficients in intermetallic compounds is relatively
small. but it is clear already that the detailed atomic defect structure of these materials is essential to their
self-diffusion behaviour. Tracer self-diffusion data in binary alloys and in intermediate phases are listed in
chapter 4.
Land&BBmstein
New Series III,/26

Ref. p. 301

1.4.2, 3, 4 Impurity, chemical, intrinsic diffusion coefficients

1.4.2 Impurity diffusion coefficient


When the diffusion of a solute B in a solvent A is measured at extremely small concentration of B, which
e.g. radiotracers permit (by diffusion of tracer B* into pure metal A (see Fig. 7 b), the impurity diffusion
coefficient 0: is observed. Apart from their practical importance impurity diffusion coefficients are also of
special theoretical interest becausethey describe the diffusion of an isolated impurity atom in an otherwise pure
solvent. Impurity diffusion of metallic elementsin metals is covered in chapter 3 and the diffusion of C, N, and 0
diffusing in metals in chapter 8.

1.4.3 Chemical diffusion coefficient


A diffusion coefficient which is measured in a chemical concentration gradient is denoted as chemical
coefficient 6 (seealso section 1.3).Any chemical diffusion coefficient describesdiffusion referred to fixed
axes in the sample. d can be deduced from the concentration-depth-profile (see section 1.6) and in general
depends on concentration. Measurements which entail diffusion in a chemical diffusion gradient are:

difision

(1) Diffusion of interstitial solutes (e.g. hydrogen) in metals


(2) Interdiffusion of two metals A and B which form substitutional solid solutions or interdiffusion between two
alloys of the metals. An interdiffusion experiment between two pure metals is schematically illustrated in
Figs. 76 and 17(a). Obviously diffusion is measured in a chemical gradient. In the case of interdiffusion d
is also denoted as interdiffusion coefjcient. For many practical purposes the chemical interdiffusion coefficient is an adequate measure of the diffusion behaviour of an alloy.
Data for chemical diffusion are compiled for binary alloys in chapter 5 and for ternary alloys in chapter 6.
Chapter 6 also contains an introduction to ternary diffusion, which is beyond the scopeof the general introduction. Diffusion of interstitial solutes except hydrogen is covered in chapter 8 and hydrogen diffusion in chapter 9.

1.4.4 Intrinsic diffusion coefficients


The intrinsic diffusion coeficients (or component diffusion coefficients) DA and D, of an AB alloy, which are
primarily of interest for more fundamental physical reasons, describe the diffusion of the two speciesA and B
relative to the lattice planes. The diffusion rates of A and B are usually not equal. Therefore, in an interdiffusion
experiment a net flux of atoms acrossany lattice planeexists. If the number of lattice sites is conserved the lattice
planes in the diffusion zone move with respect to the sample-fixed axes to compensate for the unequal fluxes
across it. At the same time lattice sites are created on the one side of the diffusion zone and annihilated on the
other side. This can be achieved by creation and annihilation of point defects(vacancies,self-interstitials). The
shift of lattice planes with respect to sample-fixed axes is denoted as Kirkendall effect. The Kirkendall effect is
illustrated schematically in Fig. 17(b). Inert markers (e.g. fine insoluble wires, oxide particles, etc.) have been
incorporated at the initial interface between the two interdiffusing metals A and B or between two interdiffusing
AB alloys of different composition. During the diffusion process a shift of the markers takes place. This
Kirkendall shift was for the first time observed in [47S].It can be used to determine the velocity u of the markers.
u is also denoted as Kirkendall velocity.
A more complete description of diffusion in substitutional binary alloys is based on the intrinsic diffusion
coefficients. DA and D, can be determined from the chemical diffusion coefficient d and the marker shift:
It is possible to show [48D, 49D, 63S, 66A, 85P, 89Sl] that the chemical and intrinsic diffusion coefficients
are related by the equation
0 =X,0,

+ X,0,

(1.30)

where X, and X, are the molar fractions of speciesA and B. The velocity u of an inert marker is given by
v = (D, - DB) ax&

(1.31)

with aX,/ax denoting the concentration gradient at the marker position. u is also denoted as Kirkendall
velocity. Using (1.30) and (1.31) DA and D, can be calculated separately when B and 2)have been measured.
An alternative method permits the measurement of the ratio DA/DB instead of v. Such a method which is
based on the marker shift in a sandwich arrangement of alloy samples with two different compositions is
described in [77Hl].
Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

10

1.5.1 Direct interstitial mechanism

[Ref. p. 30

Equation (1.30) assumesno net volume change which is only correct for ideal solutions. For non-ideal
mixtures (1.30) must be replaced by [7OL2, 85P]
(1.32)
where t and vBdenote the partial molar volumes of speciesA and B, respectively. c, and cs are the concentrations of speciesA and B.
Equations (1.31)and (1.32)also require complete flux compensation along the diffusion direction. In practice
this is sometimes not the caseas can be seenfor example, from the occurrence of pores [53B] on the side of the
diffusion couple suffering a net loss of atoms and from the occurrence of changes in lateral dimensions [52S, 59R].
These side effects of the Kirkendall effect are also illustrated in Fig. 17(b).
The intrinsic diffusion coefficients DA and D, and the tracer diffusion coefficients Dfi and Dz;, in an AB alloy
differ fundamentally. The latter pertain to a homogeneous alloy whereas the intrinsic diffusion coefficients are
measured in the presenceof a chemical composition gradient. This gradient imposes on the otherwise random
motion of atoms a bias, which makesatoms preferentially jump in one direction along the composition gradient.
It is possible to show [48D, 83B, 85P] that the intrinsic diffusion coefficients and the tracer self-diffusion
coefficients in the alloy are related via
DA=

D;;d,

(1.33)

D,=

D,;$

(1.34)

and
where 4 is denoted as thcrn~od~man~ic factor. The relations (1.30),(1.31),(1.33) and (1.34) were first established
by Darken [48D, 49D]. They are sometimes denoted as Darkens equations.
The thermodynamic factor is given by

+=1+$$

x. ap.
z-L.1
kT

(1.35)

aXi

where yi is the activity coejlicient of the species i in the alloy and pi its chemical potential. Because of the
Gibbs-Duhem relation Q,is the samefor both speciesof binary alloys. The thermodynamic factor is larger than
unity for alloys with negative enthalpy of mixing and smaller than unity in the opposite case.Sometimesit may
be even negative which leads to the phenomenon of uphill-diffusion.
Equations (1.33) and (1.34) are approximate forms of the more elaborate expressions
DA = Dti4rA

(1.36)

D, = Dik+rB

(1.37)

and
where r, and r, denote the so-called vacancy wind factors. For a detailed discussion of these factors the reader
is referred to [68M, 83B, 85P]. Often (1.33) and (1.34) are reasonably well obeyed experimentally.

1.5 Atomistic mechanisms of diffusion


For a given temperature the diffusion coefticients of different atoms in a metal or an alloy may differ by many
orders of magnitude. The diffusivity of an atom depends strongly on the mechanism by which it moves. In this
section we describe briefly the most important atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For further details seee.g.[63S,
66A, 85P, 89Sl].

1.5.1 Direct interstitial mechanism


Foreign atoms that are located exclusively in interstitial sites of an otherwise perfect crystal may diffuse
simply by jumping from interstitial site to interstitial site as indicated in Fig. 8a. This mechanism is denoted as
the interstitial (or even more specifically the direct interstitial) mechanism. The movement of interstitially
dissolved atoms does not involve intrinsic point defects(vacancies,divacancies, self-interstitials . . .) as diffusion
vehicles. Therefore, direct interstitial diffusion is usually much faster than the diffusion of substitutionally
incorporated atoms. The direct interstitial mechanism is responsible e.g.for diffusion of hydrogen (seechapter 9)
and for the diffusion of other small impurity atoms like C, N and 0 (seechapter 8) in metals.
Mehrer

l..andolt-Bornstem
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 301

11

1.5.2,3,4 Direct exchange and ring, vacancy, divacancy mechanisms

Fig. 8. Illustration of various direct diffusion mechanismsin


zrystals according to [84F]:
[a) direct interstitial mechanism (foreign atom [full circle]
jumping from interstice 1 to interstice 2, from 2 to 3, etc.);
[b) direct exchange mechanism of two neighbouring atoms
on regular lattice sites;
cc) ring mechanism of 4 neighbouring atoms.

1.5.2 Direct exchange and ring mechanisms


The direct diffusion of substitutionally incorporated foreign atoms or of host atoms on regular lattice sites
would involve the exchange of two atoms on neighbouring lattice sites (seeFig. 8 b) or of a ring of atoms (see
Fig. SC).So far, no examples of these kinds of direct diffusion have been found presumably because these
mechanismsare energetically unfavourable.
Usually the diffusion of self-atoms or of foreign atoms on substitutional sites requires intrinsic point defects
1sdzfision vehicles (seethe following subsections 1.5.3to 1.5.6).The fact that the Kirkendall-effect (seesubsection 1.4.4)is observed in substitutional alloys is strong evidence in favour of diffusion mechanismswith diffusion
vehicles.

1.5.3 Vacancy mechanism


In the vacancy mechanism vacant lattice sites act as diffusion vehicles. A substitutional foreign atom or a
self-atom diffuses by jumping into a neighbouring vacancy (seeFig. 9).
Self-diffusion in most metals and alloys and diffusion of foreign atoms (impurity diffusion) exclusively
dissolved on substitutional sites occur mainly by the vacancy mechanism.
Attractive or repulsive interactions between the vacancy and substitutionally dissolved foreign atoms may
lead to higher or lower diffusivities of foreign atoms compared with self-diffusion of the solvent.

Fig. 9. Illustration of the vacancy mechanism according to


34F]: the tagged self-atom in tracer self-diffusion or the forAgn atom in substitutional-solute diffusion (full circle)
moves, by jumping into the vacancy on its right-hand side (a),
to the right (b) by one nearest-neighbour distance of the
regular lattice atoms.

1.5.4 Divacancy mechanism


In this casebound pairs of vacancies on neighbouring lattice sites act as diffusion vehicles. A host atom or
a substitutional foreign atom on a regular site diffuses by jumping into one vacancy of the neighbouring pair
(seeFig. 10).The divacancy mechanism has been proposed to contribute to self-diffusion in face-centeredcubic
metals above 2/3 T, (7,,= melting temperature) besidesthe vacancy mechanism [7OS].The temperature dependence of self-diffusion of fee metals has been sometimes analysed in terms of a sum of two Arrhenius terms (see
section 1.8).If this is the casethe term with the lower activation enthalpy is attributed to diffusion via monovacancies and the term with the higher activation enthalpy to diffusion via divacancies.

Fig. 10. Illustration of the divacancy mechanism: The


tagged self-atom in tracer self-diffusion or the foreign atom
in substitutional-solute diffusion (full circle) moves, by exchanging its site with one vacancy of the divacancy on its
right-hand side (a), to the right (b) by one nearest-neighbour
distance of the regular lattice atoms.
Land&Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

12

1S.5 Interstitialcy

mechanism; 1.5.6 Interstitial-substitutional

1.5.5 Interstitialcy

mechanisms

[Ref. p. 30

mechanism

In the intersfitinlcy (or indirect irrrerstitinl) mechanism self-b~terstitials act as diffusion vehicles. A self-interstitial replaces a substitutional atom which then in turn replaces a neighbouring lattice atom (Fig. 11). This
mechanismis the counterpart of the vacancy mechanism since the self-interstitial is the antidefect ofthe vacancy.
In silicon. this mechanism dominates self-diffusion and presumably plays a prominent role in the diffusion of
some substitutional solutes [84F]. In metals it is presumably not of importance under thermal equilibrium
conditions. However, it is important if self-interstitials are created by irradiation of a crystal with energetic
particles. DitTusion in an irradiation
environment
is not treated in this volume.

Fig. 11. Illustration of the interstitialcy mechanism according to [84F]. In (a) a self-interstitial (open circle in the center
of the lattice cell) has approached a tagged self-atom or a
substitutional foreign atom (full circle), rcspcctively; in (b)
the tagged atom has exchanged its original position with the
self-interstitial. In this way the tagged atom has temporarily
become an interstitial, whereas the original self-interstitial
has disappcarcd by occupying a regular lattice site. In (c) the
tagged atom has jumped into a regular site by pushing a
self-atom into an interstitial site.

1.5.6 Interstitial-substitutional

mechanisms

Some foreign atoms A may be dissolved on interstitial (Ai) and also on substitutional sites (A,). Such atoms
may diffuse via the dissociotire n~~rhnnisntor via the kick-out nwchanism. The two mechanismshave in common
that the diffusivity of foreign atoms is much higher when they are located in interstitial sites than when they are
located in substitutional positions. Under such circumstances the incorporation of A atoms can occur by fast
diffusion as Ai interstitials and their subsequent change-over to the substitutional positions [89Sl]. The difference between the two mechanismslies in the type of the intrinsic point defect which mediates this change-over:
In the dissociative mechanism illustrated in Fig. 12a (sometimesalso denoted as the Frank-7imbull
or as
the Longini mechnnism) the interchange involves vacancies (V) according to the reaction
A,+VF-?A,.

(1.38)

The.rapid diffusion of some foreign elements in some polyvalent metals has been attributed to the dissociative
mechanism (seechapter 3). For further details seee.g. [84F, 89Sl].
In the kick-out mechanism illustrated in Fig. 12b the interchange involves self-interstitials (I) according to
the reaction
(1.39)
Ai+AA,+I.
Examples for the kick-out mechanism have been established for some rapidly diffusing foreign atoms in silicon.
So far no examples for kick-out diffusion in metals have been found. For details seee.g. [84F].
Mehrer

Landok-Bkimstein
New Series III:26

Ref. p. 301

13

1.6.1.1 Steady-state methods

AS

Ai

AS
Ai
b
Fig. 12. Illustration of interstitial-substitutional mechanisms:
(a) dissociative mechanism (also known as Frank-Turnbull
mechanism or as Longini mechanism)
(b) kick-out mechanism.

1.6 Methods of measuring diffusion coefficients


The experimental methods of measuring diffusion coefficients can be grouped into two categories: Direct
methods which are directly based on Ficks laws and indirect methods. The latter take advantage of the fact
that many physical phenomena in solids depend on the occurrence of thermally activated motion of atoms.
From suitable measurements of such phenomena it is also possible to determine a diffusion coefficient.

1.6.1 Direct methods


Since in methods based on Ficks laws diffusion always occurs over distances which are large compared to
the interatomic distance direct methods are sometimes also referred to as macroscopic methods. One measures
a diffusion flux, an integral over a diffusion flux, a concentration profiles or an integral over a concentration
profile.

1.6.1.1 Steady-state methods


These methods are based directly on Ficks first law. The usual procedure is to perform a permeation
experiment through a membrane which e.g.can be a thin plane sheet or a cylindrical tube. The concentrations
of the diffusant are maintained at c1 and c2 on the opposite sides of the sample. The diffusion flux J is measured.
After a certain delay time of the order of L2/6 D (seesubsections 1.2.3 or 1.2.4)the steady-state concentration
distribution.is established in the sample. Then the diffusion coefficient can be deduced according to
L

D=Jp
Cl

(1.40)
c2

from measurementsperformed on a plane sheet of thickness L (seeFig. 4a), or according to

D= _

J WW,)
2nR,

c1 -c2

(1.41)

from measurements of e.g. outward diffusion performed on a cylindrical tube with inner and outer radii R,
and R,.
As an alternative to (1.40), the diffusion coefficient can be determined from
D = - J/(&/ax)

(1.42)

if the steady state concentration distribution across the plane sheet is measured.
Permeation measurements are applicable when the diffusing speciesis either a gas (e.g.hydrogen, . . .) or if
it canbe supplied to and removed from the sample through a gas or vapour phase.
Land&-B6mstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

14

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

[Ref. p. 30

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods


These methods are based on Ficks second law for concentration-dependent (1.8)or concentration-independent diffusivities (1.9).Most frequently the concentration distribution in a sample is measured and the diffusion
:oeffrcient is deduced from a comparison with the solution of Ficks second law appropriate to the conditions
>f the experiment.
1.6.1.2.1 Thin layer methods
A very thin layer of the diffusant is deposited on a plane surface of the sample (seeFig. 7a, b, c). Vacuum
:vaporation, electrochemical or chemical deposition and ion implantation are used as deposition techniques.
After the diffusion anneal the concentration profile is given by (1.11)provided that the deposited thickness was
very much smaller than (D t) 1. This condition is usually easy to satisfy in radiotracer experiments of self- and
impurity diffusion. Many details about the thin layer methods can be found in [84R, 89S2].Several procedures
are in use to determine the redistribution of the diffusant:
a) Direct profile measurements
After diffusion the profile c(x) is usually determined by sectioning the diffusion zone and measuring the
concentration (activity) in each section. The tracer diffusion coefficient D (in section 1.4 denoted as Dy in the
caseof self-diffusion, as Dr in the caseof impurity diffusion and as 0:; in the caseof self-diffusion of A tracer
in a homogeneous AB alloy) may be determined from a plot of logarithm of concentration in each section
against the penetration distance squared. According to (1.11)in such a plot bulk diffusion leads to a straight line
with slope - l/(4 Dt). Examples for the experimental standard of penetration profiles that can be achieved with
this method are shown in Figs. 13 and 14 [87G, 84H]. The excellent linearity of these profiles permits a
determination of diffusion coefficient within an accuracy of the order of a few percent.
For serial sectioning several techniques are in use: Mechanical sectioning with a precision lathe (10 urn,
5 . lo-r6 m2s-), a microtome (1 urn, 5 * lo-* m* s- ) or a precision grinder (0.5 pm, IO- l8 m2s- ). Available
microsectioning techniques are chemical or electrochemical attack (5 nm, lo-** m*s-) and sputtering by
bombardment with ions (2 nm, 5 . 1O-24 m* s- ). The numbers in parentheses indicate the minimum section
thicknessesand the minimum diffusion coefficients which can be obtained in practice.
The section thicknesses and from these the penetration distance can be measured by weighing. For very thin
sections weighing may be too inaccurate and optical methods (interference microscopy, . . .) or surface profile
methods are to be preferred.
For the determination of concentration activity counting is used in radio-tracer experiments. Becauseof the
high sensitivity of counting facilities for radioactive substancesextremely small quantities of tracer atoms suffice
to study diffusion. Mass spectrometry is sometimes also used for concentration measurements.
Ionic sputtering for sectioning is associatedwith secondary ion massspectrometry (SIMS), secondary neutral
mass spectrometry (SNMS), or Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in commercial SIMS, SNMS, or AES
analyzers. A schematic illustration of the SIMS technique is shown in Fig. 15. For details seee.g. the review
[84P].
Sputtering for sectioning associated with activity counting has been combined in some laboratory devices
(see,e.g.,[75Gl, 85M]). An example is shown in Fig. 16.
Occasionally electronmicroprobe
analysis (EMPA) has been used to measureimpurity diffusion coeflicients.
A high sensitivity of the microprobe is necessaryto monitor diffusion from deposited layers of diffusants thin
enough to meet the conditions for the use of equation (1.11).
b) Residual activity measurement
The residual activity emanating from each newly exposed sample surface at depth x in a radiotracer-sectioning experiment can be used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. This method is denoted as Gruzin-Seibel or as
residual activity method.
c) Surface activity decreasemeasurement
The diffusion coefficient may be determined from the total activity emanating from the sample surface at
x = 0 after various diffusion anneals. This procedure is denoted as the surface decreasemethod.
Both the residual activity and the surface decreasemethod require an integration of (1.11).They should be
regarded as less reliable than the sectioning method because they necessitate a knowledge of the absorption
characteristics of the radiation concerned and an assumption about the concentration profile. In addition the
surface decreasemethod is particularly susceptible to errors arising from sample oxidation, tracer losses and
short circuiting diffusion.
Mehrer

Land&-B6mst.h
New Series Ill/26

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

Ref. p. 301

.YZ-

IO9
orb.
units

105

12

16

20.10bnm2
:

arb.
units

1OS

104

I
x
c
.P
z
0 IO3
.u
.z
E
LA

10

10

10

1
0

10

15

20

-Km4cm2 30

x2.
Fig. 13. Examples for penetration profiles obtained with the
radiotracer method and microtome sectioning according to
[87G]. The isotope Te was implanted to a depth of about
30 nm into silver single crystals. Afterwards diffusion anneals
were performed at four different temperatures and times resulting in average diffusion lengths much larger than 30 nm.
Under such conditions the implants may be considered as
thin film sources.The specific activities are plotted as functions of the penetration distances squared. The slopes of
these curves correspond to the quantity - 1/(4Dt).

(secondary ions, neutrals 1

Fig. 15. Schematic illustration of the SIMS technique for


direct measurements of diffusion profiles.
Landolt-Bibstein
New Series III/26

Fig. 14. Examples for profiles obtained with the radiotracer


method using sputter sectioning accordjng to [84H]. The isotope Q5Zrwas electrodeposited on the surface of a-Zr single
crystals. Diffusion anneals were performed at eight temperatures for different times. The specific activities are plotted as
functions of the penetration distances squared. The slopes of
these curves correspond to the quantity - 1/(4Di).
1
,

I
2
3
6

Tungsten filament
Anode
Catcher foil camera
Ar ions (500 to 1500eV)

2
/

3 Sputtered moteriol
(neutral)
I

4 Specimen
5 Specimen holder with
motor for specimen
rototion

Fig. 16. Schematic view of a sputtering device which is used


for radioactive diffusants according to [85M]. The penetration profiles shown in Fig. 14 have been obtained with this
device.

Mehrer

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

16

[Ref. p. 30

1.6.1.2.2 Diffusion couple methods with profile measurement


Two homogeneous metals or alloys of concentrations c, and c2 are brought into intimate contact across a
plane interface and are then allowed to interdiffuse to provide a concentration profile c(x). If the profile is
determined in some convenient manner (seea) to d)) b(c) is obtained from
b(c*) = -

j xdc (2tac/ax).
(1.43)
( L-1 >I
Equation (1.43) is the basis of the Bo/tz,tlnnr~-Mntnno method which is illustrated in Fig. 17(a). The chemical
Wusion
coeficient
B (seesubsection 1.4.3)can be determined from an integral over a part of the measured
profile and from its slope in P. The origin of the abscissax, which is denoted as the Matano plane, is defined
by the condition
(1.44)

Ixdc=O.

A graphic interpretation of (1.43) and (1.44) is also given in Fig. 17(a). For concentration independent B the
Matano plane coincides with the initial position of the interface. For concentration dependent d this is usually
not the case (SWsubsection 1.4.4).

Shifted position of markers

Cl

lniliol position
of morkers

X-

Fig. 17(a). Illustration of the Boltzmann-Matano


method
for the calculation of d from equation (1.43). The Matano
plane is defined by the equality of the two hatched arcas
FOhl and FOM. Jx-dr is equal to the doubly hatched area
FOHP. a@.~ is the slope of the tangent of the concentration
profile in P.

Fig. 17(b).. Schematic illustration of the Kirkendall-effect


and its side effects: Jn and Ja denote the diffusion fluxes of
species A and B; Jhl is the net flux of matter causing the
Kirkcndall shift I which is indicated by a fat arrow. The
formation of pores on the side of the faster diffusing species
(D,, > 0,) and lateral changes of sample dimensions are frequently observed side effects of the Kirkendall effect.

Sauer and Freise [62S] have deduced an expression which does not require a knowledge of the position of
the Matano plane. Using the expression
7 (1 - Y) dx + (1 - y(x*)) 1 ydx
-m
where

(1.45)
(1.45a)

denotes a normalized concentration, the interdiffusion coefficient can be deduced from two integrals over the
observed concentration profile and from one slope. Expressions (1.43) to (1.45) are applicable if the molar
volume does not change upon interdiffusion.
If the molar volume V, = V,(y) depends on concentration, which is the casefor non-idea! systems,instead
of (1.45) the expression
(1.46)
D(y(x*)) = uY*)
dx + (1 - y(x*)) 1 + dx
2t (aJl/ax),.
m
must bc used.

Mehrer

Land&-BBmstein
New Series 11126

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

Ref. p. 301

17

If 0 varies little in the concentration range c1 to c2, which is often the caseif the range c1 to c2 is sufficiently
restricted, the appropriate solution for concentration independent D
c-q
c2-Cl

1
X
= - erfc ~
2
2JE

(1.47)

may be used instead of (1.43),(1.45) or (1.46).


It should be pointed out that it is the chemical or interdiffusion coefjcient (see subsection 1.4.3) which is
measured with the diffusion couple method. As already mentioned in 1.4.4markers inserted at the interface can
be used to locate its final position after diffusion. From this the Kirkendall velocity can be determined. If the
chemical diffusion coefficient and the Kirkendall velocity or the ratio DA/DBare known the intrinsic difision
coefficients can be calculated according to subsection 1.4.4.
The determination of the chemical diffusion coefficient by the diffusion couple method usually requires a
measurement of the concentration profile c(x) (seehowever subsection 1.6.1.2.3).Several methods are in use for
this purpose:
a) Sample sectioning

The profile can be obtained by sectioning the diffusion zone and measuring the quantity of the diffusing
speciesin each section with an appropriate method of analysis (seesubsection 1.6.1.2.1).Sample sectioning is of
course a destructive technique. It is often indispensible in thin layer experiments, especially when radiotracers
are used (seea) in subsection 1.6.1.2.1).For thin film diffusion couples nowadays several non-destructive techniques are available which allow the profile determination without sectioning (seec) and d)) below.
b) Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA)

In an electron microprobe analyzer a thin electron beam (diameter about 1 urn) stimulates X-ray emission
of the elements to be studied. The profile can be obtained by analysing the intensity of characteristic radiation
from the sample along the diffusion direction. The sensitivity in concentration is about 10e3 to 10m4depending
on the element. Becauseof the finite thickness of the electron beam and the finite size of the excited volume only
diffusion coefficients d 2 10-l m2 s- can be measured.EMPA is used for interdiffusion studies in macroscopic diffusion samples.An example for an interdiffusion profile obtained by EMPA is shown in Fig. 18. Interdiffusion coefficients determined from such profiles according to equation (1.45)are shown in Fig. 19 [86H, 89Hl].

-I000-800 -600

-400

-200
x-

200

400

600 pm 800

Fig. 18. Example for an interdiffusion profile obtained with


electron microprobe analysis according to [86H, 89Hl]. In
this experiment a diffusion couple consisting of an Ag - Sb
alloy (3.92 at% Sb) and ofpure Ag was formed and annealed
for 35 h at 1048K.
Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

[Ref. p. 30

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

18

I
0

I
1

4 ot %

xSb -

Fig. 19. Interdiffusion coefficients in dilute Ag-Sb alloy as a


function of the Sb concentration according to [86H, 89Hl].

c) Rutherford backscattering (RBS)


Rutherford backscattering uses an ion beam (usually 4He ions, typical energies several MeV) from an
accelerator. A schematic illustration of a backscattering device is shown in Fig. 20. The sample is bombarded
along the diffusion direction with monoenergetic ions and one studies the number of elastically backscattered
ions as a function of their energy. From this energy spectrum the profile can be determined. The element
itrformntion
is contained in the kinematic factor of Rutherford scattering which depends on the mass of the
scattering atom. The deptlt injbrmation comesfrom the continuous energy loss of the analyzing ions. The yield
of backscattered ions is proportional to the concentration of backscattering atoms. This is illustrated schematically in Fig. 21(a). An example for an RBS diffusion study is shown in Figs. 21(b) to 21(d).
Becauseof the limited penetration range of the ions (several urn) in a solid sample RBS is applicable when
one species is deposited at t = 0 as a fairly thin film. Diffusion coefficients between lo-r6 mzsV1 and
10mz3m2s- are accessible.RBS is mainly applicable for the analysis of a heavy element in a light matrix. For
details see,e.g., the review [84M3].
m

MeV
Heions

000000..
000000..
000000*a

Sample

Preamplifier

m
M

jr

Energy

Fig. 20. Schematic representation of a Rutherford backscattering device. The ion beam. the sample and the detector are
indicated.

Amplifier

MCA

Fig. 21(a). Schematic illustration of Rutherford backscattering: A sample consisting of two layers of heavy and light
atoms (massesM and m) is shown. Yield and energy of the
backscattered ions are monitored with an appropriate detector and a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The energy spectrum is also shown. The high energy end of the spectrum
(M-signal) corresponds to the ions backscattered from heavy
atoms near the sample surface. The low energy end of the
M-signal corresponds to the ions backscattered from heavy
atoms near the interface. The signals from heavy and light
atoms are separated in the energy spectrum because of the
different kinematic factors.

Mehrer

Landolt-Kmstein
New Series III!26

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

Ref. p. 301

x012
I

0.14 pm
I
4
nt%

1.0

1.2

1x

1.6
E-

1.8

2.0

2.2 MeV 2.1,

Fig. 21 (b). RBS back scattering spectrum resulting from


2.5 MeV 4He ions incident upon Sn implanted Fe according
to [84M3]. The half width of the implanted Sn profile is
25.5 nm. Y,: backscattering yield.

6.0
6.51
0

I
0.5

I
1.0

Y
1.5

I
-Joe2pm2

2.5

Fig. 21 (c). Depth profiles of Sn in Fe measured during a


sequenceof anneals at 823 K with RBS according to [84M3].
The profile at t = 0 corresponds to the as-implanted profile
shown in Fig. 21(b).

lo-l7
m2/s
104'8
IP

~I lo-l9

1o-zo

10-2'
10-2'1
1.05

1.10

1.15
l/T-

1.20

1.25&'
1.2540-3K'
1.30

Fig. 21 (d). Diffusion coefficients of Sn in Fe measured by


RBS according to [84M3].

d) Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA)


In a nuclear reaction analysis experiment a monoenergetic ion beam (protons, 4He, . . .) is used as in RBS.
The sample is bombarded in the diffusion direction and the ions induce with the element to be studied a nuclear
reaction with a narrow resonance. The yield of the out-going particles created by this reaction is measured as
a function of the energy of the incident beam. From the yield versus energy curve the c(x) profile can be
determined. As in the caseof RBS, NRA is also applicable to diffusion couples where one speciesis deposited
as a thin film. Diffusivities between lo-l6 m2 s-l and 10ez3 m2sM1 are accessible. The NRA technique is
convenient for some light nuclei. For details seee.g. the review [84L].

Landolt-BGmstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

20

1.6.1.2 Non-steady-state methods

[Ref. p. 30

1.6.1.2.3 Diffusion couple methods without profile measurement


Methods for the determination of chemical diffusion coefficients without profile measurementbut restricted
to low solute concentrations - i.e. close to the impurity dijiision cocjkient - are the resistometric analysis
developed by Ceresara et al. [66C] and the X-ray dijk-tion analysis developed by Fogelson [68F, 71Fj:
In the resistonwtrir method a thin wire (diameter about 0.1 cm) is plated with a layer (about low4 cm) of the
solute metal. The time dependenceof the resistance R of the wire at constant annealing temperature can be used
to determine the diffusion coeflicient. The measured quantity usually is

R(t) - R(O)
a0 = R(a) - R(0)

(1.48)

where R(f) denotes the resistance of the wire at time t. A theoretical expression for 4 is given in [66c]. This
expression is based on the solution of Ficks second law for diffusion into a cylinder given in subsection 1.2.4
and on the approximation that the resistivity is proportional to the solute concentration. From a comparison
between the experimental values for 4 and the pertaining theoretical expression D-values can be determined.
Accurate D-values are obtained for solute concentration of not more than some 0.1% provided that the
solute is sufficiently soluble, that surface hold-up does not occur and that D is not strongly dependent on the
concentration.
The principle of the X-ray diffr,action annl~~is consists in the measurement of the surface concentration
decreaseof the diffusant. A layer of about 10e5 cm is deposited on a foil of about 2. 10m2cm thickness. In a
surface layer of about 10m3cm the concentration of the diffusant is determined by analyzing the diffraction line
profile. The shift of the line edge is used to find the concentration, which changes upon diffusion by about
1 . ..3%.
This method leads to diffusion coefficients very close to the impurity diffusion coef!icient, if the solubility is
large enough to ensure the validity of the thin-film solution (1.11) and if a surface hold-up of the diffusant can
bc exluded.
It is obvious that both methods should be regarded as lessreliable than diffusion couple methods with profile
measurement.
1.6.1.2.4 In- and out-diffusion methods
Material is allowed to diffuse into, or out of, an initially homogeneous sample of concentration c0 under
condition where the surface concentration is maintained at c,.
The diffusion coefficient may be deduced from a measurement of the concentration distribution within the
sample. For a concentration-dependent b the Boltzmann-Matano method can be used to give a a(c). Concentration-independent diffusion coefficients are determined by comparison with an appropriate analytical solution. For some simple sample geometries(plane sheet,cylinder, sphere) the analytical solutions to Ficks second
law are described in subsections 1.2.3, 1.2.4 and 1.2.5.
The diffusion coefficient may also bc calculated from the total amount of material picked up or lost from
the sample. For constant diffusivities appropriate expressions for the total amount of material have been given
for the above mentioned geometries in subsections 1.2.3, 1.2.4and 1.2.5 as we!!. For concentration-dependent
diffusivities this method gives an average diffusivity over the range c0 to c,.
1.6.1.2.5 Other macroscopic methods
There are a number of phenomena in solids which for their occurrence depend on diffusion over distances
large compared to the interactomic distance. From suitable measurement made on such phenomena it is
possible to deduce with some limited accuracy a diffusion coefficient. The more important methods are:
- Measurements of the growth rate of a new phase [74S]. A prerequisite of this method is that the growth rate
is controlled by diffusion.
- Measurements of the sintering kinetics, which under appropriate conditions can be controlled by bulk
diffusion. For a recent review see,e.g., [89Gl].
- Measurements of the creep rate of a crystal, when it is controlled by bulk diffusion, which is the case in the
so-called Nabarro-Herring creep regime. For a recent review see[8962]. By contrast in the so-called Cable
creep regime the creep rate is dominated by grain boundary diffusion (seechapter 12).

Ref. p. 301

1.6.2.1 Relaxation methods; 1.6.2.2 Nuclear methods

21

1.6.2 Indirect methods


These methods are not based directly on Ficks laws. One studies phenomena which are influenced by the
occurrence of the thermally activated motion of atoms. These methods are often sensitive to only one or to a
few atomic jumps. A relaxation time, a relaxation frequency, a relaxation rate or a line-width is measured.With
the help of a microscopic model of the underlying jump processthe mean residencetime z of the diffusing species
is deduced. According to
D =f d=r/6
(1.49a)
a diffusion coefficient can be determined provided that the jump length d and the correlation factor f are known.
d is usually obvious from the lattice geometry. f depends on the crystal structure and the diffusion mechanism.
The quantity
r= l/2
(1.49b)
is often denoted as the mean jump frequency of the diffusing atoms.
The indirect methods can be grouped into two categories - relaxation methods and nuclear methods:

1.6.2.1 Relaxation methods


In the relaxation methods the atomic motion is induced by external influences like mechanical stresses,
magnetic fields or temperature jumps. Anelastic or magnetic after-effects or internal jiktion are monitored. A
great variety of experimental devices has been used (seee.g. [72N]). The more important relaxation phenomena
related to diffusion are:
a) Snoek effect

In body-centered cubic metals the interstitial (octahedral or tetrahedral) sites have a tetragonal symmetry.
Due to this lower symmetry atoms in interstitial solution like C, N, 0 can give rise to a relaxation phenomenon,
the so-called Snoek effect.The Snoek effect can be studied in anelastic after-effect and internal friction measurements. In addition in ferromagnetic material magnetic after-effect measurementscan be used to study the Snoek
effect.
b) Got-ski effect

Any foreign atom solute in a solvent which produces a lattice dilatation can give rise to an anelastic
relaxation which is due to the diffusion in a macroscopic strain gradient. In practice the Gorski effect is
detectable only if the diffusion coefficient is high enough. Therefore, Gorski effect measurementshave been used
so far only for the study of hydrogen diffusion in metals. For details see e.g., the reviews [72V, 84B2] and
chapter 9 of this volume.
c) Zener effect

In substitutional AB alloys the reorientation of solute-solvent atom pairs under the influence of an applied
stresscan give rise to an anelastic relaxation denoted as Zener effect. From the reorientation kinetics the jump
frequencies can be determined for a given pair model.

1.6.2.2 Nuclear methods


Examples are nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMR), Miissbauer spectroscopy (MBS) and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). Like other indirect methods these methods are sensitive to one or a few atomic jumps.
a) Nuclear magnetic relaxation

(NMR)

The width of the resonance line and the spin-lattice relaxation time 7 have contributions which are due to
the thermally activated motion of atoms. Measurements of the diffusional narrowing of the linewidth or of
T1as functions of temperature permit a determination of diffusion coefficients (seee.g.[82K, 84S]).A prerequisite
for NMR measurementsis a non-vanishing nuclear moment of the diffusing species.An example for a NMR
study of diffusion is shown in Fig. 22(a) and (b).
NMR methods are particularly appropriate for self-diffusion measurements of solid or liquid metals. In
favourable cases(Li, Al, . ..) di ffusion coefficients between lo-l8 m*s- and 10-l ms- are accessible(see
Fig. 25). In the case of foreign atom diffusion NMR studies are handicapped by the fact that a signal from a
minority of nuclear spins must be detected.However, in favourable casesNMR studies are possible. For details
seee.g. [88G].
Land&-Bhnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

22

[Ref. p. 30

1.6.2.2 Nuclear methods


lo-'0
lo-'0 I.

d/S

10-l
10-12
lo-

11

0
0

16

lo-16

0.45 MH;
1.8
4.8
8

x v,=
'
.
.
.

15.5

35

I
Q
10-15
10-16
10-n

I3K-
10-18

IL1

8 *lo-

Fig. 22(a). Nuclear magnetic relaxation times & and T1pinLi as a function
of reciprocal temperature according to (78MJ. The spin-lattice relaxation
time TI has been measured for several Larmor frequencies. In the caseof the
spin-lattice relaxation time T,, the magnetic field is given instead of the
Larmor frequency. The minima in T, and T,, are caused by the diffusional
motion of Li atoms.

10-19
lo-91
2

4
l/T -

5 40JK-
40JK-' 6

Fig. 22 (b). Self-diffusion coeflicient of


Li as a function of reciprocal temperature deduced from the NMR data of
Fig. 22(a) according to [78M].

b) Miissbauer spectroscopy(MBS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS)


The linewidth in Mhshauer spectroscopy and in quasielastic scattering of monoenergetic neutrons both have
a contribution Ar which is due to the diffusional motion of atoms. This diffusional broadening can be observed
only in systemswith fairly high diffusivities (seeFig. 25) since Ar must be comparable to or exceed the natural
linewidth in MBS measurementsand the energy resolution of the neutron spectrometer in QENS experiments.
Appropriate probes for MBS are Fe, 19Sn, Eu and 16Dy. QENS is applicable to a few fast diffusing
elementswith a large enough, quasielastic scattering cross section for neutrons. Examples are Na self-diffusion
and hydrogen diffusion in metals. Further nuclei with large enough quasielastic scattering cross sections for
thermal neutrons are Co, Ni, V, Ti and Cr. Fig. 23(a), (b) shows examples for MBS spectra together with the
deduced diffusion coefficients. Fig. 24 illustrates typical effects of diffusive motion on a QENS spectrum.
Neither MBS nor QENS are routine methods for diffusion measurements.An interesting aspect of both
methods is that they can provide some microscopic information on the elementary jump process. If single
crystals are used in MBS or QENS measurementsAr depends on orientation. This anisotropy can be used to
deduce the jump direction and the jump length (see e.g. [84M2, 842, SSV]) of the diffusing atoms.

Mehrer

Land&BBmslein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 301

1.6.2.2 Nuclear

Fe

T=1767K

23

methods

FWHM=25.1mm/s

96
100

I
c
E
,;
E
6
z

98
96
100
98
96
100

0.56

2 98
c)
2

701

lii2JK

I
-40

,f

I
-20

0.830mm/s 1

I
0

I
20

I
I
mm/s 40

0.60

vFig. 23 (a). Mijssbauer spectra for self-diffusion in y-iron


(bottom) and S-iron in polycrystalline samples according to
[85v]. The Miissbauer source was s7Co in Rh at room temperature. The linewidth increases with increasing temperature due to the diffusional motion of the Fe atoms. For each
temperature the full width of half maximum of the Mossbauer line is given in mm s- r .

-6

-4

-2

Fig. 24. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectrum


(number of scattered neutrons N as a function of the energy
transfer ho for a fixed scattering vector Q = 1.3 IO-r0 m-r)
measured at 365.7 K on a sodium single-crystal according to
[80G]. The dashed line represents the resolution function of
the neutron spectrometer. The observed line is broadened
due to the diffusional motion of sodium atoms.
Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

0.62

0.64

.lO"K

0.68

Fig. 23 (b). Self-diffusion coefficient of iron as a function of


reciprocal temperature deduced from the Miissbauer data of
Fig. 23 (a) according to [85v]. Circles represent Mijssbauer
results. For reasons of comparison tracer data are shown as
solid lines.

96

,!I

0.58

Mehrer

1.6.3 Comparison of diffusivity

24

f
D(l,)

t
t
Lll2/31~1 D(l,)

sputtering

Tracer

SIMS.AES

RBS

----------___--------

\
EMPA

NRA

m\

/W)

2
f

/rj
I I
15

I I
10-7

s
5
I%
-fi
.-e
cl

-___,
IF

I I
KY*

I
O-

I,

I
10-1

E
I

[Ref. p. 30

0 I liquid)
Olfost)

mech.sect.

/
/

ranges accessible to various methods

I I I I
K-lo m2/s 10

Fig. 25. Illustration of the ranges of diffusion coeflicients which arc accessible to various experimental
methods. The following abbreviations have been
used: Tracer = radiotracer method, SIMS = secondary ion mass spectrometry, AES = Auger electron spectroscopy, EMPA = electron microprobe
analysis, RBS = Rutherford backscattering, NRA =
nuclear reaction analysis, AE = mechanical or magnetic after-effect, IF = internal friction, Gorski =
Gorski effect, NMR = nuclear magnetic relaxation,
MBS = Mijssbauer spectroscopy, QENS = quasielastic neutron scattering. On the upper scale some
values of diffusion coeficients have been indicated:
D (liquid) = typical value in a liquid metal,
D (fast) = typical value for very fast diffusors in
solids, D(T,) = typical value for self-diffusion in
metals near the melting temperature, D(2/3 T,) =
typical value for self-diffusion at 2/3 T,, D(7;) =
typical value for diffusion in amorphous alloys near
their crystallisation temperature.

1.6.3 Comparison of diffusivity ranges accessible to various methods


Approximate rangesof diffusion coefficients which can be determined by various direct and indirect methods
discussed in subsections 1.6.1 and 1.6.2 are illustrated in Fig. 25.
Nowadays, the radiotracer method can cover an enormous range of diffusivities provided that microsectioning techniques (e.g.sputtering) and mechanical sectioning techniques (lathe-, microtome- grinder sectioning) are
combined. Up to now it is the standard method for studies of self- and foreign atom diffusion provided that
appropriate radioisotopes are available.
SIMS and AES techniques both utilize depth profiling by sputtering and are therefore appropriate for small
diffusion coefficients. The use of AES dictates that the diffusion of foreign atoms other than the major constituents be studied since AES discriminates between different elements only. In SIMS and in SNMS experiments the composition analysis is performed in mass spectrometers which can discriminate between different
isotopes of the same element as well. Nevertheless, these techniques are mainly appropriate for foreign atom
diffusors. Self-diffusion studies can be performed with enriched natural isotopes. However, they suffer from a
background problem due to the natural abundance of these isotopes.
RBS and NRA methods are restricted to small diffusion coefficients becauseof the limited penetration ranges
of the analyzing ion beams and becauseof the effectsof beam straggling which becomemore serious for larger
penetrations. RBS is particular appropriate for heavy solutes in a light solvent whereas NRA is appropriate for
somelight solutes including hydrogen. A prerequisite for NRA studies of diffusion profiles is a nuclear reaction
with a narrow resonance.
EMPA is restricted to relatively large chemical diffusion coefficients since the depth resolution is limited by
the size of the volume excited by the electron beam.
The number of atomic jumps performed by the diffusing speciesduring anelastic or magnetic after-effect (e.g.
Snoek effect) studies of diffusional processes is typically in the order of one. Internal friction studies are
particular sensitive to diffusion processesin the sample when the jump rate of atoms is comparable to the
vibration frequency of the internal friction device. When applicable the after-effect and the internal friction
methods can monitor very small to small diffusion coefficients mainly for interstitial diffusors.
The Gorski ejj-,ct is an anelastic after-effect in metal-hydrogen systems.Its cause is hydrogen redistribution
by diffusion over distances which are comparable to the sample dimension. This can be monitored for sufliciently large diffusion coeflicients.
Amongst the nuclear methods NRA covers the widest range of diffusivities. The range indicated in Fig. 25
can be observed in materials with large gyromagnetic ratios and small non-diffusive
contributions
to the
relaxation
rates (in metals e.g. the electronic contributions).
MBS and QENS, when applicable, are limited to
fast diffusion processes.
Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 301

1.7 Diffusion along dislocations, grain boundaries and on surfaces;


1.8 Temperature dependence of diffusion

25

1.7 Diffusion along dislocations, grain boundaries and on surfaces


Any real crystalline sample usually contains dislocations, often grain boundaries and always free surfaces.
In the context of diffusion these one- or two-dimensional defectsare denoted as diffusion short-circuits or aspaths
of high difisivity. They have in common that the jump frequency of an atom in these regions is usually much
higher than that of the same atom in the lattice [63S, 66A, 85P, 88K1, 89Sl]. The higher diffusivity in these
regions is of interest for two reasons:
In experiments made by any of the methods discussed in section 1.6 to determine the diffusivity in the
volume, the question arises how much high-diffusivity paths contribute to the measured diffusion coefficient.
However, in properly designed experiments these contributions can be reduced to a negligible extent. Effects of
surface diffusion can be eliminated by removing the near surface region after the diffusion anneal and before a
determination of what is intended to be a volume diffusion coefficient is performed. Obviously single crystals
or at least coarse grain polycrystals are to be preferred in accurate measurementsof volume diffusion. Dislocation diffusion can never be completely avoided in metals. However, it can be made negligible by working with
well-annealed samples and at relatively high temperatures. This is due to the fact that short circuiting diffusion
rates increase less rapidly with increasing temperature than volume diffusion rates.
It has been realized that the transport of matter along high-diffusivity paths plays a key role in several
important technologies. This is particular obvious for diffusion along free surfaces and for grain boundary
diffusion in fine-grain materials. Nowadays it is possible in properly designedexperiments to determine diffusion
coefficients in these regions.
The few data available for dislocation difision are collected in chapter 11. The data for grain-boundary
difjitsion and those for surface diffusion are collected in chapters 12 and 13, respectively. In chapters 11 to 13
introductions to the various phenomena and to the pertaining experimental methods will be given as well.

1.8 Temperature dependence of diffusion


Measurements of the diffusion coefficients are usually performed at a series of temperatures. In solids often
an Arrhenius equation
D=D exp(-Q/kT)
(1.50)
describeswell the temperature dependencewithin the studied range. Do is denoted as preexponential factor and
Q as activation enthalpy. T denotes the absolute temperature and k Boltzmanns constant.
Typically, for metals and alloys, the pre-exponential factors are in the range
low6 m*s- & Do 5 10e3 rnzsml
and the activation enthalpies in the range
50 kJmol-1 $ Q & 600 kJmol-
depending essentially on the melting point of the material and on the diffusion mechanism (e.g.direct interstitial
or vacancy mechanism) which is operating.
In this volume the experimental data will primarily be reported in terms of Do and Q whenever this is
possible. In addition the data will be often also represented either as data points or as an Arrhenius line in an
Arrhenius diagram - a plot of the logarithm of the diffusion coefficient as a function of reciprocal temperature.
When several measurementsexist for the same system an attempt has been made to select what appear to be
the most recommended ones. Usually the recommended data will be included in the Arrhenius diagram.
Experimentally the Arrhenius diagram is sometimescurved: In such casesthe data may be better represented
by a sum of two Arrhenius terms according to
D=D?exp(--Q,jkT)+Diexp(-Q&T)

(1.51)

where 0: and 0: have the meaning of pre-exponential factors and Q1 and Qz denote activation enthalpies.
In the casesof so-called anomalous metals like B-Ti and B-Zr a representation of curved Arrhenius diagrams
by
D = D exp(- QjkT) exp(A/kT)
(1.52)
is physically even more meaningful [77S, 88K2]. D and Q represent normal activation parameters and A a
curvature parameter.
Land&Bhnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

26

1.8 Temperature dependence of diffusion

[Ref. p. 30

If tits of (1.51) or of (1.52) to the data have been performed by the authors either values of @, @, Q, and
Q2 or values of D, Q will also be reported. However, also Arrhenius diagrams are indispensible, whenever the
data deviate substantially from a simple Arrhenius equation.
Only in some relatively simple casescan the Arrhenius parameters of equation (1.50) be interpreted in a
straightfonvard manner in terms of properties of atomistic defects.We mention three such cases:
For the &&ion OJ interstitial solirtes which migrate by the direct interstitial mechanism (see Fig. 8 a) in a
cubic crystal the diffusion coefficient can be written as
D=gavOexpz

exp -g
.
(1.53)
(
>
Here v is an attempt frequency of the order of magnitude of the Debye frequency, a the cubic lattice parameter.
HM is the activation enthalpy that is necessaryto overcome the barrier between two adjacent interstitial sites
and SMthe pertaining entropy. g is a geometric factor which depends on the lattice structure and on the type
of interstitial sites involved. E.g. for octahedral interstitial sites we have g = 1 in the fee structure and g = l/6
in the bee structure.
in a pure cubic metal - provided that diffusion occurs only by the monovacancy
For tracer selfdiffirsion
mechanism (seeFig. 9) - the diffusion coefficient of the tracer atoms is given by
D = a2jvo exp[(SF + S)/k] exp[ - (HF + H")/k

T].

(1.54)

In (1.54) HF and HM denote the enthalpies of formation (superscript F) and migration (superscript M) of a
vacancy. SF and SMare the corresponding entropies. f is the correlation factor which for the monovacancy
mechanism in cubic lattices is a temperature independent constant (fee: 0.781,bee: 0.727,diamond: 0.5).In these
casesthe meaning of the pre-exponential factor and of the activation enthalpy are by comparison of equations
(1.50) and (1.54)
Q=HF+HM
(1.54a)
and
Do = a2fvo exp [(SF+ S)/k].
(1.54b)
For impurity

di$lrsion

in cubic metals

D = a2j2v(:

via the monovacancy

mechanism

exp[(SF + Sy - SB)/k]*exp[-

can be written as

(HF - HB + Hy)/kT].

(1.55)

Here Hy is the enthalpy barrier for an exchange of sites between impurity and vacancy and v: the pertaining
attempt frequency. Sy is the pertaining entropy. HB and SDdenote the binding enthalpy and entropy between
vacancy and impurity. In contrast to self-diffusion the correlation factor f2 for impurity diffusion depends on
temperature (see,e.g., [66A, SSP]).Strictly speaking, according to (1.55) D has no longer the Arrhenius form.
It is however common practice to recast the temperature variation of D into the form of an Arrhenius law
by defining an effective activation enthalpy as
Q=-kg.

(1.56)

If equation (1.56) is applied to (1.55) one obtains


(1.57)

Q=HF-H'+Hy-C

and
Do = u2f2v:

exp[(SF + Sy - SB)/k] . exp( - C/k T).

(1.58)

The quantity C is defined as


(1.59)
and accounts for the temperature dependenceof the correlation factor. If C depends on 7; Q and Do will also
depend on r Often the temperature dependence of f2 can be approximated by an Arrhenius equation
S2(77 =fpOl

expW)F

T),

(1.59a)

where T denotes the average temperature of the temperature range investigated. Then Q and Do are indeed
constant and may be written as
Q= HF-H'+HyDo = a"f~v~

C(T)

exp[(SF + S,M- SB)/k].


Mehrer

(1.58a)
(1.58b)
Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 301

1.9 Mass- and pressure dependence of diffusion

21

For slow diffusion C(T) is usually small, whereas for rapid diffusion by substitutional migration C(F) can be
several tens of kJmol-; however, its dependence on F is often negligible.
As already mentioned experimentally observed Arrhenius plots even for self-diffusion are sometimescurved.
The departure from a straight line can be more or less pronounced. In some cases only curvature at high
temperatures is observed. In the caseof the so-called anomalous bee metals a continuous curvature over the
whole temperature range investigated can be present. Sometimes two straight lines with different slopes have
been reported. In general, the activation enthalpy increases with increasing temperature. However, in some
materials (like e.g. a-Fe) which undergo a magnetic order-disorder transition the activation enthalpy may also
increase with decreasing temperature.
Several explanations for deviations fom straight Arrhenius diagrams have been put forward:
(i) The activation parameters depend on temperature: This has originally been proposed for normal metals
[7562]. The idea of temperature dependent activation parameters and their relation with bulk properties
has been extensively discussed in [86V]. It is very likely the reason for the strong curvatures observed for
some anomalous metals [87H, 88K2] and for different reasons in systemswith order-disorder transitions
like a-iron [77H2, 89H2].
The strong curvatures in anomalous metals have been attributed to anomalies in the phonon dispersion
curves [87H, 88K2, 89H3].
(ii) Diffusion occurs by more than one lattice diffusion mechanism. This is the case when several defects
contribute to the total diffusion coefficient.
The slight curvatures of the Arrhenius diagrams of self-diffusion in fee metals which are observed above
about 2/3 of the melting temperature have been attributed to the simultaneous contribution of mono- and
divacancies to the diffusivity [7OS,78P, 78M]. The tracer self-diffusion coefficient is then given by
(1.60)
D=D,v+D,v,
where D,, and D,, denote the mono- and divacancy contributions, respectively. Since the monovacancy
mechanism has a lower activation enthalpy than the divacancy mechanism it will always dominate at lower
temperatures. With increasing temperature the relative contribution of divacancies increasesand may cause
a slight upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. If the mono-/divacancy interpretation is adopted, the
activation parameters from a two-exponential fit according to (1.51) can be attributed to the two vacancy
type defects.
(iii) Diffusion occurs by one mechanism but by several types of atomic jumps. For example, interstitially
incorporated foreign atoms may diffuse by jumps between neighbouring octahedral sites as well as by jumps
between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Double jumps of atoms have been proposed to contribute to
self-diffusion in the close neighbourhood of the melting temperature [845].

1.9 Mass- and pressure dependence of diffusion


Measurements of the diffusion coefficients of self- and foreign atom diffusion are sometimesperformed with
tracer atoms of different isotopic mass. The mass dependence of diffusion is of special interest becauseit can
provide information about atomic mechanisms of diffusion (seesection 1.5).Isotope effect data are collected in
chapter 10, which also contains a brief introduction into the necessaryconcepts.
Diffusion coefficients in solids depend on the hydrostatic pressure p. Often the equation
D(P) = D(O) ev(-

pAl//kT)

(1.61)

describesthe pressure dependencesufficiently well. The quantity AI/ is denoted as activation volume. Activation
volumes for solid state diffusion are typically in the range between a few tenths of the atomic volume and 1.5
atomic volumes. Activation volumes of diffusion are of practical importance and of scientific interest. The
pertaining data are collected in chapter 10 as well.

Land&-Biirnstein
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28

1.10 Diffusion in amorphous alloys; 1.11 Further readings

[Ref. p. 30

1.10 Diffusion in amorphous alloys


Amorphous metallic alloys are also denoted as metallic glasses or as glassy metals. Diffusion data for
amorphous metallic alloys are collected in chapter 7.
The study of diffusion in amorphous alloys is a difficult topic from an experimental point of view. Progress
was only achieved in the last decade.The difficulties stem entirely from the facts that amorphous alloys are
non-equilibrium structures and that the diffusion temperatures and times are limited by the need to avoid
crystallization. This entails diffusional penetrations of the order of 0.1 urn and never exceeding 1 pm. Only those
methods of section 1.6 for shallow profiles and some indirect methods can be used in diffusion studies of
amorphous materials.
Diffusion in amorphous alloys is of considerable technological and of scientific interest as we!!. It is of vital
concern for the thermal stability of these materials which is determined by the processesof relaxation and
crystallization. Di!fusion in non-equilibrium structures without long range order and its atomistic mechanisms
are still not as well understood as for crystalline materials.

1.11 Further readings


1.11.1 Textbooks on diffusion
Seith. W., Heumann, Th.: DilJlrsion in Metal/err (2nd Edition). Berlin: Springer, 1955.
Shcwmon, P.: DilJlrsion in Solids. New York, San Francisco, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hi!!, 1963.
Adda, Y, Philibert, J.: La DiJirsion dons les Solides. Paris: PressesUniversitaires de France, 1966.
Manning, J.R.: Dilfirsion Kinetics of Atoms in Crystals. Princeton: van Nostrand, 1968.
Jest, W: Difirsion in Solids, Liquids atin Gases(2nd Edition). New York: Academic Press, 1969.
Flynn, C.P.: Poinf Dejects nnd Dilfirsion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Shaw, D., (ed.): Atomic Diji~sion in Semiconductors. London, New York: Plenum Press, 1973.
Tuck, B.: Introduction to Diffirsion in Semiconductors. IEE Monograph Series 16, Inst. Electr. Eng., 1974.
Crank, J.: The Mofhemntics oj DiJiaion (2nd Edition). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Nowick. A.S., Burton, J.J.,(eds): Diffirsion in Solids - Recent Developments. New York: Academic Press, 1975.
Wever, H.: Elektro- und Thermotransport in Metallen. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1975.
Stark, J.P.:Solid Stare Dilfirsion. New York: Wiley, 1976.
Larikov, L.N., Geichenko, V.V., Falchenko, V.M.: Diffusion Processes in Ordered Alloys. Kiev, 1975. Eng!.
Transl. published by Amerind Publ. Comp. New Dehli: 1981.
Murch, G.E., Nowick, A.S.: D~jirsion in Crystalline Solids. New York: Academic Press, 1984.
Philibert, J.: Diffirsion et Transport de MariPre dons les Solides. Les editions de physique, France, 1985.
Borovskii, LB., Gurov, K.P., Marchikova, I.D., Ugaste, Yu, E.: Interdiffusion in Alloys, 1973, Gurov, K.P., (ed.).
Transl. from Russian by the National Bureau of Standards. New Delhi: Amerind. Pub!. Comp., 1986.
Kirkaldy, J.S.,Young, D.J.: Dilfirsion in the Condensed Stare. Brookfield, USA: The Insitute of Metals, 1987.
Borg. R.J.,Dienes, G.J.: An Introduction to Solid Stare Dijjiision. Boston: Academic Press, 1988.
Kaur, I., Gust, W.: Fundnmenrals oj Grain and Interphase Boundary Dijiision. Stuttgart: Ziegler Press, 1988.
Shewmon, P.: Diffirsion in Solids (2nd Edition) Warrendale, Pennsylvania: The Minerals, Metals and Materials
Society, 1989.

1.11.2 Collections of diffusion data and data of related phenomena


Diffusion data and data of diffusion-related phenomena have also been gathered in:
DlQjirsionData. Wiihlbier, EH., (ed.),Vol. 1-7. Cleveland (USA) and Solothurn (Switzerland): Diffusion Informa-

tion Center.
Di@rsion ond Defect Daro (DDD). From 1967, Vol. Sff, Wiihlbier, EH., Fisher, J.D., (eds.).Switzerland: Trans.

Tech. Publicatons; a review appears about three times a year.


Adda, Y, Philibert, J.: Lo Diffirsion dons les Solides. Paris: PressesUniversitaires de France, 1966.
Neumann, G., Neumann, G.M.: Surface SeljlDiffusion of Metals. Diffusion and Defect Monograph Series,No. 1;
Wiihlbier, E, (ed.) 1972.
Pratt, J.N., Sellers, P.G.R.: Hecrrorransporr in Metals and Alloys. Diffusion and Defect Monograph SeriesNo. 2.
Adda, Y, Le Claire, A.D., Slilkin, L.M., Wiihlbier, EH., (eds.) 1973.
Landolt-Btmstein
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1.l 1 Further readings

29

Frischat, G.H.: Ionic Dgfusion in Oxide Glasses. Diffusion and Defect Monograph Series No. 314.Adda, Y,
Le Claire, A.D., Slifkin, L.M., Wiihlbier, EH., (eds.) 1975.
Wever, H.: Elektro- and Thermotransport in Metallen. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1975.
Burton, B.: Dffusion Creep of Polycrystalline Materials. Diffusion and Defect Monograph SeriesNo. 5. Adda,
Y, Le Claire, A.D., Slifkin, L.M., Wbhlbier, EH., (eds.) 1977.
Dariel, M.P.: Diffusion in rare earth metals, in: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths.
Gschneidner jr., K.A., Eyring, L. (eds.)Amsterdam: North Holland, 1978, p. 847.
Smithells Metals Reference Book (6th Edition). Brandes, E.A., (ed.), Washington: Butterworths, 1983, Chapter 13-1.
Butrymowicz, D.B.: Diffusion rate data and mass transport phenomena in copper systems. Vol. 8, INCRA Series,
New York, 1983.
Kaur, I., Gust, W., Kozma, L.: Handbook of Grain and Interphase Boundary Diffusion Data. Vol. 1 and 2.
Stuttgart: Ziegler Press, 1989.

1.11.3 Proceedings
Some results concerning diffusion and related subjects are contained in proceedings of international conferences or symposia. The more recent ones are listed below:
Cubic Metals. Proc. Int. Conf. held in Gatlinburg, USA, 1964; Wheeler, jr. J.A.,
Winslow, F.R., (eds.).Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals, 1965.
Vacancies and Znterstitials in Metals, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Jiilich, Germany, 1968; Seeger,A., Schumacher, D.,
Schilling, W!, Diehl, J., (eds.).Amsterdam: North Holland, 1970.
Dzffusion in metallischen Werkstoffen, 7. Metalltagung in Dresden, DDR, 1970. Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag
fur Grundstoftindustrie, 1970.
Atomic Transport in Solids and Liquids, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Marstrand, Sweden, 1970; Lodding, A., Lagerwall, T, (eds.).Z. Naturforsch. 26a, 1971.
Diffusion Processes, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Glasgow; Sherwood, J.N., Chadwick, A.V, Muir, WM., Swinton,
FL., (eds.).2 Volumes, London: Gordon and Breach, 1971.
La Diffusion dans les Milieux Condenses: Thkorie et Application, 19 Colloque Metallurgie. Saclay: INSTN,
1976.
Low Temperature Dgfusion and Applications to Thin Films; Gangulee, A., Ho, P.S.,Tu, K.N., (eds.).Thin solid
films 25 (1975) No. 1-2.
Properties of Atomic Defects in Metals, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Argonne, USA, 1976; Peterson,N.L., Siegel,R.W,
(eds.).J. Nucl. Mater. 69-70 (1978).
Point Defects and Defect Interactions in Metals, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Kyoto, Japan, 1981; Takamura, J.I.,
Doyama, M., Kiritani, M., (eds.).University of Tokyo Press, 1982.
Mass Transport in Solids; Benibre, E, Catlow, C.R.A., (eds.),Nato series,Series B, Vol. 97. London, New York:
Plenum Press, 1983.
DZMETA 82 - Dzffusion in Metals and Alloys, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Tihany, Hungary, 1982; Kedves, EJ.,Beke,
D.L., (eds.).Diffusion and Defect Monographs Series No. 7 (1983).
Nontraditional Methods in Diffusion, Proc. Symp. held in Philadelphia, USA, 1983; Murch, G.E., Birnbaum,
H.K., Cost, JR., (eds.).The Metallurgical Society of AIME (1984).
DiJfusion in Solids: Recent Developments. Proc. Symp. held in Detroit, USA 1984; Dayananda, M.A., Murch,
G.E., (eds.).The Metallurgical Society (1985).
Solute-Defect Interactions - Theory and Experiment. Proc. Int. Seminar held in Kingston, Canada, 1985;
Saimoto, S., Purdy, G.R., Kidson, G.V, (eds.).Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1986.
Vacancies and Znterstitials in Metals and Alloys, Proc. Int. Conf. held in West-Berlin, 1986; Abromeit, C.,
Wollenberger, H., (eds.).Materials Science Forum 15-18 (1987).
Diffusion in High-Technology Materials, Proc. ASM Symposium held in Cincinnati, USA, 1987; Gupta, D.,
Romig, A.D., Dayananda, M.A., (eds.),Trans. Tech. Publications, 1988.
DIMETA-Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, Proc. Int. Conf. held in Balatonfiired, Hungary, 1988; Kedves, EJ.,
Beke, D.L., (eds.).Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989).
Diffusion in Body-Centered

Land&-BCmstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer

30

1.12 References for 1

1.12 References for 1


1894B
33M
11s
48D
49D
52s
53B
55s
55H
59c
59R
62s
63M
63s
645
66A
66C
68F
68M
7OLl
lOL2
70s
71F
72N
72V
74s
7sc
75Gl
7562
77Hl
77H2
77s
18M
78P
80G
82K
83B
84Bl
84B2
84F
84H
84J
84L
84Ml
84M2
84M3
84P
84R

Boltzmann, L.: Ann. Physik 53 (1894) 960.


Matano, C.: Jpn. Phys. 8 (1933) 109.
Smigelkas, A.D., Kirkendall, E.O.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 171 (1947) 130.
Darken, L.S.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 175 (1948) 184.
Darken, L.S.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 180 (1949) 430.
Seith, W., Kottmann, A.: Z. Angew. Chem. 64 (1952) 379.
Ballufli, R.W.: J. Metals 5 (1953) 726.
Seith, W, Heumann, Th.: Diffusion in Metallen. Berlin: Springer, 1955.
Hauffe, K.: Reaktionen in und an festen Stoffen. Berlin: Springer, 1955.
Carslaw, H.S., Jaeger,J.C.: Conduction of Heat in Solids. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959.
Ruth, V.: Z. Phys. Chem. Neue Folge 20 (1959) 313.
Sauer, E, Freise, V: Z. Elektrochemie 66 (1962) 353.
Malkovitch, R.Sh.:Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 15 (1963)880; Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR (English Transl.).
Shewmon, P.: Diffusion in Solids. New York, San Francisco, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill, 1%3.
Jost, W.: Diffusion in Solids, Liquids and Gases.New York: Academic Press,(2d Edition) 1964.
Adda, Y, Philibert, J.: La Diffusion dans les Solides. Paris: PressesUniversitaires de France, 1966.
Ceresara, S., Frederighi, T, Pieragostini, E: Phys. Status. Solidi 16 (1966) 439.
Fogelson, R.L.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 35 (1968) 492.
Manning, J.R.: Diffusion Kinetics for Atoms in Crystals. Princeton: von Norstrand, 1968.
LeClaire, A.D.: Correlation Effects in Diffusion in Solids, in: Physical Chemistry - an Advanced
Treatise, Vol. X, Chapt. 5. New York, London: Academic Press, 1970.
van Loo, EJ.J.:Acta Metall. 18 (1970) 1107.
Seeger,A., Mehrer, H., in: Vacanciesand Interstitials in Metals. Seeger,A., Schumacher, D., Schilling,
W, Diehl, J., (eds.).Amsterdam: North-Holland 1970, p. 1.
Fogelson, R.L.: Fiz. Tverd. Tela 13 (1971) 1028.
Nowick, AS., Berry, B.S.:Anelastic Relaxation in Crystalline Solids. New York: Academic press,1972.
Volkl, J.: Ber. Bunsenges.76 (1972) 797.
Schmalzried, H.: Solid State Reactions. New York: Academic press, 1974.
Crank, 1: The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford: Clarendon Press,(2d Edition) 1975.
Gupta, D.: Thin Solid Films 25 (1975) 231.
Gilder, M., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. 145 (1975) 507.
Heumann, Th.: Z. Naturforsch. 32a (1977) 54.
Hettich, G., Mehrer, H., Maier, K.: Ser. Metall. 11 (1977) 795.
Sanchez,J.M., De Fontaine, D.: J. Phys. (Paris) C7-38 (1977) 444.
Mehrer, H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 69 + 70 (1978) 38.
Peterson, N.L.: J. Nucl. Mater. 69 + 70 (1978) 3.
Goltz, G., Heidemann, A., Mehrer, H., Seeger,A., Wolf, D.: Philos. Mag. A 41 (1980) 723.
Kanert, 0.: Phys. Rep. 91 (1982) 183.
Bocquet, J.L., Brebic, G., Limonge, Y: Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, in: Physical Metallurgy 1983.
Cahn, R.W., Haasen, P., (eds.).Amsterdam: North-Holland Physics Publishers (yd edition), 1983,
p. 385.
Bakker, H., in: Diffusion in Crystalline Solids. Murch, G.E., Nowick, A.S.,(eds.).New York: Academic
Press, 1984, p. 189.
Berry, B.S., Pritchet, W.C.: in [84Ml].
Frank, W, Gosele, U., Mehrer, H., Seeger,A.: Diffusion in Silicon and Germanium, in: Diffusion in
Crystalline Solids. Murch, G.E., Nowick, A.S., (eds.).New York: Academic Press, 1984, p. 62.
Horvath, J., Dyment, E, Mehrer, H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 126 (1984) 206.
Jacucci, G.: in [84Ml].
Lanford, W.A., Beneson, R., Burman, C., Wielunski, L.: in [84Ml].
Murch, G.E., Birnbaum, H.K., Cost, J.R. (eds.):Nontraditional Methods in Diffusion, Proc. Symp.
held in Philadelphia, USA, 1983. The Metallurgical Society of AIME (1984).
Mullen, J.G.: in [84Ml].
Myers, S.M.: in [84Ml].
Petuskey, W.T.: in [84Ml].
Rothman, S.J.:The Measurement of Tracer Diffusion Coefficients in Solids, in: Diffusion in Crystalline
Solids. Murch, G.E., Nowick, A.S. (eds.).New York: Academic Press, 1984, p. 1.
Mehrer

Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

1.12 References for 3


84s
842
85M
85P
85V
86B
86H
86V
87G
87H
88G
88Kl
88K2
89Gl
8962
89Hl
89H2
89H3
89K
89Sl
8982

Stokes, H.T.: in [84Ml].


Zabel, H.: in [84Ml].
Mehrer, H., in: Solute-Defect Interactions - Theory and Experiment. Saimoto, S., Purdy, G.R.,
Kidson, G.V, (eds.).Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1985, p. 162.
Philibert, J.: Diffusion et Transport de Mat&e dans les Solides. Les editions de physique, France,
1985.
Vogl, G., Petry, W: Diffusion in Metals Studied by Mijssbauer Spectroscopy and Quasielastic Neutron Scattering; Festkiirperprobleme XXV (Advances in Solid State Physics), Grosse, P., (ed.).Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1985, p. 655.
Borovskii, LB., Gurov, K.P., Marchukova, I.D., Ugaste, Yu.E.: Interdiffusion in Alloys, 1973, Gurov,
K.P., (ed.). Transl. from Russian by the National Bureau of Standards. New Delhi: Amerind. Publ.
Company, 1986.
Hagenschulte, H.: Diplomarbeit Universitat Miinster, 1986.
Varotsos, P.A., Alexopoulos, K.D.: Thermodynamics of Point Defects and their Relation with Bulk
Properties. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1986.
Geise, J., Mehrer, H., Herzig, Chr., Weyer, G.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 443.
Herzig, Chr., Kiihler, U.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 301.
Gunther, B.: Untersuchungen atomarer Bewegungen in Festkorpern mit Methoden der kernmagnetischen Relaxation. Habilitationsschrift, Universitat Dortmund, 1988.
Kaur, I., Gust, W.: Fundamentals of Grain and Interphase Boundary Diffusion. Stuttgart: Ziegler
Press, 1988.
Kiihler, U., Herzig, Chr.: Philos. Mag. A 58 (1988) 769.
Gail, I.: in [89K].
Greenwood, G.W.: in [89K].
Hagenschulte, H., Heumann, Th.: J. Phys. Condensed Matter, 1 (1989) 3601.
Hirano, K.-I., Iijima, Y.: in [89K].
Herzig, Chr.: Ber. Bunsenges.Phys. Chem. 93 (1989) 1247.
Kedves, F.J.,Beke, D.L. (eds.):DIMETA 88 - Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, Proc. Int. Conf. held in
Balatonftired, Hungary, 1988. Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989).
Shewmon, P.: Diffusion in Solids, 2nd edition. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: The Minerals, Metals and
Materials Society, 1989.
Slitkin, L.: Metallurgical Transactions 20A (1989) 2577.

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Mehrer

32

2.1 Introduction

[Ref. p. 81

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements


2.1 Introduction
Self-diffusion is the most basic diffusion processin solids. In this chapter self-diffusion data are presented for
solid metallic elements.Only data are given for pure metals. Data for tracer self-diffusion of binary alloys are
tabulated in chapter 4 and the relatively few tracer self-diffusion data available for ternary alloys are included
in chapter 6. Data on diffusion in the semiconducting elements Si and Ge have not been tabulated, but can be
found in [89L]. For a description of experimental methods used in self-diffusion studies the reader is referred to
section 1.6 of the General introduction.

2.1.1 Order of elements


In this chapter data are compiled in the tables and figures according to the position of the substancesin the
periodic table in the following order:
alkali metals group,
alkaline earth metals group,
scandium group metals,
rare earth metals,
titanium group metals,
vanadium group metals,
chromium group metals,
manganesegroup metals,
iron group metals,
cobalt group metals,
nickel group metals,
noble metals,
zinc group metals,
aluminum group metals,
group IVB metals,
group VB semimetals,
group VIB semimetals,
actinide group metals.

2.1.2 Use of tables and figures


In the tables all measurementsare reported whenever possible in terms of the preexponerztialfictor Do and
the octiwtion elltknlpy Q introduced in equation (1.50) of the General introduction. In some casesDo and Q
values are not given in the original work. Do and Q values which were calculated from the original data points
by the present authors are indicated as recalculated.
The tempctwtwe range given in the tables is the range over which measurements were made and used to
calculate Do and Q. Long extrapolations beyond this range may in some casesnot give reliable values for the
diffusion coefficient as will be evident from the graphical representation.
For zrnimiol crystals Do and Q values are given for diffusion perpendicular and parallel to the crystal axis,
whenever experiments on oriented single crystals have been performed. The crystal orientation is indicated by
the remarks I c axis and 11c axis in the Do column of the table.
For mctols wifh dotropic rran.yhtarions
Do and Q values for the various crystal structures are reported. The
pertaining crystal structure is indicated by a corresponding remark - e.g.a-Fe or y-Fe -in the Do column
of the table as well.
The column Methon/Rernnrks
usually contains the information (i) to (v):
(i)

The esperinmtol
method is briefly characterized.
- In by far the. most self-diffusion studies the thin layer method has been applied in combination with
radiotracers (seesubsection 1.6.1.2.1of the General introduction). In thesecasesthe radioisotope used
-for example 19Au - will be stated. In some.casesmore than one isotope of the sameelement -e.g. Na
and 24Na - were used and will then be stated as well. In very few cases stable isotopes and mass
spectrometry were used and will be mentioned explicitly.
Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Land&-B6mstcin
New Series 111~26

Ref. p. 811

2.1 Introduction

33

- If a serial sectioning technique in combination with counting of the section activity was used for the

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

measurement of the concentration depth profile, which is often the case,this will be indicated by one of
the following keywords: mechanical sectioning, sputter sectioning, chemical sectioning, electrochemical sectioning or anodic oxidation. The keyword mechanical sectioning implies either sectioning by a lathe, by a precision grinder, or by microtome cutting or by combinations of these tools.
If a serial sectioning technique was applied and not the section activity but the residual activity of the
sample was measured this feature will be stated as well.
- In some studies indirect methods (see subsection 1.6.2 of the General introduction) like nuclear
magnetic relaxation (NMR), quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) or transmission electron microscope observations (TEM) were used.In such casesthe above mentioned abbreviations plus someadditional
keywords will be stated.
The nominal purity of the samples will be stated whenever this information is available. For a more detailed
specification of the purity, which only in some casesis available in the original work, the reference should
be consulted.
The use of single - or polycrystals will be stated. The grain size of polycrystals will be indicated, whenever
this information is available.
For uniaxial crystals it is indicated whether both crystallographic directions have been investigated or not.
If both diffusion coefficients, D,, and D,, have been measured, a statement which of the two is larger is
included.
For metals which undergo (an) allotropic transformation(s) a statement is included which crystal structure(s) has (have) been investigated in this particular reference.

The column Method/Remarks may also contain some optional information which concerns the following
items:
[vi) Sometimesin the original work the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient is analyzed not only
in terms of the simple Arrhenius relationship given by equation (1.50) of the General introduction but
also in terms of more sophisticated expressions.
The most common example is a sum of two exponentials as given by equation (1.51) of the General
introduction. If this is the case the pertaining preexponential factors 0: and Di and the activation
enthalpies Q, and Q, will be stated. If the authors adopt a certain interpretation like for example monoand divacancy contributions to the diffusion coefficient (seeequation (1.60)of the General introduction),
this will be also mentioned.
rvii) If in the same paper additional experiments like e.g. isotope effect experiments, or high-pressure diffusion
experiments, or diffusion experiments with other isotopes and/or other matrices were performed this will
be indicated as well.
Central to the present chapter are the tables. From the tables referencesare made to the figures. For all
metals where sufficiently reliable data were available an Arrhenius diagram - a semilogarithmic plot of the
diffusion coefficient as a function of the reciprocal absolute temperature-has been included in the figure section.
For a given metal those data which are strongly recommended have been included in the pertaining figure. Often
data from several different references,which sometimes but not always cover different temperature ranges, are
Included in the Arrhenius diagram. This procedure enables the user of chapter 2 to get an impression about the
quality of the recommended self-diffusion data.
Generally in a figure pertaining to a given metal its melting temperature T, is indicated. Values of T, are
:aken from [83Sl]. Several metals undergo an allotropic transformation which transforms one crystal structure
nto another when the temperature is raised or lowered. Some metals like for example iron even undergo more
:han one allotropic transformation. Usually an allotropic transformation manifests itself by a stepwise change
If the diffusion coefficient in the Arrhenius diagram. For metals with (an) allotropic transformation(s) the
:ransformation temperature(s) is(are) indicated in the figure. The values of the transformation temperatures are
:aken from [73H].
Figures 46 to 48 are the only ones to which no reference is made from the tables. Each of these figures
:ontains a whole series of Arrhenius lines pertaining to metals with the same crystal structure. A homologous
.eciprocal temperature scaleis used in thesecases.The normalization is performed with the melting temperature
If each individual metal. The reader may find these figures useful to get a quick overview over the self-diffusion
,ehaviour of some important metals.

Landolt-Miirnstem

New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

2.2.1 Self-diffusion in alkali metals

34

[Ref. p. 81

2.2 The self-diffusion tables


DO

10-4mZs-1

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

2.2.1 Self-diffusion in alkali metals


Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
Lithium

(Li)

I.24

55.3

300..*453

NMR: spin lattice relaxation times Tr


and T2;
Li signal in natural Li;
99.95%;
dispersion of 12 urn particles in an oil;
liquid Li also studied, Na and Rb also
studied

55H

3.39

56.9

343 . . *443

6Li in natural Li as stable tracer;


polycrystals;
99.8%;
mechanical sectioning, mass spectrometry

59N

50.1

190...240

NMR: spin lattice relaxation time in


rotating frame T,,;
Li signal in natural Li;
dispersion of 15 urn Li-particles in
mineral oil

65Al

3.123
16Li in Li)
D.120
[Li in 6Li)
-

53.1

308 . ..451

7OL

54.0

308 .+.451

6Li in nearly pure Li and Li in nearly pure 6Li as stable tracer;


mechanical sectioning, mass spectrometry

54

x 312...450

NMR: spin lattice relaxation


time T,;
99.98%;
dispersion of 10 urn particles in
paraffin oil;
T, also studied for dilute Li alloys containing 2, 4, 8 at% Mg; 1.5, 3 at%
Cd and 2.75 at% Ag

72T

47.2

223 ... 373

NMR: spin lattice relaxation in rotating frame TIP;


Li signal in natural Li;
99.8%;
dispersion of 15 urn particles in mineral oil

73w

0.133
(from T, data)

52.75

s 300...455

NMR: spin lattice relaxation times Tl


and T,,;

75M

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

LandolbB6mstein
New Series III,/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.1 Self-diffusion in alkali metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

35

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Lithium (Li), continued


0.038
(from TIP data)

50.2

x 192...350

various dispersions of small Li-spheres;


purity not specified;
Arrhenius diagram slightly curved,
two-exponential fit:
07 = 0.038 . 10M4mz s-l
Q, = 50.2 kJmol-,
D,O= 9.5. 10m4m2s-r
Qz = 67 kJmol-,
mono-fdivacancy interpretation

75M

195.**450

NMR: spin lattice relaxation times 7


and T,,;
Li in Li;
deviation from Arrhenius behaviour,
two-exponential fit:
0: = 0.06. 10m4m2s-r
Q1 = 50.2 kJmol-,
0: = 28.8 . 10m4m2 s-l
Qz = 69.5 kJmol-,
mono-Jdivacancy interpretation

76M3

0.33

55.0

220...454

P-NMR: spin-lattice relaxation of polarized radioactive sLi nuclei using


asymmetric P-decay;
deviation from Arrhenius behaviour,
two-exponential fit:
0: = 0.19. 10m4rns-
Q, = 53 kJmol-,
Di = 95. 10e4 m2s-1
Q, = 76.2 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

85Hl

Sodium (Na)
0.20

41.9

E 223 ... 370

NMR: spin lattice relaxation times TI


and T,;
23Na signal in natural Na;
99.95%;
dispersion of 12 pm particles in oil;
liquid Na also studied, Li and Rb also
studied

55H

0.242

43.7

273...368

Na;
coarse grain polycrystals;
purity not specified;
diffusion couple of 22Na doped and
undoped Na;
mechanical sectioning;
effects of hydrostatic pressure also
studied

52N

(continued)

Landolt-B6irnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

36

2.2.1 Self-diffusion in alkali metals

Q
kJmol-

[Ref. p. 81

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Sodium (Na), continued


0.145

42.2

273 ... 370

ZZNa, 24Na;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
mechanical sectioning;
Arrhenius diagram slightly curved presumably due to K impurity;
isotope effect also studied

66M

194.5... 370

22Na;
99.9995% ;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given, Arrhenius
diagram curved, two-exponential tit:
0: = 0.0057m2se1
Q1 = 35.7 kJmol-,
Dy= 0.72.10m4m2s-
Q2 = 48.1 kJmo!-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation;
effect of pressure also studied, isotope
effect also studied

71Ml

0.12

41.5

349..-370

QENS:
mono- and polycrystals;
purity not specified;
dependenceof quasielastic line width
on momentum transfer also studied

79A

323...371

QENS;
single crystal;
99.999% ;
dependenceof quasi-elastic line width
on momentum transfer studied for
various crystallographic directions;
data discussed together with radiotracer data;
mono-/divacancy interpretation

80G

zl60...260

NMR: spin lattice relaxation times TI


and T,p;
23Na signals in natural Na;
99.95%;
dispersion of small particles in
paraffin;
two-exponential tit:
Dy= 0.004~10-4m2sT1
Q, = 35.9 kJmo!-,
Dz=2.6.10m4 m2sm1
Qz = 46.4 kJmo!-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

80B

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Land&-B6mstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.2 Self-diffusion in alkaline earth metals

DO

10V4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

37

Fig.

Ref.

67M

71M2

55H

66D

Potassium (K)
0.31

40.8

42K.

273...333

polyirystals;
99.95% ;
mechanical sectioning
0.16

39.2

42K.

22l.s.335

99.9; %;

mechanical sectioning;
Arrhenius diagram slightly curved,
two-exponential fit:
0: = 0.05 . 10m4m2 s-l
Q, = 37.2 kJmol-,
Di = 1 1IO-4m2s-1
Q, = 47 kJmol-

Rubidium (Rb)
0.23

39.3

E 280 ... 312

NMR: spin lattice relaxation times TI


and T,;
*Rb and *Rb signals in natural Rb;
purity not specified;
dispersion of 50 urn particles in oil;
liquid Rb also studied, Li and Na also
studied

Cesium (Cs)
No data available.

Francium (Fr)
No data available.

2.2.2 Self-diffusion in glkaline earth metals


Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Bs, Ra

Beryllium (Be)
0.52

157.4

836...1342

165

841...1321

160.8

923.s.1473

(I c axis)
D.62

[II c axis)

3.36

Land&Bhstein
New Series III/26

I and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:


Be;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual activity;
DII D,
Be;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning and residual activity measurement
.

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

68P2

[Ref. p. 81

2.2.3 Self-diffusion in scandium group and rare earth metals

38

DO

10-4m2s-

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Magnesium (Mg)
1.5
:l c axis)
tfc axis)

136.1

74l.e.908

134.8

741 as.908

1.75
[I c axis)
1.78
[II c axis)

138.2

775...906

139

775 ..a906

56s

1 and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:


28Mg;
single crystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning
I and II hexagonal c axis investigated:
2*Mg;
single crystals;
99.99%;
mechanical sectioning and section activity as well as residual activity
measurement;
anisotropy carefully investigated and
found to be weak DJD,, x 1.1 3.. 1.2

Calcium (Ca)
161.2

8.3

68Pl

45Ca;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
mechanical sectioning and residual activity measurement;
14C 5gFe, 235U and 63Ni diffusion in
&I also studied

773 ..* 1073

Strontium (Sr)

No data available.

Barium @a)

No data available.

Radium (Ra)

No data available.

2.2.3 Self-diffusion in scandium group and rare earth metals


2.2.3.1 Scandium group metals
SC,Y, La

Scandium (SC)

No data available

Yttrium (Y)
280.9
tl c axis a-Y)
0.82
(II c axis a-Y)

252.5

1173..*1573
1173...1573

a-Y, 1 and (1hexagonal c axis investi-

70Gl

69D2

gated: lY;
single crystals;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual activity;
D,, DA

Lanthanum (La)
1.5
(B-W

188.8

923.s.1123

fee B-La investigated: r4La;


polycrystals (0.1 to 0.2 mm grain size);
99.95%; mechanical sectioning

(continued)
Mehrer, Stolicaj Stolwijk

LandobB6mstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.3 Self-diffusion in scandium group and rare earth metals

39

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

102.6

1140...1169

bee r-La investigated: 14La;


strongly twinned samples;
99.95%;
mechanical sectioning

73D

125.2

1151... 1183

bee y-La investigated: 140La;


polycrystals;
99.85%,
(detailed specification of purity);
mechanical sectioning

74L3

fee y- and bee 6-Ce investigated:


141C!e;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning

71D

1018...1064

bee 6-Ce investigated: 141C!e;


polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning with measurement of section and residual activity;
data from [71D] also listed

73L2

1003,1028

bee 6-Ce investigated: 141Ce;


polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
pressure dependence at two temperatures studied

74L2

fee y-Ce investigated: 141Ce;


polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
pressure dependence studied

76M2

10

69Dl

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Lanthanum (La), continued


1.3. 10-Z

(G-4
0.11
W4

2.2.3.2 Rare earth metals


Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu

Cei-ium (Ce)
153.2

801..+ 965

0.012
(&Ce)

90

992... 1044

0.007
(&Ce)

84.7

0.55
We)

930

Praseodymium (Pr)
0.087
(P-W

123.1

1075~~~1150 bee p-Pr investigated: 14Pr;


polycrystals;
99.96%;
mechanical sectioning;
p-Pr classified among anomalous
bee metals;
141n, 14La, (j6Ho also studied in
j3-Pr

Neodymium (Nd)
No data available.

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

40

2.2.3 Self-diffusion in scandium group and rare earth metals

DQ

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

11

77F

12

77F

13

72s

hcp a- and bee y-Yb investigated:


16gYb;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning

14

74F

bee y-Yb investigated: r6Yb;


polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
pressure dependencestudied at these
temperatures

Prometheum (Pm)
No data available.

Samarium (Sm)
No data available.

Europium (Eu)
1.0

144.0

771 *.* 1074

bee Eu investigated: ls2Eu;


polycrystals;
99.7%;
mechanical sectioning

Gadolinium (Gd)
0.01
(B-G4

136.9

1549...1581

bee g-Gd investigated: Gd;


polycrystals;
99.5%;
mechanical sectioning;
non-Gaussian penetration curves in
the temperature range
1538*..1548 K

Terbium (Tb)
No data available.

Dysprosium (Dy)
No data available.

Holmium (Ho)
No data available.

Erbium (Er)
4.51
(1 c axis)
3.71
(II c axis)

302.6

1475 .+.1685

301.6

1475...1685

1 and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:


169Er.
single cr&tals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
DJD,, = 1.11... 1.16

Thulium (Tm)
No data available.

Ytterbium (Yb)
0.034
(a-Yb)
0.12
(y-W

146.8

813...990

121.0

995 .** 1086

1003,1033,
1073

14

75F

Lutetium (Lu)
No data available.

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landoh-kimstein
New Series Ill/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.4 Self-diffusion in titanium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

41
Fig.

Ref.

63L

2.2.4 Self-diffusion in titanium group metals


Ti, Zr, Hf

Titanium (Ti)
6.4. lo-*
(a-Ti)

122.7

963...1123

44Ti.

poly&ystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement
1172... 1813

(P-V

44Ti;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
curved Arrhenius plot, two-exponential
fit:
0: = 3.58. 10m8rns-l
Q1 = 130.6kJmol-,
0: = 1.09. 10e4 m2sm1
Q, = 251.2 kJmol-;
48V in Ti also studied

15

64M2
.

1.9. 10-3
(P-W

152.8

1173:.. 1856

44Ti;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement

68Wl

4.54.10-4
(P-V

131.0

1228... 1784

44Ti;
co-diffusion with g4Nb or g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.97% ;
mechanical sectioning;
TiNb alloys also studied

79P

6.6. 10-s
(a-Ti)

169..l

1013...1149

15

80D

[P-Ti)

1176...1893

44Ti;
polycrystals;
99.97%;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement;
great-depth tails observed
44Ti.
poly:rystals;
99.98%;
mechanical sectioning;
curved Arrhenius plot: interpreted as
phonon softening effect on monovacancy migration, data including
[64M2] described as
D = 3.5 . 10T4 exp( - 328.0 kJ/RT)
. exp(4.1 T,/T) rns-l, T in K

15

87Kl

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

42

2.2.4 Self-diffusion in titanium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

Zirconium (Zr)
2.4. 10-4
P-W

126.0

1441... 1776

g5Zr;
polycrystals;
metallic impurity content specified;
mechanical sectioning;
influence of a-g transition also studied

16

61K

1174...2020

g5Zr;
polycrystals;
99.94%;
mechanical sectioning;
curved Arrhenius plot described by
D = 3. 10-10(T/1136)15~6
_ [82.06+0.1294(7-1136)]kJ

16

63F

&Zr)

RT
g5Nb in Zr also studied
2.1 . lo-

113.0

1013~~~1130 g5Zr;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement;
Nb in Zr also studied

68Dl

1215...2088

8gZr;
co-diffusion with Zr.
polycrystals (5 .. .7 mm grain size);
detailed specifications of purity;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q not given;
influence of preannealing examined;
isotope effect also studied

16

70G2

1124

g7Zr;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning;
D = 5.6.10-18 m*s-1
D=42.10-18~*~-1:
26A< 44Ti, 51Cr, 54Mn, 5gke, 6oCo and
l**Sb in Zr also studied

16

74Hl

1189...2000

g5Zr and 88Zr;


polycrystals;
99.985%;
mechanical sectioning;
curved Arrhenius plot: data including
[61K, 63F, 70G2] described by
D = 0.3 * 10m4exp( - 301.0 kJ/RT)
* exp(3.39 Tz/T') m*s-, T in K;
isotope effect also studied

16

79H

[or-Zr)

WW

[a-Zr)

ww

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

LandoIl-BBmslein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.4 Self-diffusion in titanium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

43

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Zirconium (Zr), continued


6.8 . 10-4
(P-W

145.0

1218... 1518

g5Zr;
polycrystals;
nuclear grade;
mechanical sectioning;
Fe and lC!r in Zr also studied

81P

3.1 . 10-s
(P-W

105.3

1167... 1476

Zr.
poly&ystals;
nuclear grade;
mechanical sectioning;
48V in Zr also studied

16

82P

(c+Zr)

779... 1128

Zr. ,
single crystals of the same random
orientation;
99.99% ;
sputter sectioning;
downward curved Arrhenius plot

16

84H

Hafnium (Hf)
1.2. 10-3
W-W

162.0

2068 . . .2268

l8lHf;
polycrystals;
97.9% (Zr 2.1%);
mechanical sectioning

17

65W2

7.3. 10-6
@-HO

174.2

1197... 1756

17Hf and *lHf;


polycrystals;
97.3% (Zr 2.7%);
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement

68Dl

4.8. 1O-3
(P-W

183.4

2058...2431

175Hf and *lHf;


polycrystals;
97.3% (Zr 2.7%);
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement

68Wl

0.86
(II c axis of cl-Hf)
0.28
(1 c axis of a-Ho

370.1

1470... 1883

17

72D

348.3

1538... 1883

a-Hf 1 and 11hexagonal c axis investigated: lHf;


single crystals;
97.9% (Zr 2.1%);
mechanical sectioning;
DL DII

1.1 . 10-3
(P-W

159.2

2012...2351

8lHf;
polycrystals;
97.1% (Zr 2.9%);
mechanical sectioning;
isotope effect also studied

17

82H

-La*olt-tlornsfe*
..-..
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

44

2.2.5 Self-diffusion in vanadium group metals

DO

10-4mZs-

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

65Ll

I8

65P2

18

74P

18

79MI

81T

2.2.5 Self-diffusion in vanadium group metals


V, Nb, Ta

Vanadium (V)
0.011

255.4

1275... 1673

49.

singie crystals;
99.7%;
mechanical sectioning;
separate Arrhenius term for
1873...2161 K:
Do = 58. 10e4 ms-,
Q = 383.1 kJmo!-
0.36

308.4

1153...1629

49.

singie crystals (99.99%),


polycrystals (99.9%);
mechanical and chemical sectioning;
separate Arrhenius term for
1629...2106 K:
Do = 214. 10e4 ms-,
Q = 394.1 kJmol-;
grain boundary diffusion observed;
Fe in V also studied
0.288

309.6

997... 1915

48V.

singie crystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning and anodic oxidation;
great-depth tails observed;
separate Arrhenius term for
1915...2115 K:
Do = 173. 10m4ms-,
Q = 409.3 kJmo!-
0.0208

272.1

1446... 1649

48~.

singie crystals;
99.7%;
mechanical sectioning;
separate Arrhenius term for
1649...2166 K:
Do = 79.9. 10m4m*s-
Q = 385 kJmo!-; two-kxponential
analysis also given
-

308.8

1200~~~1600 NMR: motional narrowing and relaxation time T,;


slV signals in natural V;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
Do not given;
monovacancy interpretation;
oxygen migration also studied, effects
of oxygen-vacancy pairs discussed

(continued)
Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.5 Self-diffusion in vanadium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

45

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1323... 1823

48v.

18

83A

18

83Gl

Vanadium (V), continued


1.79

331.9

single crystals and polycrystals;


99.97% (s.c.);
mechanical sectioning, residual and
section activity measurement;
separate Arrhenius term for
1823...2147K:
Do = 26.81 . 10m4rns-l,
Q = 372.4 kJmol-;
enhancement factors due to alloying
with Fe and Ta also determined
0.10

298.1

1333 ... 1840

NMR: relaxation time T,,;


IV signal in natural V;
polycrystals;
99.95% and 99.8%;
mono-vacancy interpretation:
Do includes correlation factor
J;,, = 0.727;
oxygen migration also studied

Niobium (Nb)
12.4

439.6

1858;..2393

g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99%;
mechanical sectioning

60R.I

1.3

397.7

1970...2430

g5Nb;
polycrystals (5 mm grains);
purity not specified;
autoradiographic method and mechanical sectioning;
6oCo and 55Fe in Nb also studied

62P

1.1

401.9

1224...2668

g5Nb;
polycrystals (99.75%) and single crystals;
mechanical sectioning and anodic
oxidation;
greath-depth-tails observed;
no appreciable effect of oxygen found;
18Ta in Nb also studied

19

65L2

0.61

397.3

1421...2509

g5Nb;
single crystals (99.9%) and polycrystals;
mechanical sectioning and anodic
oxidation;
residual and section activity measurement;
5gFe,6oCo and 63Ni in Nb also
studied

19

77Al

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

(continued)

46

2.2.5 Self-diffusion in vanadium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

Niobium (Nb), continued


0.524

395.6

1354...2690

g5Nb;
single crystals;
99.98%;
mechanical sectioning and anodic
oxidation;
Do and Q recalculated from given data,
two-exponential fit:
07 = 0.008. 10m4m2sm1
Q, = 349.3kJmol-,
D, = 3.7. 10e4 m2s-
Q, = 438.0 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation;
no influence of oxygen content found

1929...2673

g5Nb, g2Nb;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning;
two-exponential tit:
0: = 0.015. 10e4 m2s-
Q, = 354.1 kJmol-,
0: = 4.6. low4 m2s-
Q2 = 442.9 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation;
isotope effect also studied

2300..2510

g5Nb;
crystal type not specitied;
purity not specified;
electromigration study;
mechanical sectioning;
Fe, 6oCo, *Ta and lCr in Nb also
investigated
Tantalum

0.124

78El

8332

(Ta)

413.2

1523.s.2576

s2Ta;
mono- and polycrystals;
99.67%;
mechanical sectioning and anodic
oxidation;
g5Nb in Ta also studied;
Do and Q calculated from
DNb/DT"= 1.85

65Pl

423.6

1261...2993

Ta;
single crystals;
99.98%;
mechanical and sputter sectioning;
monovacancy interpretation

83Wl

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.6 Self-diffusion in chromium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

47
Fig.

Ref.

2.2.6 Self-diffusion in chromium group metals


Cr, MO, W

Chromium (Cr)
0.28

306.5

1473... 1873

Cr;
large grain polycrystals;
99.99% ;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement

62Hl

1.6

339.1

1273...2023

51Cr.
mono- and polycrystals (2 ... 3 mm);
99.98%;
mechanical sectioning;
great-depth-tails observed;
ICr and 63Ni diffusion in NiCo alloys
also studied

7lA

970

435.4

1369...2093

51Cr;
single crystals;
99.995%;
mechanical sectioning;
isotope effect also studied

21

76M4

1280

441.9

1073... 1446

51Cr.
singIL crystals;
99.99% ;
sputter sectioning;
analysis includes data of [76M4]

21

81M

Molybdenum (MO)
4

481.5

2073 . . .2448

ggMo;
polycrystals;
99.3% (0.7% w);
sectioning method not specified,
residual activity measurement;
la5W in MO also studied

22

59B

2.77

464.7

1973...2193

MO*
polycjstals (1 *. .2 mm grain size);
99.97% ;
mechanical and electrochemical sectioning;
only three data measured

22

60B2

0.38

422.0

2173...2353

MO;
polycrystalline wires;
purity not specified;
electrochemical sectioning in radial
direction;
effects of grain boundary diffusion and
recrystallization also observed

61D

(continued)
Land&Biimstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

48

2.2.6 Self-diffusion in chromium group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmo!-

[Ref. p. 81

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Molybdenum (MO), continued


0.1

386.0

2123.3.2618

ggMo;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning;
also measurementson polycrystals
yielding higher diffusion coefficients

63A

488.2

1360...2113

ggMo;
single crystals;
99.99%;
mechanical and sputter sectioning;
two-exponential fit:
0: = 0.126. 10m4rns-
Q, = 437.1 kJmo!-,
0: = 139. 10e4 m2s-
Q2 = 549.0kJmo!-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

22

79M2

65A2

23

69P

23

llA2

23

78M

Tungsten (W)
42.8

641.0

2939 ... 3501

18SW.

singlecrystals;
99.99%;
mechanical sectioning;
le3Re and lB4Re in W also studied
1.88

587.4

2073 ..- 2676

188~.

singlecrystals;
purity not specified;
anodic oxidation;
greath-depth tails observed;
g5Nb and **Ta in W also studied
15.3

626.3

2042...2819

187W.

singlecrystals;
purity indicated by residual resistivity
ratio 10;
mechanical sectioning and anodic
oxidation;
seealso [84A]
-

1705...3409

s7W and lssW;


single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning and anodic
oxidation;
greath-depth tails observed;
two-exponential fit:
0: = 0.04. 10V4 m*s-
Q, = 525.8kJmo!-,
0: = 46. 10T4 m*s-
Q2 = 665.7 kJmo!-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landok-B6mstein
New Series III/26

2.2.7, 8 Self-diffusion in manganese, iron group metals

Ref. p. 811

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

49
Fig.

Ref.

69A

64N

2.2.7 Self-diffusion in manganese group metals


Mn, Tc, Re

Manganese (Mn)
-

1390... 1508

54Mn;
polycrystals;
99.95% and 99.3%;
mechanical sectioning;
great-depth tails observed;
preliminary data for bee and fee phase;
Do and Q not given

Technetium (Tc)
No data available.

Rhenium (Re)
-

511.4

1520... 1560

field ion microscopy, time dependence


of needle shape;
purity not specified;
Do not determined

2.2.8 Self-diffusion in iron group metals


Fe, Ru, OS

Iron (Fe)
118
(paramagnetic
cl-Fe)

281.5

970... 1167

a-Fe investigated: 55Fe;


coarse grain polycrystals;
high purity material (not specified);
influence of magnetic order-disorder
transition on D observed;
Do and Q values only from D values at
least 50 K above Curie temperature

24

60Bl

239.5

1082...1178

61B

270

1337... 1666

w und y-Fe investigated: 55Fe;


single and polycrystals;
99.97%;
sectioning and residual activity measurements as well as surface decrease
method employed;
influence of magnetic order-disorder
transition on D observed;
Do and Q values for a-Fe only from D
values at least 20 K above Curie
temperature

238.6

1686... 1781

&Fe investigated: 59Fe;


polycrystals;
high purity material (not specified);
mechanical sectioning;
Co diffusion in &Fe also studied

63B

Land&-Bijmstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

(continued)

50

2.2.8 Self-diffusion in iron group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

[Ref. p. 81

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

240.7

1701... 1765

24a

665

240.7

999...1157

CL-and &Fe investigated: 55Fe, Fe;


coarse grain polycrystals;
99.97%;
only data for &Fe included in
Fig. 24 a;
6oCo diffusion in u- and &Fe also
studied

311.1

1223... 1473

y-Fe investigated: 55Fe;


coarse grain polycrystals
(0.1 .*.0.3 mm);
surface decreasemethod

24a

6612

284. 1

1444... 1634

y-Fe investigated: 5gFe, 55Fe;


coarse grain polycrystals (2.. .5 mm);
99.98%;
mechanical sectioning;
data taken from Fig. 3 of [68H];
isotope effect also studied

24a

68H

1168,1169

24a

68W2

1641

1683... 1733

a-, y- and &Fe investigated: 52Fe,


5gFe;
polycrystals;
99.97%;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given;
mainly isotope effect in a-, y- and &Fe
studied
CL-,y- and &Fe investigated: 55Fe,
5gFe.
coarse grain polycrystals (3. **4 mm);
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given;
mainly isotope effect in u-, y-, &Fe
studied

24a

69G

Iron (Fe), continued


2.01

:&Fe)
2.01
baramagnetic
u-Fe)

0.49

(Y-Fe)

(a-Fe)
(Y-Fe)
(b-Fe)

(a-Fe)
We)
:6-Fe)

993,1043,
1142

1394,161l
1725

Iferromagnetic
a-Fe)

784...1017

ferromagnetic a-Fe investigated: 5gFe;


single crystals;
samples with different purity studied;
sputter sectioning;
influence of magnetic order-disorder
transition on D investigated;
strong deviation from Arrhenius behaviour observed

24a
24b

77H

121
[paramagnetic
a-Fe)

281.6

1067...1168

paramagnetic a-Fe investigated: 5gFe;


polycrystals with 300 urn average grain
size;
99.97%;
mechanical sectioning;
48V diffusion in u-Fe also studied

24a

87G

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

LandoltTl6mstein
New Series III/26

51

2.2.9 Self-diffusion in cobalt group metals

Ref. p. 811

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

766... 1148

Fe, Fe;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.97%;
sputter sectioning;
influence of magnetic order-disorder
transition on D investigated;
strong deviation from Arrhenius behaviour observed;
isotope effect also studied

24b

881

754...1163

paramagnetic and ferromagnetic a-Fe


investigated: Fe, 55Fe;
single crystals;
99.98%;
mechanical and sputter sectioning;
influence of magnetic order-disorder
transition on D investigated;
strong deviation from Arrhenius behaviour observed;
dislocation diffusion also studied

24a
24b

89M,
9OL

6Oco.
coarse grain polycrystals;
99:4% ;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual activity;
6oCo and 63Ni diffusion in Co-Ni
,alloys and in Ni also studied

25

62H2

Iron (Fe), continued


iara- and ferromagnetic a-Fe)

(para- and ferromagnetic a-Fe)

Ruthenium (Ru)

No data available.

Osmium (OS)

No data available.

2.2.9 Self-diffusion in cobalt group metals


Co, Rh, Ir

Cobalt (Co)
274

1045 ... 1321

260.5

1465... 1570

1.66

287.5

1320... 1584

6OCo;
polycrystals with 500 urn average grain
size;
99.5%;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual activity;
jCo and 63Ni diffusion in Co -Ni
alloys also studied

65Hl

0.55
(ferro- and paramagnetic Co)

288.5

896... 1745

To, -co, 6Oco;


coarse grain polycrystals;
99.99% ;
mechanical and sputter sectioning;
no significant influence of the ferromagnetic order transition observed;
isotope effect also studied for five temperatures

25

79B

iejrromagnetic
Co)
0.17

[paramagnetic
Co)

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

(continued)

[Ref. p. 81

2.2.10 Self-diffusion in nickel group metals

52

DO

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

944...1743

SCo;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe und sputter sectioning;
Doand Q values from a forced Arrhenius fit, small deviations attributed
to divacancy contributions and magnetic ordering

25

88L

70s

26

86A

Cobalt (Co), continued


2.54
(ferro- and paramagnetic Co)

304

Rhodium (Rh)
-

391

903 ... 2043

high temperature creep;


polycrystals;
99.98%;
requires a model of high temperature
creep caused by diffusion;
Do not obtained

Iridium (Ir)
0.36

438.8

2092 ... 2664

l g21r;
single crystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
correction for evaporation applied

2.2.10 Self-diffusion in nickel group metals


Ni, Pd, Pt

Nickel (Ni)
1.27

279.7

1384...1521

63Ni;
polycrystals;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement

56H

3.36

292.2

1423...1673

63Ni.

59M

polycrystals;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement;
evidence of grain boundary diffusion
below 1423 K
1.9

284.7

1315...1677

63Ni;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.95%;
mechanical sectioning

64Ml

1.9

279.7

748...923

j3Ni;
single crystals;
99.97% ;
surface decreasemethod;
polycrystals also studied for grain
boundary diffusion

65Wl

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

LandolbB6mstein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.10 Self-diffusion in nickel group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
, K

53

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1173...1473

63Ni;
mono- and polycrystals;
99.99%;
surface decreasemethod

6611

Nickel (Ni), continued


2.59 (from single
crystal data)
2.22 (from
polycrystal data)

293.5

1.77

285.1

1253... 1670

63Ni;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement;
slight curvature of Arrhenius diagram
observed, three-exponential fit:
0: = 0.38 . 10e4 m2s-l
Q1 = 271.3 kJmol-,
0: = 3.07 . 10m4m2sm1
Qz = 309.9kJmol-,
0: = 0.017 rnzs-l
Q3 = 377.5kJmol-,
mono-, di-, trivacancy interpretation

27

68Bl

2.2

292.6

1323... 1477

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.7%;
63Ni in Ni,Al also studied

75B

2.6

279.1

1103... 1273

63Ni.

76F

290

single crystals;
surface decreasemethod;
D-values below 1073 K influenced by
diffusion short circuits
1.33

280.8

815...1193

63Ni;
single crystals;
99.997%;
sputter sectioning;
two-exponential fit to own data and
those of [68Bl]
07 = 0.92. low4 rns-
Q1 = 278 kJmol-,
0: = 0.037 m2 s-l
Qz = 357 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

27

76Ml

1.82

285.2

1323 ... 1673

63Ni;
single crystals;
99.98% to 99.999%;
mechanical sectioning

83V

0.205

266.3

1323... 1773

28

64P

Palladium (Pd)
lo3Pd, Pd;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning;
isotope effect also studied

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

54

2.2.11 Self-diffusion in noble metals

DO

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

Platinum (Pt)
0.33

285.6

1598...1873

mixture of 193Pt, 195mPtand 19Pt


obtained by neutron activation of
pure Pt;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
mechanical sectioning

29

57K

0.22

278.8

1523... 1998

r=pt;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.999%;
surface decreasemethod

29

62C

0.05

257.6

850... 1265

19Pt;
single crystals;
99.99%;
sputter sectioning;
two-exponential fit to own data and
those of [57K]:
0: = 0.06. low4 mz s-
Q, = 259.7 kJmol-,
D=06t06~10-4mZs-1
Q: = 365 to 388 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

29

78R

68B2

2.2.11 Self-diffusion in noble metals


Cu, Ag, Au

0.19

196.4

Copper (Cu)
973 ... 1263
64Cll;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning;
pressure dependencealso studied for
Cu, Au, Al

0.31

200.7

663...833

TEM observation of the annealing of


quenched-in voids;
99.999% ;
requires a model for void annealing
caused by diffusion

69B

II.78

211.3

972...1334

30

69Rl

D.11
[from Wu data)

190.1

64cu, 67cu;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
isotope effect also studied
I
63Cu stable isotope

69E

D.15

193

[from j5Cu data)

1003...1123

65Cu stable isotope;


NMR: relaxation times 7, and 7;
Cu particles < 8 urn;
99.999% ;
liquid Cu also studied
(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

landok-BCmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.11 Self-diffusion in noble metals

DO

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

55

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Copper (Cu), continued


-

614...654

Tu;
single crystals;
99.999%;
sectioning by anodizing and stripping,
only three temperatures studied;
D-values agree with those of [77M], Do
and Q values not given

74Ll

1.05

210.3

845.+.1111

NMR: 63Cu relaxation time in the


rotating frame;
Cu powder 3...3Onm;
99.99%

74w

0.35

203.6

574...905

64cu.
30
single crystals with low dislocation density;
99.999% ;
sputter sectioning;
Do and Q values from fit of one Arrhenius
term to own data and those of [69Rl],
two-exponential fit:
0: = 0.1 . 10e4 rn8-l
Qr = 196.8kJmol-,
@ = 2. 10e4m2sv1
Qz = 233.5 kJmol-l,
mono-fdivacancy interpretation

77M

lOlO... 1352

64Cu;
single crystals;
99.997%;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given, two-exponential fit to own data and those of [69Rl,
77M]:
0: = 0.13. 10e4 m2se1
Q1 = 198.5kJmol-,
D~=4.6.10-4m2s-1
Qz = 238.6 kJmol-r,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

78Bl

0.68

209.4

1078... 1348

64Cu;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
two-exponential fit to own data and those
of [77M]:
07 = 0.15. 10e4 m2sm1
Q, = 198.8kJmol-,
Dt = 4.8 . 10e4 m2 s-l
Q2 = 243.1 kJmol-I,
mono-fdivacancy interpretation

79K

0.877

211.3

992... 1355

Tu;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.998% ;
mechanical sectioning

82F

_Landolt-Bornstem
..-..
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

30

30

2.2.11 Self-diffusion in noble metals

56

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

Silver (Ag)
-

1183

llomk
single crystals;
99.99%;
measurementsat 1183 K only;
pressure dependencealso studied at
1183 K for OrnAg, 141n and 124Sb
in Ag

65B

3.278

181.7

1038...1218

OrnAg.
polycrystals;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement

68K

0.67

190.1

913...1228

105~~,

31

70R

31

72R

llomAg;

single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
isotope effect also studied
losAg, ornAg;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given;
isotope effect also studied;
mono-/divacancy interpretation of diffusion and isotope effect data

946.e.1227

0.041

169.8

547...777

lo mAg.
single ciystals;
99.999%;
sectioning by anodizing;
Do and Q are best values for monovacancies taken from two-exponential fit to own data and those of
[70R]:
0: = 0.041 . 10e4 m*s-
Q, = 169.8kJmol-,
D~=4.8.10-4m2s-1
Q2 = 211 to 221 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

31

73Ll

0.235

179.5

630..+ 854

11omAg;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
chemical sectioning;
Do and Q values from tit of Arrhenius
equation to own data and those of
[70R, 73Ll], two-exponential tit of
own data together with various sets
of other data [70R, 73Ll] performed,
mono-/divacancy interpretation

31

74B

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landolt-BBmsIein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2.2.11 Self-diffusion in noble metals

DO

1()-4m2S-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

57

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

105Ag,

31

78B2

31

82R

57M

32

63D

65D

65Gl

6562

68B2

Silver (Ag), continued


0.043

0.091

169.8

580...834

ttomAg;

single crystals;
99.9995%;
sputter sectioning;
comparison with other microsectioning
studies performed
1tomA
.
g,
single crystals;
99.999% ;
sputter sectioning;
two-exponential fit to own data and
data from [70R, 73L1,74B]:
0: = 0.046 . low4 m2 s-l
Q1 = 169.8kJmol-,
D,O= 3.3 . 10m4m2 s-l
Qz = 218.1 kJmol-,
mono-/divacancy interpretation;
pressure dependence also studied

594...994

174.6

Gold (Au)
198AU,
1077 ... 1321
polyc&tals;
99.95%;
mechanical sectioning

0.117

176.3

975...1172

1133...1233

0.107

176.6

623...733

0.107

176.9

1123...1323

0.043

167.5

973 ... 1263

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

198AU.

coarsegrain polycrystals;
99.93%;
mechanical sectioning and residual
activity measurement;
diffusion of 59Fe,6oCo and j3Ni in Au
also studied
198AU.
single crystals;
99.99%;
mainly pressure dependenceat three
temperatures studied
195A~;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
L-X ray absorption method
i95Au;
single crystals;
99.97%;
mechanical sectioning
198AU,
single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning;
pressure dependence of self-diffusion
also studied for Au, Cu and Al

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

(continued)

2.2.12 Self-diffusion in zinc group metals

58

Q
kJmol-

[Ref. p. 81

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

559...685

198AU,

32

69R2

rgAu, rg8Au;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning;
mono-/divacancy interpretation;
Co diffusion in Au, isotope effect of
self-diffusion and Co diffusion also
studied

32

78Hl

Au;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
sputter sectioning;
pressure dependencealso studied

32

83W2

I and (1hexagonal c axis investigated:


65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
D,, D.l
1 and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:
65Zn, 6gZn;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning;
q > D,;
mainly isotope effect studied for Zn
and Cd diffusion

33

53s

33

67B

I and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:


65Zn, 6gZn;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
D,, > D,;
isotope effect also studied

33

67P

Gold (Au), continued


0.026

166.9

single crystals;
99.99% ;
sectioning by anodic oxidation and
residual activity measurement
0.084

0.027

165

603...866

2.2.12 Self-diffusion in zinc group metals


Zn, Cd, Hg
Zinc (Zn)
0.58
(1 c axis)
0.13
(II c axis)

101.7

513.e.683

91.3

513...683

0.18
(1 c axis)
0.13
(II c axis)

655 ... 685

96.3

513...691

91.7

513...691

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

LandolbB6mstein
New Series III/26

59

2.2.12 Self-diffusion in zinc group metals

Ref. p. 811

DO

10m4m2s-l

kJmol-

Zinc (Zn), continued


-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

573...673

I and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:


65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given;
mainly pressure effects investigated

72C

1 and 11hexagonal c axis investigated:


Cd;
single crystals;
99.5%;
mechanical sectioning;
D,, > D,;
polycrystals also investigated

34

55w

Cadmium (Cd)
0.10
(1 c axis)
0.05
(II c axis)

80

383...588

76.2

383...588

0.05

73.7

350...420

polycrystals investigated;
NMR: spin relaxation times 7 and T,:
l13Cd signal in natural Cd;
15 urn foil

58M

0.68
(II c axis)

86.2

453...573

II hexagonal c axis investigated: Cd;


single crystals;
99.99% ;
surface decreasemethod;
polycrystals also investigated, 65Zn
and lo Ag in Cd also studied

34

67H

0.08

78.7

473...553

polycrystals investigated: l15Cd;


fine grain polycrystals;
99.99% ;
mechanical sectioning

67A

0.18
(1 c axis)
0.12
(II c axis)

82

420... 587

34

72M

77.9

420...587

-L and II hexagonal c axis investigated:


rogCd;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
D,, > D,;
Zn-, Ag-, In-, Hg- and Au-diffusion
also studied

523...593

I and II hexagonal c axis investigated:


Cd;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values not given;
only pressure effects studied

73B

Mercury (Hg)
No data available.
Land&-B6rnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

60

2.2.13 Self-diffusion in aluminum group metals

DO

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

[Ref. p. 81
Fig.

Ref.

2.2.13 Self-diffusion in aluminum group metals


AI, Ga, In, Tl

Aluminum (Al)
1.71

142.4

729...916

26AI (radiotracer with low specific activity);


single crystals and coarse grain polycrystals;
99.99% ;
mechanical sectioning;
54Mn in AI also studied

35

62L

144.4

673*..883

26A1(radiotracer with low specific activity);


single crystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning;
pressure dependence also studied, selfdiffusion and its pressure dependence also studied for Cu and Au

68B2

0.176

126.4

358 . ..482

TEM observation of the annealing of


quenched-in voids;
99.9999%;
requires model of void shrinkage
caused by self-diffusion

35

68V

120.4

512...820

NMR: spin lattice relaxation time in


the rotating frame T, p of 100%
abundant stable isotope 27Al

71F

123.5

515...770

NMR: spin lattice relaxation time in


rotating frame T,@of 100% abundant stable isotope 27Al;
27 . . .30 urn foils;
99.999%;
data reanalyzed in [87D]

35

74M

722

26AI;
semi-infinite diffusion couple;
D = 1.05. lo-l4 m2s-;
agreeswith previous radiotracer data
[62L, 68B2J

8582

68C

Gallium (Ga)
D in
10-17

5.3
5.3
7.8
9.3
42

m2s-l

283
293.2
298.2
300.7
303

72Ga;
single crystals and coarse grain polycrystals;
99.9999% ;
results are becauseof experimental difficulties only of qualitative interest,
no clear evidence of anisotropy was
observed

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

61

2.2.14 Self-diffusion in group IV B metals

Ref. p. 811

DO

10-4m2s-

kJmol-l

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

36

59D

710

37

55s

37

85C

38

60M

38

64C

Indium (In)
78.5

312...417

;1 c axis)
2.7
(II c axis)

78.5

312...417

392, 406, 422

I and 11tetragonal axis investigated:


41~.
single ciystals;
99.97%;
mechanical sectioning;
DA > D,,
I and 11tetragonal axis investigated:
1141111~.
single crystals;
99.999% ;
mainly pressure effects studied at
3 temperatures

Thallium (Tl)
94.6

420...500

hcp ct- and bee P-T1investigated:


204Tl.

;: c axis of hcp
a-Tl)
95.9

420...500

83.7

515...550

80.2

513...573

Il;c axis of hcp LXT1)

single ciystals;
99.9% ;
mechanical sectioning;
in c+Tl: D, > D,,

Kc P-Tl)
0.42
(bee P-Tl)

bee P-T1investigated: 04T1;


coarse grain polycrystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
interpretation of slightly curved Arrhenius diagram in terms of mono- and
divacancies

2.2.14 Self-diffusion in group IVB metals


Sn, Pb
Self-diffusion data for semiconducting elements Si, Ge can be found in [89L]

Tin (Sn)
97.6

451...495

107.2

451*..495

105.1

433...501

107.2

433...501

t; c axis)
,,i2caxis)

10.7
(I c axis)
iic axis)

I and 11tetragonal c axis investigated:


lt3Sn;
single crystals;
99.998%;
mechanical sectioning;
D, DII
I and 11tetragonal c axis investigated:
lt3Sn;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical sectioning;
D, > D,,;
pressure dependence also studied

(continued)
Land&-B6mstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

[Ref. p. 81

2.2.15 Self-diffusion in group V B semimetals

62

DO

10-4m2s-1

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

108.4

455 ... 500

I and 11tetragonal c axis investigated:

38

74H2

Tin (Sn), continued


21.0
(1 c axis)
12.8
(II c axis)

l13Sn.

108.9

455~..500

single crystals;
99.999% ;
mechanical sectioning;
D1
D!69&
124Sb-,

65~~~

diffusion in Sn

also studied

Lead (Pb)
0.281

0.887

101.4

447 . . * 595

2oPb;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical (microtome) sectioning

39

55N

109.1

480...596

Pb;
coarse grain polycrystals;
99.99%;
mechanical sectioning;
diffusion of Tl and Bi in Pb-Tl
tem also studied

39

61R

39

69M

1 and II rhombohedral (trigonal) c axis


investigated: lz4Sb;
single crystals;
99.998%;
mechanical sectioning;
D, > D,,;
results influenced by surface defects
and microcracks

64H

I and II rhombohedral (trigonal) c axis


investigated: lz4Sb;
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
serial sectioning by chemical polishing;
D.L D,,

40

66C

106.8

470..* 573

sys-

Pb;
single crystals;
99.999%;
mechanical (microtome) sectioning;
lsmCd diffusion in Pb also studied

2.2.15 Self-diffusion in group VB semimetals


P, As, Sb, Bi
Self-diffusion data for P, As are not included.

Antimony (Sb)
185.9

770... 870

197.2

830... 890

149.9

773..*903

201

773 . ..903

;: c axis)
,iic axis)

0.10
(1 c axis)

c axis)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

(continued)

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

63

2.2.16 Self-diffusion in group VI B semimetals

Ref. p. 811

!.I0

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

746... 856

lz4Sb;
polycrystals;
99.9% ;
mechanical sectioning and counting of residual activity;
D at T, is 2.9 . IO-l4 m2s-;
penetration profiles with tails presumably
due to grain boundaries

65H2

Antimony (Sb), continued


1.05

165.4

Bismuth (Bi)
Vo reliable data available.

2.2.16 Self-diffusion in group VIB semimetals


S, Se, Te, PO
self-diffusion data for S are not included.
Selenium (Se)
LOO
I c axis)
1.2
11c axis)

135.1

1.0082
11c axis)

115.8

425 . ..488

115.8

350...480

I and 11trigonal c axis investigated: 75Se; 41


single crystals grown from vapour phase;
purity specified by conductivity between
2. 10m5and 10m6R- cm-;
mechanical sectioning and measurement
of residual activity;
great-depth tails observed;
D, > D,,;
41
11trigonal axis investigated: NMR: spin
lattice relaxation times q and Tie of
stable isotope 77Sein natural Se;
single crystals;
99.999%;
three-exponential fit performed;
Do and Q refer to dominating term
(dashed line in Fig. 41), data also published in [8362]
Tellurium

3.91 * 104
(I c axis)
130
(II c axis)

195.9

579...663

168.8

600...673

166

496...640

147.6

Land&Biirnstein
New Series III/26

85G

(Te)

I and II trigonal c axis investigated:


127mTe;
single crystals;
99.9%;
mechanical sectioning;
D, > D,, ;
influence of I- and Al-doping also studied

42

67G

I and II trigonal c axis investigated:

42

83W3

127rnTe.

(Y c axis)
iic axis)

70B

single cryktals;
99.999%;
sputter sectioning;
D /DA = 1 . ..2.5.
lZ14Sbdiffusion also studied

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

(continued)

64

2.2.17 Self-diffusion in actinide group metals

DO

10-4m2s-

kJmo!-

[Ref. p. 81

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

485...650

11trigona! c axis investigated: NMR:


spin lattice relaxation times TI and
T,@of stable isotope 125Tein natural
Te;
single crystals;
99.999%;
good agreement with D,, from [83W2],
similar data in [81G]

85G

43

67s

Tellurium (Te),continued
0.12

139.9

(II c axis)

Polonium (PO)
No data available.

2.2.17 Self-diffusion in actinide group metals


AC, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu etc.
Data are available only for Th, U and Pu.

Thorium (Th)
395
(a-Th)

299.8

998..-1140

fee u-Th investigated: 228Th;


polycrystals;
99.85% (detailed specification of purity
given);
u-spectroscopy method;
231Paand 233U diffusion in u-Th also
studied

Uranium (U)
0.0018
(Y-U)

115.1

1073...1323

bee y-U investigated;


diffusion couple of natural U and U
enriched with 235U;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual u-activity;
y-U diffusion is anomalous

44

59Al

0.0135
WJ)

175.8

973 ... 1028

B-U investigated;
diffusion couple of natural U and U
enriched with 235U;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual u-activity

44

59A2

(continued)

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Ref. p. 811

2.2.17 Self-diffusion in actinide group metals

DO

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

65

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Uranium (U), continued


0.00233
(Y-u)

119.3

1075... 1342

bee y-U investigated;


235U (93 % enriched);
polycrystals;
99.998%;
mechanical sectioning;
Do and Q values anomalous

44

60R2

0.002
WJ)

167.5

853...923

orthorhombic a-U investigated;


diffusion couples of natural U and U
enriched with 235U;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual a-activity;
small anisotropy of diffusion in agrains

44

62A

0.0028
WJ)

185.1

973 ... 1023

P-U investigated: 235U;


polycrystals;
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual activity;
grain boundary diffusion also studied

68F

Plutonium

(Pu)

4.5. 10-3
(6-Pu)

99.6

623...713

fee 6-Pu investigated: diffusion couples


of two cylinders, one enriched with
238Pu;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
lathe sectioning;
from autoradiographic experiments
concluded that grain boundary diffusion is unlikely

45

64T

0.02
(E-PU)

77.5

773...885

bee E-PUinvestigated;
diffusion couples consisting of Pu with
either 1% or 8% 240Pu;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
grinder sectioning and measurement of
residual activity

45

68D2

0.003
(E-PU)

65.7

788...849

bee E-PUinvestigated;
polycrystals;
99.9% (detailed specification of purity
and isotopic composition is given);
mechanical sectioning and measurement of residual activity;
diffusion in E-PUis anomalous;
pressure effects also studied

45

71C2

(continued)

Land&-Bknstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

[Ref. p. 81

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

66

DO

IOw4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

66.9

765 ... 886

45

78W

730...750

126.4

594...715

118.4

484...546

108

409...454

bee E-Pu, bet-6-Pu, fee &Pu, face-centered orthorhombic y-Pu, body-centered monoclinic p-Pu investigated:
239Pu;
polycrystals;
z 99.9% (detailed specification of purity and isotopic composition given);
grinder sectioning;
short circuiting effects observed for yand p-Pu;
Do and Q values for 6-Pu given in
[78w] are highly questionable

Plutonium (Pu), continued


3.5. 10-3
I&-PU)
:6-Pu)
5.17.10-2
I&-Pu)
3.8. 1O-2
:Y-pu)
1.69. 1O-2
:B-pu)

Figures for 2
-T
KP

300

400 K

200

250

ml/s
10-l

0
10-1s

6.5 X+K- 55
4.0
l/l Fig. 2. Na. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coeflicient vs. reciprocal temperature from *Na and 24Na tracer
measurements[66M] (triangles) and [71Ml] (circles).
2.5

Fig. 1. Li. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefl?cient vs. reciprocal temperature from measurementswith 6Li
and Li as stable tracers (full circles) [7OL] and from P-NMR
measurements(open circles) [UHI].

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

3.0

3.5

Landolt-BBmstein
New Series Ill/26

Ref. p. 811

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

!OO
I

lo-"0
m*/s

lO[
m2/s

67

Be
2-.

lo-"

10-l
,o-l:

I
4

I
Q
, o-1:

10-1'3

IO-"4

10-1'4

10-f
i

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

1o-l5
0

5.0.10-3K-'
5.5

1.0

1/T -

I.1

.,0-33K-l

l/T -

Fig. 3. K. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from 42K tracer measurements [67M] (full circles) and [71M2] (open circles).

Fig. 4. Be. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticients vs. reciprocal temperature from 7Be tracer measurements parallel (full circles) and perpendicular (open circles)
to the hexagonal axis [66D].

-7

IO
m2/

1100 K 1000
,=1116K
f 7"

900
I

800

Ca

-T

900 K

4.1012,
m2/s

1"

850
'

800

750

lo-

1o-1

10-1'2
8

I
Q
8

10-l

I
Q4
0

I
l

IO-"3

10-l

o 01

&

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25 .10-3K' 1.35

1o-1"
0.8

l/lFig. 5. Mg. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal absolute temperature from sMg tracer
measurements parallel (full circles) and perpendicular (open
circles) to the hexagonal axis [71Cl].
Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

J
0.9

1.0

1.1
l/T -

1.2

I.3 .lcr331c'
1

Fig. 6. Ca. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from 45Ca tracer measurements [68Pl].

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

68
-1

-1

1600

lom/

[Ref. p. 81

00
I

1100 K
I

10-l'Or

Ip+,=llX

ml/ s

l[

,=lE03K

lo-I1 _

lo-13 _

0
1o-12 _

a1 1014 _

I
a

1013 _

lo-15 _
lo- 1L _

lo-16
I0.55

0.80 -10 - 0.90

10I5

0.81
I

0 ,

0.95

.l 0-3K-l 1.10

1.00

l/T Fig. 7. Y Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion cocfftcients vs. reciprocal tcmpcrature from Y tracer mcasurcments parallel (full circles) and pcrpcndicular (open circles)
to the hesagonal axis of a-Y [70Gl].

Fig. 8. La. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticicnts vs. reciprocal temperature from r4La tracer measurements in fee p-La [69D2] (open triangles) and bee y-La [73D]
(open circles) and [74L3] (full triangles).

-1
-T

10
m/

950

1050 K

I ,

071K

5.10-"
m/sl

850
I

1200 K

Pr I t

1150

1100

'y.b=999K

I,,=1205 K

Ce

r~g=106BK

lo-

lo-
t
a

0
8

10-l

8
0.875 0.900 -10. c-1 0.950
l/l Fig. 10. Pr. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefftcicnt vs. reciprocal temperature from 42Pr tracer measuremcnts in bee S-Pr [69Dl].
0.800 0.825

0
cl

10-l

0.850

10-l

0.90 0.95 1.00

1.05 1.10
l/l-

4 Fig. 9. Ce. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature from 14Ce tracer measure1.15 alO-K- 1.25 ments in feey-Ce 171D] (open circles) and beeS-Ce[71D] (full
circles) and [73L2] (triangles).

- .

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Land&BBmstein
New Series 111'26

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

Ref. p. 811
-T

1000 K

lo-'[
m2/s

9cIO

.&i
m2/s

Eu

-T
1580Kl570

800

69

1560

1550

1540

3.3

IO-"

3.2
e
3.1
0

~I lo"2

I 3.0
Q

2.9
0

2.8

lo-l3

2.7
10-14
0.8

0.9

1.0

2.6
0.625

1 .W3 K-'1.4

0.630

0.635

0.640
l/T-

l/TFig. 11. Eu. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coeflicient vs. reciprocal temperature from rs2Eu tracer measurements [77F].

3.10-13
m2/s

t'

I. = 1795 K

1600
I

Er

0.655

Fig. 12. Gd. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from Gd tracer measurements in bee /3-Gd [77F].

-7
1700 K
1

0.645 -1O-3K-'

1o-1'

1500

m2/s

I'

I
10-l"

,o-l:

I
Q
, o-l:
0
0

10-l'

IO-lb
s
6.10-15
0.54

,o-l:

0.56

0.58

0.60
l/T-

0.62

0.64 .10-3K'

0.68

Fig. 13. Er. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coeficient vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (full circles) and
,erpendicular (open circles) to the hexagonal axis from r6Er
.racer measurement [72S].

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

0.90

0.95

1.00

1.10
1.05
l/T -

1.15 .10- C 1.25

Fig. 14. Yb. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature from rC9Yb tracer measurements in polycrystals of hcp a-Yb and bee y-Yb [74F].

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements(Figures)

70

[Ref. p. 81

2000K 1500

10-l
t-n/

1000

800

10-l
lo-li

10-n

10-

10-
10-l

I
a

10

10-16
10-1s

10-l
10-n

10
lor
10s
10

1,o-l!o-l9

1017

0.4

10-Z
10-20

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9 .10-3K- 1.1

10a

l/l Fig. 15. Ti. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticients vs. reciprocal temperature from 44Ti tracer measurements in hcp a-Ti polycrystals [80D] (full circles) and bee S-Ti
[64M2] (open circles) and [87Kl] (triangles).

10-2;

10-2:
[

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2.10-3K-1.4

1I200

3.10-l
rn2/f

-I

-11361

10-l

I
a
,o-li

Fig. 16. Zr. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coef- b


kients vs. reciprocal temperature from tracer measurements
tn (a) hcp a-Zr single crystals parallel (I) and perpendicular
10-13
[v) to the hexagonal axis [74Hl], hcp a-Zr single crystals of
the same random orientation (+) [84H] and bee S-Zr ac:ording to [61K] (x), [63F] (o), [70G2] (o), [79H] (+) and
4.10-nL
[82P] (A). (b) same as Fig. a) for bee p-Zr on an enlarged
0.4
scale.
b

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

WK-

l/l-

Land&-B6mstein
New series III!26

Ref. p. 811

1Cl-'"
mvs Hf

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)


-1
2000

2500 K

1700

71

4 Fig. 17. Hf. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticients vs. reciprocal temperature from tracer measurements
in hcp o-Hf parallel (full triangles) and perpendicular (open
triangles) to the hexagonal axis [72D] and bee 8-Hf [65W2]
(open circles) and [82H] (full circles).

1500

IO-"
10-l'
10.1:

m2/s
I

-T
1500
I

2000 K
I
&2175K

+a,

1000

1200
1

,,

IP

I
b

10-'4

10-'5

10-16
10-171

"I

10-17

lo-'*
0.'

0.40

0.45

0.50
0.55
l/T-

0.60 .W3 K-' 0.70

*
IO-20
lo-"II
0.4

-1

..

0.5

0.6

0.7
l/F-

0.8

0.9 W3 K'

1.1

Fig. 18. 8. Se&logarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from @V tracer measurements [65P2] (open circles), [74P] (full triangles), [79Ml] (full
circles), [83A] (crosses) and from NMR measurements
[83Gl] (open triangles).

4 Fig. 19. Nb. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from gsNb tracer measurements [65L2] (open circles), [77Al] (full circles), [78El] (full
triangles) and [81B] (open triangles).
0.3

Landolt-Bijmstein
New Series III/26

0.4

0.5

0.6
l/T-

0.7

0.8X+ Kd0.9

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

[Ref. p. 81

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements(Figures)

72

C-T
1500

-7
10-l'
lO-'1

3000 K

2000
2000

1500 1300
1500
1300

3.

ml/s

lo-"
ml/s

10-11

10-l"

10-13

1o-l3

10

10-l

10'15

lo-'5

lo-16

I
a

1200 1100

10-16
10-l'

~I 10-l'

2000

I
- 0

I
10-18.

10-18

lo-l9

1019

.
10-m

10-m

.
10-I'

10-n

10-222
lo-"
0.2
0.2

10-4
OA
0.3

0.L

0.5

0.6

0.7

-10.'K-'

0.9

l/l Fig. 20. Ta. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from a2Ta tracer measurements [65Pl] (full circles) and [83Wl] (open circles).
-I
2500 K 2000

10"

0.5

0.6

0.7
l/T-

0.8

t0.9~10-3K-'
1.0

Fig. 21. Cr. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticient vs. reciprocal temperature [76M4] (open circles) and
[81M] (full circles).

1700 1500

m'/s
lOj

10-2'
4 Fig. 22. MO. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coef10"
0.2

ficient vs. reciprocal temperature from ggMo tracer measure0.3

0.1

0.5
l/l-

0.6

0.740~k'O.8

ments[59B](open
circles).

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

circles),(60B2](triangles)and

[79M2](full

Landoh-BBmstein
New Series III,/26

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

Ref. p. 811
-1
5000 K
3000
1IF*,
I I '
I .
m*/s
10-13

1. =3673K$

2500
I

2000
I

0.4

0.5

1700
I,

.
8

10-22
0.2

0.3

_ .
0.6 WK-' 0.7

l/l-

Fig. 23. W Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from tracer measurements
[69P] (open circles), [77A2] (triangles) and [78M] (full circles).

1o-23
0.50

0.65

0.80

0.95
l/T-

-T

Fig. 24. Fe. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature from tracer measurements
in (a) bee o-Fe [60Bl] (x), [68W2] (a), [69G] (m), [77H] (+),
[87G] (A), 18811(0) and [89M] (0); fee y-Fe [6612](v), [68H]
(A), [68W2] (0) and [69G] (m) and bee S-Fe [66J] (v), [68W2]
(0) and [69G] (m); (b) same as (a) for bee a-Fe according to
[77H] (+), [881] (0) and [89M, 9OL] (0).

Land&Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

l/T-

1.10

.I,,-3K-1

1.40

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements(Figures)

[Ref. p. 81

-J

2a,o.,32800K 2600 2500 2600 2300 2200 2100


d!Vi:l

I
I
I0.425 0.450 WK 0.500
l/fFig. 26. Ir. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticient vs. reciprocal temperature from Ir tracer measuremcnts [86A].
0.350

l/JFig. 25. Co. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion cocfRcient vs. reciprocal temperature from tracer measurements
:62H2] (open circles), [79B] (full circles) and [88L] (triangles).

I
0x00

0.375

-1

,o-,22000 K
d/s

1700
I ,

A!

1.=lrmK

I
FJ

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1 XI5 K-l

1.3

l/J -

Fig. 27. Ni. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from 63Ni tracer measurements [68BI] (open circles) and [76Ml] (full circles).

0.50

) Pd 1
8

,,o-l3lJ_J

Q5

i500
I

1400
I

1300

I
I

0.80
0.65
0.70 W3K-'
l/JFig. 28. Pd. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from ro3Pdand 12Pd tracer measurements[64P].

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

0.55

0.60

Land&-B6mstein
New Series Ill!26

Ref. p. 811

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

Fig. 30. Cu. Semilogarithmic plot of self-diffusion coeffi- b


cient vs. reciprocal temperature from %u and 67Cu tracer
measurements [69Rl] (open circles), [77M] (full triangles),
[78Bl] (full circles) and [82F] (open triangles).
,o-,,2500

-T
1800 K 1400 1200

IU -

-T
1200 K 1000 900

800

700

600

m2/s
1o-l3

1000 900

800

m%
10-1'2

.
102'
0.4

1o-231
0.6
0.6

0.8

1.0

0.8

1.0

1.2.10-3K' 1.4

1.2
l/T-

IX

1.4
l/T-

1.6

1.6Xr3 K-'1

l/T-

Fig. 29. Pt. Semilogarithmicplot of the self-diffusion coefticient vs. reciprocal temperature from tracer measurements
[57K] (open circles), [62C] (triangles) and [78R] (full circles).

Fig. 31. Ag. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from losAg and lromAg
tracer measurements [7OR] (open circles), [72R] (squares),
[73Ll] (full circles), [74B] (open triangles), [78B2] (full triangles) and [82R] (crosses).
0.8

Land&-B6rnst.h
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

1.0

1.2

1.8.10~W22.0

[Ref. p. 81

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)

76
-7
lZO0 1200K 1000

18
mr/s

700

800

600
I

lCT2

4 Fig. 32. Au. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from 19Au and 98Au
tracer measurements [63D] (crosses), (65DJ (open circles),
[69R2] (open triangles), [78Hl] (full circles) and [83W2] (full
triangles).

Au

-1

10-n

600
I

00 K 650
&lo-' I
I
I.- 693K
m*/!

10-l

10-l

;
L-

520
1

550
I

0
A

~I 10-l
I

AI
0

I
A

lo-
lo-

147~K-1.8
a
A

2.10

1.7
1.8 .,0-j K- 2.0
l/l Fig. 33. Zn. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients parallel (full symbols) and perpendicular (open symbols) to the hexagonal axis vs. reciprocal temperature from
6SZn and 69Zn tracer measurements [53S] (triangles), [67B]
(squares) and [67R] (circles).
1.5

&lo-
m2/s

600 K 550

500

450

I
A

1.8

2.0
l/l

10-u

1.6

2.2
-

1.6

4 Fig. 34. Cd. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients parallel (full symbols) and perpendicular (open symD
bols) to the hexagonal axis vs. reciprocal temperature from
26 .10-k 2.6 lo9Cd and rr5Cd tracer measurements [55w] (squares),
[67H] (circles) and [72M] (triangles).
I
IA 0

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landok-Bk-nstein
New

Series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)


--I

1000K 800 700 600

500

400

350

10-1'3
m2/s

420 K 1 I

-1
380
1

3 40

360

320

In
0
lo-l4
00
. .

~I lo-l5
0
.

0
.

1o-l6

1O-l7
2.3

n
A
A
A
A
A

-T

10-22

10-l

0 K

540

!O
T-

m2/r fzi10-23
lo-24
1.0

3.1 .lO"K- 3.3

2.9

Fig. 36. In. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients parallel (full circles) and perpendicular (open circles) to
the tetragonal axis vs. reciprocal temperature from rr41n
tracer measurements [59D].

IO-JO
10-2'

2.7
l/T -

2.5

4EIO
I,

460
,

440
I

42
I

=507 F

TI
1.4

1.8

2.2

2.6 @K-'

10-l

l/T-

Fig. 35. Al. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature from 26A1tracer measurements [62L] (open circles), from the TEM observation ofvoid
shrinkage [68v] (triangles), and from NMR measurements
[74M] (full circles).

pf
,o-l:

I
~ IO"

10.1"

lo-"

Fig. 37. Tl. Semilogarithmicplot of the self-diffusion coefti- b


cients vs. reciprocal temperature from 04T1 tracer measurements in bet a-T1 parallel (full circles) and perpendicular
(open circles) to the tetragonal axis [55S], bee S-T1[55S] (full
triangles) and [85C] (open triangles).
Landolt-Biknstein
New Series III/26

10-l';

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

!.2
l/T-

.,O-3K- :

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements(Figures)

78

10-1'3

ow,4
I 540
I K ,I520 II500

060

10-16

480
I,

460
I ,

440
I ,

[Ref. p. 81

600 K 560 550 520 500 480 &60

lTl/S

DL

I
6.10-
1.8

1.9

2.0

23
2.2
2.3WK2.1
l/T Fig. 38. Sn. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticients parallel (full symbols) and perpendicular (open symbols) to the tetragonal axis vs. reciprocal temperature from
%n tracer measurements [60M] (squares), [64C] (circles)
and [7482] (triangles).

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9
2.0
l/l-

2.1 .lO-K- 2.3

Fig. 39. Pb. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefkicnt vs. reciprocal temperature from rOPb tracer measurements [55N] (full circles), [61R] (triangles) and [69M] (open
circles).
350
I

J++l 1:
1

tt

l-19
11

10-2s

o-52
1

++,

1.05

1.15

1.20
l/1 -

b
i

10-ZI
I

4,

IdI
DL

1.10

(+

10-22

.IO -16

tt

1.25

-10-s
K- 1.35

Fig. 40. Sb. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (full circles) and
perpendicular (open circles) to the trigonal c axis from 124Sb
tracer measurements[66C].

1o-23
2.00

2.15

2.30

2.45
l/7-

2.60

7
++t
~. .
-lO-K- 2.90

Fig. 41. Se. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (full triangles) and
perpendicular (open triangles) to the trigonal taxis from
75Setracer measurements [70B] and values parallel to the
trigonal axis (circles) from NMR measurements[SSG].

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Land&-BBmstein
New series III/26

Ref. p. 811

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements (Figures)


C-T

-T
600
I
'I

,o-,4 700 K 650


AI 1'

550

500
I

1O-15
m2/s

1150 K

1100

1000

1050

10-1'6
I
a

lo-17ai

I
Q
.
0. .

1019
l

Dll

0,

4.10~'81
0.85
0 .
0

10-m

10-2'
1.4

1.00 .10-3K' 1.05

0.95
l/T-

Fig. 43. Th. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficient in fee u-Th vs. reciprocal temperature from *Th
tracer measurements [67S].
-T
2.1

10-g

Fig. 42. Te. Semilogarithmicplot ofthe self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (full symbols) and
perpendicular (open symbols) to the trigonal c axis according
to 127mTetracer measurements [67G] (squares) and [83W3]
(circles).

m2/s
lo-"0

1.5

1.6

1.7
1.8
1/r -

1.9

.@K'

C-T
10-l'

0.90

1400 K

1200 1100

1000

900 800K 700

600

400

500

10-l'
lo-l2

900

m2/s

I 1o-l3

10-12

~ lo-l4
lo-l5
lo-l6
lo-'7
lo-'8

lo-l6
1o-l7
0.6

IO9

0
0
0

0.7

0.8

0.9
l/T-

1.0

.,o-3K'

1.2

Fig. 44. U. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coeffr:ients vs. reciprocal temperature from 234U and 235U tracer
neasurementsin orthorhombic CL-Upolycrystals [62A] (open
:ircles); tetragonal S-U polycrystals [59A2] (full triangles);
act y-U [59Al] (open triangles) and [60R2] (full circles).

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

10-20
0.8

1.1

1.4

1.7

2.0

.,O-3,(-l

l/TFig. 45. Pu. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefficients vs. reciprocal temperature from Pu tracer measurements in monoclinic S-Pu polycrystals [78w] (open circles);
orthorhomic face centered y-Pu polycrystals [78w] (open circles); fee 6-Pu [78w] (open circles), and [64T] (open triangles); bet 6-Pu [78w] (open circles); bee E-PU [68D2] (full
triangles), [71C2] (full circles) and [78w] (open circles).

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

[Ref. p. 81

2 Self-diffusion in solid metallic elements(Figures)

80

lo-0
m2/s

lo-
10-u
1o-l3
lo-&

1P

~I 10-15

10-6
I
~ lo-

10-16

lo-8

10-l

lo-9

10-18

10-m

10-19

10-Z

10-20
1.0

lo-l::

I\

1
I\

I c>r*g I

I
I

1 Pb 1

I
I

250
1, /l Fig. 46. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion cocfficients vs. reciprocal temperature normalized to the melting
tempcraturcs T, for several fee metals.

1.2

1.4
1,/r -

1.6

1.8

2.0

Fig. 47. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coeflicicnts vs. reciprocal temperature normalized to the melting
tempcraturcs T, for several bee metals or metals with bee
high-temperature phases [87K2].

Fig. 48. Semilogarithmic plot of the self-diffusion coefticicnts vs. reciprocal temperature normalized to the melting
temperatures T, for some bee high-temperature phases including lanthanides and actinides [87K2].

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landok-BBmstei
Ne\v Series 11112

2.3 References for 2

81

2.3 References for 2


52N
53s
55H
55N
55s
55w
56H
56s
57K
57M
58M
59Al
59A2
59B
59D
59M
59N
60Bl
60B2
60M
60Rl
60R2
61B
61D
61K
61R
62A
62C
62Hl
62H2
62L
62P
63A
63B
63D
63F
63L
64C
64H
64Ml
64M2
64N
64P
64T
65Al
65A2
65B
65D
65Gl
6562
65Hl
65H2
65Ll
65L2

Nachtrieb, N.H., Catalano, E., Weil, J.A.: J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) l;85.
Shirn, G.A., Wajda, E.S., Huntington, H.B.: Acta Metall. 1 (1953) 513.
Holcomb, D.E, Norberg, R.E.: Phys. Rev. 98 (1955) 1074.
Nachtrieb, N.H., Handler, G.S.: J. Chem. Phys. 23 (1955) 1569.
Shirn, G.A.: Acta Metall. 3 (1955) 87.
Wajda, E.S., Shirn, G.A., Huntington, H.B.: Acta Metall. 3 (1955) 39.
Hoffmann, R.E., Pikus, IX, Ward, R.A.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 206 (1956) 483.
Shewmon, P.G.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 206 (1956) 918.
Kidson, G.E, Ross, R.: Proc. UNESCO Int. Conf. Radioisotopes in Sci. Res., Ist, Paris 1957, p. 185.
Makin, S.M., Rowe, A.D., Le Claire, A.D.: Proc. Phys. Sot. (London) B70 (1957) 545.
Masuda, Y;: J. Phys. Sot. Jpn. 13 (1958) 597.
Adda, Y, Kirianenko, A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 1 (1959) 120.
Adda, Y, Kirianenko, A., Mairy, C.: J. Nucl. Mater. 3 (1959) 300.
Borisov, YR, Gruzin, P.L., Pavlinov, L.V, Fedorov, G.B.: Metall. Metalloved. 1 (1959) 213.
Dickey, J.E.: Acta Metall. 7 (1959) 350.
MacEvan, JR., MacEvan, J.U., Yaffe, L.: Can. J. Chem. 37 (1959) 1623.
Naumov, A.N., Ryskin, G.y Sov. Phys.-Tech. Phys. 4 (1959) 162.
Borg, R.J., Birchenall, C.E.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 218 (1960) 980.
Bronfin, M.B., Bokshtein, S.Z., Zhukhovitsky, A.A.: Zavod. Lab. 26 (1960) 828; Ind. Lab. (English
Transl.) 26 (1960) 886.
Meakin, J.D., Klokholm, E.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 218 (1960) 463.
Resnick, R., Castleman, L.S.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 218 (1960) 307.
Rothman, S.J.,Lloyd, L.T., Harkness, A.L.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 218 (1960) 605.
Buflington, ES., Hirano, K.I., Cohen, M.: Acta Metall. 9 (1961) 434.
Von Danneberg, W, Krautz, E.: Z. Naturforsch. 16a (1961) 854.
Kidson, G.V, McGurn, .I: Can. J. Phys. 39 (1961) 1146.
Resing, H.A., Nachtrieb, N.H.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 21 (1961) 40.
Adda, Y, Kirianenko, A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 6 (1962) 130.
Cattaneo, F., Germagnoli, E.: Philos. Mag. 7 (1962) 1373.
Hagel, WC.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 224 (1962) 430.
Hirano, K.I., Agarwala, R.P., Averback, B.L., Cohen, M.: J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1962) 3049.
Lundy, TX, Murdock, J.E: J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1962) 1671.
Peart, RI?, Graham, D., Tomlin, D.H.: Acta Metall. 10 (1962) 519.
Askill, J., Tomlin, D.H.: Philos. Mag. 8 (1963) 997.
Borg, R.J., Lai, D.Y.E, Krikorian, 0.: Acta Metall. 11 (1963) 867.
Duhl, D., Hirano, K.-I., Cohen, M.: Acta Metall. 11 (1963) 1.
Federer, J.I., Lundy, IS.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 227 (1963) 592.
Libatini, C.M., Dyment, I?: Acta Metall. 11 (1963) 1263.
Coston, C., Nachtrieb, N.H.: J. Phys. Chem. 68 (1964) 2219.
Huntington, H.B., Ghate, P.B., Rosolowski, J.H.: J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 3027.
Monma, K., Suto, H., Oikawa, H.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 28 (1964) 188.
Murdock, J.E, Lundy, T.S., Stansbury, E.E.: Acta Metall. 12 (1964) 1033.
Noimann, Kh., Kloze, G., Sokolskaya, I.L.: Sov. Phys. Solid State (Engl. Transl.) 6 (1964) 1369.
Peterson, N.L.: Phys. Rev. A 136 (1964) 568.
Tate, R.E., Cramer, E.M.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 230 (1964) 639.
Alion, D.C., Slichter, C.P.: Phys. Rev. 137 (1965) 235.
Andelin, R.L., Knight, J.D., Kahn, M.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 233 (1965) 19.
Bonanno, ER., Tomizuka, CT.: Phys. Rev. 137 (1965) 1264.
Dickerson, R.H., Lowell, R.C., Tomizuka, C.T.: Phys. Rev. 137 (1965) 613.
Gainotti, A., Zecchina, L.: Nuovo Cimento 40B (1965) 295.
Gilder, H.M., Lazarus, D.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 2081.
Hassner, A., Lange, W: Phys. Status Solidi 8 (1965) 77.
Hassner, A., Hassner, R.: Phys. Status Solidi 11 (1965) 575.
Lundy, TS., McHargue, C.J.:Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 233 (1965) 243.
Lundy, TS., Winslow, ER., Pawel, R.E., McHargue, C.J.:Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 233 (1965) 1533.

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

82

2.3 References for 2


1

65Pl
65P2
65Wl
65W2
66C
66D
6611
6612
665
66M
67A
67B
67G
67H
67M
67P
67s
68Bl
68B2
68C
68Dl
68D2
68F
68H
68K
68Pl
68P2
68V
68Wl
68W2
69A
69B
69Dl
69D2
69E
69G
69M
69P
69Rl
69R2
70B
70Gl
70G2
7OL
70R
70s
71A
7lCl
71C2
71D
71F
71Ml

7lM2
710
72C

Pawel, R.E., Lundy, T.S.:J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 937.


Peat-t, RI? J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 1853.
Wazzan, A.R.: J. Appl. Phys. 36 (1965) 3596.
Winslow, ER., Lundy, IS.: Trans. Metal!. Sot. AIME 233 (1965) 1790.
Cordes, H., Kim, K.: J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 2181.
Dupouy, J.M., Mathie, J., Adda, Y: Mem. Sci. Rev. Metall. 63 (1966) 481.
Ivantsov, I.G.: Fiz. Metal. Metalloved. 22 (1966) 725, Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR (English Transl.)
5 (1966) 77.
Ivantsov, I.G., Blinkin, A.M.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 22 (1966) 876.
James,D.W, Leak, G.M.: Philos. Mag. 14 (1966) 701.
Mundy, J.N., Barr, L.W, Smith, EA.: Philos. Mag. 14 (1966) 785.
Apel, K., Hantzsch, S., Preshu, K.E.: Z. Metallkd. 58 (1967) 401.
Batra, A.P.: Phys. Rev. 159 (1967) 487.
Ghoshtagore, R.N.: Phys. Rev. 155 (1967) 598.
Hirschwald, W., Schroedter, W: Z. Phys. Chem. NE 53 (1967) 392.
Mundy, J.N., Barr, L.W., Smith, EA.: Philos. Mag. 15 (1967) 411.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.:Phys. Rev. 163 (1967) 645.
Schmitz, E, Fock, M.: J. Nucl. Mater. 21 (1967) 317.
Bakker, H.: Phys. Status Solidi 28 (1968) 569.
Beyeler, M., Adda, Y: J. Phys. (Paris) 29 [4] (1968) 345.
Carter, AC., Wilson, C.G.: Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1 (1968) 515.
Dyment, E, Libatini, C.M.: J. Mater. Sci. 3 (1968) 349.
Dupouy, M., Calais, D.: Trans. Metall. Sot. AIME 242 (1968) 1679.
Fedorov, G.B., Smirnov, E.A., Moiseenko, S.S.:Metall. Metalloved. Chist. Met. 7 (1968) 124.
Heumann, Th., Imm, R.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29 (1968) 1613.
Kaygorodov, XN., Klotsman, S.M., Timofeev, A.N., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 25
(1968) 910.
Pavlinov, L.V, Gladyshev, A.M., Bykov, XN.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 26 (1968) 823.
Pavlinov, L.V, Grigorev, G.X, Sevastianov, VG.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 25 (1968) 565.
Volin, TE., Balluffi, R.W: Phys. Status Solidi 25 (1968) 163.
Walsiie de Reca, N.E., Libatini, C.M.: Acta Metall. 16 (1968) 1297.
Walter, C.M., Peterson, N.L.: Phys. Rev. 178 (1968) 922.
Askill, J.: Phys. Status Sohdi 33 (1969) K 105.
Bowden, H.G., Balluffi, R.W.: Philos. Mag. 19 (1969) 1001.
Dariel, M.P., Erez, G., Schmidt, G.M.J.: Philos. Mag. 19 (1969) 1045.
Dariel, M.P., Erez, G., Schmidt, G.M.J.: Philos. Mag. 19 (1969) 1053.
El-Hanany, U., Zamir, D.: Phys. Rev. 183 (1969) 809.
Graham, D.: J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 2386.
Miller, J.W: Phys. Rev. 181 (1969) 1095.
Pawel, R.E., Lundy, TS.: Acta Metall. 17 (1969) 979.
Rothman, S.J.,Peterson, N.L.: Phys. Status Solidi 35 (1969) 305.
Rupp, W!, Ermert, U., Sizmann, R.: Phys. Status Solidi 33 [2] (1969) 504.
Briitter, P., Gobrecht, H.: Phys. Status Solidi 37 (1970) 869.
Gorny, D.S., Altovskii, R.M.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 30 (1970) 85.
Graham, D., Hanes, E.R.: NASA Technical Note D 5905,NASA, Washington D.C. 1970,unpublished.
Lodding, A., Mundy, J.N., Ott, A.: Phys. Status Solidi 38 (1970) 559.
Rothmann, S.J.,Peterson, N.L., Robinson, J.T.:Phys. Status Solidi 39 (1970) 635.
Shalayev, VI., Tkachenko, LB., Pavlov, VA., Timofeyev, N.I., Gushchina, A.V: Fiz. Metal.
Metalloved. 39 (1970) 1061.
Askill, J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 8 (1971) 587.
Combronde, J., Brebec, G.: Acta Metall. 19 (1971) 1393.
Cornet, J.A.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 32 (1971) 1489.
Dariel, M.P., Dayan, D., Languille, A.: Phys. Rev. B4 (1971) 4348.
Fradin, EY: PhD Thesis, University of Illinois;1971.
Mundy, J.N.: Phys. Rev. B3 (1971) 2431.
Mundy, J.N., Miller, T.E., Porte, R.J.: Phys. Rev. B3 (1971) 2445.
Ott, A., Norden-Ott, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 3745.
Chhabildas, L.C., Gilder, H.M.: Phys. Rev. B5 (1972) 2135.
Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

Landolt-BBmsteil
New Series III/26

2.3 References for 2


72D
72M
72R
72s
72T
73B
73D
73H
73Ll
73L2
73w
74B
74F
74Hl
74H2
74Ll
74L2
74M
74P
74w
75B
75F
74L3
75M
76F
76Ml
76M2
76M3
76M4
77Al
77A2
77F
77H
77M
78Bl
78B2
78El
78Hl
78M
78R
78W
79A
79B
79H
79K
79Ml
79M2
79P
80B
80D
80G
81B

83

Davis, R.E., McMullen, WD.: Acta Metall. 20 (1972) 593.


Mao, C.: Phys. Rev. B5 (1972) 4693.
Reimers, P., Bartdorff, D.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 50 [I] (1972) 305.
Spedding, EH., Shiba, K.: J. Chem. Phys. 57 (1972) 612.
Titman, J.M., Moores, B.M.: J. Phys. F 2 (1972) 592.
Buescher, B.J.,Gilder, H.M., Shea, N.: Phys. Rev. B7 (1973) 2261.
Dariel, M.P.: Philos. Mag. 28 (1973) 915.
Hultgren, R., Desai, ED., Hawkins, D.T, Gleiser, M., Kelley, K.K., Wagman, D.D.: Selected Values
of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements. Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals,
1973.
Lam, N.Q., Rothman, S.J.,Mehrer, H., Nowicki, L.J.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 57 (1973) 225.
Languille, A., Dariel, M.P., Calais, D., Coqblin, B.: Mem. Sci. Rev. Metall. 70 (1973) 241.
Weithase, M., Noack, E: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 57 (1973) Klll.
Backus, J.G.E.M., Bakker, H., Mehrer, H.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 64 (1974) 151.
Fromont, M., Languille, A., Calais, D.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 35 (1974) 1367.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.:Acta Metall. 22 (1974) 459.
Huang, EH., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B9 (1974) 1479.
Lam, N.Q., Rothman, S.J.,Nowicki, L.J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 23 (1974) K35.
Languille, A., Calais, D., Fromont, M.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 35 (1974) 1373.
Messer, R., Dais, S., Wolf, D., in: Proc. 18th Ampere Congress, Allen, P.S.,Andrew, E.R., Bates, C.A.
(eds.).Nottingham, England, 1974.
Pelleg, J.: Philos. Mag. 29 (1974) 383.
Weithase, M., Noack, E: Z. Phys. 270 (1974) 319.
Bronfin, M.B., Bulatov, G.S., Drugova, I.A.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 40 [2] (1975) 363.
Fromont, M.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36 (1975) 1397.
Languille, A., Calais, D.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 35 (1974) 1461.
Messer, R., Noack, E: Appl. Phys. 6 (1975) 79.
Feller-Kniepmeier, M., Griindler, M., Helfmeier, H.: Z. Metallkd. 67 [8] (1976) 533.
Maier, K., Mehrer, H., Lessmann, E., Schiile, W: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 78 (1976) 689.
Marbach, G., Fromont, M., Calais, D.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 37 (1976) 689.
Messer, R.: Magnetic Resonanceand Related Phenomena, Proc. 19th Congress Ampere, Heidelberg,
Brunner, H. (ed.) (Heidelberg, Groupement Ampere) 1976, p. 269.
Mundy, J.N., Tse, C.W, McFall, WD.: Phys. Rev. B13 (1976) 2349.
Ablitzer, D.: Philos. Mag. 35 (1977) 1239.
Arkhipova, N.K., Klotsman, SM., Rabovskiy, A., Timofeev, A.N.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 43 (1977)
779; Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR (English Transl.) 43 (4) (1977) 88.
Fromont, M., Marbach, G.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38 (1977) 27.
Hettich, G., Mehrer, H., Maier, K.: Ser. Metall. 11 (1977) 795.
Maier, K.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 44 (1977) 567.
Bartdorff, D., Neumann, G., Reimers, P.: Philos Mag. 38 (1978) 157.
Bihr, J., Mehrer, H., Maier, K.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 50 (1978) 17.
Einziger, R.E., Mundy, J.N., Hoff, H.A.: Phys. Rev. B 17 (1978) 440.
Herzig, Ch., Eckseler, H., Bussmann, W, Cardis, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 69/70 (1978) 61.
Mundy, J.N., Rothman, S.J.,Lam, N.Q., Hoff, H.A., Nowicki, L.J.: Phys. Rev. B18 (1978) 6566.
Rein, G., Mehrer, H., Maier, K.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 45 (1978) 253.
Wade, WZ., Short, D.W, Walden, J.C., Magana, J.W: Metall. Trans. 9A (1978) 965.
Ait-Salam, M., Springer, T, Heidemann, A., Alefeld, B.: Philos. Mag. A39 (1979) 797.
Bussmann, W, Herzig, Ch., Rempp, W, Maier, K., Mehrer, H.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 56 (1979) 87.
Herzig, Ch., Eckseler, H.: Z. Metallkd. 70 (1979) 215.
Krautheim, G., Neidhardt, A., Reinhold, U., Zehe, A.: Krist. Tech. 14 (1979) 1491.
Macht, M.P., Frohberg, G., Wever, H.: Z. Metallkd. 70 (1979) 209.
Maier, K., Mehrer, H., Rein, G.: Z. Metallkd. 70 (1979) 271.
Pontau, A.E., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. B19 (1979) 4027.
Briinger, G., Kanert, O., Wolf, D.: Phys. Rev. B22 (1980) 4247.
Dyment, E, in: Titanium 80, Kimura, H., Izumi, O., (eds.)Proc. 46th Int. Conf. on Titanium, Kyoto,
Japan, 1980, p. 519.
Giiltz, G., Heidemann, A., Mehrer, H., Seeger,A., Wolf, D.: Philos. Mag. A41 (1980) 723.
Bussmann, W, Herzig, Ch., Hoff, H.A., Mundy, J.N.: Phys. Rev. B 23 (1981) 6216.

.andolt-Biimstein
lew Series III/26

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

84
31G
31M
91P
81T
52F
82H
B2P
B2R
B3A
B3Gl
B3G2
B3Sl

83S2
63V
83Wl
83W2
83W3
84A
84H
8%
85G
85Hl
85H2
86A
87D
87G
87Kl
87K2
881
88L
89L
89M
9OL

2.3 References for 2

Gunther, B., Kanert, O., Mehring, M., Wolf, D.: Phys. Rev. B24 (1981) 6747.
Mundy, J.N., Hoff, H.A., Pelleg, J., Rothman, S.J.,Nowicki, L.J., Schmidt, EA.: Phys. Rev. B24 (1981)
658.
Patil, R.X, Tiwari, G.P., Sharma, B.D.: Philos. Mag. A 44 (1981) 717.
Tiers, J.E, Chabre, Y: J. Phys. E 11 (1981) 1943.
Fujikawa, S., Hirano, K.I., in: Proc. of Yamada Vth Conf. on Point Defects and Defect Interactions
in Metals, Takamura, J.I., Doyama, M., Kiritani, M., (eds.).Univ. of Tokyo Press 1982, p. 554.
Herzig, Ch., Manke, L., Bussman, W, in: Proc. of Yamada Vth Conf. on Point Defects and Defect
Interactions in Metals, Takamura, J.I., Doyama, M., Kiritani, M., (eds.).Univ. of Tokyo Press, 1982,
p. 578.
Pruthi, D.D., Agarwala, R.P.: Philos. Mag. A 46 (1982) 841.
Rein, G., Mehrer, H.: Philos. Mag. A45 [3] (1982) 467.
Ablitzer, D., Haeussler, J.P.,Sathyaraj, K.X: Philos. Mag. A47 (1983) 515.
Gunther, B., Kanert, 0.: Acta Metal!. 31 (1983) 909.
Gfinther, B., Kanert, O., Wolf, D.: Solid State Commun. 47 (1983) 409.
Smithells, L.J.: Smithells Metals Reference Book (6th Edition), Brandes, E.A.J., (ed.). Washington:
Butterworths, 1983.
Serruys, Y, Brebec, G., in: DIMETA 82, Proc. Int. Conf. on Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, Tihany,
1982, Kedves, EJ., Beke, D.L., (eds.).Trans. Tech. Publication, Switzerland, 1983, p. 351.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaigorodov, VN., Klotsman, SM., Tracktenberg, I.S., in: DIMETA 82, Proc. Int.
Conf. on Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, Tihany, 1982, Kedves, EJ., Beke, D.L., (eds.).Trans. Tech.
Publication, Switzerland, 1983, p. 338.
Weiler, D., Maier, K., Mehrer, H. in: DIMETA 82, Proc. Int. Conf. on Diffusion in Metals and Alloys,
Tihany, 1982, Kedves, EJ., Beke, D.L., (eds.).Trans. Tech. Publication, Switzerland, 1983, p. 342.
Werner, M., Mehrer, H.: in DIMETA 82, Proc. Int. Conf. on Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, Tihany,
1982, Kedves, EJ., Beke, D.L., (eds.).Trans. Tech. Publication, Switzerland, 1983, p. 393.
Werner, M., Mehrer, H., Siethoff, H.: J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16 (1983) 6185.
Arkhipova, N.K., Klotsman, S.M., Polikarpova, I.P., Tatrinova, G.N., Timofeev, A.N., Veretennikov,
L.M.: Phys. Rev. B30 (1984) 1788.
Horvath, J., Dyment, E, Mehrer, H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 126 (1984) 206.
Chiron, R., Faivre, G.: Philos. Mag. A51 (1985) 865.
Gunther, B., Kanert, 0.: Phys. Rev. B31 (1985) 20.
Heitjans, P., Kiirblein, A., Ackermann, H., Dubbers, D., Fujiwara, E, Stockmann, H.J.: J. Phys. F 15
(1985) 41.
Hood, G., in: Solute-Defect Interaction - Theory and Experiment, Saimoto, S., Purdy, G.R.,
Kidson, G.V, (eds.),Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1985, p. 83.
Arkhipova, N.K., Klotsman, S.M., Polikarpova, I.P, Timofeev, A.N., Shepatkovskii, P.: Fiz. Met.
Metalloved. 62 (1986) 1882 (in Russian).
Dais, S., Messer, R., Seeger,A.: Mat. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 419.
Geise, J., Herzig, C.: Z. Metallkd. 78 (1987) 291.
Kohler, U., Herzig, Ch.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 144 (1987) 243.
Kiihler, U.: PhD Thesis, University of Miinster, 1987.
Iijima, Y, Kimura, K., Hirano, K.: Acta Metall. 36 (1988) 2811.
Lee, Ch.G., Iijiama, Y, Hirano, K.: The Ninth Japan Symposium Thermophysical Properties, i988,
p. 1.
Landolt-Bornstein, NS, Vol. III/22 b: Semiconductors. Heidelberg, Berlin, New York: Springer, 1989.
Mehrer, H., Ltibbehusen, M.: Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 591.
Liibbehusen, M., Mehrer, H.: Acta Metall., in press.

Mehrer, Stolica, Stolwijk

3.1 Introduction

85

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements


3.1 Introduction
By impurity diffusion is meant the diffusion of a solute element present in such low concentrations in a
solvent (matrix) that the solute atoms may be regarded as diffusing quite independently of one another, i.e. with
Ino mutual interaction. It represents the very simplest type of binary diffusion and so is of particular interest
as being the most likely to be amenable to theoretical understanding. For this reason very considerable
,experimental effort has been devoted over the last thirty or forty years to systematic measurementsof impurity
,diffusion in metals of all types.
Impurity diffusion in metals usually occurs by a vacancy mechanism (see 1.5.3). The same is true for
self-diffusion of the matrix metal. Depending on the interaction between solute atom and vacancy the impurity
,diffusion coefficient will be either larger or smaller than the self-diffusion coefficient (seechapter 2). However,
in a temperature range between 2/3 T, and T, (T, = melting temperature of the matrix metal) the difference
;between impurity and self-diffusion coefficient will usually not exceed one to two orders of magnitude as long
as solute and self-atoms migrate via the same diffusion vehicle.
Some solute atoms show anomalous fast diffusion. For fast diffusors the impurity diffusion coefficient
texceedsthe self-diffusion coefficient by several orders of magnitude. Fast diffusing solutes usually have a low
solubility in the matrix crystal as well. The phenomenon of fast diffusion has been observed mainly for
1polyvalent matrix metals like Pb, Sn, In, Tl, titanium and vanadium group metals and to some extent for alkali
1metals. Many solutes in Si and Ge are also fast diffusors. However, in this chapter diffusion data are compiled
iFormetallic matrices only.
It is commonly agreed that a low ratio between the atomic radii of solute and matrix atoms is favourable
jibr fast diffusion and that this phenomenon is basically due to rapid transport of solute atoms via interstitial
:rites of the matrix crystal. However, the question whether this rapid transport occurs via a pure interstitial
Ivzechanism (see 1.5.1) or a interstitial-substitutional
exchange mechanism (see 1.5.6) has been resolved only for
7very few solute-matrix combinations.

3.1.1 Methods of measurement


The advent of readily available radioactive isotopes just after the war made it possible for the first time to
aork with solute concentrations low enough to satisfy completely the conditions for true impurity diffusion,
;or extremely small concentrations of radioactive isotopes are accurately measurable. For this reason too the
i deal method of measurementwith radioactive isotopes is the thin layer method (see1.6.1.2.1),for the condition
1;hat the thickness h 6 (D t)1/2 is very readily satisfied; extremely thin layers frequently suffice, often only a few
I:ens of atoms thick.
The thin layer method with serial sectioning and measurement of the activity of each section is quite the
(:ommonest method employed, the diffusion coefficient D being calculated from equation (1.I 1). Alternative
I procedures are to use the residual activity (Gruzin-Seibel) method or the surface decreasemethod. For
reasons outlined in 1.6.1.2.1, these two methods are generally regarded as less reliable, although the residual
activity method is capable of comparable accuracy when the emitted radiation is of low energy so that the
integrated activity from below the surface becomes negligible. The surface decreasemethod is rarely used
nowadays.
Methods of sectioning and analysis for the thin layer methods are reviewed in 1.6.1.2.1. Either mechanical
serial sectioning techniques (lathe sectioning, grinder sectioning, microtome sectioning) or microsectioning
techniques (sputter sectioning, anodic stripping, . . .) may be used. Occasionally, penetration profiles follow, and
are then analysed in terms of, equation (1.14) rather than equation (1.11); this is when the diffusant solubility
is so small that the surface concentration remains at its maximum (solubility) value for the whole of the
diffusion anneal. This solubility can then also be determined from the measurements. When the surface
concentration maintains its maximum saturation value for only part of the anneal time, measurementsmay be
analysed by a solution due to Malkovitch (Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 15 (1963) 880).

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

3.1 Introduction

86

Sometimesnon-radioactive diffusants are employed, either with the thin-layer method or, occasionally, with
diffusion couple or in- or out-diffusion methods. Sufficiently sensitive methods of chemical analysis are then
needed becauseof the necessarily very low concentrations; electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary
ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning laser mass spectroscopy (SLMS), spark source mass spectroscopy
(SSMS), Rutherford back scattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are among methods that can
be employed. Electrical resistivity measurementsand X-ray diffraction methods (see1.6.1.2.3) provide another
means of monitoring concentration changes and occasionally have been used to determine impurity diffusion
coefficients.
Apart from one or two measurementsby the Mijssbauer effect, indirect methods, (see1.6.2) have found
little or no application to substitutional solute impurity diffusion, with which this chapter is principally
concerned. This is in marked contrast with the diffusion of the interstitial solutes C, N, 0 and H dealt with in
chapters 8 and 9.

3.1.2 Use of tables and figures


In this chapter impurity diffusion data are compiled in tables and figures according to the positions of the
nrorrix metals in the periodic table in the following order:
alkali group metals,
alkaline earth group metals,
scandium group metals,
rare earth metals,
titanium group metals,
vanadium group metals,
chromium group metals,
manganesegroup metals,
iron group metals,
cobalt group metals,
nickel group metals,
noble metals,
zinc group metals,
aluminum group metals,
group IV B metals,
group VB (semi) metals,
actinide group metals
This order of matrix elements is the same as in chapter 2 on self-diffusion. Within the table that refers to
a given matrix metal the data for solute elements are compiled according to the same order of elements.
The matrix metal can be found on top of the pertaining table. The solute element can be found in the column
Sohrte of the table.
Diffusion data are reported whenever possible in terms of thepre-exponenfiulfaclor Do (secondcolumn) and
the nclhafion enfhnby Q (third column) introduced in equation (1SO) of the General introduction. Occasionally, diffusion coefficients have been listed in these two columns. This procedure was chosen whenever the
original data did not justify an analysis in terms of equation (1.50). Possible reasons could be either too few
data points or physically significant deviations from equation (1.50) already discussed in section 1.8. An
example is diffusion in u-iron: When diffusion is studied over a wide enough temperature range the magnetic
transition causes significant deviations from a simple Arrhenius behaviour. Occasionally curved Arrhenius
diagrams were analyzed in terms of a sum of two Arrhenius terms. In these casesblanks occur in the Do and
Q columns and the result of the two-exponential tit is listed in the Method/Remarks column (seebelow).
The temperature range quoted is the range over which measurementswere made and used by the author(s)
to calculate the quoted values of Do and Q. Extrapolation too far outside this range may not in somecasesgive
reliable diffusion coefficients.
For imitlxinl matrix metals Do and Q values are given for diffusion parallel (II) and perpendicular (I) to the
crystal axis whenever experiments on single crystals of different orientation were performed. The orientation
will be indicated in the Do column of the table.
For matrh met& with allotropic transformations Do and Q values are listed for the various crystal structures.
Either diffusion data are collected separately (like e.g. in the case of cr-Ti and I%Ti) or the modification is
indicated by a corresponding remark (e.g. y-Fe or S-Fe) in the Temperature range column.

Le Claire

3.1 Introduction

87

The column Method/Remarks usually contains the following information:


(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

The experimental method is briefly characterized:


- Thin layer methods
If a thin layer method together with a radioactive diffusant was used the diffusant is stated together with
its mass number.
If concentration-depth curves were determined by serial sectioning and counting the sectioning technique is stated.
If the residual activity method or the surface decreasemethod was employed together with radioactive
diffusants this is stated by the remark residual activity or surface decrease.
If a thin layer method is used together with non-radioactive diffusants the diffusing element is stated
without mass number. The technique for the concentration-depth curve measurement (e.g., electron
microprobe analysis, SIMS, . . .) is stated.
- Diffusion couple methods
or in- and out-diffusion methods or indirect methods are specified in tables.
The statement polycrystal or single crystal is employed to indicate the microstructure of the material.
The nominal purity of the material will be stated.
Appropriate additional information on the method, additional information contained in the paper and
remarks about the reliability of the quoted results may be added in the Method/Remarks column.
When a curved Arrhenius plot has been analyzed by the sum of two exponentials according to equation
(l.Sl), the pre-exponential factors 0: and 0; and the activation enthalpies Q, and Q, are tabulated in the
Method/Remarks column.
Very occasionally the various forms in which results are reported in a paper (tabulated, graphical, in text
etc.) may be found to be incompatible with one another. Careful assessmentof the data has usually made
possible identification of what is most likely the most correct result. It is stated explicitly where this has
been necessary.

Central to the present chapter are the tables. From the tables references are made to the figures. Selected
data have been plotted in the figures as indicated in the column Figure (Fig.).
In the figures of sections 3.2.1 to 3.2.9 and 3.2.16 (sections treated by A.D. Le Claire) the temperature ranges
of the D values shown in the figures agreewith those of the temperature range given in the tables. In most figures
of sections 3.2.10 to 3.2.15 (sections treated by G. Neumann) Arrhenius lines are shown over a temperature
range of typically 213 T, to T,. This temperature range is not identical with the temperature range over which
the measurements were performed. The temperature range of measurements can be found in the tables.
In most figures self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison. In most figures melting
temperatures of the matrix metals and, if necessary,allotropic transformation temperatures have been indicated.

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

88

3.2.1 Impurity diffusion in alkali metals

[Ref. p. 203

3.2 The impurity diffusion tables


Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-r

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

3.2.1 Impurity diffusion in alkali metals


Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
Matrix:

lithium (Li)

Li

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

132

Na

0.41

52.80

325...449

67Ml

0.44

52.02*

317..,435

22Na*
polyciystals;
99.8 %;
microtome sectioning
22Na;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
microtome sectioning;
diffusion in 7Li and 6Li studied;
* Do and Q for 7Li estimated
from graphical data by present
authors
22Na, 24Na;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning;
isotope effect also determined

71Ll

73Ml

6901

73M2

6801

73Ml

6802

,cu

Ag

Au

D = l.16~10-11 m2sV1

423

0.047 *

38.60*

323...394

0.3

41.87

362...420

0.37

53.72

340...434

0.54

53.72

323 . ..423

0.21

46.01

319...426

64Cu;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning;
* values reassessedby present
authors
64Cu;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
penetration plots curved Malkovitch solution
1om&;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning
losAgt lomAgi
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning;
isotope effect also determined
195Au;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning

(continued)

Le Claire

Land&-BCmslein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.1 Impurity diffusion in alkali metals

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

89

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

95AU.
polyc&tals

7103

Matrix: lithium (Li), continued


0.10

43.47

300...441

0.141

44.93

300**.441

Zn

0.57

54.34

330...446

65Zn.
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning

69Ml

Cd

0.62

62.80

355...449

115mC4
polycrystals;
99.98% ;
microtome sectioning

7001

Hg

1.04

59.37

331...447

03Hg;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning

7001

Ga

0.21

54.05

389...447

72Ga;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning

7001

In

0.39

66.44

348s.. 443

114mIn;

6803

Au

of 95 % 6Li;

microtome sectioning
lg5Au:
2, 3
polycrystals of 92.5 % Li;
microtome sectioning;
separate Arrhenius terms for
300...359 K:
Do = 8.5. 10m6m2 s-l;
Q = 42.83 kJmol-;
371...441 K:
Do = 0.24. 10m4m2 s-l;
Q = 46.52 kJmol- (seeFig. 3)

polycrystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning
Sn

0.62

66.32*

380...447

Sn (radioisotope not specified);


polycrystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning;
* values reassessedby present
authors

6902

Pb

1.6. IO4

105.5*

401 .*. 443

Pb (radioisotope not specified);


polycrystals;
99.95% ;
microtome sectioning;
* values reassessedby present
authors

6902

Land&-Bknstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

90
Solute

3.2.1 Impurity diffusion in alkali metals


Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 20

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: lithium (Li), continued


Sb

1.6. 1012

173.8*

413 . ..449

Sb (radioisotope not specified);


polycrystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning
* values reassessedby present
authors

6902

Bi

5.3 . 104

198.0*

413...450

Bi (radioisotope not specified);


polycrystals;
99.95% ;
microtome sectioning;
* values reassessedby present
authors

6902

Matrix: sodium (Na)


Na

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

Li

1.8

49.1

291...358

64Nl

297...353

6Li, Li;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
diffusion couple method;
microtome sectioning and mass
spectroscopy
6Li;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning

83Bl

0.08

35.29

273...365

42~.

67Bl

poly&ystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning
Rb

0.15

35.55

272..-359

s6Rb;
polycrystals;
99.95%
microtome sectioning

67Bl

Ag

0.02

21.39

298..-351

1omAg.
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
microtome sectioning

83Bl

Au

3.34. 10-4

9.25

274...350

=Au;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
microtome sectioning;
solubility determined from the
erfc-profile :
c, = 540 exp (- 47.0 kJ/RT)

69Bl

Le Claire

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Matrix:

3.2.2 Impurity diffusion in alkaline earth metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

273...363

%Zd;
polycrystals;

91
Fig.

Ref.

sodium (Na), continued

Cd

0.37

40.86

83Bl

99.95 % ;

microtome sectioning
In

1.79

48.73

293...363

l141n;
polycrystals;

83Bl

99.95 %;

microtome sectioning
Tl

0.52

42.62

297...356

204Tl.

83Bl

poly&stals;
99.95 % ;

microtome sectioning
Sn

0.54

43.92

316 ... 363

l13Sn;
polycrystals;

83Bl

99.95 %;

microtome sectioning
Matrix:

potassium (IL)

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

Na

0.058

31.19

273...335

22Na*
polyciystals;

67Bl

99.95 % ;

microtome sectioning
Rb

0.09

36.76

273...333

(jRb;
polycrystals;

69Sl

99.95 % ;

microtome sectioning
Au

1.29. lO-3

13.52

279...326

lg8Au;
polycrystals;

7OSl

99.95 %;

microtome sectioning;
(erfc and Malkovitch solutions)
Matrix:

rubidium (Rb) - No impurity diffusion data available (for self-diffusion data seechapter 2)

Matrix:

caesium (Cs) - No data available

3.2.2 Impurity diffusion in alkaline earth metals


Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
Matrix:

beryllium (Be)

Be

Ce

3.1 . 102

303.5

1223 ... 1513

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

141C!e;

76Al

76Al

polycrystals;
99.7%;

residual activity (erfc solution)


V

29

243.0

1173...1423

4av.

pol&rystals;
99.7%;

residual activity (erfc solution)


Land&-BGmstein
New Series III/26

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.2 Impurity diffusion in alkaline earth metals


Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix beryllium (Be), continued


359.6
Nb
2. lo4

1318...1513

g5Nb;
polycrystals;
residual activity (erfc solution)

76Al

Fe

Fe;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method and
electron microprobe analysis;
solubility limit also determined
Fe.
polydrystals;

62Dl

66Nl

79Gl

70Al

combined data of [65Dl] and


[74Ml] on single crystals:
64Cu;
serial sectioning (for T > 950K);
diffusion following ion implantation studied by Rutherford
backscattering (for T < 950K)

65D1,
74Ml

1om&;
polycrystals;

66Nl

Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

1.0

221.9

1073...1373

0.53

216.9*

973...1349

99.75 % ;

residual activity;
* values reassessedby present
authors
co

27

287.2

1253... 1493

5co;
polycrystals;
99.8%;

residual activity
Ni

0.2

243.0

1073 . . 1523

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.7 % ;

residual activity
cu

Ag

11c 0.38

198.6

733 ... 1273

I c 0.42

193.3

693 ... 1273

6.2

193.0*

923...1183

99.75 % ;

11c 0.43
Ic 1.76

164.5*
180.9*

929...1170
929...1170

residual activity;
* values reassessedby present
authors
om&;
single crystals;

99.75 % ;

D,, = 3.1 . lo-l3 m2se1


D

I = 13.
. 10-13m2s-1

1053
1053

residual activity;
* values reassessedby present
authors
single crystals;

75Ml

99.95 %;

in-diffusion studied by Rutherford backscattering analysis

Ik Claire

Landolt-BBmstein
New Series lIlj26

3.2.2 Impurity diffusion in alkaline earth metals

Ref. p. 2031

93

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: beryllium (Be), continued


D = 1.5 * lo-3 m2s-1
Au
D=28.10-6~2~-1
I
.
D,, =4.4.10-15 m2sm1
D I =65.10-5m2s-l
.

938
938
1053
1053

single crystals;
99.95% ;
in-diffusion studied by Rutherford backscattering analysis;
99.95%;
D in polycrystals of 10 urn grainsize about 10 times larger than
in single crystals

75M3

Al

1068 *.+1356

26A1.
polyirystals;
99.91%;
residual activity (erfc solution)

76Gl

Matrix: magnesium (Mg)


Mg

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

7, 8

Be

8.06

157.0

773...873

Be;
diffusion couple method with
couple of Mg and Mg 0.2 %
Be alloy;
layerwise spectral analysis (erfc
solution)

66Yl

La

2.2. 10-2

102.2

813...868

dissolution of precipitates in
diffusion couple

66Ll

Ce

450

175.8

823...871

dissolution of precipitates in
diffusion couple

66Ll

Fe

4.10-6

88.8

673.e.873

Fe;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
residual activity

68Pl

Ni

1.2. 10-5

95.9

673...873

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
surface decreasemethod

68Pl

Ag

0.34

119.3

749...894

67Ll

11c 3.62
J-c 17.9

133.1
148.2

752...913
752...913

lomAgi
polycrystals;
99.875% ;
serial sectioning
lomAgi
single crystals;
99.99%;
lathe and grinder sectioning

72Cl

Zn

0.41

119.7

740...893

65Zn;
polycrystals;
99.875%;
serial sectioning

67Ll

Cd

11c 1.29
I c 0.46

140.7
132.7

733...898
733...898

Cd;
single crystals;
99.99%;
lathe and grinder sectioning

72Cl

Solute

andolt-BBmstein
\Tew Series III/26

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

1.0

168.3

Le Claire

Golute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.2 Impurity diffusion in alkaline earth metals

94
Da

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Ref.

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

l141n;
polycrystals;
99.875%;
serial sectioning
114mIn;
single crystals;
99.99%;
lathe and grinder sectioning

67Ll

l13Sn.

72Cl

Fig.

Matrix: magnesium(Mg), continued


[n

Sn

5.2. 10-2

118.9

745...883

(Ic 1.75
Ic 1.88

143.4
142.4

747..-906
747.~~906

11c 4.27

149.9

748 ..-903

72Cl

singlecrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe and grinder sectioning;
D,/D,, = 1 at 902.3 K;
D,/D,, = 1.13 at 858.2 K
Sb

11
c 2.57
I c 3.27

137.3
138.2

781...896
781...896

124Sb;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe and grinder sectioning
(erfc solution)

72Cl

1.6. lo-

114.7

773...893

235~.

68Pl

polycrystals;
99.95% ;
residual activity
Matrix: calcium (Ca)
Ca

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

Fe

3.2. lo-

124.8

823. . - 1073

Fe;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
residual activity

68Pl

Ni

l.lo.10-5

121.0

823. . .1073

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
surface decrease

68Pl

1.1 . 10-s

145.7

773*..973

23su;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
residual activity

68Pl

Matrix: strontium (Sr) - No data available


Matrix: barium (Ba)

- No data available

Matrix: radium (Ra) - No data available

Le Claire

Land&-B6msIei
New Series Ill/26

solute

95

3.2.3 Impurity diffusion in SC group and rare earth metals

Ref. p. 2031
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

3.2.3 Impurity diffusion in scandium group and rare earth metals


3.2.3.1 Scandium group metals
SC,Y, La
Matrix: scandium (SC)
SC

no data available

Fe

1.5. 10-3

54.0

1241s.. 1528
(Cl-SC)
1643
1702
1755
1790
(P-W

Fe;
diffusion couple method using
scanning laser mass spectroscopy;
polycrystals;
99.96%;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

10

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

11

D=4.1.10-gm2s-
2.6 . IO- m2 s-l
3.4. IO- m2 s-l
4.4. IO- m2 s-l

Matrix: yttrium (Y)


Y

86Al

Fe

1.8. lO-2

85.0

1173...1603
(a-Y>

Fe;
diffusion couple method;
99%;
lathe sectioning;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined;
similar data in [8201]

11

75M2

co

1.4. 10-2

83.3

1290... 1620
(a-Y)

11
co;
diffusion couple method with
couple of pure Y and Y 0.05%
Co alloy;
polycrystals;
99.6%;
laser-ionization mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

8201

Ni

5.8. 1O-2

96.5

1290...1580
(a-Y)

Ni;
11
diffusion couple method with
couple of pure Y and Y 0.05%
Ni alloy;
polycrystals;
99.6%;
laser-ionization mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

8201

Ag

5.4. 10-3

77.0

1178... 1453
(f=Y>

llom&;
diffusion couple method;
99%;
lathe sectioning;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

11

75M2

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

3.2.3 Impurity diffusion in SC group and rare earth metals

96
Solute

[Ref. p. 203

Method/Remarks

Fig.

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

12

1139~~~1170

141Ce.

12

76Fl

(-f-W

polycrystals;
serial sectioning
12

69Dl

Do

10-4m2s-

Ref.

Mah-ix: lanthanum (La)


La
Ce

Au

1.8. IO-

2.2 * 10-2

104.7

75.8

873 ... 1073


(P-W

rgOAu;
polycrystals;
99.97%;
lathe sectioning;
self-diffusion also studied

3.2.3.2 Rare earth metals


Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu
Matrix: cerium (Ce)
Ce

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

13

La

3.8. lo-*

102.6

998 ..- 1048


(&Ce)

i4La;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
lathe sectioning

13

73Dl

Gd

1.2. 10-2

100.5

1003... 1048
(&Ce)

Gd (radioisotope not specified);


polycrystals;
purity not specified;
serial sectioning

13

76Ml

Mn

7.2. IO-

37.0*

888...973

54Mn;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
lathe sectioning;
* evaluated from 3 graphical
data points by present authors

13

75Dl

Fe

D=2.78.10-10m2s-

10!Fe)
(&Ce)

3.3. 10-4

19.3

173.e.923
We)

1.7. 10-2

49.8

2.0. 10-3

32.2

875.e.990
(v-C4
1005... 1046
(6-Ce)

5gFe;
polycrystals;
99.8 % ;
diffusion couple method and
nondestructive/destructive
y-counting;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined
5gFe;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
lathe sectioning

Le Claire

73Cl

13

75Dl

Landolt-BBmslei!
New Series III!26

3.2.3 Impurity diffusion in SC group and rare earth metals

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

97

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

6OCo.

13

73Cl

13

76Ml

13

72Dl

13

73Cl

72Dl

Matrix: cerium (Ce), continued

co

Ag

Au

46.1

1.0. 10-2

1.6. 1O-3

35.6

1.2. 10-3

33.5

2.5. 10-2

88.3

1.2 * 10-l

92.9

1.4

117.2

4.4. 10-3

62.4

9.5. 10-2

85.8

823...923
(r-W

~920~~*1000
(r-C@
1003.*. 1048
(h-Ce)

polycjstals;
99.8%;
diffusion couple method and
nondestructive/destructive
y-counting;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined
6Oco.
polyc;ystals;
serial sectioning (erfc solution)

852...969
We>
996... 1049
(&Ce)
873...973
(r-C4

lomAgi
polycrystals;
99.9 %;
lathe sectioning
llomAg;
polycrystals;
99.8 %;
diffusion couple method and
nondestructive/destructive
y-counting;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

823...973
We>
999... 1048
(6-Ce)

l98Atl;
polycrystals;
99.9 ?$;
lathe sectioning

13

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

14

Matrix: praseodymium (Pr)


Pr

La

D = 1.1 .

HO

IO-l3 m2 s-1 *

1.8. 1O-2

107.6

D = 3.35 . IO-

m2 s-1 *

9.5. 10-3

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

110.1

1039
14La;
(a-Pr)
polycrystals;
1080~~~1190 99.96% ;
lathe sectioning;
(P-W
* value estimated from published
graph by present authors
1004
(cl-Pr)
1085...1180
(P-W

166~~.

polycjstals
99.96% ;
lathe sectioning;
* value estimated from published
graph by present authors

Le Claire

14

69D2

14

69D2

3.2.3 Impurity diffusion in SC group and rare earth metals

98
Solute

Do

10P4m2s-

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

930 ... 1000


(u-Pr)
1111~~*1166
(P-W

54Mn.
po1yc;ysta1s;
99.9 % ;
lathe sectioning;
* evaluated from graphical data
by present authors

14

75Dl

885... 1060
(mPr)
1075.+.1180
(B-W
885...1036
(cc-Pr)
1092
1151
(P-W
926...1059
(u-Pr)
1086.+.1187
@-w
886... 1040
(cc-Pr)
1085...1195
(WV
870...1015
(a-Pr)
1075...1185
1o$-W

59Fe;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
lathe sectioning

14

75Dl

6Oco;
polycrystals;
99.93%;
lathe sectioning

14

69D3

b4cu;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
lathe sectioning

14

71Dl

11omAg.
polycryitals;
99.93% ;
lathe sectioning

14

69D3

19Au;
polycrystals;
99.93% ;
lathe sectioning
19Au;
single crystals;
99.94%
lathe sectioning (erfc solution)

14

69D3

14

81Dl

65Zn;
polycrystals;
99.97% ;
lathe sectioning

14

70Dl

141n;

14

69D2

Matrix: praseodymium (Pr), continued

Fe

co

1.06.10-j

63.2 *

2.6. lo-

25.1*

2.1 * 10-3

39.4

4.10-3

43.5

4.7. 10-Z

68.7

D=4.6-10-9m2s-1
D=5.0~10-9m2s-1
cu

Ag

Au

Zn

8.4. lo-*

75.8

5.7. 10-2

74.5

0.14

106.3

3.2. lo-*

90.0

4.3. 10-2

82.5

3.3. 10-2

84.2

D =4.4.jO-10m2s-1
D=37.10-0m*s-
D1 = 4.6 +lO-o m2sm1
D=4.0.10-10m2s-1
1
0.18
103.8
0.63

113.0

In
9.6. lo-*

121.0

(cl-Pr)
1053
(u-Pr)
876...1040
(a-Pr)
1095...1194
(VW
1039
(u-Pr)
1075...1200
(P-W

polycrystals;
99.96% ;
lathe sectioning;
* values estimated from published
graph by present authors

3.2.3 Impurity diffusion in SCgroup and rare earth metals

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Matrix:

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

no self-diffusion data available

54Mn;
polycrystals;

15

75Dl

15

75Dl

neodymium (Nd)

Nd

Mn

D = 4.17 . IO- m2 s-1 *


6.02 . 10-l mz s-l

1.12~10-0m2s-1*
1.61 . lo- m2 s-l
Fe

4.6. 1O-3

51.1

1028
1075

(a-Nd)
1148

99.9 %;

lathe sectioning;
* values estimated from published
graph by present authors

1182
(P-W
955...1136*

(a-Nd)
0.01

56.9

1162... 1231*
(P-W

Fe;
polycrystals;
99.9%;

lathe sectioning;
* values estimated from published
graph by present authors

Matrix:

prometheum (Pm) - No data available

Matrix:

samarium (Sm)

- No data available

Matrix:

europium (Eu)

- No impurity diffusion data available;


for self-diffusion seechapter 2

Matrix:

gadolinium (Gd)

- No impurity diffusion data available;


for self-diffusion seechapter 2

Matrix:

terbium (Tb)

- No data available

Matrix:

dysprosium (Dy)

- No data available

Matrix:

hobnium (Ho)

- No data available

Matrix:

erbium (Er)

Er

Au

11c 4.73.10-3 * 64

lc1.95.10-2*

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

1270..+ 1485

lg8Au;
16
single crystals;
99.91%;
lathe sectioning (erfc solution);
three temperatures only;
* values estimated from published
graph by present authors

99

- No data available

Matrix:

thulium (Tm)

Matrix:

ytterbium (Yb) - No impurity diffusion data available;

for self-diffusion seechapter 2


Matrix:

99

lutetium (Lu)

andolt-Bhnstein
lew Series III/26

- No data available

Le Claire

16
79Dl

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

100

Do

10-4mZs-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

17
-

79Sl

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals


Ti, Zr, Hf
Matrix:

titanium (Ti)

r-titanium
Ti

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

259.0

933.e.1133

Be;
polycrystals;
99.5%;
residual activity

1124
1072

s4Mn.
polyc;ystals;
99.998%;
lathe sectioning;
solvent and solute diffusion in
bee Ti-Co and Ti-Mn alloys also
studied
54Mn*
18
singlecrystals;
99.94% ;
lathe sectioning;
D,,/D, = 3.84.e.1.68;
effect of oxygen on Mn diffusion
also studied

75Sl

59Fe;
single crystals;
99.96% ;
lathe sectioning;
D,,/D ,, = 5.15 . ..2.01
s9Fe;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
residual activity

18

83Nl

73Kl

6OCo;
polycrystals;
99.998%;
lathe sectioning;
solvent and solute diffusion in
bee Ti - Co and Ti - Mn
alloys also studied
6OCo;
single crystals;
99.96% ;
lathe sectioning;
similar data in [83N2];
isotope effect also studied

75Sl

18

85N1,
85N2

Be

14.103

Mn

D = 1.42. lo-l3 rns-l


5.21 . lo-l4 m2s-l

Fe

co

1 c 0.6
ii c 4.9 . lo-

189.2
160.5

878...1135
878...1135

lc 6.4. lo-
iic 4.7. 1O-3

144.2
112.3

877...1136
877...1136

1.2. 10-4

110.5

973...1123

D=6.65~10-2m2s-
3.64. lo-l2 m2 s-l

1129
1072

lc 3.2. lO-2
Iic 1.9. 10-Z

875...1135
875...1135

126.1
114.1

Le Claire

88N2

Landok-BBmstei
New Series Ill/21

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

101

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

912
971
1059
1117
1141

63Ni;
polycrystals;
high purity;
lathe sectioning;
* value reassessedby present
authors
63Ni;
single crystals;
99.96%;
lathe sectioning

72HI

18

85N2

I7

76Pl

17

85R 1

Matrix: titanium (a-Ti), continued


Ni

D = 6.7. 10-14m2s-i
I.8 . IO-l3 m2 s-l
76.10-3m2s-l*

2.3 . IO-r2 m2 s-l


2.1 . IO-l2 m2 s-l
I c 5.4 .10-2
11c 5.6. IO-

141.8
137.2

877... 1100
877... 1100

9.7. 10-s

115.1

973...1123

7.4. 10-7

156.4

873...1123

Si

4.4. 10-7

105.2

923 ... 1073

Si (ion-implanted);
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
nuclear reaction analysis;
solubility of Si also determined

17

86Rl

l.c 0.155
11
c 4.7

138.2
172.3

973...1123
973...1123

32~.

4.1 . 10-7

114.5

p-titanium
Ti
Be

Al

Al;
polycrystals;
X-ray diffraction method
Al (ion implanted);
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
nulcear reaction analysis

I7

86NI

1020+.. 1124

single crystals;
99.96% ;
lathe sectioning;
for T < 973 K D values are
smaller than calculated from
Do and Q;
P diffusion in Ti 2.35 at% 0 also
studied
-

18

78Fl

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

17,18

0.8

168.3

1188...1573

7Be;
polycrystals;
99.62%;
residual activity

17

69Pl

SC

4.0. 10-3

135.7

1213... 1843

46sc.
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
lathe sectioning;
similar data in [65Al]

18

7IAl

Zr

4.7. 10-3

148.2

1193...1773

Zr;
polycrystals;
98.94% ;
residual activity

18

67PI

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

102
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals


Do

10-4mZs-*

kJmo!-

Mafrix: titanium @Ti), continued


v

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1175...1816

49.

18

64Ml

pol$rysta!s;
99.9 % ;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential tit to the [64Ml]
data: 0: = 7.9. lO-1o m*s-l,
Q, = 101.1 kJmo!-,
0: = 0.21 . 10v4 m* s-l,
Q2 = 209.0 kJ mol- ;
seealso [65Al]
Nb

1273... 1923

2.91 .10-4

129.9

1228... 1784

Ta

Cr

90Nl

Nb;
polycrystals;
99.7%;
lathe sectioning and autoradiowphy;
two-exponential fit:
07 = 5 . IO- m* s-l,
Q, = 164.5 kJmo!-,
0: = 20. low4 m*s-*,
Q2 = 305.6 kJmol-I;
seealso [65Gl]
gNb;
polycrystals;
99.97% ;
lathe sectioning;
only three temperatures;
diffusion of Ti and Nb in
Ti -Nb alloys also studied

18

63Gl

79Pl

1187...1869

*Ta;
polycrystals;
iodide Ti;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential fit:
0: = 3. 10-8m2s-1,
Q, = 140.3 kJmol-,
0: = 13 * lob4 m*s-,
Q2 = 309.8 kJmo!-

18

66A1

1243... 1923

51Cr;
polycrystals;
99.7.**99.9%;
lathe sectioning and autoradiowphy ;
two-exponential fit:
D~=5~10-7m2s-1,
Q, = 147.8 kJmo!-,
0: = 4.9. 10e4 m* s-l,
Q2 = 255.4 kJmo!-;
seealso [65Gl]

18

63Gl

L42Claire

Land&-BBmsteir
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Matrix: titanium (fl-Ti), continued


MO

103

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1173...1923

MO;
polycrystals;
99.7*..99.9%;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential tit:
0: = 8 . 10d7 m2 s-l,
Q, = 180 kJmol-r,
0: = 20. 10m4m2 s-l,
Q, = 305.6 kJmol-;
seealso [65Gl]
ggMo;
polycrystals;
98.94%;
residual activity;
* Q and Do values from single
exponential tit to given
temperature ranges

18

63Gl

67Pl

185w.

18

67Pl

0.24
2.82. 1O-4

214.8 *
139.0*

1373... 1833
1173*..1373

3.6. 1O-3

183.8

1173...1523

polyciystals;
98.94%;
surface decreasemethod
Mn

?e

Land&-Bihstein
New Series III/26

1203..- 1923

54Mn
polyciystals;
99.7 % ;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential fit:
0: = 6.1 . 10e7 m2 s-l,
Q, = 141.1 kJmol-,
0: = 4.3 . 10e4 m2 s-l,
Q, = 242.8 kJmol-;
seealso [65Gl]

18

63Gl

1193...1923

55Fe;
polycrystals;
99.7 % ;
lathe sectioning and autoradiographs ;
two-exponential fit:
0: = 7.8. lo- m2 s-l,
Q, = 132.3 kJmol-,
0: = 2.7. 10m4m2 s-l,
Q, = 230.3 kJmol-l;
seealso [65Gl]
5gFe;
polycrystals;
iodide Ti;
lathe sectioning;
pressure effects also studied
Fe;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
residual activity

18

63Gl

67132

73Kl

D = 9.9. 10-3m2sml

1175

5.6. 1O-3

1273... 1473

131.0

Le Claire

104
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals


Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: titanium (&Ti), continued

co

1183.a.1923

6oco.
polyc~ystals;
99.7 % ;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential tit:
0: = 1.2 * 10T6 m2s-,
Q, = 128.1 kJmo!-,
0: = 2. 10-4m2s-1,
Q, = 219.8 kJmo!-;
seealso [65Gl]

18

63Gl

Ni

1203.+. 1923

63Ni.

18

63Gl

polyfrystals;
99.7%;
lathe sectioning and autoradiographs ;
two-exponential tit:
0: = 9.2. lo- m2 s-l,
Q, = 123.9 kJmo!-,
0: = 2. 10m4m2s-',
Q2 = 219.8 kJ mol-;
seealso [65Gl]
-

1233... 1733

Cu;
polycrystals;
iodide Ti;
electron microprobe analysis;
two-exponential fit:
0: = 2.1 . 10e7 m2 s-l,
Q, = 122.3 kJmo!-,
Dg= 11.3.10-4m2s-,
Q, = 252 kJmo!-

17

69Cl

3.0. 10-3

180.0

1213...1863

llom&*
polycry~tals;
99.95%;
lathe sectioning

17

71Al

1226...1868

l13Sn;
polycrystals;
99.7%;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential tit:
0: = 3.8 . lo-* m2 s-l,
Q, = 132.3 kJmo!-,
0: = 9.5. 10m4m2 s-l,
Q2 = 289.7 kJ mol-;
seealso [65Gl]

17

65A1

113c&.

7751

cu

Sn

D~8.8.1()-~~m~s-*
4.9.10-13m2s-1
8.9. lo-l3 m2s-
1.8. lo-l2 m2s-
1.2.10-l1 m2s-

1245
1388
1481
1581
1798

polyciystals;
99.97%;
lathe sectioning;
isotope effect also studied;
D values agree with [65Al]

Le Claire

Landolt-B6mstci
New Series W/2(

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-l

Matrix: titanium (fi-Ti), continued


P

105

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1218...1873

32p.

17

65A 1

pol&ystals;
99.9%;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential tit :
07 = 3.62. IO- m2 s-l,
Q, = 100.9 kJmol-,
0: = 5. 10m4 m2 s-l,
Q, = 236.6 kJmol-;
seealso [65Gl]
U

2.10-3

138.1

1188 .-. 1298

U (natural);
polycrystals;
99.34%;
fission fragment radiography

67Dl

5.1 . 10-4

122.7

1173... 1473

23qJ.

7OP2

18

78Fl

7lL2

polycjstals;
99.62% ;
residual activity
-.
two-exponential tit:
0: = 1.6. 10m9 m2 s-l,
Q, = 89.2 kJmol-,
0: = 2. 10m6m2 s-l,
Q, = 192.6 kJmol-

1173**.1773

1.4. 10-6

64.1*

1173~~~1400 Pu;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method;
electron microprobe analysis and
a-radiography;
* values reassessedby present
authors

18

r-zirconium
Zr
-

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

19,20

Rb

1.17. 102

255.4

iO33...1136

Rb;
polycrystals;
out-diffusion method;
possible grain-boundary influence

19

68Sl

Be

0.33

133.6

993...1120

Be;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
grinder sectioning and residual
activity

19

76Tl

Ce

3.54.10-7

106.2

923..*1123

141Ce;
polycrystals;
high purity;
residual activity

20

68P2

PU

Matrix: zirconium (Zr)

Land&-Blimstein
New Series III/26

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

106
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: zirconium (a-Zr), continued


Ti

D = 9.4. j()-

m2s-

1116

44Ti;
single crystal of unspecified
orientation;
99.93% ;
lathe sectioning

20

74Hl

1.12.10-8

95.9

873...1123

48V.

20

68Al

g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
residual activity;
self-diffusion in hcp Ti, Zr, Hf
also studied

20

68Dl

182Ta.

20

58Bl

72Tl

20

83B2

ggMo;
polycrystals;
high purity;
residual activity

20

68P2

893 ... 1083

54Mn;
polycrystals;
99.5 and 99.999% ;
residual activity and serial
sectioning

20

73Tl

973
1071

5gFe;
polycrystals;
99.93% ;
lathe sectioning
5gFe;
single crystal of unspecified
orientation;
99.93%;
lathe sectioning

72Hl

74Hl

pol&rystals;
99.84%;
residual activity
Nb

6.6. 10-6

131.9

Ta

1 * 102

293.1

973 ... 1073

polyc;ystals;
99.6%;
residual activity
4.9. 10-j

126.0

896...1105

I c 0.2
11
c 0.2

162.7
153.3

1023...1121
1023...1121

MO

6.22. 1O-8

103.7

Mn

2.4. 1O-3

126.4

Fe

D=3.7.10-2m2s-1
3.5.10-l m2s-

Cr

1113

5Cr.
polycrystals;
99.5 and 99.999%;
grinder sectioning and residual
activity
51Cr;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
serial sectioning;
considerably lower D values
reported in [65A2]

Le Claire

Land&-BBmsteil
New Series 1112h

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

107

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals


Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

D II = 2.22. 10-3m2s-1

765
834
871
934
980.5
983
1032
1093
1131
1133
871
980.5
1032
1131

5gFe.
single crystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning

20

88N2

1.75 . IO-l2 m2 s-l


4.70 . IO-l2 m2 s-l
3.70 IO- m2 s-l
5.5...7.1.10-11m2s-1
6.1 . 10-l m2 s-l
1.68 . IO-lo m2 s-l
2.25 . 10-l m2 s-l
2.2~~~3.6~10-0m2s-
2.85 . 1O-1o m2 s-l
D I =1f~.1O-~m~s-~
.
1.2. lo- ms11
3.4. IO- rn2sm1
9.9 .10-l m2 s-l
I c 1.2 .103
Ic 37
11
c 4.104

< 873
> 923
860...990

5sco, 6OCo;

20

81Kl

63Ni;
single crystals of unspecified
orientation;
99.93%;
lathe sectioning
63Ni;
single crystals;
crystal bar Zr;
lathe sectioning;
Ni diffusion in Zr alloys also
studied

20

72Hl

20

87H2

64CU;
single crystals;
99.95%;
lathe sectioning

19

75Hl

74Tl

89Tl

19

89Vl

19

71Hl

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Matrix: zirconium (a-Z+, continued


Fe

co

183.4
145.8
191.2

single crystals;
99.7 and 99.9%;
microtome sectioning

D = 1.2 - 10-11 m2 s-1


4.10-11 m2s-1
9.10-l m2s-1
8. lo-11 m2s-

971
1023
1074
1103

D = 1.6 . 1O-o m2 s-1


D= 6. 1()-0m2s-
II

1123
1123

cu

I c 0.25
11
c 0.40

154.5
148.7

888...1132
888...1132

Ag

5.1 . 10-3

187.1

1037... 1120

I c 5.9 . 10-4
11
c 6.7 1O-2

173.7
212.3

2.2
6.8. 10-2

245.0
210.0

D = 1.3 . lo-l5

m2 s-l

Ni

Au

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

oAg~
polycrystals;
99.99%;
serial sectioning
1063...1118
11am-k
1063...1118
single crystals;
99.996%;
grinder sectioning
938...1117 (SC) OrnAg;
895 . . .I1 17 (PC) single crystals (99.93%);
polycrystals (99.993% and
99.96%);
microtome and grinder sectioning
1113

rg8Au;
single crystal of unspecified
orientation;
99.93%;
lathe sectioning
Le Claire

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

108
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmo!-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1099

65Zn;
single crystal of unspecified
orientation;

19

7lHl

74Hl

19

85R2

19

59Gl

19

74Hl

19

67Vl

Matrix: zirconium (a-Zr), continued


Zn

D=2.8~10-5m2s-

99.93%;
lathe sectioning
Al

D=3.4~10-17m2s-

1108

26Al;
single crystal of unspecified
orientation;

99.93%;
17

280.0

873...1073

lathe sectioning
Al (ion-implanted);
polycrystals;

99.8%;
nuclear reaction analysis
Sn

1.0. 10-e

92.1

113c&.

u-phase

polyc;ystals;

99...99.9%;
residual activity
Sb

D= l.4~~~2.6~t0-7m2s-1

1120

r**Sb;
single crystal of unspecified
orientation;

99.93%;
lathe sectioning
s

8.9

185.1

870...1080

J5S;
polycrystals;

99.94%;
serial sectioning
g-zirconium
Zr

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

19

Rb

8.8. 10-4

153.7

1153...1303

Rb;
polycrystals;
out-diffusion method

19

68Sl

Be

8.33.10-2

130.2

1188...1573

Be;
polycrystals;
99.7 and 99.99%;
residual activity

19

69P1,
76Tl

Ce

1153...1873

14Ce;
polycrystals;
high purity;
residual activity;
two-exponential tit:
07 = 3.16. 10m6m*s-,
Q, = 173.3 kJmo!-,
0: = 42.2* 10e4 m*s-r,
Q, = 310.2 kJ mol-

20

68P2

h Claire

Land&-B6mstein
New Series III/26

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Matrix: zirconium (fi-Zr), continued


Hf

Temperature
range
K
1190... 1943

109

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

81Hf.

20

87H3

polyc&stals;
99.9 and 99.99%;
microtome sectioning;
two-exponential fit to the [87H3]
data: 0: = 2.8 . 10mgm2 s-l
Q, = 107.6 kJmol-
0: = 0.30. 10e4 m2sm1
Q, = 251.3 kJmol-1
V

Nb

7.59. 1o-3
0.32

191.8
239.5

1143...1473
1473... 1673

8.9. 1O-5

116.5

1166... 1480

1155...2031

7.8. 1O-4

153.2

1503 ... 1908

1.23. 1O-4

131.9

1167... 1433

Ta

5.0. 10-5

113.0

1173...1473

Cr

4.17.10-3

134.0

1173...1473

48~.

90Nl

20

68Al

82Pl

g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.94% ;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential tit to the [63Fl]
data: 0: = 2.7 . IO- m2 s-l
Q, = 116.9 kJmol-
0: = 0.26. 10m4m2se1
Q, = 238.4 kJmol-;
self-diffusion in j3-Zr also studied
g5Nb;
polycrystals;
residual activity
g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.77%;
serial sectioning

20

63Fl

policrystals;
99.84%;
residual activity
48V;
polycrystals;
99.8%;
lathe sectioning;
V and Zr diffusion in Zr - V
alloys also studied

9ONl

69Fl

73T2

Ta;
polycrystals;
99.6 %;
residual activity

20

58Bl

51Cr;
polycrystals;
99.7 %;
residual activity

67Pl

(continued)

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III126

Le Claire

310
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals


Do

10-4mZs-

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

51Cr.
polydrystals;
99.92..99.999%;
serial sectioning
sCr.
polydrystals;
high purity;
lathe sectioning;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

20

79Nl

8921

ggMo;
polycrystals;
99.7%;
residual activity
ggMo;
polycrystals;
high purity;
residual activity;
two-exponential fit:
07 = 1.99. lo- ms-,
Q, = 147.4 kJ mol-,
0: = 2.63 . 10e4 mz s-l,
Q2 = 285.9 kJ mol-

67Pl

20

68P2

20

67Pl

20

73Tl

79P2

Matrix: zirconium (BZr), continued


Cr

MO

7.10-3

142.3

1187.+.1513

3.1

219.0

1630...1910

3.63.10-*
1.29

185.9
243.7

1173...1473
1628...1833

1173...1873

0.41

233.6

1173...1523

1SSw.

polyc;ystals;
99.7 % ;
surface decrease
Mn

Fe

5.6. 1O-3

138.2

1225... 1420

5.38. IO-

140.6

1173...1473

9.1 . 10-3

113.0

1173..+1673

7.4. 10-J

108.0

1176...1886

54Mn;
polycrystals;
99.5 and 99.999%;
residual activity
54Mn;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
serial sectioning;
Zr and Mn diffusion in Zr-Mn
alloys also studied

Fe;
polycrystals;
99.7%;
residual activity
5gFe.
20
polycrystals;
high purity;
lathe sectioning;
Co and Fe diffusion in Zr-Nb
alloys and isotope effect for Co
in j3-Zr also studied

67Pl

87Hl

(continued)

Le Claire

Landolt-BCmstein
New Series 11126

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.4 Impurity diffusion in titanium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Matrix: zirconium @-Zr), continued


Fe
6.2. 10-3110.9

co

Ag

Sn

111

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1557... 1950

5gFe;
polycrystals;
high purity;
lathe sectioning;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

89Zl

6Oco;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
57co.
polyciystals;
high purity;
lathe sectioning
6OCo;
polycrystals;
high purity;
lathe sectioning;
electro-mobility and effective
valence also determined

20

69Kl

87HI

89Zl

Ag;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
serial sectioning and residual
activity
llomAg*
polycryitals;
high-purity;
lathe sectioning;
two-exponential Iit:
0: = 4.2. 10m8m2 s-l,
Q, = 132.3 kJmol-,
0: = 190.5 . lop4 m2 s-l,
Q, = 324.4 kJ mol- 1;
isotope effect also studied

74TI

I9

82Ml

I9

59GI

19

7OVl

19

67VI

3.26. 1O-3

91.4

1193 ... 1878

3.3. 10-3

92.0

1193.*. 1741

4.7. 10-3

96.5

1600... 1950

5.7. 10-4

136.9

1224... 1463

1199... 1988

5.0. 10-3

163.3

P-phase

113&.

polycjstals;
99...99.9%;
residual activity
0.33

139.4

1223++.1473

32~.

pol;crystals;
99.94% ;
residual activity
27.6

162.4

1428 ... 1523

35s.

policrystals;
99.94%;
serial sectioning

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals

112
Do

10-4mZs-

kJmo!-

Matrix: zirconium (&Zr), continued


111.4
8.15.10-s
U

Temperature
range
K
1223...1573

1223... 1773

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

23su.

7OPl

20

71Fl

polycrystals;
99.61%;
residual activity
23qJ.

polycjstals;
serial sectioning;
two-exponential fit:
D=30.1()-10mZs-1
Q: = 82.5 kJmol-I,

0: = 3.6 * 10v5 mz s-l,


Q2 = 242.8 kJ mol-
Matrix: hafnium (Hf)
Hf

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

21

Cr

0.14

213.9

1183+..2173
(CL-and g-Hf)

5Cr.,
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity

21

76Dl

co

5.3. 10-3

95.5

1106...1798
W-W

6Oco;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
residual activity

21

76Dl

AI

170

357.0

1023...1173

AI (ion implanted);
polycrystals;
97% Hf + 3% Zr;
nuclear reaction analysis

21

85R2

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals


V, Nb, Ta
Matrix: vanadium (V)
v

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

22

Ti

0.1
34.1

285.0
363.9

1373...1623
1623...2076

4gTi ;
polycrystals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning;
V and Ti diffusion in V-Ti
alloys also studied

22

68M1,
78Pl

Zr

81

369.2

1578...1883

g5Zr.
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
lathe sectioning;
V and Zr diffusion in V-Zr
alloys also studied

22

84Pl

Le Claire

Landolt-BCmsIein
New Series III126

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

113

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1371..*2079

82Ta.

22

77Pl

Matrix: vanadium (V), continued


Ta

0.244

301.4

polycljstals;
99.9%;
grinder sectioning
Cr

9.54.10-3

270.5

1173..*1473

51Cr;
polycrystals;
99.8%;
residual activity

22

64Wl

Fe

0.6

295.2

1115...1444

22

65P3

0.373
274

297.3
385.9

1233... 1618
1688...2090

Fe;
single and polycrystals;
99.9 and 99.99% ;
lathe and chemical sectioning;
self-diffusion also studied
55Fe, Fe;
single crystals;
zone refined;
lathe and chemical sectioning;
two-exponential fit to the [68Cl]
data: 0: = 2.6. 10m6ms1
Q, = 269.9 kJmol-
0: = 0.11 m2se1
Q2 = 411.0 kJmol-i;
isotope effect also studied
Fe, Fe;
single and polycrystals;
detailed specification of purity in
[81Al];
sectioning and electron microprobe analysis

68Cl

2.48
31.7

318.7
356.6

1473... 1823
1823. ..2088

co

1.12

295.0

1298... 2126

Ni

0.18

266.2

Al

8.4. lo-

2.45. lo-

90Nl

22

81Al

6oco*
single crystals;
99.9 % ;
grinder sectioning

22

75Pl

1175... 1948

63Ni;
single and polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
residual activity

22

86Pl

268.2

1273..a 1773

Al;
polycrystals;
X-ray diffraction method

22

85Ml

208.5

1473 .. 1723

32~.

22

7OVl

22

69Vl

po&rystals;
99.8 %;
residual activity
3.1 . 10-Z

142.4

1320... 1520

35s.

po&rystals;
99.8%;
residual activity

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals

114
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

235~.

22

71F2

Matrix: vanadium (V), continued


LJ

1.10-4

257.1

1373.e.1773

polycjstals.
residual ac&ity
Matrix: niobium (Nb)
Nb

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

23

873

Li (implanted);
nuclear reaction analysis (?)

74Bl

76Bl

23

71Gl

23

7OP3

23

70Rl

Zr;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
electron microprobe analysis
g5Zr;
single crystals;
99.97%;
grinder sectioning

23

70Rl

23

78El

48v.

23

68Al

23

70Rl

23

65Ll

Li

D = 1.7. lo-l6 m2s-

Sr

11.7

479.8

x 2040 ..* 2500 out-diffusion of snallation-uroduced *Sr from polycrystalline


foil

1.5. 10-3

232.8

1473...1873

Ti

Zr

Ta

9.9. 10-2

364.0

1267es.1765

0.4

370.5

1898.s.2348

0.47

364.0

1855...2357

0.85

379.4

1923...2523

2.21

355.9

1273..-1673

0.47

377.0

1898...2348

1.0

415.7

1376...2346

91y.

singie crystals;
99.8 and 99.9%;
residual activity
44Ti.
sing;e crystals;
99.98% ;
anodizing and stripping
Ti;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
electron microprobe analysis

singie crystals;
99.98%;
residual activity
48V, v.
polycjstals;
99.9%;
surface decreaseand electron
microprobe analysis
182Ta.

singlecrystals;
99.76% ;
lathe, grinder and anodizingstripping sectioning;
self-diffusion also studied

Le Claire

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-l

115

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

51Cr.
singlk crystals;
> 99.98%;
anodizing-stripping sectioning
Cr;
polycrystals;
99.96%;
anodizing-stripping sectioning

23

69P2

69P3

MO;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
electron microprobe analysis
MO.
polycl;stals .
residual actibity

23

70Rl

23

73Fl

Matrix: niobium (Nb), continued


Cr

MO

0.3

349.6

1226... 1708

0.13

337.5

1220... 1766

92

511.0

1988. ..2455

1.3. 10-z

350.4

1973..+2298

5.10-4

383.9

2073 . . 2473

185~.

23

69F2

polyciystals;
99.8 %;
residual activity
W;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
electron microprobe analysis

23

70Rl

23

62Pl

23

77Al

7.104

653.1

2175...2443

1.5

325.3

1663..2373

0.14

294.3

1663...2168

Ru

29.3

460.1*

2026 . . .2342

lo3Ru;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
grinder sectioning and residual
activity;
* Do and Q values calculated by
present authors from tabulated
D values

79S2

co

0.74

295.2

1834...2325

23

62Pl

4.18 . IO-*

257.2

1347...2173

6OCo;
polycrystals;
99.74%;
residual activity analyzed by
autoradiography
6OCo;
single crystals;
99.98%;
grinder sectioning

23

76P2

Fe

Fe.
polydrystals;
99.74%;
residual activity analyzed by
autoradiography
Fe, Fe;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
lathe and grinder sectioning and
electron microprobe analysis

(continued)
Land&Biimstein
New Series III/26

L43Claire

Solute

Matrix:

co

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals

116

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1580... 1920

co 6oco-

23

77Al

63Ni ;
polycrystals;
99.82%;
residual activity
63Ni, Ni;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
grinder sectioning and electron
microprobe analysis

23

72Al

23

77Al

niobium (Nh), continued

0.11

274.7

single cryLa!s;
99.9%;
grinder sectioning and electron
microprobe analysis
9.3

336.6

1261 . ..I519

7.7.10-2

264.2

1433...2168

Pd

2.38

399.5 *

1965... 2341

Pd;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
electron microprobe analysis;
* Do and Q values calculated by
present authors from tabulated
D values

7982

cu

D=3.71~10-14m2s-1

1829
1909

cu;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
electron microprobe analysis

23

77Al

Ni

1.02. IO-l3 m2s-

Zn

5.89

411.3

x 2000 .** 2600 out-diffusion of spallation-produced 65Zn from


polycrystalline foil

76Bl

Al

450

430.1

1700...2000

out-diffusion method

78Nl

Sn

0.14

330.3

2123...2663

l13Sn;
polycrystals;
99.85%;
lathe sectioning

23

65A3

5.1 * 10-2

215.6

1573...2073

32~.

23

68Vl

23

68V2

23

65Pl

7lF2

single crystals;
99.9%;
residual activity
2.6. IO

306.0

1370...1770

35s.

single and polycrystals;


99.6%;
serial sectioning
8.9. lO-2

321.5

1773... 2273

235~.

polycrystals;
99.55% ;
residual activity
5.10-6

321.1

1993..+2373

235~;

polycrystals;
details of method not specified

L.e Claire

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.5 Impurity diffusion in vanadium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1
Matrix: tantalum (Ta)
Ta
Rb

2.9. 10-S

117

Method/Remarks

Fig.

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

24

235.0

x 1700. . .3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced Rb from polycrystalline


foil

77Bl

i-

Ref.

cs

8.3. 1O-5

237.0

e 1700. . .3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced Cs from polycrystalline


foil

77Bl

Ba

0.21

334.0

z 1700. . .3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced Ba from polycrystalline


foil

77Bl

Sr

4.3. 10-2

338.0

E 1700 . . .3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced Sr from polycrystalline


foil

77Bl

0.12

302.3

1473 .. 1773

24

71Gl

77Bl

91y.

singie crystals;
99.8 to 99.9%;
residual activity

Hf

1.6. 1O-2

352.0

z 1700. . .3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced Hf from polycrystalline


foil

Nb

0.23

413.2

1194..*2757

g5Nb;
24
single and polycrystals;
99.7 % ;
lathe, grinder and anodic stripping
sectioning;
two-exponential fit to the [65P2]
data: 0: = 2.6 . 10m6m2 s-l
Q, = 382.7 kJmol-
D!j!= 14 . 10e4 m2 s-l
Q, = 511.4 kJmol-;
self-diffusion also studied

65P2

90Nl

MO

1.8. 1O-3

339.1

2023 ... 2493

ggMo;
polycrystals;
residual activity

24

68Bl

Fe

0.505

298.9

$203... 1513

24

55Vl

5.9. 10-2

329.9

2053 ... 2330

method and purity not specified;


polycrystals
Fe.
polydrystals;
lathe sectioning

24

76A2

6OCo.
24
polycjrstals;
lathe sectioning;
* values estimated from graphical
representation of results

76A2

co

D = 1.4 +IO-l3 m2 se1


8.0. lo-l3 m2 s-l

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

2128*
2330*

Le Claire

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals

118
Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: tantalum (Ta), continued


Ni

D = 1.1 . lo-l3 m2se1


1.14. lo-l2 m2s-

Al

1.5

306.2

As

0.12

346.0

0.01

293.1

24
63Ni;
polycrystals;
residual activity;
* values estimated from graphical
representation of results
1750~~~2050 out-diffusion method
w 1700... 3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced As from polycrystalline
foil

2053*
2330*

1970...2110

35s.

76A2

78Nl
77Bl

24

69Vl

24

71F2

24

77Sl

pol;crystals;
99.0%;
residual activity
7.6 . lo-

353.4

1873.s.2423

1.03.10-6

117.2

2186...2530

235U;
polycrystals;
residual activity
U (nat.);
polycrystals;
99.9997%;
diffusion profiles deduced from
fission fragment radiography

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals


Cr, MO, W
Matrix: chromirml (Cr)
Cr
v

3s1*

419.0*

seechapter 2 on self-diffustion

25

1595...2041

48v.

25

76M2

singie crystals;
99.998% ;
grinder sectioning;
* Do and Q values calculated
from tabulated D values;
isotope effect of Cr self-diffusion
also studied
MO

2.7. 1O-3

242.8

1373...1693

25
ggMo;
polycrystals;
residual activity;
possible grain boundary influence

6362

Fe

0.47
1.1 . lo+*

332.0
169.1*

1518...1686
1256...1518

Fe;
polycrystals;
residual activity;
* possible grain boundary
influence

25

64Wl

Le Claire

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix : molybdenum (MO)


MO

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

26

Li

0.65

141.0

1193...1243

75Wl

0.01

470.6

1570...1970

permeation through polycrystalline membrane;


possible grain boundary influence
Li (nat.);
single crystals;
out-diffusion

26

77Ll

Rb

27.5

555.2

2200 . ..2870

out-diffusion of spallation produced 84Rb from polycrystalline foil

76B3

Sr

75.8

587.2

2200 . . .2870

out-diffusion of spallation-produced %r from polycrystalline foil

76B3

1.8. lO-4

214.8

1473.+. 1873

9ly.

26

71Gl

76B3

singie crystals;
99.8...99.9%;
residual activity
out-diffusion of spallation-produced Y from polycrystalline foil

9.33

432.5

2200 . . .2870

Zr

56.2

503.2

2200 ... 2870

out-diffusion of spallation-produced 88Zr from polycrystalline foil

76B3

2.9

473.1

1803 ... 1998

V;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method and
electron microprobe analysis

26

72Rl

Nb

14

452.6

2123 . . 2623

26

65A4

2.9

569.4

1998. ..2453

26

72Rl

1.7. 10-Z

379.3

1973...2373,

g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning
Nb;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method and
electron microprobe analysis
Nb;
polycrystals;
residual activity

26

73Fl

3.5. 10-4

347.5

1993..-2423

26

68Bl

1.9

473.1

2098 ... 2449

*Ta;
polycrystals;
residual activity
Ta;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method and
electron microprobe analysis
ls2Ta; polycrystals;
grinder sectioning

26

72Rl

Ta

D = 1.09 . lo-l4 m2 s-l

Land&Biimstein
New Series III/26

2373

Le Claire

79Ml

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals

120

Do

30-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

51Cr.
polydrystals.
residual acti;ity
Cr.
singlk crystals;
99.8%;
details of method not specified

26

68Bl

26

71Ml

1ssw.

67Al

68Bl

72Rl

26

74El

Matrix: molybdenum (MO), continued


Cr

2.5. 10-4

226.1

1273... 1773

1.88

342.5

1273...1423

1.7

460.5 *

1973... 2533

poly&stals;
serial sectioning;
* Do and Q values from data
of [67Al] and [64Bl]
4.5. 10-4

324.5

1973... 2423

165W.

poly&stals.
residual activity
W;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method and
electron microprobe analysis;
four data points
w;
single crystals;
electron microprobe analysis

140

569.4

2093 ..+2453

3.6

515.8

2173...2541

Re

9.7 * 10-2

396.5

1973..2373

ls6Re;
polycrystals;
serial sectioning

26

64B2

Fe

0.15

346.2

1273e.a1623

73Nl

3.7 * 10-3

291.8

1200..- 1478

3.0

418.7

2213...2603

18

446.7

2123...2632

324.5

1273+.. 1773

26
Fe;
polycrystals;
99.96%;
residual activity
5gFe.
poly&ystals;
99.96 and 99.99% ;
residual activity;
possible grain boundary influence
6OCo;
polycrystals;
autoradiographic analysis
6OCo;
26
single and polycrystals;
99.98%;
serial sectioning and autoradiographic analysis;
rcilso [65A3]
26
polycrystals.
residual act&ity
63Ni;
single crystals;
residual activity

7lM2

co

Ni

D = 2.4~~~3.2~10-16m2s-1 1623

26

74Ll

62Pl
65A4

68Bl

Landok-B6mstein
New Series Ill/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

121

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: molybdenum (MO), continued


Zn

0.55

387.7

2200 ... 2870

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Zn from polycrystalline


foil

76B3

0.19

337.0

2273 ... 2493

32~.

26

68Vl

26

68V3

74Ll

single crystals;
99.97% ;
residual activity
S

32*

422.9 *

2493 ... 2743

35s.

single crystals;
99.97% ;
layerwise radiometric analysis
(erfc solution);
* values reassessedby present
authors
3.4. 10-2

297.3

1238... 1443

35s.

pol&ystals .
residual ac&ity ;
possible grain-boundary influence
Se

2.19. lo3

639.0

2200 ... 2870

out-diffusion of spallation-produced 15Sefrom polycrystalline foil

76B3

7.6. 1O-3

319.9

1773.e.2273

235U;
polycrystals;
99.98%;
residual activity

26

65Pl

1.3.10-6

316.5

2073 ... 2373

235~.

26

71F2

polycjrstals;
details of method not specified
Matrix: tungsten (IV)
w

Ba

10.7

619.0

w 2400.9*3100 out-diffusion of spallation-produced Ba from polycrystalline


foil

6.7. 1O-3

285.1

1473... 1873

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

91y.

singie crystals;
99.8 ... 99.9%;
residual activity
out-diffusion of spallation-produced Y from polycrystalline
foil

27
-

76B2

27

71Gl

76B2

1.8. 1O-3

342.0

2400... 3100

Ce

2.88. 1O-2

426.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Ce from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Pm

6.2. 1O-2

440.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Pm from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

122
Solute

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals


Do

10-4m2s-*

kJmo!-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: tungsten (W), continued


Eu

7.6. 1O-3

390.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Eu from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Gd

0.19

466.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Gd from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Tm

1.5.10-2

406.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Tm from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Yb

5.1 . 10-2

435.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Yb from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Lu

7.8. 1O-3

390.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Lu from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Hf

1.5. 10-Z

440.0

2400...3100

out-diffusion of spallation-produced Hf from polycrystalline


foil

76B2

Nb

3.01

576.1

1578...2640

69P4

Ta

3.05

585.7

1578...2648

6.2

601.6

2102...2906

g5Nb;
27
single and polycrystals;
sectioning by anodic stripping;
self-diffusion also studied
182Ta.
27
singleand polycrystals;
sectioning by anodic stripping;
self-diffusion also studied
**Ta;
27
single crystals;
residual resistivity ratio 2 ... 5 . I04;
grinder and anodic sectioning

Cr

0.85

545.9

1909.*. 2658

89Kl

MO

0.05

506.6

2273 ... 2673

0.3

423.0

1973.s.2373

0.15

529.7

2281 es.2528

1.4

567.3

1909...2658

Cr;
27
single crystals;
residual resistivity ratio 2 .. .5. 104;
SIMS analysis;
preliminary data in [87Kl];
isotope effect also studied
ggMo;
polycrystals;
details of method not specified
MO; polycrystals;
residual activity
MO; single crystals;
electron microprobe analysis;
three data points only
MO; single crystals;
27
residual resistivity ratio 2 ... 5 . 104;
SIMS analysis;
isotope effect also studied

Le Claire

69P4

84Al

67L2
68Bl
74El
89KI

Landolt-B6mstein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

123

3.2.6 Impurity diffusion in chromium group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-i

Fig.

Ref.

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

27
ls3Re,84Re.
>
single crystals;
99.99% ;
grinder sectioning
186Re;
27
polycrystals;
details of method not specified
*jRe;
27
single crystals;
residual resistivity ratio 2.. .5 . 104;
grinder and anodic sectioning;
similar data in [82Al]

65A5

Matrix: tungsten (W), continued


275

681.6

2939...3501

19.5

590.3

2373 . ..2673

4.0

597.0

2110...2900

Fe

1.4 10-z

276.3

1213...1513

Fe;
polycrystals;
details of method not specified

27

55Vl

OS

0.64

538.4

2105...2928

191@.

27

84Al

Re

67L2
84Al

single crystals.
residual resistivity ratio 2 .. .5 . 104;
grinder and anodic sectioning
co

4.3
1.3. 10-6

418.0
210.0

1365... 1533
1673... 2324

S7Co
single crystals;
99.98%;
grinder sectioning

27

89Ll

Ir

0.32

506.2

2007 . . .2960

ig21r;
27
single crystals;
residual resistivity ratio 2 . . .5 . 104;
grinder and anodic sectioning

84Al

Ni

D = fj. lo-l5 mzsel

1913

electron microprobe analysis of


W-Ni layer grown during
liquid phase sintering of
W-Ni

27

79M2

26.8

2153...2453

32p.

27

7811

27

7211

27

68Sl

71F2

77Sl

510.0

single crystals;
99.99%;
in-diffusion
S

2.17. 1O-5

292.2

2153...2453

35s.

single crystals;
residual activity
U

1.8. lo-

389.4

2245 . . .3000

out-diffusion method;
polycrystals;
99.99%

2.10-3

433.3

1973...2473

235u.

3.34.10-4

Land&-Bihstein
New Series III/26

259.2

2407 . . .2608

polycrystals;
details of method not specified
U (nat.);
polycrystals;
99.9998%;
fission fragment autoradiographic analysis

Le Claire

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.7, 8 Impurity diffusion in Mn, Fe group metals

124
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

3.2.7 Impurity diffusion in manganese group metals


Mn, Tc, Re
There are no reported measurements of impurity diffusion in the manganesegroup metals.

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals


Fe, Ru, OS
Matrix: iron (Fe)
The various allotropic modifications of Fe are denoted in the following way (Tc: Curie temperature, T,:
melting temperature):
r-f-Fe
r-p-Fe
y-Fe
&Fe

ferromagnetic bee iron


paramagnetic bee iron
fee iron
bee iron

T, = 1043 K)
(T < T,;
(T, v > T > T,; T. = 1183 K)
(T,, > T > 6,;; T,:; = 1663 Kj
Vi, > T> Ty.s; T,= 1809K)
.

.I

Fe

Be

5.34

218.1

6862

0.1

241.2

28
1073... 1773 Be;
(u and &Fe) polycrystals;
99.9%;
residual activity;
u-phase stabilized by x 1 wt% Be
28
1373...1623
Be;
polycrystals;
We)
99.9%;
residual activity

9.104

473.1

1438... 1593
(y-Fe)

29

65Sl

3.6. 10

407.4

1371... 1626
We)

rssHf;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
residual activity
18lHf.
polycjstals;
99.98%;
residual activity

29

70Bl

0.75 *

264.2

1393...1653
We)

V;
polycrystals;
99.98% ;
residual activity;
* value reassessedby present
authors

70Bl

124

274.0

1058...1172
(u-p-Fe)
1210+..1607
(NW
1433-e. 1563
We)

4av.

29

87Gl

65Sl

Hf

Nb

0.62

273.5

530

344.6

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

30

68Gl

pol&ystals;
99.98%;
microtome sectioning
9%;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
residual activity

Le Claire

Land&-BBmstcin
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute Do

125

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals

Q
10-4m2s-

Temperature
range
kJmol-

Method/Remarks

1221... 1474
We)

g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
serial sectioning
g5Nb;
polycrystals;
99.97%;
microtome sectioning

Fig.

Ref.

83Kl

85Gl

Matrix: iron (Fe), continued


Nb

0.75

264.0

50.2

252.0

993
1025
(u-f-Fe)
1059..+ 1162

0.83

266.5

I2!)--:$4
...

D = 1.0. lo-l6 m2sm1


5.4. lo-l6 m2 s-l

(y-Fe)
1070... 1150
(a-p-Fe)
1233.a- 1669
We)
1043... 1150
(a-p-Fe)

8.52

250.8

10.8

291.8

90

271.0

37.3

885... 1174
267.4
. (1 + 0.133s2)*
(a-Fe)

MO

0.3

205.1

1023... 1123
(a-Fe)

Mn

1.49

233.6

0.35

219.8

0.16

261.7

0.11*

251.6

973 ... 1033


(a-f-Fe)
1073...1173
(u-p-Fe)
1193... 1553
6-W
1082... 1174
(a-p-Fe)

0.76

224.6

Cr

(a-p-Fe
and &Fe)

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

29
29

51Cr.
polydrystals;
99.98%;
residual activity
51Cr.
poly&ystals;
serial sectioning
51Cr*
poly&ystal (6 mm grain size);
serial sectioning;
*s: ratio of spontaneous
magnetization at T[K] to
that at OK.
MO;
polycrystals;
pure Fe;
residual activity and surface
decrease;
possible grain boundary
influence
54Mn;
polycrystals;
99.97%;
residual activity

70Bl

29

89Hl

9OLl

66Bl

29

70Nl

29

54Mn;
29
single crystals;
99.99.**99.999%;
microtome sectioning;
* D" refers to purest Fe investigated (Do increases with impurity content)
combined data of [73K2] (diffu- 29
sion couple; polycrystals;
1719.a. 1767 K; electron
microprobe analysis; D independent of concentration
for 0.. .4 % Mn) and [70Nl]

7212

73K2

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals

126

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

30

63BI

29

63B2

64SI

30

6651

Matrix: iron (Fe), continued


co

118

285.9

5.5

256.2

9.5

260.8

7.19

260.4

6.38

257.1

6.38

257.1

1.0

301.9

2.9. 10-2

247.4

2120. IO-** m* s- l
D=358~10-23m2s-
2.35 . IO-** m* s-l
1.31 . IO-* m* s-l
3.28 . lo-** m* s-l
1.91 f IO-*O m*s-
5.54.1O-*O m* s-
7.46. IO-* m* se1
1.85. IO-l9 m2sP1
2.90. IO-l9 m* s-l
3.82. lo- m* s-l
6.40.10- m* s-
9.04. lo-l9 m*s-l
1.84. 10-8m2s-1
1.83. lo- rn*s-l
9.30. IO-* m* s-l
1.33 . IO- m* s-l
1.80 . IO- m* s-

6Oco;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity;
influence of magnetic transition
on Co diffusion also studied
6OCo;
1669...1775
polycrystals;
(&Fe)
lathe sectioning and residual
activity
1103~~~1161 6OCo;
polycrystals;
(a-p-Fe)
99.97%;
serial sectioning
6OCo;
956...1000
single crystals;
(a-f-Fe)
99.95%;
1081...1157
residual activity
(a-p-Fe)
6OCo;
1702...1794
polycrystals;
(&Fe)
99.95% ;
lathe sectioning
1409... 1633 thin film and diffusion couple
method;
We)
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis
1233... 1493 6Oco;
polycrystals;
We)
99.9 % ;
residual activity
single
To, crystals;
6OCo.
785.5
823
1044...1177
(u-p-Fe)

824
857.5
873.5
907
926
934
945
960
963
976
976
991
993
1021
1034
1036
(u-f-Fe)

29

29

69B2,
61SI

29

75H2

29, 30 82M2

99.997% ;
sputter sectioning;
graphical data in [82M2];
numerical D-values tabulated in
[84Kl];
deviations from Arrhenius behaviour due to influence of
magnetic transition studied in
detail (see Fig. 30)

(continued)

Le Claire

Land&BBmstein
New Series III,/26

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

127
Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: iron (Fe), continued

co

D = 5.30. lo-l7 ms-


8.48 . lo-? m2 s-l
1.01 . IO-l6 m2 s-l
3.68 . lo-l6 m2 s-l
5.60. lo-l6 m2se1
1.68. 10-15m2s-1
-

29, 30

1058.5
1072
1081
1105.5
1122
1163.5
(u-p-Fe)

6Oco;

30

89Hl

29

6lHl

polycrystals;
-(a-f-Fe
and a-p-Fe) sputter sectioning;
graphical data only;
deviations from Arrhenius behaviour due to influence of
magnetic transition studied in
detail
Ni

1.4

245.8

873 . ..953
(a-f-Fe)

1.3

234.5

1083 ... 1173


(a-p-Fe)

0.77

280.5

1203... 1323
We)

D = 3.75 . lo-
9.96. IO-*
2.32. lo-l7
4.70. IO-l7

m2 s-l
m2 s-l
m2 s-l
m2 s-l

9.9

259.2

3.0

314.0

972.6
996.7
1013.2
1032.4
(a-f-Fe)
1054... 1173
(a-p-Fe)
1409 ... 1633
(y-Fe)

1.09

296.8

1426... 1560
We)

63Ni.

single crystals;
99.97% ;
residual activity and surface
decrease
63Ni;
single and polycrystals;
99.97%;
residual activity
63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.97%;
residual activity
(j3Ni;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity

29

29

29

63Bl

29
Ni;
thin film and diffusion couple
method;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis;
Do and 0 from combined data
of [69;2] and [59Ml]
63Ni.
9
polycrystals;
residual activity

29

69B2

29

78Hl
(continued)

Land&-Bijmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals

128

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

788
788
833.2
833.2
877.8
877.8
922.5
968.5
1013.5
(u-f-Fe)
1048
1088
1123.3
1160
(a-p-Fe)

j3Ni;
polycrystals (3.5 mm grain size);
99.999%;
sputter sectioning;
deviations from Arrhenius behaviour due to influence of
magnetic transition

29

89Cl

63Ni.
polydrystals (3.5 mm grain size);
99.999% ;
sputter and microtome sectioning

29

lo3Pd;
29
polycrystals;
99.97% ;
residual activity (and grinder sectioning);
self-diffusion in Pd -Fe alloys
also studied

Matrix: iron (Fe), continued


Ni

D=1.85-10-21 mzswl
1.09. 10m2 m2se1
1.84. 10mzom2sb1
8.69 . lo-* m2 s-l
1.20. lo-l9 m2se1
9.59 . 10V20m2 s-l
7.09. lo-l9 m2 s-l
3.86.10-* m2 s-
3.19 .10-l m2 s-l

D= 1.55*10-16m2s-1
5.69 * lo-l6 m2s-
1.96. lo-l5 m2s-
4.82 . lo- m2 s-l
Pd

0.41

280.9

1373..*1573
We)

Pt

2.7

296.0

1233.e.1533
(y-Fe)

Cu

1.8

295.0

1183...1293
(~-Fe)

D = 1.8 . 1O-15 m2 s-l


2.2. lo- m2 s-
5.1 . lo-l5 m2 s-

1127.5
1140
1174.6
(u-p-Fe)
1558...1641
We)

2.86

306.7

D = 4.81 11O-18 m2s01


9.55.10-*
1.78.10-
4.10.10-
8.26.10-l

m2sw1
m2sw1
m2 s-l
m2 s-l

300

283.9

0.19

272.6

4.16

305.0

963
978
993
1008
1024
(a-f-Fe)
1045...1173
(a-p-Fe)
1198...1323
(y-Fe)
1378... 1483
(y-Fe)

193mpt;

77Fl

29

73M3

28

66S1

28

68Rl

polycrystals;
residual activity
Cu;
polycrystals;
electron microprobe analysis
64cu.
single or bicrystals;
99.91%;
grinder sectioning
64Cu;
single crystals;
99.91% ;
grinder sectioning
Cu; single crystals;
99.999%
electron microprobe analysis;
solubility of Cu also determined

28

28

7782

28
Cu; polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis
64Cu; polycrystals;
99.96%;
residual activity

Le Claire

28
28

78Ml

Landok-B6mstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

129

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: iron (Fe), continued


1.95 * 103

288.9

1021... 1161
(a-p-Fe)

230

278.0

973 ... 1033


(cl-f-Fe)

38

259.2

1053... 1173
(ct-p-Fe)

D = 9.58 . IO-*
2.69.10-l
5.49.10-l
1.58 . lo-l6

m2 s-l

m2 s-l
m2 s-l
m2 s-l

Au;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity

31.0

261.2

972.1
997.8
1012.8
1034.4
(a-f-Fe)
1055...1174
(cl-p-Fe)

Zn

60

262.6

1072+*.1169
(u-p-Fe)

Zn;
single crystals;
residual resistivity ratio > 3000;
electron microprobe analysis;
chemical diffusion below Tc also
measured

28

81R1

Al

1.8

228.2

1003... 1673

Al;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
X-ray diffraction method;
no influence of a-y transition
observed (?)

83Al

Si

1.7

229.1

28

89Bl

0.07

243.0

x 1100... 1173 Si;


(a-p-Fe)
polycrystals;
1273... 1463 electron microprobe analysis on
Fe/Fe 1 . . .3.3 % diffusion
We)
couples;
D values from extrapolation of
chemical diffusion

5.4

232.4

28

72T2

&

Au

Sn

973 ... 1033


(a-f-Fe)
1073.+.1183
(a-p-Fe)
1300... 1510
We)

2.4

221.9

9.10-4

175.8

6.1 . lo4

316.4

896... 1023
(a-f-Fe)

0.845

261.7

1197...1653
(y-Fe)

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Ag;
polycrystals;
serial sectioning
11om&
polycryitals;
99.97 %;
residual activity

28

71Bl

28

73El

28
28

63Bl

28

l13Sn.

polycljstals .
residual actibity
28
13Sn;
polycrystals;
99.8%;
residual activity
l13Sn; single crystals;
99.98%
residual activity
l13Sn; polycrystals;
> 99.97% ;
serial sectioning

Le Claire

28

75M3

28

84Hl

28

86Kl

3.2.8 Impurity diffusion in iron group metals

130
;olute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

3zp.

[Ref. p. 203
Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: iron (Fe), continued


3

4s

Sb

6.3. lo-*

193.4

1223...1573
We)

8.10

314.0

1.38 . 10

332.0

2.87. lo*

271.O

783...923
(cc-f-Fe)
932...1017
(a-f-Fe)
1078...1153
(u-p-Fe)

4.3

219.8

0.58

246.6

4.4. lo*

270.0

1040...1173
(a-p-Fe)

80

269.9

773..-873
(u-f-Fe)

2.7

205.0

0.5

209.3

1.7

221.9

34.6

231.5

2.10

347.6

x 1050.. . 1150 sulfurization and desulfurization


measured by electrical resistance
(u-p-Fe)
1208... 1298
on polycrystalline foils
(y-Fe)
35s.
1223...1523
polycrystals.
(94
residual actibity
35s.
973...1173
polycrystals;
(a-Fe)
99.996% ;
residual activity
surface segregation rate studied
770... 1000
with Auger electron spectros(u-f-Fe)
copy on single crystals

7.10-s

133.2

28
po&rystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity
surface segregation rate studied
28
by Auger electron spectroscopy
32~.
28
pol;crystals*
residual ac&ity

1223.s.1653
diffusion couple method;
(u-stabilized) 0.5 ... 5% As;
u-stabilized;
electron microprobe analysis
1323..+1573 diffusion couple method;
0...1.2% As;
(94
electron microprobe analysis

1223...1348
We)

124Sb;
single and polycrystals;
residual activity
Sb (ion implanted);
nuclear reaction analysis

thin layer method and fission


fragment radiography;
polycrystals

64M2

81Ll
83Ml

76B4

28

28

75Bl

28

78M2

7OWl

28

71H2

28

72Gl

28

86A2

67Dl

Matrix: ruthenium (Ru) - No data available


Matrix: osmium (OS)

- No data available

Le Claire

Land&-LGmstein
New Series III!26

Solute

131

3.2.9 Impurity diffusion in cobalt group metals

Ref. p. 2031
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

3.2.9 Impurity diffusion in cobalt group metals


Co, Rh, Ir
Matrix: cobalt (Co)
Diffusion data are available for ferromagnetic fee Co (f-Co) and for paramagnetic fee Co (p-co). The Curie
temperature is Tc = 1393 K.
-

co

D=3.41.10-16m2s-
6.56 . lo-l6 m2 s-l
2.46. lo-l5 m2s-

1273
1328
1388
(f-Co)

D = 9.34. lo-l5
1.65 . lo-l4
2.39. IO-l4
3.92 . lo-l4

m2 s-l
m2 s-l
m2 s-l
m2 s-l

3.15.10-2

232.4

1.1 .1o-2

217.7

0.04

239.4

1433
1473
1523
1563
(P-CO)
1133...1378
(f-Co)
1424... 1519
(P-CO)
1139*** 1510
(f and p-Co)

0.11

253.3

1409... 1629
(P-CO)

0.34

259.6

0.16

248.7

1.25

301.9

lOgI... T,
(f-Co)
TC... 1573
@-Co)
1425...1673
(P-CO)

0.34

269.2

Mn

Fe

Ni

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

31

48v.

31

86K2

policrystals;
99.9985%;
residual activity ;
each D value is the mean of two
results

1045.+. 1321
(f-Co)

31

7711

54Mn*
polycjstals;
99.95%;
residual activity

31

5gFe;
single crystals;
99.97% ;
residual activity
diffusion couple method;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis;
Do and Q values from combined
data of [69B2] and [55Ml]
5gFe.
sing16crystals;
residual activity

31

65A7

31

69B2

31

74B2

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.5%;
surface decrease

59Ml

63Ni.

31

62Hl

polycrystals;
99.2%;
residual activity;
63Ni and 6oCo diffusion in
Co - Ni alloys also studied
(continued)

Landolt-B6mstem
New Series III/26

Le Claire

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.10 Impurity diffusion in nickel group metals

132
Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: cobalt (Co), continued


Ni

1465... 1570
(P-CO)
1500...1690
@-Co>

0.10

252.0

3.35

297.3

0.40

282.2

1409... 1643
@-Co)

Pt

0.65

219.3

CU

z 1.0

Zn

31
31

65Hl

31

69B2

1354...1481
1g3mpt;
(f- and p-Co) polycrystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity

31

73M3

x 275

1158, 1273
(f-Co)

Cu;
polycrystals;
99.5%;
0..*5% cu;
in-diffusion method;
electron microprobe analysis;
two temperatures only

31

84A2

0.12

266.7

1081... Tc
(f-Co)

65Zn,
single crystals;
residual activity

31

74B2

0.08

254.5

1.3

226.1

T, ... 1573
@-Co>
1423... 1523

35s.

31

64Pl

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.5%;
residual activity;
63Ni and 6oCo diffusion in
Co-Ni alloys also studied
Ni;
diffusion couple method;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis

polycrystals;
99.99%;
residual activity

@-Co)

Matrix: rhodium (Rh) - No impurity diffusion data available; for self-diffusion seechapter 2
Matrix: iridium (Ir)

- No impurity diffusion data available; for self-diffusion seechapter 2

3.2.10 Impurity diffusion in nickel group metals


Ni, Pd, Pt
Matrix: nickel (Ni)
Ni
Ce

0.66

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

254.6

973...1370

14Ce;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
grinder sectioning;
non-Gaussian diffusion profiles

Le Claire/Neumann

32, 33
71Pl

Land&BBmstein
New Series Ill:26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.10 Impurity diffusion in nickel group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-l

133

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: nickel (Ni), continued


Nd

0.44

250.5

973 ... 1373

147Nd;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
grinder sectioning;
non-Gaussian diffusion profiles

71Pl

Hf

1.8*

251.0*

1023.. 1423

Hf;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis (Ni/
Ni 0.5; 3.8% Hf sandwich
samples);
* estimated values

72Bl

0.87

278.4

1073... 1573

497.

68M2

ICr;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
lathe sectioning;
distinct data scattering

64M3

185~.

64M5

32

78V3

pol&rystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning
Cr

1.1

272.6

2.0

299.4

1373...1541

polyc;ystals;
99.95%;
lathe sectioning
2.87

308.1

1346... 1668

181~.

singlecrystals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning

,
Fe

1.0

269.4

1478... 1669

Fe;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
grinder sectioning

32

71B2

co

2.77

285.1

1335.., 1696

To;
single crystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning

32

78V3

Pt

2.5

286.8

1354... 1481

193Pt;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity

73M3

64cI.I.
polyc;ystals;
99.95% ;
lathe sectioning

64M4

cu

0.57

258.3

1327..: 1632:

(continued)

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

iolute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.10 Impurity diffusion in nickel group metals

134
Do

10-*mzs-

kJmo!-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

64Cu;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
residual activity
Cu;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
sectioning;
atomic absorption analysis

65A8

32

84Tl

76T2

32

78Vl

55Kl

33

81G2

32

78V2

81Gl

33

88N3

32

83M2

Matrix: nickel (Ni), continued


0.724

255.4

1123...1323

0.61

255.0

1080...1613

8.25

282.2

1123...1323

8.94

279.4

1297.s. 1693

9U

2.0

272.1

1173..*1373

Al

1.0

260

914...1212

In

6.78

270.5

1274+..1659

3U

4g

1.1

Ge

2.1

250

264

777..*1513

939 ... 1675

OAg;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity
11oAgt 105Ag*
single crystals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning
98A,,,
polycjstals;
99.98%;
autoradiography
Al;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
sputter sectioning;
SIMS analysis (27Al+ signal)
l141n.

singlecrystals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning
In;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
sputter sectioning;
SIMS analysis (lIn+, 131n+
signals);
two-exponential tit of the [78V2]
and [81Gl] data:
0: = 1.26 * 10v4 m2s-,
Q, = 251 kJmo!-,
0: = 1.9m2s-,
Q2 = 397.8 kJ mol-
68Ge (implanted);
single crystals;
99.99% ;
grinder and sputter sectioning

Neumann

Landolt-B6mstein
New Series III/26

solute

135

3.2.10 Impurity diffusion in nickel group metals

Ref. p. 2031
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: nickel (Ni), continued


3n

4.56

267.2

1242.e. 1642

l13Sn;
single crystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning

32

79Vl

!LS

1.39

251.8

1239.~. 1634

73As;
single crystals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning

32

79V2

Sb

3.85

264.0

1203... 1674

Sb;
single crystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning

32

76Vl

1.4

219.0

1078.e. 1495

35s.

32

75Vl

23Te;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning

32

89Nl

235~.

7121

68B2

single crystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning
Te

2.6

254.0

1135... 1553

1.0

236.1

1248... 1348

polycrystals;
99.998% ;
autoradiography;
solubility also measured:
c,= 6.2exp(-83.7kJmol-/RT)
Pu

0.17

213.5

1298.a. 1398

239Pu;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
autoradiography;
solubility also measured: c,
increases from 30 ppm at 1300 K
to 80 ppm at 1400 K

Matrix: palladium (Pd)


Pd

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

34

Fe

0.18

260.0

1373... 1523

5gFe;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
grinder sectioning

34

77Fl

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

1273..a 1673

Fe;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis (Pt/Pt
2.06 % Fe sandwich samples)

34
-

78Bl

Matrix: platinum (Pt)


Pt

Fe

0.025

243.4

(continued)
Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

136

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Uatrix: platinum (Pt), continued


:0
19.6
310.7

1023... 1323

To;
polycrystals;
99.9%;
surface decreasemethod;
distinctly curved Arrhenius plot

68Kl

4g

0.13

258.1

1473...1873

Ag;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis (Pt/
Pt 2.4% Ag sandwich samples)

78Bl

4u

0.13

252.0

850...1265

199Au;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
sputter sectioning

78Rl

41

1.3.10-3

193.6

1373..+ 1873

Al;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
electron microprobe analysis (Pt/
Pt 1.23% Al sandwich samples)

iolute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

34

78Bl

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals


Cu, Ag, Au
Matrix: copper (Cu)
cu
-

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

35...38

Be

0.66

195.9

973 ..* 1348

Be;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

36

73F3

Ii

0.693

196

983 .** 1283

Ti;
polycrystals;
99.998% ;
electron microprobe analysis
(Cu/Cu 2 ... 3 % Ti sandwich
samples)

7712

2.48

215

995...1342

4av.

77Hl

7OS2

pol&rystals;
99.998%;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
anomalous diffusion profiles
Nb

2.04

251.5

1080...1179

95Nb;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
penetration profiles only 15 pm

Neumann

Land&-BBmsfein
New Series III./26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

137

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

51Cr.
polylrystals;
99.995%;
residual activity
51Cr;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
near-surface effect for x < 15 urn
51Cr.
polycrystals;
99.998%;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
anomalous diffusion profiles
Wr;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning;
long Gaussian profiles;
D(1200 K) = 1.4. lo-l3 m2s-

71B3

71Sl

77Hl

83Rl

Mn;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
54Mn
polyciystals;
99.998%;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
anomalous diffusion profiles
54Mn;
single crystals;
99.998% ;
electrochemical sectioning

36

73F2

77Hl

79M3

59Fe;
single crystals;
99.998%;
lathe sectioning
s9Fe*
singlk crystals;
99.998% ;
lathe sectioning
59Fe;
single and polycrystals;
99.995%;
residual activity

35

58Ml

61Ml

71B3

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


Cr

Mn

Fe

1.02

224.0

1073... 1343

1.6

240.7

IlOO...

0.337

195

999 ... 1358

1195... 1202

0.74

195.5

973...1348

1.02

200

873 ... 1323

1.42

204.3

773...976

1.4

216.9

992... 1347

1.01

213.3

990... 1329

1.36

217.7

923 ... 1343

(continued)

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

138
Do

10W4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Fe;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
electrolytical sectioning
Fe;
polycrystals;
specpure;
resistometric method

73Bl

78Sl

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


1.3

215.6

1005... 1297

1.13

214.1

1063*.* 1274

Ru

8.5

257.5

1221... 1335

lo3Ru;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
electrolytical sectioning;
solubility determined from the
erfc-profile: c, = 0.018
* exp(- 100.5 kJ mol-/RT)

35

73Bl

co

1.93

226.5

975 ... 1351

35

58Ml

1.69

225.7

1163...1306

72B2

0.43

214.3

640 . . a848

6OCo;
single crystals;
99.998% ;
lathe sectioning
6OCo;
polycrystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
6OCo;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
sputter sectioning and SIMS
analysis (sgCo+ signal)
two-exponential tit of the [58Ml]
and [84Dl] data:
Dy= 0.74*10m4ms1r,
Q, = 217.2 kJmol-,
0: = 736 . 10m4m2 s-l,
Q, = 312.8 kJmol-

84Dl

38

88N3

Fe

Rh

3.3

242.8

1023... 1348

Rh;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

35

72F2

Ir

10.6

276.4

1185...1303

1921r.

35

78Kl

35

58Ml

singld crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Ni

2.7

236.6

1016+..1349

63Ni ;
single crystals;
99.998% ;
lathe sectioning

(continued)

Neumann

LandolbB6mstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


Ni
3.8
237.8

139

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

968 ... 1334

63Ni.

5911

64M4

71F3

72A2

83M3

38

88N3

1.7

231.5

1172-s. 1340

2.3

235.3

973.e. 1323

1.94

232.8

1128...1328

0.76

225.0

613...950

single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
63Ni s
polydrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Ni;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
66Ni;
polycrystals;
99.99% + 99.999%;
lathe sectioning
Ni;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
sputter sectioning;
SIMS analysis;
two-exponential tit to the [58Ml,
64M4, 72A2, 8311131
data:
0: = 0.7.10e4 m2se1,
Q, = 225 kJmol-,
0: = 0.025 m2s-,
Q, = 299.3 kJ mol-

Pd

1.71

227.6

1080... 1320

lo3Pd;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

35

63Pl

Pt

0.67

233

1023 ... 1348

72Fl

0.56

233

1149... 1352

Pt;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
isrpt, igspt;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

35

82Nl

0.63

194.7

37

60Nl

0.61

194.7

70B2

0.574

195.0

(1053 ... 1353) Ag*


single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
(823 ... 1273) OAg;
single and polycrystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity
1049... 1352 o&
single and polycrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning and residual
activity

7262

Ag

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

140
Do

10-4mZs-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


Au

Zn

Cd

(1053 ... 1353) lg*Au;


single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
195Au.
1085... 1342
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
ig6Au;
993 ..* 1350
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning
Au;
633 . ..982
single crystals;
99.999% ;
sputter sectioning

0.69

210.6

0.897

212.5

0.537

205.6

0.0803

191.2

0.34

190.9

878...1322

0.41

192.8

1168,122O

0.73

198.9

1165...1348

0.24

188.8

1073..*1313

0.28

189.3

993...1193

0.935

191.3

998...1223

0.73

188.8

(1053.s.1353)

I.27

194.6

1032... 1346

1.2

194

983...1309

35, 38 60NI

77Gl

87FI

38

65Zn;
single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning;
two data points only
65Zn*
polyciystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
65Zn;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Zn;
polycrystals;
specpure;
resistometric method

37

57Hl

67P3

69K2

72A2

79D2

Cd;
single crystals;
99.98%;
lathe sectioning
%d;
single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
logCd; single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Cd; polycrystals;
99.998% ;
grinder sectioning

36

58Hl

60Nl

7262

82Hl

Neumann

Landolt-B6mstein
New Series 111126

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

141

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


Hg

0.35

184.2

(1053 ... 1353) 03Hg;


single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning

36

60Nl

Al

0.08

181.3

973 ..- 1348

37

73F4

Ga

0.78

196.4

60Nl

0.523

192.7

71Kl

0.58

193.8

37

77F2

1.30

193.6

37

7262

1.87

196.4

78K2

0.219

178

(1053 ... 1353) 72Ga;


single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
1153 ... 1352 67~~.
polycjstals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
973...1323
Ga;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
1051... 1351 1141~.
single and polycrystals ;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
41~.
1071... 1354
polycjrstals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning
602... 1351
In;
single crystals;
99.9998% ;
sputter sectioning;
SIMS analysis (lisIn+ signal)
two-exponential tit to the [7262,
78K2, and 83Gl] data:
07 = 0.29. 10m4m2 s-l,
Q, = 179.6 kJmol-,
0: = 0.311 rns-l,
Q, = 295.4 kJ mol-

83Gl

38

88N3

In

Al;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

Tl

0.71

181.3

1058... 1269

04T1;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

37

63Kl

Si

0.07

171.7

973 ... 1323

Si;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

37

73F3

Ge

0.397

187.4

975 .. 1289

6*Ge.
single crystals;
99.998%;
lathe sectioning

36

70R2

Landolt-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

(continued)

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

142
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

68Ge;
polycrystals;
99.99%;
lathe sectioning

71Kl

36

73Gl

74Fl

79Kl

210Pb;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

36

77Gl

32~.

37

76Sl

37

6ONl

70Kl

124Sb;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
24Sb;
single crystals;
99.99%;
lathe sectioning
124Sb;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

36

6011

73Gl

79Kl

2oBi;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

37

77Gl

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


Ge

0.315

185.5

1111. ..I326

Sn

0.842

188.2

1011..a 1321

0.82

187.6

973.e. 1348

0.67

184.4

1018...1355

Pb

0.862

182.4

1006...1225

3.05.10-3

136.1

847... 1319

1lQ.

singlecrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Sn;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
%n;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning
As

Sb

Bi

0.12

175.8

0.202

176.4

(1053 ... 1353) 76As;


single crystals;
specpure;
lathe sectioning
1086...1348
73As*
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning and residual
activity

0.34

175.8

873 ... 1275

0.616

182.7

1011.a. 1321

0.48

179.6

1049...1349

0.766

178.1

1074...1348

Neumann

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

143

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1073... 1273

35s.

36

691112

Matrix: copper (Cu), continued


S

23

206.6

single crystals;
99.999%;
electrolytical sectioning
Se

1.0

180.5

878...1150

?Se (implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

37

89Rl

Te

0.97

180.5

822... 1214

rTe (implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

37

89R.I

Matrix: silver (Ag)


Ag

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

Ti

198

1051..* 1220

Ti;
polycrystals;
99.999%;
electron microprobe analysis
(Ag/Ag 0.23; 0.45 % Ti sandwich samples)

39,40
79M4

1.33

2.72

209

1012..* 1218

49.

19M4

79M4

39

81Nl

79M4

po&rystals;
99.999%;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
non-Gaussian diffusion profiles
3.29

210

1023... 1215

1.1

192.6

976 ... 1231

4.29

196

883 ... 1212

Cr

Mn

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Cr.
polyirystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
non-Gaussian diffusion profiles
51Cr*
singlb crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning;
solubility determined from the
erfc-profile: c, = 1620
* exp(- 170.0 kJmol-/RT)
s4Mn;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
non-Gaussian diffusion profiles

Neumann

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

144
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

[Ref. p. 203
Fig.

Ref.

sgFe;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
(1073 .*. 1205) 5gFe;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
electrolytical sectioning
1062... 1213 Fe;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning;
near-surface effect
1066...1219
103R
106~~.
single crystals:
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning;
pronounced near-surface effect

39

6lMl

73Bl

77B2

59Pl

Method/Remarks

Matrix: silver (Ag), continued


Fe

242

205.3

992... 1201

2.6

205.2

1.9

206.7

Ru

180

275.5

co

1.9

204.1

(973 ... 1214)

6oCo;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
electrolytical sectioning

39

73Bl

Ni

21.9

229.3

1022... 1223

6lH2

15

217.3

904...1199

63Ni;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning;
pronounced near-surface effect

76Ll

78Sl

63Ni.

single crystals;
99.999%;
electrolytical sectioning;
solubility determined from the
erfc-profile: c, = 0.7
.exp(-33.7kJmol-/IV)
Ni;
polycrystals;
specpure;
resistometric method

2.8

230.4

1023..+ 1193

Pd

9.57

237.6

1009~~~1212

lo3Pd;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

39

63Pl

Pt

6.0

238.2

923 +.. 1223

75Fl

1.9

235.7

1094... 1232

Pt;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
lg*Pt, r=pt;
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning

39

82Nl

Neumann

Land&-BBmslein
New Series HI/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

145

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

64cu;

40

57Sl

80Dl

56Jl

57Ml

63Ml

Matrix: silver (Ag), continued

cu

Au

Zn

Cd

Land&-Bijmstein
New Series III/%

1.23

193.0

990... 1218

0.029

164.1

699...897

0.262

190.5

923 ... 1223

0.41

194.3

929...1178

0.85

202.1

991...1198

0.62

199.0

0.54

174.6

916... 1197

0.532

174.6

970... 1225

0.85

176.3

953...1165

0.44

174.6

866... 1210

0.504

176.8

1042... 1226

0.079

159.5

926... 1221

single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
CU;
single crystals;
99.99%;
sputter sectioning;
SIMS analysis (63Cu signal)
198Au.
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Au;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning
198Au.
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
best tit to data from [56Jl,
57M1, 63MlJ
65Zn.
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning
Zn;
polycrystals;
specpure;
resistometric method

39
55Sl

40

67Rl

79D2

%d;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Cd;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
chemical sectioning and residual
activity

40

54Tl

69K4

03Hg.
singe &ystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

39

57Sl

Neumann

solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

146
Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: silver (As), continued


91

0.13

159.5

873...1223

Al;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

39

75F2

3a

0.42

162.9

873...1213

Ga;
polycrystals;
purity no specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

40

77F2

h-i

0.41

170.1

886.a. 1209

l141n.

40

54Tl

67Kl

40

84Ml

singlecrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
0.55

175.0

1044...1215

1 141n.

polycjstals;
99.999%;
chemical sectioning and residual
activity
i141n:
single crystals;
99.999%;
sputter sectioning

0.36

169.0

553.e.838

Tl

0.15

158.7

(918 ..a 1073)

04T1;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
lathe sectioning and residual
activity

40

58H2

Ge

0.084

152.8

(948...1123)

lGe;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
lathe sectioning and residual
activity

39

58H2

Sn

0.25

165.0

865.+.1210

40

54Tl

0.472

171.0

1026...1227

113Sn;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
jSn, l19Sn;
polycrystals;
99.999%;
chemical sectioning and residual
activity

69K3

Pb

0.22

159.5

(973 . . .1073)

210Pb; polycrystals;
purity not specified;
lathe sectioning;
three data points only

55Hl

As

0.042

149.6

915...1213

As; polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis
(vapour deposited film of inactive As)

75H3

Neumann

Landoh-BBmstein
New Series III/26

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

147

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

iz4Sb;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
124Sb;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
chemical sectioning and residual
activity

39

54Sl

67K2

35s.

67B2

Matrix: silver (Ag), continued


Sb

0.169

160.4

742... 1215

0.234

163.6

1053... 1225

1.65

167.5

873+..1173

policrystals;
99.999% ;
grinder sectioning
Se

0.285

157.4

759...1109

75Se(implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

40

89Rl

Te

0.47

162.9

1043... 1213

69K3

0.21

154.7

65O.a.1169

Te;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
chemical sectioning
Te (implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

40

8763

Matrix: gold (Au)


Au

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

41

Fe

0.19

172.5

973 ... 1323

Fe;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

41

77F3

co

0.22

183.4

973 ... 1323

77F3

0.25

185.2

1030.**1335

co;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis
57co;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

41

78H2

0.30

192.6

1153 ... 1210

63Ni.

57Rl

973 ... 1323

poly&ystals;
99.96%;
lathe sectioning
Ni;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

41

76F2

Ni

0.25

Land&-B&n&n
New Series III/26

188.4

Neumann

148
Solute

3.2.11 Impurity diffusion in noble metals


Do

10-4mZs-

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: gold (Au), continued


Pd

0.076

195.1

973...1273

Pd;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

41

78F2

Pt

0.095

201.4

973...1273

Pt;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

41

78F2

cu

0.105

170.2

973...1179

Cu (vapour deposited 1 u layer);


polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis

41

66Vl

Ag

0.072

168.3

943 ... 1281

63Ml

0.08

169.1

1046.~31312

65Kl

0.086

169.3

1004.~. 1323

Age
single crystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
Ag;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electrochemical sectioning and
residual activity
Ag, losAg;
single crystals;

41

74H2

99.999 % ;

microtome sectioning
Zn

0.082

158.1

969.a.1287

65Zn;
single and polycrystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning

41

77Cl

Hg

0.116

156.5

877...1300

203Hg;
single crystals;
99.994% ;
lathe sectioning

41

65Ml

AI

0.052

143.6

773... 1223

Al;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
X-ray diffraction analysis

41

78F3

In

0.075

153.7

(973 ... 1273)

l141n.

41

71D2

41

77Cl

polycjstals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning and electron
microprobe analysis (Au/Au
0.3% In sandwich samples)
Ge

0.073

144.5

lOlO...

68Ge.

single and polycrystals;


99.999%;
microtome sectioning

Neumann

Iandolt-Bhstein
New Series Ill,/26

Solute

149

3.2.12 Impurity diffusion in zinc group metals

Ref. p. 2031
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Sn;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis
(Au/Au 0.3 % Sn sandwich
samples)

72H2

3Sn.

41

Matrix: gold (Au), continued


Sn

0.0412

143.3

970... 1268

0.0399

143.1

962... 1272

polyciystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning
Sb

0.0114

129.4

1003 ..+ 1278

Sb;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis
(Au/Au 0.15 . ..0.4% Sb sandwich samples)

72H3

Te

0.063

140.9

908...1145

Te (implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

41

89Rl

3.2.12 Impurity diffusion in zinc group metals


Zn, Cd, Hg
Matrix: zinc (Zn)
Zn

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

42,43

63Ni.

42

67M2

11
c 8.1
I c 0.43

136.6
121.5

564...664

11c 2.22
I c 2.00

123.6
125.3

611 .*a688

64cLl;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

42

66B2

11c 0.32
I c 0.45

108.9
115.6

544...686

OAg;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

42

61Rl

AU

11
c 0.97
I c 0.29

124.5
124.4

588...688
620...688

198Au;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

42

63G3

Cd

11c 0.114
Ic 0.117

86.0
85.5

498...689

l15Cd;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

43

63G3

Ni

cu

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

single crystals;
99.999%;
autoradiography

Neumann

3.2.12 Impurity diffusion in zinc group metals

150
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: zinc (Zn), continued

Hg

11c 0.056
1 c 0.073

82.5
84.5

533.~~686

203Hg;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

43

67B3

Ga

11
c 0.016
lc 0.018

77.0
76.0

513...676

72Ga;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

43

66B2

In

11
c 0.062
lc 0.14

80.0
82.1

444 9. ~689

l141n;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

43

61Rl

Sn

IIC 0.15
lc 0.13

81.2
77.0

571 . ..673

13Sn;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

43

7OW2

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

11c 2.21

106.3

(453 .** 573)

67Hl

(Ic 1.40
1 c 0.68

103.2
105.0

(478 . . .583)

OAg;
single crystals;
99.99% ;
surface decreasemethod
Ag;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

44
-

44

72Ml

Au

11
c 1.40
lc 3.16

106.6
110.7

(453 . . - 578)

g5Au;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

44

72Ml

Zn

11c 0.13
1 c 0.084

75.5
75.4

(428 . . .588)

65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999;
lathe sectioning

44

72Ml

Hg

11c 0.21
1 c 0.21

78.6
78.6

(423 . . .573)

2o3Hg*
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

44

72Ml

In

11c 0.10
1 c 0.090

73.1
70.9

(433 ... 573)

r141n;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

44

72Ml

Pb

11
c 0.060
1 c 0.071

68.9
65.8

514*..571

210Pb; single crystals;


99.999%;
lathe sectioning

44

81Yl

Matrix: cadmium (Cd)


Cd
A!2

Matrix: mercury (I-&) - No data available

Neumann

Landolt-Kmstein
New Series III/26

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

Do

10V4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

151
Fig.

Ref.

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals


Al, Ga, In, Tl
Matrix: aluminum (Al)
Al

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

45,46

126

803.e.923

Li;
polycrystals;
99.993% ;
resistometric method

46

87Ml

24Na.
po1ycrysta1s;
purity not specified;
surface decreasemethod

7783

137&.

73T3

Li

0.35

Na

6.7. 1O-4

719...863

cs

0.0104

453...573

polyciystals;
99.997%;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
pronounced near-surface effect ;
determination of D from deeper
penetrations
667...928

28Mg;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

46

74Rl

242.0

804..+913

g5Zr.
polyirystals;
99.999%;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning;
distinct data scattering

73M4

253.0*

859.s.923

51Cr
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning;
* recalculated by present authors

45

7OP4

MO

250.0

898...928

MO;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis (Al/
Al 0.2 ... 0.3 % MO sandwich
samples)

83Cl

Mn

211.4

s6Mn, Mn (implanted);
single and polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electrochemical sectioning

45

71H3

1.24

Zr

728

Cr

1.85. IO3*

(continued)

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals

152
Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmo!-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Mn;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis (Al/
A! 0.5 ... I % Mn sandwich
samples)
s4Mn ;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning

73B3

87F2

Fe;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning
sgFe (implanted);
single and polycrystals;
99.99 to 99.999%;
lathe and microtome sectioning
gFe;
polycrystals;
99.995% ;
microtome sectioning (profile
evaluation by taking into account the formation of an
intermetallic compound in the
near-surface range)
5gFe (implanted);
single crystals;
99.9995% ;
microtome sectioning;
mainly pressure dependence
studied;
two data points close to the
results of [70HI]

70A3

70HI

87BI

89B2

6OCo;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning
6OCo;
polycrystals;
99.995%;
lathe sectioning and residual
activity
co;
polycrystals;
99.995% ;
resistometric method
6oCo (implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

45

7OP4

72A3

Matrix: aluminum (Al), continued


Mn

Fe

co

I215

229.0

773 . ..923

317

217

843 . ..927

135

192.6

823...906

9.1 . 105

258.7

792...931

53

183.4

793 . ..922

(220)

855, 896

464

174.8

695...921

250

174.6

673...913

141

169.0

742.e.912

506

175.7

724...930

Neumann

78E2

83Hl

Land&-BCmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

153

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-l

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

45

78E2

Matrix: aluminum (Al), continued


Ni

4.4

145.8

742...924

Ni;
polycrystals;
99.995%;
resistometric method

cu

0.647

135.1

706...925

0.654

136.1

594...928

0.13

117.2

615...883

0.16

118.9

665...868

0.118

116.5

644...928

0.077

113.0

696... 882

0.27

121.0

723...873

0.131

116.4

642.a.928

0.259

120.8

630...926

0.30

121.4

(700 . . .920)

7OP4
64cu.
45
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning
89Fl
67Cu; polycrystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning
(743 .a.928 K);
grinder sectioning and residual activity measurement
(594 . . .743 K)
slight near-surface effect below
743 K
70A3
Ag;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning
70B3
o&*
single crystals;
99.995% ;
grinder sectioning and electron
microprobe analysis (vapour
deposited film of inactive Ag)
7OP4
lAg;
46
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning
70A3
lg8Au;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning
70B3
AU;
single crystals;
99.995% ;
grinder sectioning
7OP4
AU;
46
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning
7OP4
65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning
65Zn;
7263
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning
(continued)

&

Au

Zn

LandolGB6mstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals


Solute

Matrix:

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

[Ref. p. 203

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Zn;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis
(AI/Al 1% Zn sandwich
samples)
65Zn;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning
65Zn.
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
grinder sectioning
Zn;
polycrystals;
99.995%;
resistometric method
65Zn.
singld crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning;
evaluation together with the
results of [7OP4]
65Zn;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning;
*two sets of measurements;
evaluation together with the
results of [72G3, 77B33

73B3

76F3

77B3

78E2

78P2

aluminum (Al), continued

0.2

120.6

613...913

0.177

118.1

438...918

0.27

117.8

614..-890

0.20

120.7

650...903

0.325

117.9

688 ..*928

0.16
0.26

117.0
119.1

714 ... 893*


674 .. 837*

0.245

119.6

(614 ... 920)

Cd

1.04

124.3

714..-907

Cd;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

Hg

15.3

141.8

718...862

2o3Hg*
polycjstals;
99.999%;
residual activity;
near-surface effect (oxide hold-up);
determination of D from deeper
penetrations

7882

Ga

0.49

123.1

680.~~926

72Ga;
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning

46

7OP4

In

0.123

115.6

(673 .*. 873)

141n;
polycrystals;
purity not specified;
residual activity

70A2

Zn

Neumann

83B3

46
46

70A3

Land&-B6mstein
New Series 111126

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

155

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

46

71H4

Matrix: aluminum (Al), continued


In

1.16

122.7

715...929

l141n (implanted);
single crystals;
99.999% ;
microtome sectioning

Tl

116

152.7

737...862

204T1;
polycrystals;
99.999%;
residual activity;
near-surface effect (oxide hold-up);
determination of D from deeper
penetrations

78S2

Si

0.35

123.9

618 . ..904

73B2

2.02

136.0

753 ... 893

Si;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
electron microprobe analysis
(Al/Al 0.5 % Si sandwich
samples)
Si;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
electron microprobe analysis (Al/
Al 0.58 .+. 1.15% Si sandwich
samples)

78F4

Ge

0.481

121.3

674...926

71Ge.
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning

46

7OP4

Sn

0.245

119.3

(673 *. ~873)

113&.

70A2

46

90El

polycjstals;
purity not specified;
residual activity
113Sn (implanted);
single crystals;
99.9998% ;
microtome sectioning;
pressure effects also studied

0.84

118.6

649...905

Pb

50

145.6

777 ... 876

210Pb;
polycrystals;
99.999%;
residual activity;
near-surface effect (oxide hold-up);
determination of D from deeper
penetrations

7882

Sb

0.09

121.7

721...893

124Sb;
polycrystals;
specpure Al;
residual activity;
grinder sectioning

68B3

Land&BBmstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.13 Impurity diffusion in aluminum group metals

156
Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

798.e.898

235U.
polycjstals;
purity not specified;
autoradiography

68B4

47
-

74Al

Matrix: aluminum (Al), (continued)


u

0.1

117.2

Matrix: gallium (Ga) - No data available


Matrix: indium (In)
[n

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

cl0

1.2.10-S

25.1*

383...423

6OCo;
single crystals;
99.997% ;
microtome sectioning;
distinct data scattering;
* diffusion in (111) direction

4g

IIC 0.11
1 c 0.52

48.1
53.6

(298 ... 423)

Ag*
single crystals;
99.99%;
microtome sectioning

47

66A2

AU

9.10-3

28.1

(198...423)

lgOAu;
single crystals with random
orientation;
99.99%;
microtome sectioning

47

66A2

l-i

0.049

64.9

323... 429

204T1;
polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
microtome sectioning

47

52El

Matrix: thallium (Tl)


ri

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

48

4g

11
c 0.027
1 c 0.038

46.9
49.4

(360, 480)
(a-Tl)

48

68A2

0.042

49.8

(510 ... 570)


(P-TO

Ag;
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning;
two data points only
bee polycrystals;
same procedure as for single
crystals

IIC 2-10-s
1 c 5.3 * 10-Q

11.7
21.8

(390, 490)
(or-Tl)

48

68A2

5.2. 1O-4

25.1

(510 ..* 570)


(B-V

lgOAu;
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning;
two data points only
bee polycrystals;
same procedure as for single
crystals

Au

Neumann

Landolt-B6mstein
New Series 111126

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

3.2.14 Impurity diffusion in group IV B metals

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

157
Fig.

Ref.

3.2.14 Impurity diffusion in group IVB metals


Sn, Pb
Diffusion data for semiconducting elements Si, Ge are not included. They can be found in [89L2].
Matrix: tin (Sn)
Sn

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

49, 50
78S3

Fe

4.8. lO-4

51.2

387...462

co;
polycrystals;
99.9995% ;
MijDbauer spectroscopy (57Fe
signal)

Ni

11
c 1.99 . IO-
Ic 1.87. lo-

18.1
54.2

298...373
393 . ..473

63Ni;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

50

84Yl

cu

Ic 2.4. lO-3

33.1

(413 .** 503)

64Cu;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
microtome sectioning

50

67D2

&

11c 7.1 . 10-3


..Lc 0.18

51.5
77.0

(403 . . .503)

OAg;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
microtome sectioning

50

66D2

Au

11
c 5.8 . lO-3
Ic 0.16

46.1
74.1

(403 . . * 503)

lg8Au;
single crystals;
purity not specified;
microtome sectioning

50

66D2

Zn

11
c 1.1 . 10-Z
I c 8.4

50.2
89.2

(410... 500)

65Zn;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

50

74H3

Cd

11c 220
Ic 130

118.1
115.6

(460 . . .500)

logCd;
single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

49

74H3

Hg

11
c 7.5
Ic 30

105.9
112.2

448 . ..499

03Hg;
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning

49

72Wl

In

11
c 12.2
Ic 34.1

107.2
108.0

454... 494

141n;
single crystals;
99.998%;
lathe sectioning

49

58Sl

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.14 Impurity diffusion in group IV B metals

158
Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: tin (Sn), continued


TI

1.3 * 10-J

61.5

410..+489

04T1;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning and autoradiomphy ;
grain-boundary contributions

69B3

Sb

IIC 71.0
I c 73.0

121.8
123.1

466.s.499

124Sb;
single crystals;
99.999%;
lathe sectioning

49

71H5,
7483

Matrix: lead (Pb)


Pb

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

Na

6.3

118.5

522...586

22Na;
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning;
distinct data scattering

51
-

7201

co

9. lo-

46.4

383 ... 573

sgCo (implanted; ny6Co,


activation analysis);
polycrystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning;
pronounced near-surface effect

78K3

Ni

1.0. 10-z

44.5

(481 . . .593)

63Ni.

51

73C2

singlk crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning
63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

8282

51

75D2

1.1 . 10-z

45.4

423.a. 523

Pd

3.4. 10-3

35.4

(470 . *. 590)

rogPd;
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning

Pt

1.1 . 10-2

42.3

490..*593

cu

7.9. 10-3

33.6

(498 . . .598)

8OVl
Pt;
51
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning (Pt concentration determined by observing
the variation in the melting
curve for each slice);
solubility determined from the
erfc-profile: c, = 21.9
*exp(- 51.0 kJmol-/RT)
64Cu;
66Dl
single and polycrystals;
purity not specified;
microtome sectioning
(continued)

Solute

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Matrix: lead (Pb), continued


(23.4) *
(8.6 * 10-y
cu

Au

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

491... 803

64cu;

72C2

51

75D3

65Cl

66Dl

74A2

75D2

51

82H2

lQ8Au;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning

56Al

195~~.

61Al

198~~.

66A3

single Lystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning
lQ8Au; single crystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

66Kl

single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 0 and
5.6 GPa;
* partly erroneous zero-pressure
results
reanalysis of the results of
[72C2], using an improved
pressure calibration
** Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters

8.6. 10-3

34.2 **

-*

(470 . . .750)

4.6. lo-

60.5

(398 ... 598)

4.42. 1O-2

60.8

437.e.572

4.8. 1O-2

60.8 **

4.6. 1O-2

60.8

423...573

2.8. 1O-3

37.3

463 ... 569

4.1 * 10-3

39.1

367...598

&

159

3.2.14 Impurity diffusion in group IV B metals

Ref. p. 2031

OAg;
single crystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 0 and
3.9 GPa;
* zero-pressure values for Do and
Q not evaluated
Ag.
single crystals;
purity not specified;
microtome sectioning
OAg;
single crystals;
99.998%;
microtome sectioning
reanalysis of the results of [65Cl]
using an improved pressure
calibration;
** Do and Q represent the zeropressure fitting parameters
OAg;
polycrystals;
99.999% ;
lathe sectioning

single Lystals;
99.999%;
microtome sectioning
2.5. 1O-3

8.7. 1O-3

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

36.6

41.9

(353 ... 523)

(463 . . .593)

Neumann

(continued)

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.14 Impurity diffusion in group IV B metals

160

Do

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

Fig.

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

(444 . . .693)

ig8Au;
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 2.1 and
3.9 GPa;
* Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters
reanalysis of the results of [71Wl], using an improved pressure
calibration;
* Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters
ig5Au;
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning
9Au.
51
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning
65Zn.
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning
65Zn.
51
singld crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 0 and
4.7 GPa;
* Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters
Cd;
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning
51
Cd;
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 0 and
4 GPa;
* Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters
zo3Hg.
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning

Ref.

Matrix: lead (Pb), continued


Au

Zn

Cd

Hg

5.6. 1O-3

39.7 *

5.8 . lo- 3

40.3 *

3.62. 1O-3

37.4

411*.*511

5.2. lo-

38.6

(334 ... 563)

1.6. lo-*

47.3

455... 572

1.65.10-*

47.8 *

(453 ... 773)

0.409

88.9

(423 ... 593)

0.92

92.8 *

(523 ... 823)

1.05

95.0

466...573

71Wl

75D2

75W2

79D3

74R2

77Dl

69M3

77Vl

73Wl

(continued)

Neumann

Land&BSmstein
New Series W/26

Solute

161

3.2.15 Impurity diffusion in group V B semimetals

Ref. p. 2031

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: lead (Pb), continued

H&?

1.5

96.7 *

(523 ... 823)

03Hg*
single crystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 0 and
3.8 GPa;
* Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters

51

77Vl

In

33

112.2

437.e.493

In;
single crystals;
99.999%;
electron microprobe analysis
(5 urn film of inactive In
deposited on the crystal)

69K5

Tl

0.511

101.9

480..+596

04T1;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning

51

61R2

Sn

0.41

94.4 *

(523 . . .723)

3Sn.

51

77D2

singlecrystals;
99.9999% ;
microtome sectioning;
D(p) measured between 0 and
3 GPa;
* Do and Q represent the zeropressure parameters
Sb

0.29

92.9

461...588

lz4Sb;
single crystals;
99.9999%;
microtome sectioning;
distinct data scattering

72Nl

Bi

6.8

112.2

564, 596

loBi;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
microtome sectioning;
only two data points

61R2

3.2.15 Impurity diffusion in group VB semimetals


P, As, Sb, Bi
Matrix: phosphorus (P) - No data available
Matrix: arsenic (As)

- No data available

Matrix: antimony (Sb)


Sb

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

Ag

67

119.7

603...879

liAg; polycrystals;
99.9 % ;
serial sectioning

Matrix: bismuth (Bi) - No data available


Land&-BGmstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

73K3

iolute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.16 Impurity diffusion in actinide group metals

162
Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

3.2.16 Impurity diffusion in actinide group metals


AC, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, etc.
vlatrix: actinium (AC) - No data available
vlatrix: thorium (Th)
[-thorium

rh

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

5.10-3

80.8

1238...1558

52
Fe;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

79w 1

5. 1o-4

55.3

1238... 1558

52
co;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

79Wl

Ni

4.10-3

77.9

1238...1558

52
Ni;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

79Wl

Pa

1.26. lo2

312.8

231Pa;
polycrystals;
99.84%;
profile determination via u-emission spectra

52

67Sl

LJ

2.21 . lo4

332.0

233~.

52

67Sl

963...1150

52

polycjstals;
99.84% ;
profile determination via a-emission spectra
g-thorium
Th
Zr

1.73 . lo4

no self-diffusion data for g-Th


available

384.0

1773... 1873

52
Zr;
polycrystals;
99.977%;
diffusion couple method and scanning laser mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

84Sl

Landolr-B5mslein
New series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
jolute

3.2.16 Impurity diffusion in actinide group metals

Do

10m4m2sK1

kJmol-

163

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1693
1963

8iHf.

52

65Rl

Matrix: thorium @Th), continued


Hf

D=1.09.10-12m2s-1
2.09 . IO- m2 s-l

polycjstals;
lathe sectioning

0.019

129.8

1653.'.1939

52
v;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

7834

Nb

0.5

201.8

1643... 1933

52
Nb;
polycrystals;
99.95% ;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

7884

Ta

0.57

210.6

1648...1933

52
Ta;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

78S4

MO

15.1

216.0

1698... 1873

52
MO;
polycrystals;
99.977% ;
diffusion couple method and scanning laser mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

84Sl

0.103

160.0

1683...1818

52
W;
polycrystals;
99.977% ;
diffusion couple method and scanning laser mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

84Sl

Re

4.04.10-3

84.0

1663 ... 1943

52
Re;
polycrystals;
99.977% ;
diffusion couple method and scanning laser mass spectroscopy;
electro-mobility and effective
charge also determined

84Sl

Fe

4.10-3

71.6

1633... 1898

52
Fe;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy

79Wl

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

Solute

[Ref. p. 203

3.2.16 Impurity diffusion in actinide group metals

164
Do

10V4mzs-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

co;

52

79Wl

52
Ni;
polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy

79Wl

Matrix: thorium (Th), continued


co

4.10-j

65.3

1633... 1898

polycrystals;
99.95%;
diffusion couple method and spark
source mass spectroscopy
Ni

4 * 10-4

38.1

1633.s.1898

Matrix: protactinium (Pa) - No data available


Matrix: uranium (U)
u-uranium
u
-

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

918

polycrystals;
D determined from precipitate
dissolution

53

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

53

D = 1.77. lo-l3 m2s-l

1021.2

53

62R 1

D=3.60~10-14mZs-1
6.45. lo- rns-l
3.41 . lo-l4 m2 s-l *
5.36. lo-l4 m2 s-l
1.61 . lo-l4 m2s-
1.51 . lo-l3 m2sT1*
1.07. lo-l3 m2sT1

943
953
968.8
985.7
993
1002.5
1013

51Cr;
polycrystals;
99.993% ;
lathe sectioning
51Cr;
polycrystals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning;
* mean of two values

53

70D2

Fe

D = 8.71 . lo-i3 m2s-*


2.6.10-12m2s-1*

974
1033

5gFe;
polycrystals;
99.993% ;
lathe sectioning;
* mean of two values

53

62Rl

co

1.54.10-2

114.9

964.e. 1036

6OCo.
polycjstals;
99.98% ;
lathe sectioning

53

70D2

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

53

Fe

Dz3.10-14m2s-1

p-uranium
u
Cr

y-uranium
u
-

72Sl

Nb

4.87. 1O-2

166.0

1063...1376

g5Nb; polycrystals;
99.99%;
lathe sectioning

53

64P2

Cr

5.47.10-3

102.4

1070~~~1311 51Cr; polycrystals;


99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

53

64P2

Le Claire

Landolt-BBmsfein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031
Solute

165

3.2.16 Impurity diffusion in actinide group metals

Do

10-4m2s-

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

Matrix: uranium (y-u), continued


Mn

1.81. 1O-4

58.1

1060..+ 1212

54Mn.
polyciystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

53

64P2

Fe

2.69. 1O-4

50.3

1059... 1263

5gFe*
polydrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

53

64P2

co

3.51 . 10-4

52.6

1056... 1263

6Oco.
polyckystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

53

64P2

Ni

5.36. 1O-4

65.6

1059... 1313

63Ni;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

53

64P2

cu

1.96. 1O-3

100.7

1059... 1312

53

64P2

Au

4.86. 1O-3

127.3

1057.~. 1280

64Cu;
polycrystals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning
95Au.
polycjstals;
99.99% ;
lathe sectioning

53

61R3

Matrix: neptunium (Np) - No data available


Matrix: plutonium (pu)
S-plutonium
Pu
-

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

54

co

1.2. 10-2

53.2

617...699

6OCo;
polycrystals;
grinder sectioning

54

75Cl

Ag

D = 1.08 . lo-l4 m2 s-i

695

OAg;
polycrystals;
grinder sectioning

54

76Cl

Au

D=2.37.10-i4m2s-

713

lg8Au;
polycrystals;
grinder sectioning

54

76Cl

s-plutonium
Pu
-

seechapter 2 on self-diffusion

54

co

1.4. 10-3

41.4

757...894

6OCo.
polycrystals;
grinder sectioning

54

75C2

cu

1.0. 10-3

51.5

773...853

cu;
polycrystals;
diffusion couple method

54

76C1,
7OLl

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)


Solute

Do

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

Temperature
range
K

[Ref. p. 203

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

l*om&;

54

76Cl

lg8Au;
polycrystals;
grinder sectioning

54

76Cl

Matrix: plutonium (E-Pu), continued

Ag

4.9. 10-s

40.2

772...884

polycrystals;
grinder sectioning
Au

5.7 * 10-s

43.1

788...844

Figures for 3
c-T
1u

10-Q

I ,

T,=QXK

m2/s

-T

350

400 K

.,-10

Matrices -6Li
. ILie

m7fs
1o-'o

i-13
6

2.1,

2.6

2.8

3.040-k :

4.10-
I

2.1

I/T-

ig. 1. Li. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coeficicnts in lithium vs. reciprocal temperature. Na: [67Ml],
31: [73M2]. Ag: [73Ml], Au: [6802], Zn: [69Ml], Cd:
70011, Hg: [7001], Ga: [7001], In: (68031,Sn: [6902],
b: (69021. Sb: [6902], Bi: [6902]. Self-dimusion according

\
2.3

2.5

2.1
l/T-

2.9

I
40K.

3.3

Fig. 2. 6Li and Li. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coeficicnts vs. reciprocaltemperaturein near pure 6Li and Li
matrices.Na: [71Ll], Au: [7101]. The lines for 6Li in 6Li and
for Li in Li areestimatedfrom Li and7Li mutualdiffusion
data 171Ll].

o chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Ik Claire

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

Ref. p. 2031

-T
2*lP

m*/s T,,=454 K

-1

350

400 K
I

300
I

IO-'0 *

4mg
m*/s

300

350 K

275

10-g

Matrices : Li,7Li

167

IV"

1o-10

I
a
10-l'

IOP

10-11
IO-'3 1
2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8
l/T-

3.0

.,0-j K-1

Fig. 3. 6Li and Li. Semilogarithmic plot of Au diffusion


coefficients in 6Li (full circles) and 7Li (open circles). The
solid line indicates the analysis of 7Li data in terms of two
separate Arrhenius terms [7101].
-T
4.1og
m*/s

10-13
i

2.8

3.0

3.2
l/T-

3.4

.,o-3K-'

Fig. 4. Na. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in sodium vs. reciprocal temperature. Li: [64Nl],
K: [67Bl], Rb: [67Bl], Ag: [83Bl], Au: [69Bl], Cd: [83Bl],
In: [83Bl], Tl: [83Bl], Sn: [83Bl]. Self-diffusion according to
chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

10-g

10-1'0
I
a
IO'

+i;--I,

-T
lo-"O
m*/s

1400 K 1200

800

1000

IO-"
,o-l;

,0-l>

lo-l3
10-K

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2
l/T-

3.4

.10-j K-1

3.8

Fig. 5. K. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefticients in potassium vs. reciprocal temperature. Na: [67Bl],
Rb: [69Sl], Au: [7OSl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2
is shown for comparison.

I
a

IO.14
,0-l:

10-'E
10-l

Fig. 6. Be. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in beryllium vs. reciprocal temperature. Ce: [76Al],
V: [76Al], Nb: [76Al], Fe: [66Nl], Co: [79Gl], Ni: [70Al],
Cu: [65Dl, 74Ml], Ag: [66Nl], Au: [75Ml], Al: [76Gl].
Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
Land&-Bihstein
New Series III/26

10-l
10-l
0.60

Le Claire

0.75

0.90

1.05
l/T-

1.20

.lOK-'

1.50

[Ref. p. 203

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

168

10-l
ml/s

900K

1100K
,, ,

lOO,

-1
1000
I

900
I

800

Matrix : Co

10-2
10.3
lo-j
I lo-
a
I 10-14
Q

10-H

10-n
10-16
10-n
1lil 0

1.125

1.200

1.275
l/T -

1.350 .lO-sK- 1.5f

:ig. 7. Mg. Semilogarithmic plot ofimpurity diffusion coeficients in magnesium vs. reciprocal temperature. Be: (66Yl],
ig: [67Ll], Zn: [67Ll], In: [67Ll], Fe: [68Pl], Ni: [68Pl],
J: [68Pl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for
:omparison

10-l

10-19
0.850

0.925

1.000

1.075

1.150 .lO-sK- 1.300

Fig. 9. Ca. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in calcium vs. reciprocal temperature. Fe, Ni, U
[68Pl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for
comparison.

10-l
ml/s;

900 K

750
I

Matrix : Mg 1

,o-l; 1

I
Q

10-l3-

lo-
1.0:i

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1.30

1.3540% 1.40

Fig. 8. Mg. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coeffkients in magnesium single crystals vs. reciprocal temperature. Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb [72Cl]. Selfdiffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Le Claire

Land&BBmstein
New Series 111.l26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

169

-T
KY7 2000
10-7
2000 K

1750

1500

1500

1750 K
10-e lT
m2/s

1250

m2/s

1250

10-g
lo-8
lo-"O

I
Q
10-g

10-I'

QI 10-12

lo-lo
0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65 0.70
l/T-

0.75 .@K-'
10-13

Fig. 10. SC. Semilogarithmic plot of Fe impurity diffusion


coeffkients in scandium vs. reciprocal temperature [86Al].
10-14

-T
IC
m

1100 K
1
I
T, =

1000

900
I

lo-l5

Matrix : Ce

1ln71K

lo-;

IO

0.60

IO1-9

-10

11LOl/OMII 1

1:

I:

A)
[72011\.
Ag oh
1

I ',

CeA

I t

La\!
IO-11

0.70 0.75
1/T-

0.80 .10-3K-' 0.90

coT?3c11/-

1200 K

10-g
m2/s

X-t-M+t-Au
1)
1

1000

1100

900

h+Ag[7iCl1
1

Id,
I

0.65

Fig. 11. Y. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in hcp a-yttrium vs. reciprocal temperature. Ag and
Fe : [75M2], Ni and Co : [8201]. Self-diffusion according to
chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

IO
I
Q

;I

800

m,Ag[72011

1.

lo-"[

10-l'

-1 I

IO-12

yibcc))

0.95
4 IT

1.00

PCfcc)

I ,0-l:

Matrix : La

Stbccl

I\

, o-1:

IO-13

10-l
IO-14
0.90

0.95

1.00 1.05

1.10
l/T-

1.15

1.20 .10-3K-' 1.:


10-l'

Fig. 13. Ce. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefticients in fee y- and bee 6-cerium vs. reciprocal temperature. La: [73Dl], Gd: [76Ml], Mn: [75Dl], Fe: [73Cl,
75Dl], Co: [73Cl, 76Ml], Ag: [72Dl, 73Cl], Au: [72Dl].
Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

0.85

0.90

1.05 .lOJK-'

Fig. 12. La. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coeffkients in fee- and bee y-lanthanum vs. reciprocal temperature. Au: [69Dl], Ce: [76Fl]. Self-diffusion according to
chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Le Claire

[Ref. p. 203

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

170

-T
2 ,o.q

Ed

rn?/s

in-8

1100
1

1, =1205K

I I

1000
la,p =1068K

1200
1100
10-s m2/s n=1289 t,blll,,

900
I

I
Matrix : Pr

Matrix

-5
.I

10-q

10-s
I-

I
cl
1o-l0

: Nd

Pfbcc)
lo-[

]cc(hcp)

oi

1 I

o Mn

I 10-l

10-l
0.80
Pfbcc] 1

0.85

0.90

0.95
l/T-

1.00

:
-1104K- 110

Fig. 15. Nd. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in a- and S-neodymium vs. reciprocal temperature.
Mn: (75Dl], Fe: [75Dl].

orfhcp)

10-n
0 In
0 Lo

10-l

.Ho
-T

10-n

0.80 0.85

0.90

0.95 1.00
l/T-

. .
1.05 .lO-K- ;5

10-g

1700K

1500

1250

m2k

Fig. 14. Pr. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficicnts in hcp u- and bee L%praseodymiumvs. reciprocal
temperature. La: [69D2], Ho: [69D2]. Mn: [75Dl], Fe:
[75Dl], Co: [69D3], Cu: [7lDl], Ag: [69D3], Au: [69D3],
Au in single crystals: [SlDl], Zn: [70Dl], In: [69D2]. Selfdiffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

1o-q

lo-lo
A

10

10-n
0. 5

0.70
0.75 40-3K- I
l/TFig. 16. Er. Semilogarithmic plot of Au impurity diffusion
coeftkicnts for hexagonal erbium single crystals vs. reciprocal temperature [79Dl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2
is shown for comparison.

I.82Claire

0.60

0.65

Land&-BGmstein
New Seriec 111126

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)


-7

,o-8 2000 K

1500
I
'
m2/s T,=1940K

1250

1000
I
I
/'&=1155K

1o-7
m2/s

-I
1500
2000 K
I
11
I
T,=2125K

1000

II

Tu.p=1136K
I

I,

IF9
s'

173

P(bcc) 1 dhcp)
I
I
II

IO-"O

11 Mairix : Zr

lo-"
,o-l;

1O-l3
~I lo-l4
10-15
Si

10-1'6
IO.17

Y
Agtsc)

lo-"B
IO-'91
0.4

10-19
10-2[
0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8
l/T-

0.9

1.0

.lO-'K-'

Fig. 17. Ti. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefficients


for non-transition element impurities in titanium vs. reciprocal temperature. Be: [69Pl], Cu: [69Cl], Ag: [71Al], Al:
[76Pl, 85Rl], Sn: [65Al], Si: [86Rl], Pin a-Ti: [86Nl], Pin
S-Ti: [65Al]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown
for comparison.

, I
0.5

0.7

0.8
l/T-

0.9

1.0 40JK'

1.2

Fig. 19. Zr. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefficients


for non-transition element impurities in zirconium vs. reciprocal temperature. Matrix u-Zr: Rb: [68Sl], Be: [76Tl],
Cu: [75Hl], Ag single crystals (SC)and polycrystals: [89Vl],
Au: [71Hl], Zn: [71Hl], Al: [85R2], Sn: [59Gl], Sb: [74Hl],
S: [67Vl]. Matrix S-Zr: Rb: [68Sl], Be: [69Pl] and [76Tl],
Ag: [82Ml], Sn: [59Gl], P: [7OVl], S: [67Vl]. Self-diffusion
according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

For Fig. 18 seenext page.

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

0.6

Le Claire

172

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

[Ref. p. 203

-1
,o.q

Too0

1500
I

d/s

1250

1000

10-q

1P

10-l'

10-'2

~I lo-l3

lo-&

lo-l5

10-16

10"

10-nL
cL5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1.lO-K- 1.2

l/TFig. 18. Ti. Semilogarithmic plot ofdiffusion coefftcients for transition element
impurities in titanium vs. reciprocal temperature. Matrix a-Ti: Mn: [88N2],
Fe: [83Nl], Co: [85Nl, 85N2], Ni: [85N2], U: [78Fl]. Matrix P-Ti: SC:[71Al],
Zr: [67Pl], V: [64Ml], Nb: [63Gl], Ta: [66Al], Cr: [63Gl], MO: [63Gl],
W: [67Pl], Mn: [63Gl], Fe: [63Gl], Co: [63Gl], Ni: [63Gl], U: [78Fl],
Pu: [71L2]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Le Claire

Land&-B6mstein
New series III!26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

1500
I

ZOOOK
I
r, = 2125K

lo-*
d/s

I
T

1000
I

ti,P

! I w&J

800
1

Matrix : Zr
I

1136K

1U9

173

ICP

IO-"
,o-l;

1
Q

IL?

lo-"C

IO"

I I

lo-'C

/3(bccl
I

I iI T3Y1

10-1'1

lo-'1
1o-l!

t#
0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

m
0.8
l/T-

0.9

1.0

1.1

-10" K-'

1.3

Fig. 20. Zr. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefficients for transition element impurities in zirconium vs. reciprocal temperature. Matrix cL-Zr: Ce:
[68P2], Ti: [74Hl], V: [68Al], Nb: [68Dl], Ta: [58Bl], Cr: [83B2], MO: [68P2],
Mn: [73Tl], Fe: [88N2], Co: [81Kl], Ni: [72Hl, 87H2]. Self-diffusion in cL-Zr
according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison. Matrix p-Zr: Ce: [68P2],
Hf: [87H3], V: [68Al], Nb: [63Fl], Ta: [58Bl], Cr: [79Nl], MO: [68P2],
W: [67Pl], Mn: [73Tl], Fe: [87Hl], Co: [69Kl], U: [71Fl].

Land&-Bknstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

174

0.L

05

0.6

0.7
l/T-

-lo5 K-

0.8

[Ref. p. 203

1.0

Fig. 21. Hf. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficicnts in hafnium vs. reciprocal tcmpcraturc. Cr: [76Dl],
Co: [76Dl], Al: [85R2]. Self-diffusion according tochapter 2
is shown for comparison.
-T
10-10

2000K
1

1750
I
I

1500
I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

m%

1250
I

10-l
,o-l;

, 0 -1:

10-n
t

,0-l!

10.
10-l
10-u
,o -1:

0 i

\I

0.80 .W3K- 0.90

Fig. 22. V. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coeftkients in vanadium


vs. reciprocal lempcrature. Ti: [68Ml, 78Pl], Zr: [84Pl], Ta: [77Pl], Cr:
[64Wl], Fe: [65P3, 81Al], Co: [7SPl], Ni: [86Pl], Al: [85Ml], P: [7OVl],
S: [69Vl], U: [71F2]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison
Le Claire

Land&-BCmrlein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2031

175

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)


-T
2500 K 2250
IF9
I
I
m2/s r,=27LOK
I
I

2000

1500
I

1750
I

Matrix : Nb

hNi-l72All

\i

10-l'

1O-'6

10-19
\

A,\

1o-2o
1o-n
0.35

0.10

0.45

0.50

0.55
l/T-

0.60

0.65

0.70

.103 K-'

0.80

Fig. 23. Nb. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in niobium

vs. reciprocal temperature.Y: [71Gl], Ti: [70Rl, 7OP3], Zr: [70Rl, 78El],
V: [70Rl, 68Al], Ta: [65Ll], Cr: [69P2], MO: [70Rl, 73Fl], W: [69F2, 70Rl],
Fe: [62Pl, 77Al], Co: [76P2, 77A1, 62Pl], Ni: [72Al, 77Al], Cu: [77Al],
Sn: [65A3], P: [68Vl], S: [68V2], U: [65Pl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&Bihstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

176

[Ref. p. 203

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)


-1
lo-
nn'/s

I-

I,=

2500 K 2250 2000

^^L..
jLWK

II

1750

II

1500
II
I

1250
I

Matrix : la
1U
lo-
1o5
10

Y\\
\

~I 10-l

I
\

lo-8

I I I IW

lo-9

I
I

IIlo-O

1o-23
0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75 .lO-K- 0

l/TFig. 24. Ta. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in tantalum


vs. reciprocal temperature. Y: [71Gl], Nb: [65P2], MO: [68Bl], Fe: [55Vl,
76A2], Co: [76A2], Ni: [76A2], S: [69Vl], U: [71F2, 77Sl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
-T

Fig. 25. Cr. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefftcicnts in chromium vs. reciprocal temperature.V: [76M2],
MO: [6362], Fe: [64Wl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter
2 is shown for comparison.

Le Claire

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60
l/T-

0.65

0.70 .lOK- 0.80

Iandolt-B6mstein
Nen Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

I".10

177

2500 K
2893
:s I

\[\\

l.\I\

\I

I
Irl71Mll
\ I

lo-'"
10-1'9
10-20
0.35

0.40

045

0.50

0.55

0.60
l/T-

0.65

0.70

0.75

.10-K-

0.85

Fig. 26. MO. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in molybdenum vs. reciprocal temperature. Li: [77Ll], Y: [71Gi], V: [72Rl], Nb: [65A4,
72R1, 73Fl], Ta: [68Bl, 72Rl], Cr: [68Bl, 71Mi], W: [74El], Re: [64B2],
Fe: [73Nl], Co: [65A4, 68Bl], Ni: [71M2], P: [68Vl], S: [68V3], U: [65Pl,
71F2]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&-BGmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

178

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

10-23
0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50
l/T-

0.55 0.60

[Ref. p. 203

0.65 010-~K-0.75

Fig. 27. W. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in tungsten


vs. reciprocal tcmpcrature. Y:[71Gl],Nb: [69P4],Ta: [69P4,84Al],Cr:[89Kl],
MO: [89Kl], Re: [65AS, 67L2, 84Al], Fe: [55Vl], OS: [84Al], Co: [89Ll],
Ir: [84Al], Ni: (79M2]. P: [7811], S: [7211], U: [68Sl]. Self-diffusion according
to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Fig 28. Fe. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion co- b


efficients for non-transition element solutes in iron vs. reciprocal temperature. Be in a- and &Fe: [68G2], Be in y-Fe:
[68Gl], Cu in y-Fe: ]66Sl, 68R1,77S2,78Ml], Cu in a-p-Fe:
[7782, 68Rl], Cu in a-f-Fe: [77S2], Ag in a-p-Fe: [71Bl,
73El], Ag in a-f-Fe: [73El], Au in a-Fe: [63Bl], Zn in a-pFe: [81Rl], Sn in a-f-Fe: [72T2,84Hl], Sn in a-p-Fe: [72T2],
Sn in y-Fe: [75M3, 86Kl], P in a-f-Fe: [81Ll, 83Ml], P in
a-p-Fe: [83Ml], P in y-Fe: [64M2], As in y-Fe: [76B4], Sb in
a-f-Fe: [78M2], Sb in a-p-Fe: [75Bl], S in a-Fe: [72Gl], S in
a-f-Fe: [86A2], S in y-Fe: [71H2].
Ik Claire

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III;26

-T
1750 K
10-g ,,
,
mi/,l~i.=l~09K

1500
I~~~,~=1~63K( I I

I1

I1

1250
I1

,I
~~~,p=11B3K

1000
I
T,= 1043K
I

I;

I
Be

lo-"0

II
I
I

I
Iv-Fe/

I
I

II
II

900
I

800
I

Matrix : Fe

I
I
w-D-Fe

I I
II

Be+\
Ii \

oCuI77S21
Au[63Bll

l/T -

I
I

-.

I
n-f-Fe

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

180

[Ref. p. 203

9
- Ii!

sss-11
.-zzu.- 0
. a0

---

9
L

Le Claire

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

Ref. p. 2031

10-1:

1200 K

1100

1000

800

900

m*/s
IF"

10.1:

10-'f

10.1;

~I

IO"

~~-1"

lo-*(

10-2

10-2;

,o-2:

0.9

1.0

1.1
l/T-

1.2

1.3 .105 K-' 1.4

Fig. 30. Fe. Semilogarithmic plot of Co impurity diffusion coefficients in c1iron vs. reciprocal temperature showing the influence of the magnetic transition
[63Bl, 66J1, 82M2, 89Hl]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for
comparison.

4 Fig. 29. Fe. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients for transition element solutes in iron vs. reciprocal
temperature. Hf in y-Fe: [65Sl, 70Bl], V in y-Fe: [87Gl], V
in u-p-Fe: [87Gl], Nb in a-p-Fe: [85Gl], Nb in y-Fe: [85Gl],
CT in or-p-Fe:[89Hl], Mn in U-p-Fe and &Fe : [73K2], Mn in
a-p-Fe: [7212], Mn in a-f-Fe and y-Fe: [70Nl], Co in u-Fe:
[82M2, 84Kl], Co in y-Fe: [75H2, 69B2], Co in &Fe: [63B2,
66511,Ni in a-Fe: [89Cl, 63B1, 6lHl], Ni in y-Fe: [69B2,
6lH1, 78Hl], Pd in y-Fe: [77Fl], Pt in y-Fe: [73M3].
Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire

181

[Ref. p. 203

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

182

-T
1750K
10 A
lm=1768K
mT/

1500
I

1250
A
1, = 1393K

11cIO
I

MCh X ..

co

lo-

f-Co

10-l

lo-
I
Q

1o-

lo-

10

lo0.60

0.70

0.75
l/l-

0.80

0.85

0.90 -10 K

Fig. 31. Co. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in cobalt


vs. reciprocal temperature. V: [86K2], Mn: [7711], Fe: [65A7, 69B2, 74B2],
Ni: [62Hl, 65H1, 69B2], Pt: [73M3], Cu: [84A2], Zn: [74B2], S: [64Pl]. Selfdiffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Le Claire

Landolt-Btimstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)


-T
1600K

1500
I

1400
I

1300
I

1200
I

Matrix : Ni

2.10-;;5

I
0.60

I
0.65

I
0.70
l/T-

I
0.75

I
0.80

\
1
0.85.lO"K-' 0.90

Fig. 32. Ni. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in nickel vs.
reciprocal temperature. S: [75Vl], Te: [89Nl], Sb: [76Vl], In: [78V2], As: [79V2],
Sn: [79Vl], Ag: [78Vl], Cu: [84Tl], Ge: [83M2], Fe: [71B2], Co: [78V3],
W: [78V3]. For temperature ranges of the measurementssee section 3.2.10. Selfdiffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

183

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

184

-1
1600K 1LOO
lLO0 1200
I
1
l,= 1728K

lCig
lo-g
d/s

800
I
,o.,o

Matrix : Ni

I
10-l

1000

[Ref. p. 203

2000K 16001400

d/s

\
10-13

10-16

10-M
It

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

a9
l/T-

1.0

1.1 .lO-jK- 1.3

Fig. 33. Ni. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in nickel vs. reciprocal temperature including microsectioning measurements. Al: [81G2]. Two-exponential
fits for In in Ni [88N3] and Ni in Ni [86N2].

lo-LL
0.4

0.6

I !
l/T -

10-73

1.0 .105K- 1.2

Fig. 34. Pd and Pt. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in palladium and platinum vs. reciprocal
temperature. Fe in Pd: [77Fl], Au in Pt: [78Rl]. For temperature ranges of the measurementsseesection 3.2.10.Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison. The
left hand D scalerefers to Pt and the right hand D scale refers
to Pd.

Neumann

htdolbB6mstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90
l/T-

0.95

1.00

.10-j K-1

185

1.10

Fig. 35. Cu. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in copper


vs. reciprocal temperature for various slow diffusing impurities. Au: [60Nl],
Fe: [58Ml], Co: [58Ml], Pd: [63Pl], Ni: [58Ml], Rh: [72F2], Pt: [82Nl],
Ru: [73Bl], Ir: [78Kl]. For temperature ranges of the measurementsseesection
3.2.11. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

186

-10

10
mIS y-&L

10

10

-I

1000

1300K

I
1

F
F
--II
I

[Ref. p. 203

Matrix : Cu

tPb

S
ib
\

1
2

10

10

10

K- 1
l/lFig. 36. Cu. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coeffcicnts in copper
vs. reciprocal tempcraturc for various fast diffusing impurities. S: [69M2],
Pb: [77Gl], Sb: [6011], Sn: [73Gl], Cd: (58Hl], Hg: [60Nl], Ge: [70R2],
Mn: [73F2]. Be: [73F3]. For temperature rangesofthcmeasurements seesection
3.2.11. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
I

Neumann

Land&-BBmsfein
New Series Ill!26

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

Ref. p. 2031

187

2x-"
mVs
IO-"

\
\

lo-li

%Zn
\
\
,o-l:

t
cl

10-14

,0-l'

10-If
0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90
l/T-

0.95

1.00

.I0 K-'

1.10

Fig. 37. Cu. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in copper


vs. reciprocal temperature for various fast diffusing impurities. Bi: [77Gl],
Se: [89Rl], Te: [89Rl], Tl: [63Kl], P: [76Sl], In: [7262],As: [60Nl], Si: [73F3],
Ag: [60Nl], Ga: [77F2], Zn: [57Hl], AI: [73F4]. For temperature ranges of the
measurementsseesection 3.2.11. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown
for comparison.

LandolGB6mstein
New Series III126

Neumann

188

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

lo-lo
In/:

13001200K1100 1000

-T
900

800

700

[Ref. p. 203

600

10
,o-l;

,o-l!

lo-l4
lo-l5
10-16
QI 10
lo-B
lo-9
l0-m
10-n
10-n
lo-
10-2;
0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2
l/T-

1.3

1.4

1.5 .lOJK- 1.7

Fig. 38. Cu. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in copper


vs. reciprocal temperature including microsectioning measurements.Au: [60Ni,
87Fl]. Two-exponential fits for In, Co, Ni in Cu: [88N3] and Cu in Cu: [86N2].

Neumann

Land&-B6mstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

1200K

4w'

-T
3
1001

1100

m2h
,o":

900

800

10-l"

1II-l4

\
\

\
\1

aI 10-l'

1
\

IP

lo-l7

lo-'[

24-

!L.Io-3
K-11..

0.

0.85
l/T-

Fig. 39. Ag. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in silver vs.
reciprocal temperature. Ge: [58H2], Sb: [54Sl], Al: [75F2], Hg: [57Sl],
Cr: [SINI], Fe: [61Ml], Co: [73Bl], Au: [63Ml], Pd: [63Pl], Pt: [82Nl].
For temperature ranges of the measurements see section 3.2.11. Self-diffusion
according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

LandchB6mstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

189

190

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

[Ref. p. 203

-1

1200K

1100

1000

900

800

2
10-IS
8
6
4

0.85

0.90

0.95

1.00 1.05 l.lO


1.15 .@K- 1.25
l/lFig. 40. Ag. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coeftkicnts in silver vs.
reciprocal temperature. Se: [89Rl], Te: [8762], Ga: [77F2], Tl: [5882], Sn:
[54Tl], In: [54Tl, 84Ml], Zn: [67Rl], Cd: [54Tl], Cu: [57Sl]. For temperature
ranges of the measurementsseesection 3.2.11.Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Neumann

Landoh-Bbmstein
New Series III126

Ref. p. 2031

191

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90
l/T-

0.95

1.00

1.05 .W3 K-'

1.15

Fig. 41. Au. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in gold vs.
reciprocal temperature. Te: [89Rl], Ge: [77Cl], Al: [78F3], Sn: [72H2],
Hg:.[65Ml], In: [71D2], Zn: [77Cl], Fe: [77F3], Cu: [66Vi], Ag: [74H2],
Co: [78H2], Ni: [76F2], Pd: [78F2], Pt: [78F2]. For temperature ranges of the
measurements seesection 3.2.11. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown
for comparison.

Land&Bhstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

192

3 Diffusion

of impurities

in solid metallic

elements (Figures)

[Ref. p. 203

l/IFig. 42. Zn. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefficients for slow diffusing
impurities parallel (II) and perpendicular (I) to the hexagonal c axis in zinc vs.
reciprocal temperature. Ag: [61Rl], Cu: [66B2], Au: [6363], Ni: [67M2]. For
temperature ranges of measurementsseesection 3.2.12.Self-diffusion according
to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Neumann

Landolt-B6mstein
New series III/26

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

Ref. p. 2031

193
1

6.1rP
m*/:

I
m=

650 K
,

550

500

c 93K

+z-!T
\

-11

IO

5
\

-Cd Ilc t

nlc
\

In Ilc

\
\
,pi
4

I
Q

Golc
,p

t
Snlc
\
\$7 Ilc
IF"

2.104
1.6
l/T-

Fig. 43. Zn. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefficients for fast diffusing
impurities parallel (11)and perpendicular (I) to the hexagonal c axis in zinc vs.
reciprocal temperature. Sn: [7OW2], In: [61Rl], Cd: [6363], Ga: [66B2],
Hg: [67B3]. For temperature ranges of the measurements see section 3.2.12.
Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

194

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

540-1lT?/s

550K
I1
= 59 K

[Ref. p. 203

51 -

lo- \
ih.
10-n -

blc
\

%
$
g IIC g

IC

lo-J-

\n Ilc

h
s
\\
$1

nlc,

\\

~I lo-h-

\u IIC
105---

\
\\

10-K~

10-l -

lo-B1.6

2.1
.l/l-

2.2

2.3

\L
2A *ll (-1 ;

Fig. 44. Cd. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients parallel (]I)
and pcrpcndicular (I) to the hexagonal c axis in cadmium vs. reciprocal temperature. Pb: [81Yl], In: [72Ml], Hg: [72Ml], Zn: [72Ml], Ag: [72Ml], Au:
[72Ml]. For temperature ranges of the measurements see section 3.2.12. Selfdiffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Neumann

Landolf-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

&.\..,

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

IA

1.5

I.6 W3K4 1.7

l/T-

Fig. 45. Al. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefficients for slow diffusing
impurities in aluminum vs. reciprocal temperature. Co: [7OP4], Cu: [7OP4],
Ni: [78E2], Mn: [71H3], Cr: [7OP4]. For temperature ranges of the measurements see section 3.2.13. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for
comparison.

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

195

196

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

l.,. -,,, , 9;OK ,

8;O

70,D,

[Ref. p. 203

lo-l5
e
6

&lo-6
1.05

1.15

1.25

1.35
l/1 -

1.45

1.55.10-3K-165

Fig. 46. Al. Scmilogarithmic plot of diffusion cocfficicnts for fast diffusing impurities in aluminum vs. reciprocal tcmpcraturc. Sn: [90El], In: [71H4],
Cd: [70A3], Cc: [7OP4], Ga: [7OP4], Zn: [83B3], Au: [7OP4], Ag: [7OP4],
Mg: [74Rl]. Li: [87Ml]. For tcmpcraturc ranges of the mcasurcmcnts set
section 3.2.13. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Neumann

Landok-Rihstein
New Seric~ Ill.26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)


-T

K 400
-9 425
I
I
/s T,,=430K

197

-T

350
I

375
I

325
I

10-g m2/s

550K

FiOCI

-10

400
I 1

450

, )
7K

Matrix : TI

1oo

10.

-11 _

IO'

10-l'

10.

IO-12
,I'

1
-10

~1.lo-l3

-13 _

lo-

10-14

lo--15_

10-15

IO-16 _

lo-l6

lo- 17
2.3[I

2 5

2.60

2.75

2.90

-IO-%

IO7
1.:

l/T-

1.85

2.1

2.15

2.30

40 K- 2.60

l/T -

Fig. 47. In. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients parallel (I]) and perpendicular (I) to the tetragonal c
axis in indium vs. reciprocal temperature. Au: [66A2],
Ag: [66A2], Tl: [52El]. For temperature ranges of the measurements see section 3.2.13. Self-diffusion
according to
chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

Fig. 48. Tl. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in bee S-thallium and hexagonal a-thallium parallel
(I]) and perpendicular (I) to the c axis vs. reciprocal temperature. Au: [68A2], Ag: [68A2]. For temperature ranges of the
measurements see section 3.2.13. Self-diffusion according to
chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Neumann

198

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)

[Ref. p. 203

-1
500 K

10-l
ml

LOO

i0
-

350
I

Matrix : Sn

VI-

Sn 11
i

10

1
I

lo-

lgIIC
\
$
4 \k
\
nlc

\
t\

I
-10-

lo-

lo-

lo-

lo1.9

2.0

2s

Fig. 49. Sn. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients parallel (]I)
and perpendicular (I) to the tetragonal c axis in tin vs. reciprocal temperature.
In: [SSSl], Cd: [7483], Hg: [72Wl], Sb: [71H5]. For temperature ranges of the
measurementsseesection 3.2.14. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown
for comparison.

Neumann

Land&-B6mstein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2031

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements(Figures)


-1
10-;
m2/!

500K

450

400

350

lo-' I

IV9I-

10-"[I

10-l'I_

pI

2-

10-l': 3-

10-l'

10-l' I_

10-l'I-

,o-l; ,

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4
2.5 2.6
2.7 .lOJK- ;
l/T Fig. 50. Sn. Semilogarithmic plot of diffusion coefftcients for fast diffusing
impurities parallel (II) and perpendicular (I) to the tetragonal c axis in tin vs.
reciprocal temperature. Ni: [84Yl], Cu: [67D2], Au: [66D2], Ag: [66D2],
Zn: [74H3]. For temperature ranges of the measurements see section 3.2.14.
Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Neumann

200

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

10d1

600K

550

[Ref. p. 203

jO0

10-

\
\
3
?

lfi

1.cu

-&h

10

~t lo-

\
\
16

t
\
\

lo-

\
\

10-l

Sn

\2.2 ;
26
24 .lO K- 2.6
l/T Fig. 51. Pb. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion cocfkients in lead vs.
reciprocal temperature. Cu: [75D3], Pd: [75D2], Au: [79D3], Pt: [8OVl],
Ni: [73C2], Zn: [77Dl], Ag: (82823, Cd: [77Vl], Hg: [77Vl], Sn: [77D2],
Tl: (61R2]. For temperature ranges of the measurements xc section 3.2.14.
Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
10

1.6

1.7

1.6

Neumann

Landoll-BBmslein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2031

201

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)


-T
10
rn;

00 K 1800

1700
I

,=2028d 1

160CI

1500
I I
&=I633 K

I
Matrix : Th

-Ia(fcc)

10

+I-- Fe
0
I

rNi

b:IO-m2/s

I 10
Q

10-1'5

IO

\
1O-18
0.80

0.85

10

0.70

0.65 . I-

0.90

.10-3K- 1.

0.95

0.8040-3KK
0.85

0.75

.I//-

Fig. 52. Th. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in thorium vs. reciprocal temperature. a-Th: Fe:
[79Wl], Co: [79Wl], Ni: [79Wl], Pa: [67Sl], U: [67Sl]. Selfdiffusion according to chapter 2 is also shown for comparison. S-Th: Zr: [84Sl], Hf: [65Rl], Nb: [78S4], Ta: [7834],
MO: [84Sl], W: [84Sl], Fe: [79Wl], Co: [79Wl], Re: [84Sl],
Ni: [79Wl], V: [78S4].

For Fig. 53 seenext page.

Fig. 54. Pu. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in plutonium vs. reciprocal temperature. &Pu:
Co: [75Cl], Ag: [76Cl], Au: [76Cl]. Self-diffusion according
to chapter 2 is shown for comparison. a-Pu: Co: [75C2],
Cu: [76Cl], Ag: [76Cl], Au: [76Cl]. Self-diffusion according
to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
Land&Bhnstein
New Series III/26

10

10

Le Claire

1.2

1.3
l/T-

1.4

1.5

.10-3K-' I:

202

3 Diffusion of impurities in solid metallic elements (Figures)

1300K

1Cl-!

1200

1000

1100

[Ref. p. 203

900

m2/:

10-

Matr

10

~t lo-

10
e
,
i

lo-

lo-

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

1.00

1.05 -110-3K- 1.15

l/T-

Fig. 53. U. Semilogarithmic plot of impurity diffusion coefficients in uranium


vs.reciprocaltemperature.a-U: Fe: [72Sl]; 0-U: Cr: [70D2,62Rl], Fe: [62Rl],
Co: [70D2]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for comparison.
y-U: Nb: [64PZ], Cr: [64P2], Mn: [64P2], Fe: [64P2], Co: [64P2], Ni: [64P2],
Cu: [64P2], Au: [61R3]. Self-diffusion according to chapter 2 is shown for

Le Claire

Landolt-B&nstein
New Series III/26

3.3 References for 3

203

3.3 References for 3


52El
54Sl
54Tl
55Hl
55Kl
55Ml
55Sl
55Vl
56Al
56Jl
57Hl
57Ml
57Rl
57Sl
58Bl
58Hl
58H2
58Ml
58Sl
59Gl
5911
59Ml
59Pl
6011
60Nl
61Al
61Hl
61H2
61Ml
61Rl
61R2
61R3
61Sl
62Dl
62Hl
62Pl
62Rl
63Bl
63B2
63Fl
63Gl
6362
6303
63Kl
63Ml
63Pl
64Bl
64B2

Eckert, R.E., Drickamer, H.G. : J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 13.


Sonder, E., Slifkin, L.M., Tomizuka, C.T.: Phys. Rev. 93 (1954) 97.
Tomizuka, C.T., Slifkin, L.M.: Phys. Rev. 96 (1954) 610.
Hoffman, R.E., Turnbull, D., Hart, E.W: Acta Metall. 3 (1955) 417.
Kurtz, A.D., Averbach, B.L., Cohen, M. : Acta Metall. 3 (1955) 442.
Mead, H.W., Birchenall, C.E.: Trans. AIME 203 (1955) 994.
Sawatzky, A., Jaumot, F.E.: Phys. Rev. 100 (1955) 1627.
Vasilev, YP., Kamardin, V.I., Skatskii, S.G., Chermomorchenko, S.G., Schuppe, G.N. : Tr. Stredneaziat Gos. Univ. Lenina 65 (1955) 47.
Ascoli, A., Germagnoli, E., Mongini, L.: Nuovo Cimento 4 (1956) 123.
Jaumot, F.E., Sawatzky, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 27 (1956) 1186.
Hino, J., Tomizuka, C.T., Wert, C.A.: Acta Metall. 5 (1957) 41.
Mead, H.W., Birchenall, C.E.: Trans. AIME 209 (1957) 874.
Reynolds, J.E., Averbach, B.L., Cohen, M. : Acta Metall. 5 (1957) 29.
Sawatzky, A., Jaumot, F.E.: Trans. AIME 209 (1957) 1207.
Borisov, E.V., Godin, YuG., Gruzin, P.L., Eustyukhin, A.I., Emelyanov, VS. : Met. Met. Izdatel
Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow 1958; Translation: NP-TR-448 1960,196.
Hirone, T., Kunitomi, N., Sakamoto, M., Yamaki, H.: J. Phys. Sot. Jpn. 13 (1958) 838.
Hoffman, R.E.: Acta Metall. 6 (1958) 95.
Mackliet, C.A.: Phys. Rev. 109 (1958) 1964.
Sawatzky, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 29 (1958) 1305.
Gruzin, P.L., Emelyanov, VS., Ryabova, G.G., Federov, G.B.: 2nd Geneva Conf. Proc. 19 (1959)
187.
Ikushima, A.: J. Phys. Sot. Jpn. 14 (1959) 1636.
MacEwan, J.R., MacEwan, J.U., Yaffe, L. : Can J. Chem. 37 (1959) 1629.
Pierce, C.B., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. 114 (1959) 686.
Inman, M.C., Barr, L.W.: Acta Metall. 8 (1960) 112.
Nachtrieb, N.H., Tomizuka, C.T., Schulz, L.G.: Report AFOSR-TR-60-23, The University of Chicago, U.S.A. 1960.
Ascoli, A.: J. Inst. Met. 89 (1961) 218.
Hirano, K.-I., Cohen, M., Averbach, B.L.: Acta Metall. 9 (1961) 440.
Hirone, T., Miura, S., Suzuoka, T.: J. Phys. Sot. Jpn. 16 (1961) 2456.
Mullen, J.G.: Phys. Rev. 121 (1961) 1649.
Rosolowski, J.H.: Phys. Rev. 124 (1961) 1828.
Resing, H.A., Nachtrieb, N.H. : J. Phys. Chem. Solids 21 (1961) 40.
Rothman, S.J.: J. Nucl. Mater. 3 (1961) 77.
Suzuoka, T.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 2 (1961) 176.
DonzC, G., Le Hazif, R., Maurice, F., Dutilloy, D., Adda, Y: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 254 (1962)
2328.
Hirano, K.-I., Agarwala, R.P., Averbach, B.L., Cohen, M. : J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1962) 3049.
Peart, R.F., Graham, D., Tomlin, D.H.: Acta Metall. 10 (1962) 519.
Rothman, S.J., Peterson, N.L., Moore, S.A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 7 (1962) 212.
Borg, R.J., Lai, D.Y.F.: Acta Metall. 11 (1963) 861.
Borg, R.J., Lai, D.Y.F., Krikorian, O.H.: Acta Metall. 11 (1963) 867.
Federer, J.I., Lundy, T.S.: Trans. Met. Sot. AIME 227 (1963) 592.
Gibbs, G.B., Graham, D., Tomlin, D.H. : Philos. Mag. 8 (1963) 1269.
Gruzin, P.L., Zemskii, S.V., Rodina, I.B.: Metall. Metalloved. Chist. Met. 4 (1963) 243 (A.E.R.E.
Transl. 1032, 1965).
Ghate, P.B.: Phys. Rev. 131 (1963) 174.
Komura, S., Kunitomi, N.: J. Phys. Sot. Jpn. 18 Supp. II (1963) 208.
Mallard, W.C., Gardner, A.B., Bass, R.F., Slifkin, L.M. : Phys. Rev. 129 (1963) 617.
Peterson, N.L.: Phys. Rev. 132 (1963) 2471.
Bokshtein, S.Z., Bronfin, M.B., Kishkin, S.T.: Diffusion ProcessesStructure and Property of Metals,
Moscow 1964, p. 16; Translation: New York: Consultants Bureau 1965.
Bronfin, M.B.: Diffusion ProcessesStructure and Properties of Metals, Moscow 1964, p. 24; Translation: New York: Consultants Bureau 1965.

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire, Neumann

204
64Ml
64M2
64M3
64M4
64M5
64Nl
64Pl
64P2
64SI
64Wl
65Al
65A2
65A3
65A4
65AS
65A6
65Al
65A8
65C1
65Dl
65Gl
65Hl
65Kl
65L1
65Ml
65Pl
65P2
65P3
65Rl
65Sl
66Al
66A2
66A3
66Bl
66B2
66D1
66D2
66J1
66Kl
66Ll
66Nl
66Sl
66Vl
66Yl
67A1
67Bl
67B2
67B3
67Dl

3.3 References for 3


Murdock, J.F., Lundy, T.S., Stansbury, E.E.: Acta Metall. 12 (1964) 1033.
Mural, V.V., Gruzin, P.L.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 17 (1964) 792; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English
Transl.) 17 (5) (1964) 154.
Monma, K., Suto, H., Oikawa, H.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 28 (1964) 188.
Monma. K., Suto, H., Oikawa, H.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 28 (1964) 192.
Monma, K., Suto, H., Oikawa, H.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 28 (1964) 197.
Naumov, A.N.: Fiz. Tverd. Tela 6 (1964) 2517; Sov. Phys. Solid State (English Transl.) 6 (1964) 1997.
Pavlyuchenko, M.M., Kononyuk, I.F.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk Belorussk. SSR 8 (1964) 157.
Peterson. N.L., Rothman, S.J.: Phys. Rev. A 136 (1964) 842.
Sato, K.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 5 (1964) 91.
Wolfe, R.A., Paxton, H.W.: Trans. Met. Sot. AIME 230 (1964) 1426.
Askill, J., Gibbs, G.B.: Phys. Status Solidi 11 (1965) 557 (Contains recalculated values of Ds and Qs
from the measurementson Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, and MO reported in [63Gl]. However, since these
seem.in some cases,to give a much inferior representation of the original data, none is quoted).
Aganvala, R.P., Murarka. S.P.; Anand, MS.: Trans. Met. Sot. ATME 233 (1965) 986.
Askill, J.: Phys. Status Solidi 9 (1965) K 167.
Askill, J., in: Diffusion in Body-Centered CubicMetals, Am. Sot. Met. 1965, p. 247.
Andelin. R.L., Knight, J.D., Kahn, M.: Trans. Met. Sot. AIME 233 (1965) 19.
Askill, J.: Phys. Status Solidi 9 (1965) K113.
Aucouturier, M., Lacombe, P.: Cobalt No. 28 (1965) 1.
Anand, M.S., Murarka, S.P., Agarwala, R.P.: J. Appl. Phys. 36 (1965) 3860.
Curtin, H.R., Decker, D.L., Vanfleet, H.B. : Phys. Rev. 139 (1965) A 1552.
Dupouy, J.M., Mathie, J., Adda, Y.: Proc. Int. Conf. Metallurgy of Be. Grenoble 1965, p. 159.
Graham. D.,in:DiffusioninBody-CenteredCubicMetals,Cleveland,U.S.A.:Am.Soc.Met.l%S,p.27.
Hassner, A., Lange, W.: Phys. Status Solidi 8 (1965) 77.
Klotsman, S.M., Arkhipova, N.K., Timofeyev, A.N., Trakhtenberg, ISh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 20
(1965) 390; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 20 (3) (1965) 70.
Lundy, T.S., Winslow, F.R., Pawel, R.E., McHargue, C.J.: Trans. Met. Sot. AIME 233 (1965) 1533.
Mortlock, A.J., Rowe, A.H.: Philos. Mag. 11 (1965) 1157.
Pavlinov, L.U., Nakonechnikov, A.I., Bykov, V.N.: Sov. J. At. Energy (English Transl.) 19 (1965)
1495.
Pawel. R.E., Lundy, T.S.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 937.
Peart. R.F.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 1853.
Rothman, S.J., Peterson, N.L., in: Diffusion in Body-Centered Cubic Metals, Am. Sot. Met. 1965,
p. 183.
Sparke, B., James.D.W., Leak, G.M.: J. Iron Steel Inst. 203 (1965) 152.
Askill. J.: Phys. Status Solidi 16 (1966) K63.
Anthony, T.R., Turnbull, D.: Phys. Rev. 151 (1966) 495.
Ascoli, A., Bollani, B., Guardi, C., Kustidic, D.: Phys. Rev. 141 (1966) 732.
Borisov, V.T., Golikov, V.M., Sherbedinskiy, G.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 22 (1966) 159; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 22 (1) (1966) 175.
Batra. A.P., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. 145 (1966) 542.
Dyson, B.F., Anthony, T.R., Turnbull, D.: J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 2370.
Dyson, B.F.: J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 2375.
James,D.W., Leak, G.M.: Philos. Mag. 14 (1966) 701.
Kidson, G.V.: Philos. Mag. 13 (1966) 247.
Lal, K., Levy, V.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 262 (1966) 107.
Naik, M.C., Dupouy, J.M., Adda. Y: Mtm. Sci. Rev. Metal!. 63 (1966) 488.
Speich, G.R., Gula, J.A., Fisher, R.M., in: The Electron Microprobe, New York: Wiley 1966,p. 525.
Vignes. A., Haeussler, J.P.: M&m. Sci. Rev. Metall. 63 (1966) 1091; C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 263
(1966) 1504.
Yerko, V.F., Zelenskiy, V.F., Krasnorutskiy, V.S.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 22 (1966) 112; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 22 (1) (1966) 112.
Askill, J.: Phys. Status Solidi 23 (1967) K21.
Barr, L.W., Mundy, J.N., Smith, EA.: Philos. Mag. 16 (1967) 1139.
Barbouth, N., Oudar, J., CabanC,J.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 264 (1967) 1029.
Batra, A.P., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. 154 (1967) 569.
De Keroulas, F., Mary, J., QuCrC,J.: J. Nucl. Mater. 22 (1967) 276.
Le Claire, Neumann

3.3 References for 3


67D2
67Hl
67Kl
67K2
67Ll
67L2
67Ml
67M2
67Pl
67P2
67P3
67Rl
67%
67Vl
68Al
68A2
68Bl
68B2
68B3
68B4
68Cl
68Dl
68Gl
6862
68Kl
68Ml
68M2
6801
6802
6803
68Pl
68P2
68Rl
68Sl
68Vl
68V2
68V3
69Bl
69B2
69B3
69Cl
69Dl
69D2
69D3
69Fl
69F2
69Kl

205

Dyson, B.F., Anthony, T.R., Turnbull, D. : J. Appl. Phys. 38 (1967) 3408.


Hirschwald, W., Schrodter, W.: Z. Phys. Chem. N. F. 53 (1967) 392.
Kaygorodov, V.N., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K. : Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 24 (1967) 117; Phys.
Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 24 (1) (1967) 115.
Kaygorodov, V.N., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 24 (1967) 661; Phys.
Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 24 (4) (1967) 78.
Lal, K.: CEA Report R 3136, 1967.
Larikov, L.M., Tyshkevich, V.M., Chorna, L.F. : Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 12 (1967) 983.
Mundy, J.N., Ott, A., LBwenberg, L.: Z. Naturforsch. 22a (1967) 2113.
Mortlock, A.J., Ewens, P.M.: Phys. Rev. 156 (1967) 814.
Pavlinov, L.V. : Fiz. Met. Metalloved 24 (1967) 272; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 24 (2)
(1967) 70.
Peart, R.F.: Phys. Status Solidi (1967) 545.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.: Phys. Rev. 154 (1967) 558.
Rothman, S.J., Peterson, N.L.: Phys. Rev. 154 (1967) 552.
Schmitz, F., Fock, M.: J. Nucl. Mater. 21 (1967) 317.
Vandyshev, B.A., Panov, A.S., Gruzin, P.L.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 23 (1967) 908; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 23 (5) (1967) 133.
Agarwala, R.P., Murarka, S.P., Anand, M.S.: Acta Metall. 16 (1968) 61.
Anthony, T.R., Dyson, B.F., Turnbull, D.: J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 1391.
Borisov, E.V., Gruzin, P.L., Zemskii, S.V.: Zashch. Pokryt. Metal. No.2, 1968, p. 104. Translation:
Protective Coatings on Metals, Vol. 2, p. 76, New York: Consultants Bureau 1970.
Blechet, J.J.,van Craeynest, A., Calais, D. : J. Nucl. Mater. 28 (1968) 177.
Badrinarayanan, S., Mathur, H.B.: Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 19 (1968) 353.
Blechet, J.J.,van Craeynest, A., Calais, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 27 (1968) 112.
Coleman, M.G., Wert, C.A., Peart, R.F.: Phys. Rev. 175 (1968) 788.
Dyment, F., Libanati, C.M.: J. Nucl. Mater. 3 (1968) 349.
Grigoriev, G.V., Pavlinov, L.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 25 (1968) 836; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English
Transl.) 25 (5) (1968) 79.
Grigoriev, G.V., Pavlinov, L.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 26 (1968) 946; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English
Transl.) 26 (5) (1968) 179.
KuEera, J., ZemEik, T.: Can. Met. Quart. 7 (1968) 83.
Murdock, J.F., McHargue, C.J.: Acta Metall. 16 (1968) 493.
Murarka, S.P., Anand, MS., Agarwala, R.P.: Acta Metall. 16 (1968) 69.
Ott, A., Nordtn-Ott, A.: Z. Naturforsch. 23a (1968) 473.
Ott, A.: Z. Naturforsch. 23a (1968) 1683.
Ott, A.: Z. Naturforsch. 23a (1968) 2126.
Pavlinov, L.V., Gladyshev, A.M., Bykov, V.N.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 26 (1968) 823; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 26 (5) (1968) 59.
Paul, A.R., Anand, M.S., Naik, M.C., Agarwala, R.P. : Int. Conf. Vat. Interstitials in Metals. Jiilich,
Sept. 1968, Vol.1, p. 105.
Rothman, S.J., Peterson, N.L., Walter, C.M., Nowicki, L.J.: J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 5041.
Schwegler, E.Ch., White, EA.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1 (1968) 191.
Vandyshev, B.A., Panov, A.S.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 26 (1968) 517; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English
Transl.) 26 (3) (1968) 138.
Vandyshev, B.A., Panov, A.S. : Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met. No.1 1968, 206.
Vandyshev, B.A., Panov, A.S. : Fiz. Metal. Metalloved. 25 (1968) 321; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English
Transl.) 25 (2) (1968) 130.
Barr, L.W, Mundy, J.N., Smith, EA.: Philos. Mag. 20 (1969) 389.
Badia, M., Vignes, A.: Acta Metall. 17 (1969) 177.
Bartha, L., Szalay, T.: Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 20 (1969) 825.
Caloni, O., Ferrari, A., Strocchi, P.M.: Electrochim. Metall. 4 (1969) 45.
Dariel, M.P., Erez, G., Schmidt, G.M.J.: Philos. Mag. 19 (1969) 1053.
Dariel, M.P., Erez, G., Schmidt, G.M.J.: Philos. Mag. 19 (1969) 1045.
Dariel, M.P., Erez, G., Schmidt, G.M.J.: J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 2746.
Federov, G.B., Smirnov, E.A., Novikov, SM.: Metall. Metalloved. Chist. Met. 8 (1969) 41.
Federov, G.B., Zhomov, F.J., Smirnov, E.A.: Metall. Metalloved. Chist. Met. 8 (1969) 145.
Kidson, G.V., Young, G.J. : Philos. Mag. 20 (1969) 1047.

Land&-B&n&n
New Series III/26

Le Claire, Neumann

206
69K2
69K3
69K4
69K5
69MI
69M2
69M3
6901
6902
69Pl
69P2
69P3
69P4
69SI
69Vl
70AI
70A2
70A3
70Bl
70B2
70B3
70Dl
70D2
70Hl
70Kl
7OLI
70NI
7001
7OPl
7OP2
7OP3
7OP4
70RI
70R2
7OSl
7OS2
7OVI
7OWl
7OW2
71AI
71Bl
71B2
71B3
71Dl
71D2
71Fl

3.3 References for 3


Klotsman, S.M., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved 28
(1969) 1025; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 28 (6) (1969) 66.
Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Timofeyev, A.N., Trakhtenberg, J.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
28 (1969) 120; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 28 (1) (1969) 128.
Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Timofeyev, A.N., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
27 (1969) 1048; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 27 (6) (1969) 91.
KuEera, J., St&sky, K.: Can. Met. Quart. 8 (1969) 91.
Mundy, J.N., Ott, A., Lowenberg, L., Lodding, A.: Phys. Status Solidi 35 (1969) 359.
Moya, F., Moya-Goutier, G.E., CabanC-Brouty, F.: Phys. Status Solidi 35 (1969) 893.
Miller, J.W.: Phys. Rev. 181 (1969) 1095.
Ott, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 2395.
Ott, A., Lodding, A., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. 188 (1969) 1088 and Corrigendum (private communication).
Pavlinov, L.V., Grigoryev, G.V., Gromyko, G.O.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met. No. 3,1969, 207;
Russ. Metal!. (English Transl.) No.3, 1969, 158.
Pelleg, J.: Philos. Mag. 19 (1969) 25.
Pelleg, J.: J. Less-Common Met. 17 (1969) 319.
Pawel, R.E., Lundy, T.S.: Acta Metal!. 17 (1969) 979.
Smith, EA., Barr, L.W.: Philos. Mag. 20 (1969) 205.
Vandyshev, B.A., Panov, A.S. : Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met. No. 1, 1%9, 244.
Ananin, V.A., Gladkov, V.P., Zotov, V.S., Skorov, D.M.: Sov. J. At. Energy (English Transl.) 29
(1970) 941.
Anand, M.S., Agarwala, R.P.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 1 (1970) K41.
Alexander, W.B., Slifkin, L.M.: Phys. Rev. B 1 (1970) 3274.
Bowen, A.W., Leak, G.M.: Metal!. Trans. 1 (1970) 1695.
Barreau, G., Brunel, G., Cizeron, G., Lacombe, P.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 270 (1970) 516.
Beyeler, M., Maurice, F., Seguin, R.: M&m. Sci. Rev. Metal!. 67 (1970) 295.
Dariel, M.P.: Philos. Mag. 22 (1970) 563.
Dariel, M.P., Blumenfeld, M., Kimmel, G.: J. Appl. Phys. 41 (1970) 1480.
Hood, G.M.: Philos. Mag. 21 (1970) 305.
Klotsman, S.M., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 29
(1970) 803; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 29 (4) (1970) 127.
Lataillade, F., Despres,1, Hocheid, B.: Plutonium and Other Actinides, Nucl. Metal!. 17 (1) (1970)144.
Nohara, K., Hirano, K.-I.: Proc. Int. Conf. Sci. Tech. Iron & Steel 7 (1970) 11; seealso: Trans. Iron
& Steel Inst. Jpn., Suppl. 11 (1971) 1267.
Ott, A.: Z. Naturforsch. 25a (1970) 1477.
Pavlinov, L.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 30 (1970) 367; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 30 (2)
(1970) 149.
Pavlinov, L.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 30 (1970) 800; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 30 (4)
(1970) 129.
Pelleg, J.: Philos. Mag. 21 (1970) 735.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.: Phys. Rev. B 1 (1970) 3264.
Roux, F., Vignes, A.: Rev. Phys. Appl. (France) 5 (1970) 393.
Reinke, ED., Dahlstrom, C.E.: Philos. Mag. 22 (1970) 57.
Smith, EA., Barr, L.W.: Philos. Mag. 21 (1970) 633.
Saxena, M.C., Sharma, B.D.: Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 23 (3) (1970) 16.
Vandyshev, B.A., Panov, A.S. : Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met. No. 1, 1970, 231.
Wang, S.-J., Grabke, H.J.: Z. Metallkde. 61 (1970) 597.
Warford, J.S., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 1 (1970) 1867.
Askill, J.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 43 (1971) K I.
Bondy, A., Levy, V.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 272 (1971) 19.
Bakker, H., Backus, J., Waals, F.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 45 (1971) 633.
Barreu, G., Brunel, G., Cizeron, G.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 272 (1971) 618.
Darie!, M.P.: J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 2251.
Dreyer, K., Herzig, Ch., Heumann, Th., in: Atomic Transport in Solids and Liquids, A.Lodding,
T. Lagervall (eds.), Tubingen: Verlag der Zeitschrift fir Naturforschung 1971, p. 237.
Federov, G.B., Smimov, E.A., Zhomov, F.I., Gusev, F.I., Paraev, S.A.: Metal!. Metalloved. Chist.
Met. 9 (1971) 30.
Le Claire, Neumann

Landolt-Kmstein
New Series W/26

3.3 References for 3


71F2
71F3
71Gl
71Hl
71H2
71H3
71H4
71H.5
71Kl
71Ll
71L2
71Ml
71M2
7101
71Pl
71Sl
71Wl
7121
72Al
72A2
72A3
72Bl
72B2
72Cl
72C2
72Dl
72Fl
72F2
72Gl
7202
72G3
72Hl
72H2
72H3
7211
7212
72Ml
72Nl
7201
72Rl
72Sl
72Tl
72T2
72Wl
73Bl
73B2

Federov, G.B., Smirnov, E.A., Zhomov, F.I., Gusev, V.N., Paraev, S.A. : Sov. J. At. Energy (English
Transl.) 31 (5) (1971) 1280.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Pokoev, A.V., Akimova, I.A.: Fiz. Tverd. Tela 13 (1971) 1028; Soviet
Phys. Solid State (English Transl.) 13 (1971) 856.
Gornyy, D.S., Altovskiy, R.M.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 31(1971) 781; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English
Transl.) 31 (4) (1971) 108.
Hood, G.M.: Diffusion Processes,J.N.Sherwood et al. (eds.), New York: Gordon & Breach 1971,
Vol.1, p. 361.
Hoshino, A., Araki, T.: Trans. Nat. Res. Inst. Met. 13 (1971) 99.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Philos. Mag. 23 (1971) 1479.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Phys. Rev. B 4 (1971) 2339.
Huang, F.H., Huntington, H.B.: Ser. Metall. 5 (1971) 705.
Klotsman, S.M., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N. : Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 31
(1971) 429; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 31 (2) (1971) 214.
Lodding, A., Ott, A. : Z. Naturforsch. 26a (1971) 81.
Languille, A.: M&m. Sci. Rev. Metall. 68 (1971) 435.
Mulyakaev, L.M., Shcherbedinskii, G.U., Dubinin, G.N.: Metallov. Term. Obrab. Met. 8 (1971) 45.
Makhlin, N.A., Ivanov, L.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met. No. 1, 1971, 222; Russ. Met. (English
Transl.) No. 1, 1971, 152.
Ott, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 2999.
Paul, A.R., Agarwala, R.P.: Metall. Trans. 2 (1971) 1691.
Saxena, M.C. : Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 24 (4) (1971) 56.
Weyland, J.A., Decker, D.L., Vanfleet, H.B. : Phys. Rev. B 4 (1971) 4225.
Zanghi, J.P., van Craeynest, A., Calais, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 39 (1971) 133.
Agarwala, R.P., Hirano, K.-I.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 13 (1972) 425.
Anusavice, K.J., de Hoff, R.T.: Metall. Trans. 3 (1972) 1279.
Anand, A., Agarwala, R.P. : Philos. Mag. 26 (1972) 297.
Bergner, D.: Krist. Tech. 7 (1972) 651.
Badrinarayanan, S., Mathur, H.B.: Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 10 (1972) 512.
Combronde, J., Brebec, G.: Acta Metall. 20 (1972) 37.
Candland, C.T., Decker, D.L., Vanfleet, H.B. : Phys. Rev. B 5 (1972) 2085.
Dariel, M.P., Dayan, D., Calais, D.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 10 (1972) 113.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Pokoyev, A.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 33 (1972) 1102; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 33 (5) (1972) 194.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Pokoyev, A.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 34 (1972) 1104; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 34 (5) (1972) 198.
Gruzin, P.L., Mural, V.V., Fokin, A.P. : Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 34 (1972) 1326; Phys. Met. Metallogr.
(English Transl.) 34 (6) (1972) 209.
Gorbachev, VA., Klotsman, S.M., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N. : Fiz. Met.
Metalloved. 34 (1972) 879; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 34 (4) (1972) 202.
God&y, I., Beke, D.L., Kedves, F.J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 13 (1972) K 155.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Philos. Mag. 26 (1972) 329.
Herzig, Ch., Heumann, Th.: Z. Naturforsch. 27a (1972) 1109.
Herzig, Ch., Heumann, Th. : Z. Naturforsch. 27 a (1972) 613.
Iovkov, V.P., Panov, A.S., Ryabenko, A.V. : Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 34 (1972) 1322; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 34 (6) (1972) 203.
Irmer, V., Feller-Kniepmeier, M.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 33 (1972) 2141.
Mao, Ch.: Phys. Rev. B 5 (1972) 4693.
Nishikawa, S., Tsumuraya, K.: Philos. Mag. 26 (1972) 941.
Owens, C.W., Turnbull, D. : J. Appl. Phys. 43 (1972) 3933.
Roux, R. : Thesis, Univ. Nancy, France 1972.
Stelly, M., Servant, J.M.: J. Nucl. Mater. 43 (1972) 269.
Tendler, R., Varotto, C.F.: J. Nucl. Mater. 44 (1972) 99.
Treheux, D., Marchive, D., Delagrange, J., Guiraldenq, P.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 274 (1972)
1260.
Warburton, W.K.: Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 2161.
Bernardini, J., CabanC,J.: Acta Metall. 21 (1973) 1561.
Bergner, D., Cyrener, E.: Neue Hiitte 18 (1973) 356.

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Le Claire, Neumann

208
73B3
73Cl
73C2
73Dl
73El
73Fl
73F2
73F3
73F4
73Gl
73Kl
73K2
73K3
73Ml
73M2
73M3
73M4
73Nl
73Tl
73T2
73T3
73Wl
74Al
74A2
74B 1
74B2
74El
74Fl
74Hl
74H2
74H3
74Ll
74Ml
74R 1
74R2
74Tl
7.5Bl
75Cl
75C2
7SDl
75D2
75D3
75Fl
75F2
75Hl
75H2
75H3
75Ml
75M2

3.3 References for 3


Bergner, D., Cyrener, E.: Neue Hiitte 18 (1973) 9.
Cathey, W.N., Murphy, J.E., Woodyard, J.R.: Metall. Trans. 4 (1973) 1463.
Candland, CT., Vanfleet, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 7 (1973) 575.
Dariel, M.P.: Philos. Mag. 28 (1973) 915.
Eguchi, T., Iijima, Y, Hirano, K.-I.: Cryst. Lattice Defects 4 (1973) 265.
Federov, G.B., Smirnov, E.A., Gusev, V.N., Zhomov, F.I., Gorbenko, V.L.: Metall. Metalloved.
Chist. Met. No. IO, 1973, 62.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Pokoyev, A.V. : Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Chern. Metall. (9) (1973)
136.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Pokoyev, A.V., Akimova, I.A., Kretinin, V.D.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
35 (1973) 1307; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 35 (6) (1973) 176.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Pokoyev, A.V. : Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Tsvetn. Metall. 16 (1973)
143.
Gorbachev, V.A., Klotsman, SM., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N.: Fiz. Met.
Metalloved. 35 (1973) 889; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 35 (4) (1973) 226.
Korneluk, L.G., Mirsky, L.M., Bokshtein, B.S.: Titanium Science and Technology, Vol.11, 1973,
p. 905.
Kirkaldy, J.S., Smith. P.N., Sharma, R.C.: Metall. Trans. A 4 (1973) 624.
Kuzmenko, P.P., Grinevich, G.P.: Metallotiz. 47 (1973) 98.
Mundy, J.N., McFall, W.D.: Phys. Rev. B 7 (1973) 4363.
Mundy, J.N., McFall, WD.: Phys. Rev. B 8 (1973) 5477.
Million. B., K&era, J.: Kovove Mater. 11 (1973) 300.
Marumo, T., Fujikawa, S., Hirano, K.-I.: J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met. 23 (1973) 17.
Nohara. K., Hirano, K.-I.: Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi; (J. Jpn. Inst. Met.) 37 (1973) 731.
Tendler, R., Varotto, C.F.: J. Nucl. Mater. 46 (1973) 107.
Tiwari, G.P., Saxena, M.C., Patil, R.V.: Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 26 (1973) 55.
Tiwari, G.P., Sharma, B.D.: Indian J. Technol. 11 (1973) 560.
Warburton, W.K.: Phys. Rev. B 7 (1973) 1330.
Albrecht, W.W., Frohberg, G., Wever, H.: Z. Metallkde. 65 (1974) 279.
Ascoli, A., Filoni, L., Poletti, G., Rossi, S.L.: Phys. Rev. B 10 (1974) 5003.
Biersack, J.B., Fink, D.: Proc. Symp. Fusion Technology, 8th, EUR-5182, 1974, p. 907.
Bristoti, A., Wazzan, A.R.: Rev. Bras. Fis. 4 (1974) 1.
Erley, W., Wagner, H.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 25 (1974) 463.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Akimova, I.A.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 37 (1974) 1107; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 37 (5) (1974) 201.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Acta Metall. 22 (1974) 459.
Herzig. Ch., Wolter, D.: Z. Metallkde. 65 (1974) 273.
Huang. F.H., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 9 (1974) 1479.
Lesage, B., Huntz, A.M.: J. Less-Common Met. 38 (1974) 149.
Myers, S.M., Picraux, S.T., Prevender, T.S.: Phys. Rev. B 9 (1974) 3953.
Rothman, S.J.,Peterson, N.L., Nowicki, L.J., Robinson, L.C.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 63 (1974) K 29.
Ross, R.A., Vanfleet, H.B., Decker, D.L. : Phys. Rev. B 9 (1974) 4026.
Tendlcr, R., Varotto, C.F.: J. Nucl. Mater. 54 (1974) 212.
Bruggeman, G.A., Roberts jr., J.A.: Metall. Trans. A 6 (1975) 755.
Charissoux, C., Calais. D., Gallet, G.: J, Phys. Chem. Solids 36 (1975) 981.
Charissoux, C., Calais, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 57 (1975) 45.
Dariel. M.P.: Acta Metall. 23 (1975) 473.
Decker, D.L., Candland, C.T., Vanfleet, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 11 (1975) 4885.
Decker, D.L.: Phys. Rev. B 11 (1975) 1770.
Fogelson. R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Akimova, I.A.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 39 (1975) 447; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 39 (2) (1975) 212.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Akimova, I.A.: Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Tsvetn. Metall. (2) 1975,
142.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Phys. Rev. B 11 (1975) 3780.
Henry, G., Barreau, G., Cizcron, G.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 280 (1975) 1007.
Hehenkamp, Th., Wiibbcnhorst, R.: Z. Metallkde. 66 (1975) 275.
Myers, S.M., Langley, R.A.: J. Appl. Phys. 46 (1975) 1034.
Murphy, J.E., Adams, G.H., Cathey, W.N.: Metall. Trans. A 6A (1975) 343.
Le Claire, Neumann

Landoh-BBm&n
New Series 111126

3.3 References for 3


75M3
75Pl
75Sl
75Vl
75Wl
75W2
76Al
76A2
76Bl
76B2
76B3
76B4
76Cl
76Dl
76Fl
76F2
76F3
76Gl
76Ll
76Ml
76M2
76Pl
76P2
76%
76Tl
76T2
76Vl
77Al
77Bl
77B2
77B3
77Cl
77Dl
77D2
77Fl
77F2
77F3
77Gl
77Hl
7711
7712
77Jl
77Ll
77Pl

209

Marchive, D., Due, D., Treheux, D., Guiraldenq, P.: C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) C 280 (1975) 25.
Pelleg, J.: Philos. Mag. 32 (1975) 593.
Santos, E., Dyment, F.: Philos. Mag. 31 (1975) 809.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
39 (1975) 319; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 39 (2) (1975) 82.
Wu, C.H.: J. Chem. Phys. 62 (1975) 4589.
Warburton, W.K.: Phys. Rev. B 11 (1975) 4945.
Ananin, V.A., Gladkov, V.P., Svetlov, A.V., Skorov, D.M., Tenishev, V.I.: Sov. J. At. Energy (English Transl.) 40 (1976) 304.
Ablitzer, D., Gantois, M.: La Diffusion dans les Milieux Condenses. Theorie et Applications. CEN
Saclay, Vol. 1, 1976, p. 299.
Beyer, G.J., Novgorodov, A.F.: Radiochem. Radioanal. Lett. 27 (5/6) (1976) 341; seealso: ZfK-311
(Zentralinstitut fiir Kernforschung, Dresden, DDR) 1976.
Beyer, G.J.: ZfK-310 (Zentralinstitut fur Kernforschung, Dresden, DDR) 1976.
Beyer, G.J.: ZfK-317 (Zentralinstitut fur Kernforschung, Dresden, DDR) 1976.
BoiiC, B.I., LuEiC, R.J.: J. Mater. Sci. 11 (1976) 887.
Charissoux, C., Calais, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 61 (1976) 317.
Dyment, F.: J. Nucl. Mater. 61 (1976) 271.
Fromont, M.: J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 37 (1976) L117.
Fogelson, R.L.,Ugay, Ya.A., Akimova, I.A.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 41(1976) 653; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 41 (3) (1976) 180.
Fujikawa, S., Hirano, K.-I.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 17 (1976) 809.
Gladkov, V.P., Svetlov, A.V., Skorov, D.M., Tenishev, V.I., Shabalin, A.N. : Sov. J. At. Energy (English Transl.) 40 (1976) 306.
Ladet, J., Bernardini, J., Cabane-Brouty, F.: Ser. Metall. 10 (1976) 195.
Marbach, G., Charrissoux, C., Janot, C.: La Diffusion dans les Milieux Condenses - ThCorie et
Applications. Proc. Colloque de Metallurgic. CEN Saclay, Vol. 1, 1976, p. 119; Report CEA-Conf.3674.
Mundy, J.N., Tse, C.W., McFall, WD. : Phys. Rev. B 13 (1976) 2349.
Pokoev, A.V., Mironov, V.M., Kudryavtseva, L.K.: Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zadev., Tsvetn. Metall. 19
(2) (1976) 130; Sov. Non-Ferrous Met. Res. (English Transl.) 4 (2) (1976) 81.
Pelleg, J.: Philos. Mag. 33 (1976) 165.
Spindler, P., Nachtrieb, K.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 37 (1976) 449.
Tendler, R., Abriata, J., Varotto, C.F.: J. Nucl. Mater. 59 (1976) 215.
Treheux, D., Heurtel, A., Guiraldenq, P.: Acta Metall. 24 (1976) 503.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, ISh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
41 (1976) 429. Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 41 (2) (1976) 181.
Ablitzer, D.: Philos. Mag. 35 (1977) 1239.
Beyer, G.J., Fromm, WD., Novgorodov, A.F.: Nucl. Instr. Methods 146 (1977) 419.
Bharati, S., Badrinarayanan, S., Sinha, A.P.B.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 43 (1977) 653.
Beke, D.L., God&y, I., Kedves, F.J., Groma, G.: Acta Metall. 25 (1977) 539.
Cardis, D. : Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Miinster, FRG 1977.
Decker, D.L., Ross, R.A., Evenson, W.E., Vanfleet, H.B. : Phys. Rev. B 15 (1977) 507.
Decker, D.L., Weiss,J.D., Vanfleet, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 16 (1977) 2392.
Fillon, J., Calais, D.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38 (1977) 81.
Fogelson, R.L., Ugay, Ya.A., Akimova, I.A. : Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Tsvetn. Metall. (1) 1977,
172.
Fogelson, R.L., Kazimirov, N.N., Soshnikova, I.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 43 (1977) 1105; Phys.
Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 43 (5) (1977) 185.
Gorbachev, V.A., Klotsman, S.M., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N.: Fiz. Met.
Metalloved. 44 (1977) 214; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 44 (1) (1977) 191.
Hoshino, K., Iijima, Y, Hirano, K.-I.: Metall. Trans. A 8 (1977) 469.
Iijima, Y, Hirano, K.-I., Taguchi, 0.: Philos. Mag. 35 (1977) 229.
Iijima, Y, Hoshino, K., Hirano, K.-I.: Metall. Trans. A 8 (1977) 997.
Jackson, M.S., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. B 15 (1977) 4644.
Larikov, L.N., Isaichev, V.I., Maksimenko, E.A., Belkov, B.M.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 237 (2)
(1977) 315; Sov. Phys. Dokl. (English Transl.) 22 (1977) 677.
Pelleg, J., Herman, M.: Philos. Mag. 35 (1977) 349.

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Le Claire, Neumann

210
17Sl
r7S2
17s3
17vl
18Bl
18El
18E2
18Fl
18F2
78F3
78F4
78Hl
78H2
7811
78Kl
78K2
78K3
78Ml
78M2
78Nl
78Pl
78P2
78Rl
78Sl
7832
78S3
78S4
78Vl
78V2
78V3
79Dl
79D2
79D3
79Gl
79Kl
79Ml
79M2
79M3
79M4
79Nl
79Pl
79P2
79Sl
79S2
79Vl
19V2
79Wl

3.3 References for 3


Su, C.S.: Nucl. Instr. Methods 145 (1977) 361.
Salje, G., Feller-Kniepmeier, M.: J. Appl. Phys. 48 (1977) 1833.
Sudir, S., Csikai, J., Buczko, M.: Z. Metallkde. 68 (1977) 740.
Vanfleet, H.B., Jorgenson, J.D., Schmutz, J.D., Decker, D.L.: Phys. Rev. B 15 (1977) 5545.
Bergner, D., Schwarz, K.: Neue Hiitte 23 (1978) 210.
Einziger, R.E., Mundy, J.N.: Phys. Rev. B 17 (1978) 449.
ErdClyi, G., Beke, D.L., Kedves, F.J., Godeny, I.: Philos. Mag. B 38 (1978) 445.
Federov, G.B., Smimov, E.A. : Diffuziya v. Reaktornykh Materialakh. Moscow: Atomizdat Publ.
1978. Translation: Diffusion in Reactor Materials. Trans. Tech. Pub!., Switzerland 1984.
Fogelson, R.L., Voronina, I.M., Somova, T.I.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 46 (1978) 190; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 46 (1) (1978) 163.
Fogelson, R.L., Trotimova, N.N.: Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Tsvetn. Metal!. (4) 1978, 152.
Fujikawa, S., Hirano, K.-I., Fukushima, Y: Metall. Trans. A 9 (1978) 1811.
Hanatate, Y., Majima, K., Mitani, H.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 19 (1978) 669.
Herzig, Ch., Eckseler, H., Bussmann, W., Cardis, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 69/70 (1978) 61.
Iovkov, V.P., Panov, A.S., Ryabenko, A.V.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Met. No. 1, 1978, 78; Russ.
Met. (English Transl.) No. 1, 1978, 68.
Klotsman, S.M., Rabovskiy, Ya.A., Talinskiy, V.K., Timofeyev, A.N.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 45
(1978) 1104; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 45 (5) (1978) 181.
Krautheim, G., Neidhardt, A., Reinhold, U.: Krist. Techn. 13 (1978) 1335.
Kusunoki, K., Nishikawa, S.: Ser. Metal!. 12 (1978) 615.
Majima, K., Mitani, H.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 19 (1978) 663.
Myers, S.M., Rack, H.J. : J. Appl. Phys. 49 (1978) 3246.
Nikolaev, G.I., Bodrov, N.V.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 52 (1978) 143.
Pelleg, J.: Rev. High-Temp. Mater. IV (1978) 5.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.: Phys. Rev. B 17 (1978) 4666.
Rein, G., Mehrer, H., Maier, K.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 45 (1978) 253.
Sen, S.K., Dutt, M.B., Barua, A.K.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 45 (1978) 657.
Sawanayagi, F., Hasiguti, R.R.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 42 (1978) 1155.
Shimotomai, M., Hasiguti, R.R., Umeyama, S.: Phys. Rev. B 18 (1978) 2097.
Schmidt, EA., Conzemius, R.J., Carlson, O.N.: J. Less-Common Met. 59 (1978) 53.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
45 (1978) 1015; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 45 (5) (1978) 100.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
45 (1978) 1301; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 45 (6) (1978) 160.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
46 (1978) 1232; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 46 (6) (1978) 94.
Dariel, M.P., Komblit, L., Beaudry, B.J., Gschneidner, K.A.: Phys. Rev. B 20 (1979) 3949.
Dutt, M.B., Sen, S.K.: Jpn. J. App!. Phys. 18 (1979) 1025.
Decker, D.L., Melville, J.G., Vanfleet, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 20 (1979) 3036.
Gladkov, V.P., Svetlov, A.V., Skorov, D.M., Shabalin, A.N.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 48 (1979) 871;
Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 48 (4) (1979) 170.
Krautheim, G., Neidhardt, A., Reinhold, U., Zehe, A.: Phys. Lett. A 72 (1979) 181.
Maier, K., Mehrer, H., Rein, G.: Z. Metallkde. 70 (1979) 271.
Muster, W.J.,Yoon, D.N., Huppmann, W.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 65 (1979) 211.
Maier, K., Kirchheim, R., Tiilg, G.: Mikrochim. Acta Suppl. 8 (1979) 125.
Makuta, F., Iijima, Y, Hirano, K.-I.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 20 (1979) 551.
Nicolai, L.I., de Tendler, R.H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 87 (1979) 401.
Pontau, A.E., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. B 19 (1979) 4027.
Pruthi, D.O., Anand, M.S., Agarwala, R.P.: Philos. Mag. A 39 (1979) 173.
Shabalin, A.N., Gladkov, V.P., Gruzin, P.L., Svetlov, A.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 48 (1979) 663;
Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 48 (3) (1979) 182.
Sathyraj, K.V., Ablitzer, D., Demangeat, C.: Philos. Mag. A 40 (1979) 541.
Vladimirov, A.B., Kaygorodov, V.N., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved.
48 (1979) 352; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 48 (2) (1979) 107.
Vladimirov, A.B., Klotsman, S.M., Trakhtenberg, IS. : Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 48 (1979) 1113; Phys.
Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 48 (5) (1979) 193.
Weins, W.N., Carlson, O.N.: J. Less-Common Met. 66 (1979) 99.
L.e Claire, Neumann

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

3.3 References for 3


80Dl
80Vl
81Al
8lDl
81Gl
81G2
81Kl
81Ll
81Nl
81Rl
8lYl
82Al
82Hl
82H2
82Ml
82M2
82Nl
8201
82Pl
83Al
83Bl
83B2
83B3
83Cl
83Gl
83Hl
83Kl
83Ml
83M2
83M3
83Nl
83N2
83Rl
84Al
84A2
84Dl
84Hl
84Kl
84Ml
84Pl
84Sl
84Tl
84Yl
85Gl
85Ml
85Nl
85N2

211

Dorner, P., Gust, W., Hintz, H.B., Lodding, A., Odelius, H., Predel, B. : Acta Metall. 28 (1980) 291.
Vanfleet, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 21 (1980) 4337.
Ablitzer, D., Haeussler, J.P., Sathyraj, K.V., Vignes, A.: Philos. Mag. A 44 (1981) 589.
Dariel, M.P., McMasters, O.D., Gschneidner, K.A.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 63 (1981) 329.
Gust, W., Hintz, H.B., Lodding, A., Odelius, H.: Philos. Mag. A 43 (1981) 1205.
Gust, W, Hintz, H.B., Lodding, A., Odelius, H., Predel, B.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 64 (1981) 187.
Kidson, G.V.: Philos. Mag. A 44 (1981) 341.
Luckman, G., Didio, R.A., Graham, W.R.: Metall. Trans. A 12 (1981) 253.
Neumann, G., Pfundstein, M., Reimers, P.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 64 (1981) 225.
Richter, I., Feller-Kniepmeier, M.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 68 (1981) 289.
Yeh, D.C., Acuna, L.A., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 23 (1981) 1171.
Arkhipova, N.K., Veretennikov, L.M., Klotsman, S.M., Tatarinova, G.N., Timofeyev, A.N. : Fiz.
Met. Metalloved. 53 (1982) 104; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 53 (1) (1982) 92.
Hoshino, K., Iijima, Y, Hirano, K.-I., in: Point Defects and Defect Interactions in Metals, J.I.Takamura, M.Doyama, M.Kiritani (eds.), University of Tokyo Press 1982, p. 562.
Hu, C.K., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2782.
Manke, L., Herzig, Ch. : Acta Metall. 30 (1982) 2085.
Mehrer, H:, Hopfel, D., Hettich, G.: DIMETA-82, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves,
D.L.Beke (eds.), Trans. Tech. Publ., Switzerland 1983, p. 360. Seealso [84Kl].
Neumann, G., Pfundstein, M., Reimers, P. : Philos. Mag. A 45 (1982) 499.
Okafor, I.C.I., Carlson, O.N.: J. Less-Common Met. 84 (1982) 65.
Pruthi, D.O., Agarwala, R.P.: Philos. Mag. A 46 (1982) 841.
Akimova, LA., Mironov, V.M., Pokoyev, A.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 56 (1983) 1225; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 56 (6) (1983) 175.
Barr, L.W, Smith, EA., in: DIMETA-82, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves, D.L.Beke
(eds.), Trans. Tech. Publ., Switzerland 1983, p. 325.
Balart, S.N., Varela, N., Tendler, R.: J. Nucl. Mater. 119 (1983) 59.
Beke, D.L., GbdCny, I., Kedves, F.J.: Philos. Mag. A 47 (1983) 281.
Chi, N.V., Bergner, D., in: DIMETA-82, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves, D.L. Beke
(eds.), Trans. Tech. Publ., Switzerland 1983, p. 334.
Gust, W., Ostertag, C., Predel, B., Roll, U., Lodding, A., Odelius, H. : Philos. Mag. A 47 (1983) 395.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J., Armstrong, J.: Philos. Mag. A 47 (1983) 775.
Kurokawa, S., Ruzzante, J.E., Hey, A.M., Dyment, F.: Met. Sci. 17 (1983) 433.
Matsuyama, T., Hosokawa, H., Suto, H.: Trans. Jpn. Inst Met. 24 (1983) 589.
Mantl, S., Rothman, S.J., Nowicki, L.J., Lerner, J.L.: J. Phys. F 13 (1983) 1441.
Macht, M.P., Naundorf, V., Dbhl, R., in: DIMETA-82, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J.Kedves,
D.L. Beke (eds.) Trans. Tech. Publ., Switzerland 1983, p. 516.
Nakajima, H., Koiwa, M., Ono, S.: Ser. Metall. 17 (1983) 1431.
Nakajima, H., Koiwa, M., Minonishi, Y, Ono, S.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 24 (1983) 655.
Rockosch, H.J., Herzig, Ch.: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 119 (1983) 199.
Arkhipova, N.K., Klotsman, S.M., Polikarpova, I.P., Tartarinova, G.N:, Timofeev, A.N., Veretennikov, L.M.: Phys. Rev. B 30 (1984) 1788.
Arita, M., Nakamura, M., Goto, K.S., Ichinose, Y: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 25 (1984) 703.
Diihl, R., Macht, M.P., Naundorf, V.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 86 (1984) 603.
Hennesen, K., Keller, H., Viefhaus, H.: Ser. Metall. 18 (1984) 1319.
KuEera, J., Kozak, L., Mehrer, H.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 81 (1984) 497.
Mehrer, H., Weiler, D.: Z. Metallkde. 75 (1984) 203.
Pruthi, D.D., Agarwala, R.P. : Philos. Mag. A 49 (1984) 263.
Schmidt, EA., Beck, M.S., Rehbein, D.K., Conzemius, R. J., Carlson, O.N. : J. Electrochem. Sot. 131
(1984) 2169.
Taguchi, O., Iijima, Y, Hirano, K.-I.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 48 (1984) 20.
Yeh, D.C., Huntington, H.B.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 (1984) 1469.
Geise, J., Herzig, Ch.: Z. Metal&de. 76 (1985) 622.
Maslov, I.A., Mironov, V.M., Pokoyev, A.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 60 (1985) 193; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (English Transl.) 60 (1) (1985) 180.
Nakajima, H., Ishioka, S., Koiwa, M.: Philos. Mag. A 52 (1985) 743.
Nakajima, H., Koiwa, M.: Titanium Science and Technology, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Ti 1985,
p. 1759.

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212
35Rl
35132
36Al
36A2
36Kl
36K2
36Nl
96N2
56Pl
86Rl
87Bl
B7Fl
B7F2
B7Gl
B7G2
B7Hl
B7H2
B7H3
B7Kl
87K2
87Ml
8701
88Nl
88N2
88N3
89Bl
89B2
89Cl
89Fl
89Hl
89Kl

89Ll
89L2
89Nl
89Rl
89Tl
B9Vl
B9Zl
90El
9OLl
90Nl

3.3 References for 3


RIisiinen, J., Anttila, A., Keinonen, J.: J. Appl. Phys. 57 (1985) 613.
Rais?inen,J., Antilla, A., Keinonen, J.: Appl. Phys. A 36 (1985) 175.
Axtell, S.C., Okafor, I.C.I., Conzemius, R.J., Carlson, O.N.: J. Less-Common Met. 115 (1986) 269.
Arabczyk, W., Militzer, M., Miissig, H.J., Wieting, J.: Ser. Metall. 20 (1986) 1549.
Kimura, K., Iijima, Y., Hirano, K.-I.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 27 (1986) 1.
Ku&era, J., Million, B., RftiiEkovl, J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) % (1986) 177.
Nakajima, H., Nakazawa, J., Minonishi, Y., Koiwa, M.: Philos. Mag. A 53 (1986) 427.
Neumann, G., Tolle, V.: Philos. Mag. A 54 (1986) 619.
Pelleg, J.: Philos. Mag. A 54 (1986) L21.
RaisLnen, J., Keinonen, J.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 49 (1986) 773.
Beke, D.L., Godeny, I., Szabo, I.A., ErdClyi, G., Kedves, F.J.: Philos. Mag. A 55 (1987) 425.
Fujikawa, S., Werner, M., Mehrer, H., Seeger,A.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 431.
Fujikawa, S., Hirano, K.-I.: Mater. Sci. Forum 13/14 (1987) 539.
Geise, J., Herzig, Ch.: Z. Metallkde. 78 (1987) 291.
Geise, J., Mehrer, H., Herzig, Ch., Weyer, G.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 443.
Herzig, Ch., Neuhaus, J., Vieregge, K., Manke, L.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 481.
Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 475.
Herzig, Ch., Kijhler, U.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 301.
Klotsman, S.M., Tatarinova, G.N., Timofeyev, A.N.: Mater. Sci. Forum 15-18 (1987) 457.
Klotsman, S.M., Osetrov, S.V., Polikarpova, I.P., Tartarinova, G.N., Timofeyev, A.N., Shepatkovskiy, O.P.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 64 (1987) 148; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (English Transl.) 64 (1)
(1987) 133.
Minamino, Y., Yamane, T., Araki, H.: Metall. Trans. A 18 (1987) 1536.
Okafor, I.C.I.: Acta Metall. 35 (1987) 759 (reports results that seem to be identical with those of
[84Sl]!)
Nakamura, Y, Nakajima, H., Ishioka, S., Koiwa, M.: Acta Metall. 36 (1988) 2787.
Nakajima, H., Hood, G.M., Schultz, R.J.: Philos. Mag. B 58 (1988) 319.
Neumann, G., TolIe, V.: Philos. Mag. A 57 (1988) 621.
Bergner, D., Khaddour, Y., LBrx, S.: DIMETA-88, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves,
D.L. Beke (eds.); Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 1407.
Becker, Ch., ErdClyi, G., Hood, G.M., Mehrer, H.: DIMETA-88. Diffusion in Metals and Alloys,
F.J. Kedves, D.L. Beke (eds.), Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 409.
Cermlk, J., Liibbehusen, M., Mehrer, M.: Z. Metallkde. 80 (1989) 213.
Fujikawa, S., Hirano, K.: DIMETA-88. Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves, D.L. Beke
(eds.), Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 453.
Hirano, K.-I., Iijima, Y: DIMETA-88, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J.Kedves, D.L. Beke (eds.),
Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 1039.
Klotsman, S.M., Koloskov, V.M., Osetrov, S.V., Polikarpova, I.P., Tatarinova, G.N., Timofeyev,
A.N.: DIMETA-88. Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves, D.L. Beke (eds.), Defect and
Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 439; Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 67 (1989) 767; Phys. Met. Metallogr.
(English Transl.) 67 (4) (1989) 136.
Lee, J.S., Klockgeter, K., Herzig, Ch., in: Proc. Int. Conf. on Intergranular and Interphase
Boundaries in Materials, Paris, 1989, J. Phys. (Paris), in press; and Diploma&it K. Klockgeter,
Univ. Miinster, 1989.
Landolt-Bornstein, NS, Vol. 111/22b: Semiconductors, Heidelberg, Berlin, New York, Tokyo:
Springer 1989.
Neuhaus, P., Herzig, Ch.: Z. Metallkde. 80 (1989) 220.
Rummel, G., Mehrer, H.: DIMETA-88. Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves, D.L. Beke
(eds.), Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 453.
Tobar, G., Balart, S.: DIMETA-88. Diffusion in Metals and Alloys, F.J. Kedves, D.L. Beke (eds.),
Defect and Diffusion Forum 66-69 (1989) 381.
Vieregge, K., Herzig, Ch.: J. Nucl. Mater. 165 (1989) 65.
Zee, R.H.: J. Phys. Condensed Matter. 1 (1989) 5631.
ErdClyi, G., Freitag, C., Mehrer, H.: Philos. Mag. Lett., in press.
Lee, C.-G., Iijima, Y, Hiratani, T., Hirano, K.: Materials Trans. JIM 31 (1990) 255.
Neumann, G., Tolle, V.: to be published.

Le Claire, Neumann

LandoIl-Bhstein
New Series III/26

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases

213

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases


Use of the tables and figures
In this chapter tracer self-diffusion coefficients are presented in binary alloys, i.e. metallic mixtures of two
elements. Results on diffusion in, for example, a semiconducting intermediate phase such as GaAs are not
tabulated.
In this chapter the tables have a central function. From these tables referencesare made to the figures. The
order in which the alloy systemsare arranged is alphabetical, for example Ag - Al is tabulated before Ag - Au
and V,Ga should be transformed to GaV, first and is then found after Ga - Pu. This order is exactly the same
as used in collections of binary phase diagrams. Primary and terminal phasesare indicated by a hyphen between
the element symbols: A - B, whereas intermediate compounds are presented by their stoichiometric formula, for
example A,B. The crystal structure of thesecompounds is also given. In the various columns of the tables, a dash
indicates that no data (or figures) are available (or shown) for a special composition, a blank space should be
understood as a repetition of the information (immerical values, reference key) given in the line above.
The full list of alloys, treated in this chapter, is presented below. In contrast to the tables, the alloys are given
here both in the order A-B and B-A. In this way it is immediately clear which Ni systems,for example, occur
in the tables. In a scarcenumber of casesalso isotope effectshave been measured (seechapter 10 about the mass
dependenceof the diffusion coefficient for an explanation). In the list below, these are indicated by E(A), which
means the isotope effect for diffusion of element A.

List of alloys, their phasesand diffusing elements


System

Phase

Diffusing
element

Page

Ag-Al
Ag-Au

primary and terminal


primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary
primary
intermediate, y-phase
primary
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
primary
primary
primary
terminal
intermediate, y-phase
primary and terminal
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
terminal, bee structure
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
intermediate, rhombohedral structure
intermediate, rhombic structure
intermediate, monoclinic structure
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
intermediate, Ll 2 (Cu,Au) structure
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied

Ag
Ag, Au

218
218

Ag, Cd
Ag
Hg
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag, Sn
Ag
Ag, Zn
Ag, Zn
Ag
co
Al, Fe
Al, Fe
Fe
Al, Fe
Al, Fe
Ni
Ni
Zn
Ag, Au

218
218
219
219
219
219
219
220
220
220
218
220
220
221
221
221
221
221
221f.
222
218

Ag-Cd
Ag-Cu
4z,Hg,
Ag-In
A@fg
Ag-Sb
Ag-Sn
Ag-Zn
Ag,Zn,
Al-Ag
AlCo
Al-Fe
AlFe
A&Fe
AI,Fe,
A&Fe
AlNi
AlNi,
Al-Zn
Au-Ag

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

214

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases

System

Phase

Diffusing
element

Page

4uCd
4u-cu

intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure


primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure

Au, Cd
Au, Cu

222
223

Au-Ta
AuZn

Cu-Sb
Cu,Sb
Cu-Sn
Cu,Sn
Cu,Sn,
Cu-Zn

primary
primary
terminal
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
terminal
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range, fee, bee and ordered B2
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal
intermediate, Ll 2 (Cu,Au) structure
terminal
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary and terminal
terminal
terminal
terminal
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal
primary
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary
intermediate, p-phase, DO, (BiF,) structure
primary
intermediate, p-phase, DO, (BiF,) structure
intermediate, &phase, y-brass-type structure
primary

CuZn

intermediate, bee, and B2 structure

Fe-Al
FeAl
FeAI,
Fe,AI,
FeA!,
Fe-Co

primary, bee structure


intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
intermediate, rhombohedra! structure
intermediate, rhombic structure
intermediate, monoclinic structure
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range, fee, bee and ordered B2
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied

Be-Cu
Be-Ni
Cd-Ag
CdAu
Cd-Pb
CoAl
Co-Fe
CoGa
Co-Mn
Co-Ni
Co-Ti
Co,Ti
co-u
Cr-Fe
Cr-Ni
Cr-Zr
Cu-Ag
Cu-Au
Cu-Be
Cu-Fe
Cu-In
Cu-Ni
Cu-Pt

Fe-Cr

Au
223
Au, Zn
223
EN4 WW
Be
224
Ni
224
Ag, Cd
218
Au, Cd
222
Cd
224
co
220
224f.
Co, Fe
Wo), We)
225f.
Co, Ga
Mn
226
226f.
Co, Ni
Co, Ti
co
U
Cr, Fe

221
228
228
228

Cr
Ni
Cr, Zr
4.z
Au, Cu

228
228f.
229
218
223

Be
cu
cu
Cu, Ni

224
229
229
229

cu, Pt

229f.

cu
cu
cu
Cu, Sn
Cu, Sn
Cu, Zn
Wu), Wn)
Cu, Zn
Wu), Wn)
AI, Fe
Al, Fe
Fe
Al, Fe
Al, Fe
Co, Fe
E(Co), E(Fe)
Cr, Fe

230
230
230
230
230
231
231f.
220
221
221
221
221
224f.
228

Land&-BCmsIein
New Series 111126

215

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases


System

Phase

Fe-Cu
Fe-Ge
Fe-Mn
Fe-MO
Fe-Ni

terminal
primary
*
primary
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary, fee structure
primary
primary
primary
primary
primary
terminal
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
terminal, E- and &phase
intermediate, Al 5 structure
terminal
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in. the temperature range studied
intermediate, y-phase
terminal
terminal
terminal
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure
terminal
terminal
ordered phase, Ll, (Cu,Au) structure
terminal
terminal
terminal
terminal
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal
intermediate, DO, @-TiCu,) structure
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
intermediate, L 12 (Cu,Au) structure
terminal
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary and terminal
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied

Fe-Pd
Fe-Pt
Fe-Sb
Fe-Si
Fe-Sn
Fe-Ti
Fe-V
Fe-Zr
GaCo
GaNi
Ga-Pu
GaV,
Ge-Fe
Hf-Zr
I-Q%,
Hg-Pb
In-Ag
In-Cu
InPd
M&s
Mn-Co
Mn-Fe
MnPt,
Mn-Ti
Mn-Zr
MO-Fe
Mo-Ni
MO-W
Nb-Ni
NbNi,
Nb-Ti
Nb-W
Nb-Zr
NiAl
N&Al
Ni-Be
Ni-Co
Ni-Cr
Ni-Cu

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

Diffusing
element

Page

cu
Fe
Fe, Mn
Fe
Fe, Ni

229
232
232
232
233

Fe, Pd

233

Fe, Pt
Fe
Fe, E(Fe)
Fe
Fe
Fe, V
Fe, Zr
Co, Ga
Ga, Ni
Pu
Ga, V
Fe
Hf

234
234
234f.
236
236
236
236
225f.
236f.
237
237
232
237

Hg
Nit, Pb
Ag
cu
In, Pd
Ag
Mn
Fe, Mn
Mn
Mn, Ti
Mn, Zr
Fe
MO, Ni
MO, W

219
237
219
229
237f.
219
226
232
238
238
238
232
239
239

Ni
Nb, Ni
Nb, Ti

239
240
240

Nb, W

240

Nb, Zr

241

Ni
Ni
Ni
Co, Ni

221.
221f.
224
226f.

Cr
Ni
Cu, Ni

228
228f.
229

:,,

216

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases

System

Phase

Diffusing
element

Page

Ni-Fe

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition


range in the temperature range studied
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
primary
primary
intermediate, DO, (B-TiCu,) structure
primary
intermediate, y-phase
primary
primary
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
intermediate, B2 (CsCI) structure
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal, fee structure
ordered phase, Ll, (Cu,Au) structure
primary, E-phaseand &phase
terminal
terminal
terminal
intermediate, DO, (BiF,) structure
terminal
intermediate, p-phase
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal
terminal
terminal
terminal
intermediate, DO, (BiF,) structure
intermediate, y-brass-type structure
terminal
intermediate, p-phase
primary
terminal
primary
intermediate, L 12 (Cu,Au) structure
terminal
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
terminal

Fe, Ni

232

Ga, Ni
MO, Ni
Ni
Nb, Ni
Ni
Zn
Cd
Hg, Pb
Pb, Ti
Fe, Pd

236
239
239
240
241
241
224
237
241
232

In, Pd
cu, Pt

237f.
229f.

Fe, Pt
Mn
Pu
W
Aiz
cu
cu
Fe
Sn
Zr

232
238
237
242
219
230
230
232
242
242

Fe, E(Fe)
Ni
4s Sn
cu
Cu, Sn
Cu, Sn
Fe
Sn
Sn, Zn
Au
Co, Ti
co
Fe
Mn, Ti
Nb, Ti

232
241
219
230
230
230
234
242
242
223
227
228
234
238
240

Ti, V

242f.

Ti

243

Pb, Tl
U
U, Zr

241
228
243

Fe, V

234

NiGa
Ni-Mo
Ni-Nb
Ni,Nb
Ni-Si
Ni,Zn,
Pb-Cd
Pb-Hg
Pb-Tl
Pd-Fe
PdIn
Pt-Cu
Pt-Fe
Pt,Mn
Pu-Ga
Re-W
Sb-Ag
Sb-Cu
SbCu,
Sb-Fe
Sb,Sn,
SC-Zr
Si-Fe
Si-Ni
Sn-Ag
Sn-Cu
SnCu,
Sn,Cu,
Sn-Fe
Sn,Sb,
Sn-Zn
Ta-Au
Ti-Co
TiCo,
Ti-Fe
Ti-Mn
Ti-Nb
Ti-V
Ti-Zr
Tl-Pb
u-co
U-Zr
V-Fe

Bakker

Landolt-B6mstein
New Series Ill/26

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases

217

System

Phase

Diffusing
element

Page

V,Ga
V-Zr
V-Ti

Ga, V
V, Zr
Ti, V

237
243

MO, w

239

Nb, W

240

Zn,Ag,
Zn-Al
ZnAu

intermediate, Al 5 structure
primary and terminal
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition
range in the temperature range studied
primary
primary
terminal
intermediate, y-phase
terminal
intermediate, B2 (CsCl) structure

242
220
220
220
222
223

Zn-Cu

terminal

W-MO
W-Nb
W-Re
Zn-Ag

242f.

Ag, Zn
Ag
Ag, Zn

Zn
Au, Zn
EW),

WW

Cu, Zn

231

E(Cu), E(Zn)

ZnCu

intermediate, bee and B2 structure

Zn,Ni,
Zn-Sn
Zr-Cr
Zr-Fe
Zr-Hf

intermediate, y-phase
terminal
primary
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole
range in the temperature range studied
primary
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole
range in the temperature range studied
primary/terminal phase extending over the whole
range in the temperature range studied
primary and terminal

Zr-Mn
Zr-Nb
Zr-Sc
Zr-Ti
Zr-U
Zr-V

composition

241
242
229
234
237

composition

Mn, Zr
Nb, Zr

238
241

composition

Zr

242

composition

Ti

243

composition

U, Zr

243

V, Zr

243

For figures seepage 244.

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

231f.

Cu, Zn
WW, -Vn)
Zn
Sn, Zn
Cr, Zr
Fe, Zr
Hf

218

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Zomposition
It %

Temperature
range [K]

ig-Al;
primary and terminal phase
lomAg diffusion in primary phase
873 ... 1073
AI: 3.8
11.6
17.8
21.7
romAg diffusion in terminal phase
Al: 90.3...99
673...868

DO
10m4ms-

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

185.9
256.6
180.0
114.3

70s

0.39

121.0

68H *)

) Remark: D is concentration independent.

Ag- Au; primary/terminal phaseextending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
*romAg diffusion
63M
927...1218
0.52
187.5
Au: 8
0.32
184.4
17
908...1225
0.23
182.3
908...1229
35
180.5
908...1245
0.19
50
174.7
927... 1244
0.11
66
171.7
923... 1284
0.09
83
168.5
936.e.1234
0.072
94
*Au diffusion
202.2
63M
Au: 8
991... 1213
0.82
991 ..* 1220
0.48
198.0
17
0.35
195.4
991 ... 1269
35
988 ... 1274
0.21
189.5
50
186.3
988 ... 1274
0.17
66
0.12
180.2
985 ... 1274
83
176.1
991 ... 1283
0.09
94
Ag - Cd; primary phase
OrnAgdiffusion
Cd: 30.50...37.70 836,..955
11Cd diffusion
Cd: 31.25...36.25 836...955

For D seeFig. 3

68G

For D see Fig. 3

68G

Ag - Cu; primary phase


lromAg diffusion
cu: 0.17
0.17
0.84
0.84
0.85
1.38
1.68
1.75
2.52
2.55
3.36
4.16
4.43
5.00
6.56
8.15

1053...1179
963 ... 1053
1053..*1179
963...1179
963...1123
883...1113
998...1179
973..*1173
926... 1091
963...1123
963...1123
973... 1173
926... 1091
998...1153
973..*1173
998.s.1103

0.65
1.06
0.68
0.08
0.39
1.04
0.07
0.66
0.63
0.30
0.26
1.84
0.57
0.06
0.51
0.04

189.2
171.6
189.2
163.3
184.2
188.9
170.0
187.5
183.2
180.4
176.6
195.1
181.3
167.0
182.1
160.3

Bakker

57Y, 77B2

5
6
4
7
6
5
5
7
6
4
7
4

64S, 77B2
72P, 77B2
57Y, 77B2
55H, 77B2
72P, 77B2
64S, 77B2
64S, 77B2
55H, 77B2
72P, 77B2
57Y, 77B2
55H, 77B2
57Y, 77B2

Iandolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

219

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

Do
10m4ms1l

e
kJ mol-

Fig.

Ref.

77s

85K

Ag,Hg,; intermediate phase, y-phase


203Hg diffusion
Hg: 55

323...375

1.2.10-4

30.3

Ag - In; primary phase


OrnAg diffusion
In: 0.151 . ..0.943 1054

For D see Fig. 9

AgMg; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCl) structure


OrnAg diffusion
Mg: 41.1.
43.6
43.6, 43.8
45.0
45.8
48.5
48.7
49.8
52
52.8
57.2

773...973

0.095
0.15
0.31
0.686
1.53
0.37
0.39
0.28
0.134
0.33
0.051

139.0
147.8
154.5
165.8
172.9
165.3
166.2
170.0
159.1
153.6
120.1

0.382
0.302
2.75

182.1
178.3
175.8

10
10
10
10
10

64D
64D
61Hl
64D
64D
61Hl
61Hl
64D
64D

Ag - Sb; primary phase


1lomAg diffusion
Sb: 0.53
0.89
1.42

902... 1173
842...1163
841...1164

11

55s

12
13

83H2
85K *)

14

78G

15

78G

Ag - Sn; primary phase


1lomAg diffusion
Sn:
0...8.67
946... 1146
0.218 ... 0.773 1052

For D see Fig. 12


For D see Fig. 13

*) Remark: Single crystals.

Sn: 0.108
0.8
3
4.7
6

893 ...
893 ...
889 ...
893 ...
885...

l1 3Sn diffusion
Sn: 0.11

893 ... 1123

1.7

Land&BBmstein
New Series III/26

1042
1042
1010
1042
980

0.13
0.12
0.085
0.07
0.07

172.9
168.3
160.7
157.0
154.9

No difference with Sn impurity diffusion


in pure silver
0.125
156.8

Bakker

220

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
low4 rns-

Fig.

Ref.

16

67R

17

69s

17

69s

18

67SI,69S

18

67S1,69S

kJ mol-

Ag - Zn; primary and terminal phase


OrnAg diffusion in primary phase
Zn: 0...4.1
1020,1153

For D seeFig. 16

OrnAg diffusion in terminal phase;


diffusion in single crystals parallel to the hexagonal axis
0.42 (5)
Zn: 99.11
594...686
0.35 (7)
99.32
594...690

I 10.0 (6)
109.2 (12)

1omAgdiffusion in terminal phase;


diffusion in single crystals perpendicular to the hexagonal axis
117.2 (8)
0.69 (10)
Zn: 99.11
594...686
115.7 (4)
0.49 (3)
99.65
594...682
65Zn diffusion in terminal phase;
diffusion in single crystals parallel to the hexagonal axis
0.17 (1)
Zn: 98.6
620...690
0.14 (1)
99.43

92.4 (3)
91.9 (4)

65Zn diffusion in terminal phase;


diffusion in single crystals perpendicular to the hexagonal axis
96.8 (2)
0.26 (1)
Zn: 98.6
620 . . .696
96.8 (6)
0.22 (2)
99.43
Ag,Zn,; intermediate phase, y-phase
OrnAg diffusion
Zn: 61
62
65Zn diffusion
Zn: 61

713..*913

4.06
-

122.2 (13)
-

19

71s

680...840

1.55

108.0 (11)

20

71s

21

51N

AICo; intermediate compound, B2 (CsCl) structure


jCo diffusion
co: 49..*57
Al-Fe;

1523

For D see Fig. 21

terminal phase, disordered bee structure

26AI diffusion in paramagnetic phase


100
Fe: 75
1173...1358

267.1

75L

Fe diffusion in paramagnetic phase


32.4
Fe: 75
1173...1413

252.0

22

75L

Fe diffusion in paramagnetic phase


0.01
Fe: 82
973... 1450
0.02
90
1156...1450
0.42
94
1088... 1478

171.7
183.5
197.7

23

81RI

Fe diffusion in ferromagnetic phase


0.01
Fe: 82
816.a.953
0.06
90
765...941
94
953.s.991

197.7
195.9
-

23

81Rl

Landolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

221

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10m4m2sv1

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

AlFe; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCl) structure


26A1diffusion
Fe: 48.8, 51.5
55Fe diffusion
Fe: 47.8
48.8
51.5
59.5
65.9

1173...1358

8700

339.9

75L

1173.s.1423

60
170
1.82 . lo4
830
230

278.8
252.0
331.9
293.9
278.8

24

75L

180.0

75L

Al,Fe; intermediate phase, rhombohedral structure


5Fe diffusion
Fe: 33.18

0.02

A&Fe,; intermediate phase, rhombic structure


26A1diffusion
Fe: 28.39

1173 ... 1358

1.75.10-5

106.7

75L

Fe diffusion
Fe: 28.39

1173 ..* 1358

0.004

141.1

75L

Al,Fe; intermediate phase, monoclinic structure


26A1diffusion
Fe: 24.83

1173... 1358

0.012

183.3

75L

55Fe diffusion
Fe: 24.83

1173... 1358

0.001

157.8

75L

0.00012
0.00104
0.00053
0.2302
4.461
0.6296
0.1504

177.9 (264)
209.7 (310)
200.5 (448)
275.9 (21)
307.3 (96)
274.2 (314)
250.3 (134)

27,28

71Hl

0.0352
0.096
0.7254

216.4 (71)
253.7 (130)
250.3 (163)

AlNi; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCl) structure


63Ni diffusion
Ni: 48.3
48.6
49.0
49.2
50.0
53.2
54.5
55.5
58.0
58.5
58.7
AlNi,;

1273.. 1623

26,27

See Figs. 26,27

intermediate phase, Ll, (Cu,Au) structure

63Ni diffusion
Ni: 73.2
74.7
74.8
76.2

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

1193...1553
1193... 1553
1163.~. 1477
1193... 1553

3.11
1.00
1.00
4.41

300.3
303.1
286.8 (42)
306.3

Bakker

28,29
28,29
30
28,29

71H2
71H2
75B
71H2
(continued)

222

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

Q.

DO

IO+ ms-r

kJ mol-

Dab

10e4 m2s-*

Fig.

Qb

Ref.

kJ mol-

AINi,, continued
63Ni diffusion
Analysis in terms of two exponentials: D(T) = Do" exp(- QJR T) + Dabexp(- QJR T)
Ni: 14
965... 1623
105 (90)
344.9(50)
2 (3). 10-n
121.8(117)
75
965... 1623
146 (32)
347.0(29)
1.1 (4). lo-
141.1(33)
16
965... 1623
132 (53)
342.4 (105) 1.0 (6). lo-
134.8(50)

31
87H3
31, 32
31

Remark: In the high-temperature range there is a good agreement with [71H2] and [75B] (seeFig. 31).

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10m4rns-

e
kJ mol-

Fig.

Ref.

0.25 (3)
0.18 (2)
0.22 (4)
0.22 (4)
0.24 (5)
0.23 (4)
0.170 (98)
0.20
0.324 (216)
0.209 (96)
0.22
0.288 (266)
0.229 (137)
0.23

119.0 (9)
116.7 (12)
117.6 (12)
117.1 (13)
117.5 (15)
116.9 (12)
112.5 (32)
112.6 (21)
113.2 (37)
108.3 (25)
105.1 (21)
105.7 (54)
103.5 (34)
100.5 (29)

33, 34
33, 34
33, 34, 35
33, 34
33, 34
33, 34, 35
36
37
36
36

77Bl

0.162 +238
-0.108
0.575 + 1.084
-0.376
0.692 (701)

100.5 (59)

80C

106.6 (59)

108.1 (54)

111.9 (54)

106.8 (25)

111.4
(39)
90.4 (42)

36

75Gl

117.6 (4)
125.6 (21)

38, 39
38, 39

67G
67G

116.8 (13)
109.7 (21)

61H2*)

38, 39

67G

129.8 (4)
130.6 (20)
117.2 (29)

38, 39
38, 39

67G
67G

61H2

113.4 (21)

38, 39

67G

Al - Zn; primary phase


65Zn diffusion
Zn:

1.16

614...890

1.73
2.15
2.80
3.29
3.76
7.06
9.9
15.17
24.25
28.9
31.27
41.51
50.0

598...753
683...836
598...782
598...753
622...745
634...726
634...715
603...683

52.52

616...695

53.28

615...686

55.04

598...686

56.85

585...654

57.28

598...675

1 514 +2.852
-0.989
0.575 (265)

57.50
58.5

585...675
589...663

1.35 (103)
0.036

8OC
75Gl
80C
80C
75Gl
80C
8OC
75Gl

AuCd; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCI) structure


lg5Au diffusion
Cd: 47.5

627...871

49.0
50.0
50.5

714...822
576...877
714...822

0.23
0.61
0.17
0.12

(2)
(6)
(3)

(1)

*) Remark: Diffusion of rg8Au.

logCd/sCd diffusion
Cd: 47.5
646 ... 858
49.0
50.0
50.5

714...822
604 ... 893
714...822

1.36 (2)
1.5 (2)
0.23 (1)
0.22 (2)

Bakker

Landolf-Wmstein
New Series Ill/26

223

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10d4 rnzs-l

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

Au - Cu; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
lg5Au diffusion
cu: 75

823...1173

0.0065 (9)

160.2 (39)

40

70. . 100

1133

For D see Fig. 41

41

65B, 69A,
77B2
78H

64Cu diffusion
cu: 70... 100

1133

For D seeFig. 41

41

78H

143 (10)

42

75G2

Au - Ta; primary phase


lg5Au diffusion
Ta: 1.2

477...669

0.0014

AuZn; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCl) structure


lg5Au diffusion
Zn: 49.0
50.0
51.0

701 ... 923


701 ... 923
701 ... 923

0.19
0.33
0.016

133.5
138.6
113.0

43,44

71G

65Zn diffusion
Zn: 49.0
50.0
51.0

701...923
701...923
701 ... 923

0.84
1.93
0.047

144.8
148.2
115.1

43,44

71G

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

D
311sl

Fig.

Ref.

1g5/1ggA~diffusion,
Zn: 48.37
48.59
49.10
49.40
49.41
49.47
49.78
49.83
50.27
50.70
50.73
50.92
51.01

isotope effect E
876
876
878
874
878
875
757
874
757
875
875
814
875

1.620 (12). IO-l3


1.880 (13). lo-l3
1.420 (8). IO-l3
1.700 (4). 10-13
1.730 (6). lo-l3
1.650 (20) . lo- l3
1.040 (6). lo-l4
1.530 (22). 10-13
8.950 (44). lo-l5
2.000 (16). IO-l3
1.670 (15). IO-l3
6.330 (15). IO-l4
2.380 (12). IO-l3

0.22 (2)
0.30 (3)
0.41 (4)
0.24 (3)
0.32 (2)
0.21 (6)
0.37 (4)
0.20 (3)
0.23 (2)
0.25 (3)
0.29 (3)
0.35 (3)
0.36 (3)

45

83H3

0.230 (17)
0.190 (13)
0.090 (35)
0.100 (13)
0.050 (10)

46

83H3

Remark: For pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficient see [72J].

65/6gmZndiffusion,
Zn: 49.18
49.35
50.21
50.43
51.85

isotope effect E
916
928
835
837
810

7.280 (64). lo-l3


1.200 (21) . lo-l2
1.330 (15). lo-l3
1.200 (16). lo-l3
3.180 (47). lo-l3

Remark: For pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficient see [725].

Land&-BGmstein
New Series III/26

Ijakker

224

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Fig.

Ref.

9.03

195.1

47

73L, 77B2

5.99

198.0

47

73L, 77B2

Be - Ni; primary phase


63Ni diffusion
Ni: 1.7
1173...1373
6.0

0.41 (16)
0.23 (12)

247.0 (109)
188.4 (17)

70A

Cd - Pb; terminal phase


lo9Cd diffusion
Pb: 99.1 . ..99.995 410.1

For D seeFig. 48

48

79Cl

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

Be - Cu; primary phase


Be tracer diffusion
perpendicular to the c axis
Cu: 1.6
770...1120
parallel to the c axis
Cu: 1.6
770...1120

DO
10-4 m2s-

kJ mol-

Co-Fe; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
Co diffusion in the ordered B2 (CsCI) structure
Fe: 50
928...995
557 (42)
70F
49
6oCo diffusion in the disordered bee structure, ferromagnetic phase
Fe: 32.8

903...1153

(6.04:;:;:).

10-3

190.9 (54)

72H
70F )

50.4
50

1023...1123
1068...1218

2.00 (50)
(6.59+;:;;!

71.4

903 ... 1083

93.2

903 ... 1073

+lO-2

251.2
247.0 (84)
(109)

(l.25+$.

lo-

198.0 (96)

(4.69;;:;;).

10-l

187.1 (121)

72H

) 5Co diffusion.

jCo diffusion in the disordered bee structure, paramagnetic phase


Fe: 93.2

1153...1193

(5.72:;:;;).

lo-

146.5 (84)

72H

251.2 (167)

72H

6oCo diffusion in the fee structure, ferromagnetic phase


Fe: 10.4

1073...1283

(6.44+;:;;).

1O-2

6oCo diffusion in the fee structure, paramagnetic phase


Fe: 10.4

1333... 1583

(l.61 ;!;i).

lO-2

234.0 (193)

72H

32.8

1333...1583

(3.15;:;;).

1O-2

265.0 (117)

72H

50

1285...1437

1.33 (50)

290.5 (84)

49

70F )

50.4

1333...1583

(1.54:;:;;).

IO-

349.5 (42)

72H

71.4

1333...1583

(3.36+$

* 1O-2

266.2 (96)

93.2

1283...1583

(1.09$;;).

10-r

326.0 (201)

(continued)

) 5Co diffusion.

Bakker

land&BBmstcin

New Series III,/26

225

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)

Fig.

Ref.

557 (42)

49

70F

59Fe diffusion in the disordered bee structure, ferromagnetic phase


230.2 (42)
1068... 1218
0.25 (10)
Fe: 50

49

70F

59Fe diffusion in the fee structure, ferromagnetic phase


1081... T,
0.58
Fe: 6
10
0.68

273.3
279.2

74B

59Fe diffusion in the fee structure, paramagnetic phase


TC... 1573
0.15
Fe: 6
10
TC... 1573
0.18
50
1285 ... 1473
1.26 (10)

261.6
263.3
286.7 (84)

49

74B
74B
.70F

Temperature
range [K]

Composition
at %

DO

10m4m2sv1

kJ mol-

Co -Fe, continued
59Fe diffusion in the ordered B2 (CsCl) structure
928...995
Fe: 50

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

Fig.

Ref.

70F

49

70F

49

70F

49

70F

m*s-

57/60Codiffusion, isotope effect E in the fee structure, paramagnetic phase


0.773 (100)
1333
2.63 . lo-l6
Fe: 50
55159Fediffusion, isotope effect E in the ordered B2 (CsCl) structure
0.06 (20)
928
1.56. IO-l9
Fe: 50
0.30 (20)
956
8.68 . 10-19
0.16 (20)
975
4.79.10-18
0.30 (15)
994.5
8.70. IO-=
55/59Fediffusion, isotope effect E in the disordered bee structure
0.54 (8)
1068
1.03 . 10-16
Fe: 50
0.46 (8)
1150
1.07.10-15
0.64 (IO)
1175
1.85. 10-l
0.55 (8)
1218
5.12. IO-
55/59Fediffusion, isotope effect E in the fee structure
1285
3.00.10-6
Fe: 50
1335
8.14. IO-l6
1400
2.28. IO-l5
1434
5.34.10-15
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

Doa
10m4ms

Q.

kJ mol-

0.67 (8)
0.71 (8)
0.65 (8)
0.61 (8)
Dab
10m4ms1r

Qb

Fig.

Ref.

80s

kJ mol-

CoGa; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCl) structure


6oCo diffusion
Analysis in terms of two exponentials: D(T) = Doa exp( - Q,/R T) + Dab exp( - QJRT)
Ga: 40.0

848...1423

0.989+ o49
-0.33

225 (10)

967+ 7oo
-400

294 (21)

50

44.0

898...1423

234 (13)

51

912...1423
948 ... 1423

1450+530
-390
366 (9)
883 (14)

302(12)

50.0
52.0

0846+54
.
-0.33
one exponential
one exponential

292 (2)
302 (1)

52
53

54.8

924... 1373

0.365 (13)

235 (2)

1160;;;

308 (2)

54

Remark: See also [79B].


(continued)

Land&-Bhutein
New Series III/26

226

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Composition
at %

Tempcraturc
range [K]

DO

IOe4 m2s1

Q.

kJ mol-

Dab

Fig.

Ref.

383 (29)

50

80s

IO6

410 (29)

IO7

434 (45)

51

. IO4

357(50)

Qb

IOm4m2s11

kJ mol-

CoGa, continued
67Ga diffusion
Analysis in terms of two exponentials: D(T) = Do exp( - Q,/R T) + Dab exp( - QJR T)
53 6+12
. -10

277 (9)

(,.I,-$IO

Ga: 40.0

973 ... 1423

42.0

1123...1373

145+I
-10

290

44.0

1024...1423

518+70
-80

304 (8)

46.0

1024...1373

212+380
-140

302

48.0

1198...1373

249+ 39
-34

302

(7.82;;:).

IO7

441 (49)

50.0

998...1423

292 (I I)

(I.80:;:$.

IO6

398 (18)

52

52.0

1024... 1423

303 (1I)

(4.59+::;).

IO8

462 (46)

53

53.0

1133...1323

309

1.60. IO6

394

54.8

923... I373

66.3+18
-14
326+50
-40
690
9410+1000
- 900

(3.26+;:).

IO-4 163 (IO)

328 (7)

54

Remark: See also [79B].


Composition

Temperature

at %

range [K]

Co -Mn;

DO
10m4m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

268.3 (63)
256.6 (100)
263.3 (34)

55

771

kJ mol-

primary phase

54Mn diffusion
Mn: 5.22

5.22
10.24

1141 ... 1241)

1.38

1329...1473b)
1176... 1421

0.501

1.36

Remark: l ) Ferromagnetic phase, b, Paramagnctic phase.

Co-Ni;

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

6oCo diffusion [69M]; Co


Ni:

3.7

diffusion [72M]
1 23+1.23
1340...1579
. -06,

7.1

1349.e.1578

1 12+2.55
. -075

280.0 (142)

10.3

1358...1578

o 43 + 0.75
. -028

267.5 (126)

30.0

1362...1577

o lo+o.15
. -oo6

246.6 (113)

49.3

1366...1577

o 18+o:20
. -oo9

252.0 (88)

0.094+ o.50
-0.08
o.40+.60
-0.25
o 98 + 0.73
. -o,41

49.3
69.7
69.7

853... 1353
1365...1574
853... 1353

56

69M

254.1 (163)

72M

258.7 (117)

56

69M

271.7 (50)

72M

283.4 (84)

(continued)

Bakker

Landolt-B6mslein
New Series 111126

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

227

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10e4 m2 s-l

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

Ni: 73.7

1355...1570

o.og -oo7
+ 0.26

240.3 (159)

56

69M

73.7

853*..1353

o.37 -021
+0:50

261.6 (75)

72M

80.1

1343...1564

o.22 -o
+ 0.55
16

250.7 (151)

56

69M

o.32+0.24
-o.14

259.5 (50)

72M

8.68 +
-49.44
53

312.3 (88)

71M

7.1

l2 6+7:04
-4.52

316.5 (54)

10.3

13 7+ 17.5
. -7.70

317.3 (100)

30.0

7 45 + 6.06
* -3.34

306.8 (71)

49.3

4 80+4.23
-2.23

300.1 (75)

69.7

5 g6 + 5.63
. -2.90

298.9 (80)

73.7

6 13+4.87
-2.72

299.7 (71)

80.1

3 66+ 1.65
. -1.13

293.9 (46)

Co - Ni, continued

80.1

853... 1353

63Ni diffusion
Ni:

3.7

Composition
at %

1338...1563

Temperature
K

D
rn2se1

Fig.

Ref.

1.92.10-12
1.15.10-2
1.76. IO-
1.60. IO-l2
3.79 * lo-
3.95 * lo-
3.35 * IO-
3.30.10-1

75Sl

Co - Ti; terminal phase


Co diffusion
Ti: 92.6
95.1
96.7
98.4
92.6
95.1
96.7
98.4
Composition
at %

1186

1478

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10e4 m2 s-l

Ti: 92.6

1076... 1484

(2.50+;$.

95.1

1076..+ 1572

96.7
98.4

Fig.

Ref.

lO-2

162.8 (75)

57

75Sl

(I.41 i:;;).

10-Z

160.3 (50)

1166... 1617

(l.58+;$).

lO-3

140.2 (38)

1237 ... 1777

(1.26+;:;;).

lO-3

145.3 (67)

kJ mol-

44Ti diffusion

_Lanaolt-bxlw.eln
.._
New Series III/26

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

228

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10T4 m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

203
188
174

58

88N

59

64D

kJ mol-

Co,Ti; intermediate phase, Ll z (Cu,Au) structure


6oCo diffusion
Ti 21.5
22.8
24.0
Co-U;

1074.0... 1332.2
1074.0... 1322.6
1074.0... 1321.9

4.3. 10-z
1.2. 10-z
3.7. 10-3

terminal phase

235U diffusion
u: X99.5...% 99.77 1095, 1113

For D see Fig. 59

Cr - Fe; primary/terminal phaseextending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
5Cr diffusion in paramagnetic a-phase
o *8+o.05
1073... 1673
. -o.04
Fe: 81
o 19+o.03
. -0.02
0.64 (7)

84
87

218.1 (38)
231.9 (29)

Cr diffusion in paramagnetic y-phase


Fe: 94
1073...1673
, .21 +0.73
-046

70Bl

237.3 (100)

3 21 +0.83
. -0.66

98

70Bl

216.8 (59)

244.5 (50)

s9Fe diffusion in ferromagnetic a-phase


Fe: 80.25
848...919
0.65
84.78
868...950
1.25
90.87
848...999
9.27

217.3
226.5
230.6

68R

s9Fe diffusion in paramagnetic y-phase


Fe: 90.87
1173..*1313
0.12

237.4

70R

s9Fe diffusion in paramagnetic a-phase


Fe: 80.25
963 ... 1098
0.18
84.78
999 ... 1050
0.27
94.95
1073...1173
0.85
96.91
1040...1173
6.7
98.57
1040~~~1173
2.8
99.13
1040...1173
1.2

208.0
215.6
237.3
255.8
249.1
241.1

68R

Cr -Ni;

74K

primary and terminal phase

sCr diffusion in primary phase


Ni: 18
1423.~~1688
SCr diffusion in terminal phase
Ni: 52.3

1223... 1473
61.6
65.6
70.6
76.4
78
1123...1473
85.7
1223... 1473
95.3
1223...1473
63Ni diffusion in terminal phase
Ni: 52.3
1223... 1473
61.6
65.6

71A

0.28

259.5

2.64
2.16
2.42
2.91
6.10
0.61
5.66
6.37

284.2
284.0
288.0
288.5
295.5
264
293.6
292.1

8lR2

1.74
1.43
1.35

288.9
290.4
289.5

8lR2

Bakker

8lR2
79D
8lR2

(continued)
Land&-B6mstein
New Series 11126

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

229

DO
10m4m2 s-l

e
kJ mol-

Fig.

Ref.

rangeKl

285.4
293.8
259
289.3
279.5

81R2

1123... 1473
1223... 1473
1223... 1473

1.02
2.95
0.15
2.31
1.32

Temperature

Cr - Ni, continued
Ni: 70.6
76.4
78
85.7
95.3

79D
81R2

Cr - Zr; terminal phase


Cr diffusion
Zr: 97.4

1233... 1371

0.19

191.3

73Tl

g5Zr diffusion
Zr: 92.14
95.92
96.51
97.95

1227...
1218 ...
1196...
1200...

1.59.10-z
1.39.10-z
2.05. IO-
5.16. 1O-3

173.4 (26)
169.2 (45)
169.0 (87)
165.5 (75)

60

81Pl

61

72B

62

82H

1516
1516
1518
1497

Cu -Fe; primary phase


64Cu diffusion
Fe: 0 ... 2.4

1293

For D see Fig. 61

Cu - In; primary phase


64Cu diffusion
In: 0.4
0.8
1.2 .,
1.7
Cu -Ni;

1005... 1145

220
200
200
190

2
0.4
0.6
0.2

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

64Cu diffusion
Ni: 1

1053...1163

1.86

204.7

67S2

21.5

1146...1385

1.9+2.0

231.5 (80)

63

64M, 77B2

5416

1258... 1483

2.3 -lo
(10,

252.4 (13)

87

1327...1632

7-03
1.5+o.4
.

263.7 (3)

64

64M, 77B2

63Ni diffusion
Ni: 21.5

1187... 1386

.
oo63+o.012
-0.010

208.0 (21)

54.6

1298... 1476

17+11
-7

279.6 (63)

87

1379... 1618

35+17
-11

313.5 (71)

Cu - Pt; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
.,
_
64Cu diffusion
1172...1319

1.l+1.8
-o 7

221.0 (105)

24.6

1220... 1369

. -042
053+1.01

229.0 (163)

49.4

1273 ... 1566

o.027 + 0.022
-0.012

213.5 (71)

74.5

1371...1658

37
o .67 -o
+ 0.83

269.6 (50)

Pt: 9.8

I&dolt-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

65

77B2

(continued:

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

230

Fig.

Ref.

oo93+.42
.
- 0.076
oo*g+o.041
.
-0.013

220.2 (180)

66

77B2

1307...1560

oo66+0.126
.
- 0.044

249.1 (126)

1413...1655

o.022+~081
-0.017

252.4 (197)

0.4
0.6
0.7

200
200
200

67

82H

8.57. 1O-4
1.99.10-4
1.36. 1O-4

43.8 (56)
30.4 (42)
24.30 (364)

68,69

70H, 84B

0.4
0.07
0.06
0.03

200
180
180
170

70,71

82H

Temperature
range fK1

DO
lop4 m2s-

Pt: 9.8

1179.**1331

24.6

1219..+1367

49.4
74.5

Zomposition
it %

kJ mol-

Zu - Pt, continued
195Ptdiffusion

215.2 (126)

Cu-Sb; primary phase


54Cudiffusion
Sb: 0.3
0.5
0.8

1005~~~1145

Cu,Sb; intermediate phase, p-phase, DO, (BiF,) structure


54Cu diffusion
Sb: 21
25
29

770 . . .900

Cu- Sn; primary phase


64Cu diffusion
Sn: 0.4
0.8
1.1
1.7

1014... 1145

Cu,Sn; intermediate phase, y-phase, DO, (BiF,) structure

64Cu diffusion
Sn: 16.6
18.0
19.8
20.2

811... 1008
873...998
873...998
897...992

0.0083 (17)
0.014
0.0036
0.018 (3)

83.0 (19)
74.5
84.6
82.0 (10)

72,74
73,74
73,74
72,74

80P
68E
68E
80P

1%n diffusion
Sn: 16.6
18.0
19.8
20.2

839...998
873...998
873.e.998
903.s. 1003

0.22 (19)
0.33
0.092
0.035 (16)

117.8 (68)
122.2
113.4
107.1 (29)

72,74
73,74
73,74
72,74

80P
68E
68E
80P

129.3 (4)

75

68E

208.0 (21)

75

68E

Cu,Sn,; intermediate phase, &-phase,y-brass-type structure

64Cu diffusion
Sn: 20.5

710... 850

4.7 (13)

11%n diffusion
Sn: 20.5

770... 840

Bakker

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10e4 m2se1

231

Fig.

Ref.

76

7OP

kJ mol-

Cu - Zn; primary phase


67Cu diffusion
Zn: 0...4

I
1167,122O

For D seeFig. 76

8.6

873 .+. 1074

162.0 (84)

72K2

8.6

873...1074

oo57+o.100
.
-0.036
o t5+0.06
. -oo5

177.0 (25)

72K2

10.1

1022...1252

o 64+o:07
. -oo7

190.9 (8)

680

14.9

783 ... 1084

160.0 (109)

72K2

20.5

1021...1213

176.6 (29)

680

28.8

873 ... 1074

133.5 (134)

72K2

30.2

973...1175

164.5 (25)

680

37.1

907... 1074

o.oo56+ 0.0100
- 0.0037

135.6 (67)

72K2

Fig.

Ref.

65Zn diffusion
Zn:

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

o.075 + b.220
-0.056
o.35+o.12
-oog
0028+~.120
.
- 0.023
o 32+o.10
. -oo8

m2s-l

64Cu/67Cu diffusion, isotope effect E


Zn: 3.6
1169.4
29.8
1166

3.75.10-14
4.31 . 10-13

0.699 (7)
0.632 (9)

7OP

65Zn/6gZn diffusion, isotope effect E


Zn: 4.89
1169.7
30.6
1168.8

1.31 . IO--l3
1.67. lo-l2

0.389 (10)
0.446 (8)

7OP

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
low4 m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

CuZn; intermediate compound, disordered bee structure and ordered B2 (CsCl) structure
64Cu diffusion in the disordered structure
Zn: 45.65 . ..48.00 770... 1090
0.011

92.3

77

56K

65Zn diffusion in the disordered structure


Zn: 45.65 ... 48.00 772 ... 991
0.0035

78.6

77

56K

64Cu diffusion in the ordered B2 structure


Zn: 45.65...48.00 654..715
180
565.~. 654
80

158.6
150.8

77

56K

65Zn diffusion in the ordered B2 structure


Zn : 45.65 . . .48.00 649 . . .723
78000
537...649
163

185.1
152.0

77

56K

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

Fig.

Ref.

64Cu/67Cu diffusion, isotope effect E in the disordered structure


Zn: 46.2
835.6
1.70.10-12
0.325 (9)

7OP

65Zn/6gZn diffusion, isotope effect E in the disordered structure


Zn: 49.0
833.3
4.46. lo-l2
0.24 (1)

67P
(continued)

Landolt-Biimstein
New Series III/26

m2s-l

Bakker

232

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

D
m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

CuZn, continued
64Cu/67Cu diffusion, isotope effect E in the ordered B2 structure
Zn: 46.8
683
1.77.10-4
0.325 (IO)

7OP

65Zn/6gZn diffusion, isotope effect E in the ordered B2 structure


Zn: 47.2
683.6
4.38 . lo-r4
0.20 (I)

67P

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
IOm4m2s-

,Q

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

Fe - Ge; primary phase


5gFediffusion
Ge: 4.8

1173..*1473

4.8

242.8 (42)

67LI

0.090
0.105
0.058
0.066
0.110
0.35
0.64
0.85
0.60

265.4
262.9
255.8
254.9
262.0
275.4
282.1
277.5
276.7

73N

oo55+o.014
.
-0.012
0.020+ 0.09
-0.007
o oo96+ 0.0034
- 0.0007
oo17+o.o11
.
-0.007
oo72+o.031

-0.027
029+o.11

-0.08
0.190
0.120
0.073

249.5 (80)

70N

235.3 (71)

222.3 (71)

229.4 (88)

248.2 (113)

266.6 (138)

261.6
251.6
242.0

73N

263 (11)

77R

257 (19)

266 (20)

264 (20)

Fe - Mn; primary phase


Fe diffusion in primary phase
Mn: 1.04
1263...1513
2.03
2.97
4.90
7.04
10.41
18.15
25.50
33.98
54Mn diffusion in primary phase
Mn:

1.04

983...1573

2.03
2.97
4.90
7.04
10.41
18.15
25.50
33.98

1263...1513

Fe-MO; primary phase


sgFe diffusion in primary, paramagnetic phase
MO: 0.32

0.64
0.90
1.5

953...1173

15.5+32
-10
23.6+16
- 21
28.5+210
- 25
47.7+ 340
- 42

Bakker

Land&-BCmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion


Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

Fe - Ni; primary/terminal
5gFe diffusion
Ni: 14.9
29.7
45.3
60.5
70.0
75.3
79.8
90.0
63Ni diffusion
Ni: 14.9
29.7
45.3
60.5
70.0
75.3
79.8
90.0

lo3Pd diffusion
Pd: 10
20
30
40
50
55
60
70
80
90

binary

alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)

DO
10m4 ms-

Fig.

233
Ref.

kJ mol-

phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

1258 -.+ 1578

2.13
9.98
8.75
28.77
11.99
20.28
12.30
17.99

286.3
305.7
301.8
311.3
302.7
309.9
304.2
307,l

(180)
(105)
(77)
(122)
(94)
(72)
(55)
(174)

78

81M

1258 ... 1578

1.88
2.36
8.04
7.76
13.90
13.31
8.73
7.67

289.4
291.9
303.4
300.5
305.3
307.3
301.5
299.6

(139)
(120)
(152)
(123)
(62)
(138)
(89)
(196)

79

81M

Fe - Pd; primary/terminal
5gFe diffusion
Pd: 10
20
30
40
50
55
60
70
80
90

in homogeneous

phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

1373 ... 1523

1373...1523

0.79
0.93
0.66
0.95
0.95
0.79
0.69
0.60
0.91
0.91

259.5 (130)
269.6 (134)
275.9 (147)

0.70
1.84
1.66
1.05
0.70
0.67
0.79
0.73
0.79
0.37

278.8
284.6
279.2
270.8
264.6
263.7
266.2
266.6
271.3
268.3

277.5
271.7
262.5
264.1
262.5
260.0
258.7

(110)
(163)
(159)
(147)
(130)
(147)
(134)

(172)
(155)
(167)
(147)
(130)
(142)
(142)
(134)
(151)
(151)

80, 84

77F*)

81,84
:

82, 84

77F*)

83,84

) Remark: The values of the pre-exponential factors and activation energies(for s9Feand lo3Pd diffusion) were obtained by
:omputer calculations based on the results given in Fig. 84.

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

234

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276
Temperature
range [K]

Do
10e4 m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

03+0.8
. -o.22

263 (38)

79C2

o.1 +0.2
-0.07
o.1 +0.2
-0.07
o o4 + 0.07
. -0.04

254 (25)

259 (21)

240 (21)

O06+3
. -o,0599

251 (71)

5.69

o o4 + 0.05
-0.02

254 (17)

14.8

0.008+ 02
-0.006

224 (25)

1.1+26
_ 1o

264.1 (343)

20

0.34+ l2
- 0.33

265.0 (327)

25

1.17+130
- 1.16

265.4 (477)

30

0.28+71
-0.27

264.1 (335)

34

o.15+1.2
-0.13
1.3+1.5
-0.5
1*13+o.79
-0.47
2.1 + 3.9
-1.4
o.85 + 0.74
-0.40

264.1 (234)

289.7 (327)

284.2 (59)

292.2 (121)

286.7 (71)

0.34+ 3.5
-0.31

280.9 (222)

0.51

216.8 (84)

67Ll

85

75M2 *)

71D*)
81Rl

Composition
at %
Fe-Pt;

kJ mol-

primary phase (solution in y-phase of Fe)

5gFediffusion
Pt: 2.92

1386...1528

5.69
8.0
8.3
lg7Pt diffusion
Pt: 2.92

15

1406.e. 1569

1173...1693

40
45
50
55
60

79C2

75K

Fe - Sb; primary phase


sgFe diffusion
Sb: 2.5

1169.e.1370

Fe - Si; primary phase


Fe diffusion in ferro- and paramagnetic phase
Si: 7.64
806... 1366
For D see Fig. 85
*) Remark: Single crystal.

Fe diffusion in ferromagnetic phase


Si: 3
980... 1030
0.60 (30)
10
875...957
5.59

224.7 (54)
219.1

l ) Remark: Single crystal

(continued)
Bakker

Iandolt-BGmstein
New Series III/26

235

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DQ

10m4ms11

Fig.

Ref.

276
276
282.5
215.9 (54)
232.3

86, 87
86, 87
-

81T
81T
702
71D*)
68L

250 (11)

86

77M *)

229.8

68L

kJ mol-

Fe - Si, continued
5gFe diffusion in paramagnetic phase
1.03
1063... 1373
Si: 1.48
76.7
1.87
1063... 1373
63.2
3
1173...1523
0.23 (7)
3
1030... 1173
1.63
4.7
1073... 1573
5.5

1013...1373

72+17
. _ 51

6.3

1073... 1573

1.65

6.4

1013...1373

-3,1
3.15+6.8

238 (11)

86

77M *)

6.55

1063... 1373

5.2

242

86,87

81T

7.64

1173... 1373

-028
1.38+o.35

228.1 (25)

85

751112
*)

7.8

1053...1373

86+18
. _ 58

244 (11)

86

77M *)

8.2
8.64
10

1073 ... 1573


1063 ... 1373
1005...1178

0.50
4.93
0.25

213.1
236
209.6

68L
86, 87 81T
81Rl

11.1

1173...1373

063+o.19
.

212.2 (33)

75M2 *)

11.3

1073 ... 1573

1.11-oll .

213.9

68L

11.6

1053...1373

063+18
.

212 (13)

86

77M *)

11.7
12.1

1073...1573
1063... 1373

1.46-047
0.8

216.4
213

68L
86, 87 81T

15.3

1133...1373

21+7.5
. -16

219 (16)

86

77M *)

19.2

1093...1373

-18
3.4+3.7

216 (8)

86

77M *)

*) Remark: Single crystal.

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

Fig.

Ref.

m2sm1

5515gFediffusion in single crystals, isotope effect E in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phase
71D
0.366 (48)
6.50 (32). lo-l7
980
Si: 3
0.339 (45)
1.04 (5). 10-16
996
0.336 (44)
1.35 (7). 10-16
1008
0.343 (45)
1.91 (IO). 10-16
1016
0.339 (41)
3.06 (15). IO-l6
1023
0.343 (38)
3.23 (16) * IO-l6
1039
0.346 (37)
6.18 (22). 10-16
1062
0.349 (36)
7.70 (28). lo-l6
1076
0.346 (35)
8.94 (32). lo-l6
1083
0.377 (34)
2.42 (9). 10-l
1128
0.397 (40)
5.77 (21) . lo- l5
1175
Remark: The Curie temperature is 1029K.

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

236

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

Composition
3t %

Temperature
range [K]

Do
10m4m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

88

83K

kJ mol-

primary phase

Fe-h;

5gFediffusion
Sn: O... 2.7
Fe-Ti;

1168

For D see Fig. 88

primary phase

5gFediffusion
Ti: 2
2

1173...1473

2.8

242.0 (42)

67Ll

1273... 1673

0.56+14
-0.12
o 27 + 0.04
. -0.03

216.4 (63)

70Bl

204.7 (42)

o.40+.5
-0.2

208.9 (234)

1173...1773
1173...1466

1.4
I.87

236.9 (42)
240.3 (42)

67LI

1273... 1723

3 g2+0.82
. -0.68
3 ()(-)+0.49
-0.42
2 28 + 0.40
. -0.34
2 12+0.25
. -0.22
, 66 + 0.49
-0.38

241.1 (54)

70B2

238.6 (42)

236.1 (46)

236.5 (29)

234.0 (75)

4
6
primary phase

Fe-V;

Fe diffusion
V: I.8
5.3
*V diffusion
v:

2
5
9
14
19

Fe - Zr; terminal phase

5gFe diffusion
Zr: 96.5
98.0
99.5

lOgO... 1600
1120... 1600
1120... 1580

7.4 (3) 10-3

108.1 (19)
same values
same values

1276...1515
1188...1470
1196...1520
1218,..1515
1258...1518

5.26. lO-2
2.9. 10-3
1.62. lO-3
2.08. lO-3

155.5 (132)
140.8 (73)
146.0 (72)
150.9 (I 34)

1.52. lO-3

149.0 (65)

89

87Hl

90

81PI

91,92

76D

g5Zr diffusion
Zr: 93.63

96.46
98.36
98.65
99.02
GaNi;

intermediate phase, B2 (CsCI) structure

67Ga diffusion
Ni: 47.28
48.76
50.01
50.73
51.01
52.40

1085... 1384

0.1230 (2317)
0.7874
0.0010 (19)
0.0122 (329)
0.1087 (2656)
5.1430 (209524)

191.5
209.4
146.5

166.4
189.6
222.0
(continued)

Bakker

Land&BBmstein
New Series 111126

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

237

Temperature
range [K]

Do

Fig.

10m4rns-l

kJ mol-

978 ... 1380

0.0029 (38)
0.0126 (117)
0.0130 (192)
0.0936 (1220)
0.1353 (1187)
0.0174 (84)
0.0107 (95)
0.0121 (37)

143.1
154.3
156.0
172.5
175.3
158.2
153.7
153.9

93,94 76D

238Pu diffusion
diffusion in s-phase
Pu: 96.6
847...917

6.98. 1O-4

56.1

71w

diffusion in g-phase
Pu: 96.6
613...781

76.4

152.0

71w

414.1 (87)

95

84V

Ref.

GaNi, continued
63Ni diffusion
Ni: 47.28
48.76
49.33
50.01
50.45
50.73
51.01
52.40

Ga - Pu; terminal phase

GaV,; intermediate phase, Al 5 structure


48V diffusion
V: 75.6

1298 ... 1449

15200

Hf - Zr; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
*Hf diffusion in single crystal
diffusion parallel to the hexagonal axis
Zr: 4.0
1493... 1883
0.86
1347... 1493
7.1. lo-

370.0 (134)
85.0 (268)

96

72D

diffusion perpendicular to the hexagonal axis


Zr: 4.0
1493 ... 1883
0.28
1347... 1493
8.9. IO-lo

348.3 (200)
104.2 (553)

97

72D

Hg - Pb; terminal phase


03Hg diffusion
Pb: 96
Pb

428.s.568

o 7g+o.17
. -0.14

90.0 (8)

98

73w

487...568

o.76 + 0.21
-0.14

105.1 (13)

98

73w

diffusion

Pb: 99
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO"
10e4 ms-

Q.

kJ mol-

Dab
low4 ms-

Qb

Fig.

Ref.

314.7 (251)
318.5 (241)
293.4 (241)
-

99

83Hl

kJ mol-

InPd; intermediate phase, B2 (CsCl) structure


i14In diffusion
Analysis in terms of two exponentials: D(T) = Doa exp( - Q,/RT) +
Pd: 49
1094...1270
0.0084 (44)
192.1(125)
50
996... 1326
0.0050 (27)
181.5(106)
53
996... 1417
0.016 (8)
191.1(116)
56
1039... 1472
0.14 (3)
215.3 (29)

Dabexp(- QJR T)
5.0 (39). IO2
10.6 (62). IO2
20.0 (ill)
-

(continued)

Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

238

Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DQ

Fig.

Ref.

lop4 m*s-

kJ mol-

1056... 1274
1098... 1326
1122...1424
1056...1379

0.12 (2)
2.30 (55)
0.60 (13)
0.20 (4)

207.5 (29)
243.3 (29)
222.0 (19)
205.6 (19)

99

83Hl

57.0
222.0
53.1

100
101
102

79A

Fig.

Ref.

75Sl

Fig.

Ref.

103

75Sl

InPd, continued
ro9Pd diffusion
Pd: 49
50
53
56

MnPt,; ordered phase, Ll z (Cu,Au) structure


s4Mn diffusion
Pt: 65
75
82

1026... 1284
1026... 1283
1020... 1284

2.3.10-r
3.10-2
2.1 * 10-10

Composition
at %

Temperature
K

Mn -Ti;

m*s-

terminal phase

54Mn diffusion
Ti: 79.4
82.1
86.7
90.3
86.7
90.3

1171

1513

8.83. IO-l4
9.67. IO-l4
1.54.10-13
1.86.10-3
1.44.10-11
5.64. IO-

Temperature
range [K]

DO

Ti: 79.4

1083... 1525

(5.47;;:;).

IO-

208.0 (75)

82.1

1070... 1570

(2.60+;:;;).

lo-*

176.2 (42)

86.7

1076... 1617

(2.06+;:;;).

lo-*

172.0 (54)

90.3

1137...1720

(1.90;:;;).

lo-*

171.2 (96)

Composition
at %

10m4m*s-l

kJ mol-

44Ti diffusion

Mn -Zr;

terminal phase

54Mn diffusion
Zr: 98
98.5
99
99.5
Zr diffusion
Zr: 98
98.5
99
99.5

1173...1473

0.08 (3) +10-j


0.46 (12). IO-
1.38 (41). lO-3
2.92 (73). lO-3

104.6 (27)
120.1 (30)
129.5 (37)
135.7 (27)

104

79P2

1173...1473

3.36 (97).
2.17 (61).
1.20 (30).
0.71 (20).

125.3 (35)
121.8 (28)
116.7 (34)
112.3 (27)

105

79P2

lO-4
lO-4
10-4
10-a

Bakker

land&-Btimsfein
New Series III/26

239

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
It %

Temperature
range [K]

Do
10m4rns-l

Fig.

Ref.

207.2
210.6
218.5
228.6

71F

229.8

198.4

kJ mol-

MO- Ni; terminal phase


)gMo diffusion
Ni: 77
80
82
84
92

63Ni diffusion
Ni: 77
80
82
84

0.20
0.25
0.45
1.30
1.31

1373...1573

0.12
0.19
0.34
0.63
2.55

1223...1573
1223 ... 1623
1223 ... 1623
1273 ... 1673

92
MO-W;
studied

1373 ... 1573


1223 ... 1573
1223 '.* 1623
1223 ... 1623
1273 ... 1673

204.3
211.0
218.5
236.1

71F

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range
-

ggMo diffusion
w: 0.1
15
20
25
35
45
50
56
65
75
80
85

99.9
la5W diffusion
w: 0.1
15
20
25
35
50
65
75
80
85

99.9

2073 .. 2673
1673 . ..2673
1673...2673
1673...2673
1773...2673
2173...2673
1973... 2773
2173 ... 2573
2073 ... 2873
2073 .*. 3073
2073 *.. 3073
2073 . . .3073
2473 +.. 3073
2073..2673
1673...2673
1673 ... 2673
1673 ... 2673
1773 ... 2673

1973...2773
2073 ... 2873
2073 ... 3073
2073 ... 3073
2073 ... 3073
2473 ... 3073

468.8
443.7
427.0

142
265
146
47
28
0.12
12
0.17
1.3
0.2

397.6
385.1
431.2
368.4

447.9

0.11

360.0
353.7
343.3

0.08
0.0025

326.5

69F

69F

68s

67L2
69F
67L2
69F

334.9

297.2

0.0085
1.4
1.7
2.2

305.6
312.3
322.3
355.8

6.9

397.7

14
16
20
22
25
24

427.0
485.6

498.1
510.7
544.2

Nb - Ni; terminal phase


63Ni diffusion
Ni: 90
92
98.8

Land&-Bknstein
New Series 111126

1303 ... 1503

281
260
255

1.80
0.20
0.12

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

240

Zomposition
1t %

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10m4m2s-

Fig.

Ref.

kJ mol-

VbNi,; intermediate phase, DO, (P-TiCu,) structure


Nb diffusion in single crystals
Ni: 75
1543.s.1623

240

447.9

75Ml

Ni diffusion in single crystals


Ni: 75
1363.s.1643

0.18

304.7

75Ml

Vb-Ti;

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

,95Nb diffusion
fi: 10
35
50

2000..2473
1773. ..2273
1473...2073

SeeFig. 106
SeeFig. 106
SeeFig. 106

64.3

1279...1657

70

1373.e.2073

o.29*+o.195
-0.117
SeeFig. 106

80.4

1222... 1565

(1.18+;:;;).

85
90

1150~~*1515
1230...1515

SeeFig. 106
SeeFig. 106

94.6

1222...1784

(l.79+;$.

95

1230...1573

See Fig. 106

1279.e. 1657

(2.51:;:;;).

80.4

1222...1565

94.6

1222... 1784

106,107
106,107
106,107

63G
63G
63G

106,108

79Pl

106,107

63G

106,108

79Pl

106,107
106,107

63G
63G

106,108

79Pl

106,107

63G

247.1 (43)

108

79Pl

(3.15~;:~~)~ 1O-3

175.6 (52)

108

79Pl

(l.27+$.

149.1 (24)

108

79Pl

258.4 (61)

lO-2

1O-3

198.1 (67)

160.0 (33)

4Ti diffusion
Ti: 64.3

10-l

lO-3

Nb- W; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
p5Nb diffusion
w: 5
IO
30

1873... 2273

Composition
at % W

Temperature
K

psNb diffusion
w: 2
5
10

2680 (20)

*W diffusion
w: 2
5
10

2680 (20)

2334
164
0.0257

544.2
489.8
355.8

67L3

Fig.

Ref.

1.277 (7). IO-l2


1.065 (4). lo-l2
0.760 (4) . lo- l2

86M

4.35 (20). lo-3


3.30 (8). IO-l3
2.38 (6). IO-l3

68M

m2s-

Bakker

Landolf-BBmstein
New Series III/26

242

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables) [Ref. p. 276

:omposition
1t %

Fig.

Ref.

373.0 (234)

72Kl

344.5 (540)

(.46+5.1
-2.4 > lo-*

469.7 (151)

633.e.673
633...663
613...653

0.871 . 1O-7
0.923.10-*
0.929. lo-

83.7
67.0
46.0

72s

Temperature

DO

Fig.

Ref.

range[Kl

10m4m*s-l

Temperature
range [K]

DO
10v4 m*s-l

kJ mol-

ae- W; terminal phase


W diffusion
ii: 78

2208...2773

89
94
Sb,Sn,; intermediate phase, p-phase
r3Sn diffusion
jn: 41
43
45
Composition
at %
SC-&;

kJ mol-

kJ mol-K-l

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

)5Zr diffusion
The following measurementsare analyzed by D(T) = Do exp (- Q/R T) exp (A/R T*)
Zr: 86.4
1400... 1900
1.3
341.7
17.18. lo4
111
93.3
1280... 1900
1.0
335.9
16.31 . lo4
Composition
at %

87H2

Temperature

DO

Fig.

Ref.

low4 m*s-l

range[Kl

kJ mol-

Sn- Zn; primary phase


13/23Sn diffusion
Zn: 0.9

420...490

89+7.3
.
-4.0

104.6 (23)

112

66B

65Zn diffusion
Zn: 0.9

350...455

20+1.0

-0.5

71.0 (15)

112

66B

Ti-V;

primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied

44Ti diffusion
v: 10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

1173...1875
1173.s.1796
1223... 1848
1273... 1848
1273.e.1849
1273...1874
1373... 1918
1373... 1941
1423... 2023

Arrheniusplot is curved

113

68M

48V diffusion
v: 10
20
30
40

1173.s.1823
1173...1848
1223...1846
1223... 1848

Arrheniusplot is curved

114

68M

(continued)
Bakker

Land&-Bknslein
New Series III/26

243

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Tables)
Composition
at %

Temperature
range [K]

DO

10e4 m2 s-l

Fig.

Ref.

114

68M

kJ mol-l

Ti - V, continued
v: 50
60
70
80
90

1323... 1846
1323... 1845
1373... 1875
1423... 1923
1423.. 2020

Ti - Zr; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
44Ti diffusion
Zr: 49

1060... 1920

I15

Arrheniusplot is curved

87H2

U - Zr; primary/terminal phase extending over the whole composition range in the temperature range studied
235U diffusion
Zr: 41
61
73
89

1173 ... 1325


1173 ... 1338

8.96
0.007
0.00365
7.5. 10-4

245.3
168.7
160.7
141.9

68F

1173...1338

7.5. 10-7
3.8 . 1O-6
2.4. IO-
3.9. 10-4
0.028
0.12

83.7
99.2
118.5
146.5
190.5
205.5

68F

1428...2047

064+I.20
-0.42

312.6 (153)

II6

81P2

1578 ... 1888

86 (25)
72 (22)
68 (22)
58 (15)

383.2 (109)
379.4 (110)
376.7 (106)
373.0 (105)

117

84P

48V diffusion in terminal phase


1166... 1480
Zr: 98.0
98.5
99.0
99.5

0.7 (2). 10-5


1.5 (3). 10-5
3.0 (6). IO-5
5.5 (11). 10-5

94.2 (10)
100.6 (18)
106.9 (21)
112.5 (24)

118

82P

g5Zr diffusion in primary phase


1578...1883
Zr: 0.5
1.0
I.5
2.0

115 (38)
153 (52)
195 (64)
242 (80)

373.0 (100)
376.0 (103)
378.6 (107)
380.8 (112)

119

84P

Zr diffusion in terminal phase


1167... 1476
Zr: 98.0
98.5
99.0
99.5

14.0 (40). 10-5


9.3 (25) . IO-
5.9 (15). 10-5
4.5 (13) * 10-5

120.8 (33)
116.8 (31)
112.0 (29)
109.0 (26)

120

82P

g5Zr diffusion
Zr: 15
22
41
61
73
89

V - Zr; primary and terminal phase


48V diffusion in primary phase
Zr: 0.5
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

[Ref. p. 276

Figures for 4
10
m2
6
4
2

10

-I

10
6
6
4
2

10-15
1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

.lOJK- 1.30

Fig. 3. Ag-Cd (30 ... 38 at % Cd). OrnAg diffusion coeflicient (full lines) and Cd diffusion coefficient (dashedlines)
vs. reciprocal temperature [68G].
0

Ag-

8 ot%
-

Fig. 1. Ag-AI (90.3...99 at % Al). romAg diffusion coefficient vs. Ag concentration at various temperatures [68H].

1.6
.10-3
mvs

6
6

1.2

I 4
m

I 0.8
a

0.1

01
0

10-14
I
20

I
40

I
60

I
I
80 at% 100

Au Fig. 2. Ag-Au (8...94 at % Au). OrnAg diffusion coeflicient (open circles) and 198A~diffusion coefficient (full circles) vs. Au concentration at 1148K [63M].

0.85

0.89

0.93
0.97
1.01.10-3K-1.05
l/lFig. 4. Ag-Cu(0.17...8.15at
%Cu). omAgdiffusioncoefkicnt vs. reciprocal temperature [77B2].

Bakker

Landoh-BBmstcin
New Series 111i26

245

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
2d3
m2/sI
1ll-'2

m2/5

A-

P..

An

r-t,

lo-l3
8

4
4

~hI lo-"
8
6
4

4\
2

0.85

0.90

\\

1Pl

0.80

0.95

1.00

W3 K-'

1.10

0.85

0.90

0.95

1.00
l/T-

l/T-

Fig. 5. Ag-Cu (0.85 ... 3.36 at % Cu). omAgdiffusion co-

efficient vs. reciprocaltemperature[77B2].

1.05

.10-3K'

1.15

Fig. 6. Ag-Cu (1.38 ... 4.43 at % Cu). OrnAg diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77B2].

lo--2

m2/s

m2/s
6
4

3.0

.10-3,(-l

64

Q
2

10-13
B

lo-l3
2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9
l/T-

3.2

Fig. 8. Ag,Hg, (55 at % Hg). 03Hg diffusion coeffkient vs.


reciprocal temperature [77S].

1.25,

0.95
0

0.2

0.4

10-14
a

$15

0.

0.88

0.91

0.94
l/T -

0.97

.,0-3K-l

1.03

Fig. 7. Ag-Cu (1.75 ... 6.56 at % Cu). llomAg diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77B2].

Fig. 9. Ag-In (0.151. ..0.943 at % In). OrnAg diffusion


coefficient relative to the silver self-diffusion coefficient vs. In
concentration at 1054 K [85K]. Different symbols correspond to two runs of measurements.
Land&-B6rnstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

0.6
In -

0.8 at%

1.0

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)

246

[Ref. p. 276

10-12 _
m7/s
.

-13 >

10

1o-l3

I -14 _
a 10
lo-&
10-15 I
Q
10-16

48

45

40

52

56

lo-l5

ot% 60

MgFig. 10. AgMg (41.l ... 57.2at % Mg). OrnAg diffusion co:flkient vs. Mg concentration at various temperatures [64D].
lo-l6

Ag - Sn

10-l
0.8

0.9

1.1
1.0
l/l -

1.2.10-3K-1

Fig. 11. Ag-Sb (0.53...1.42 at % Sb). OrnAg diffusion


coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [55S].

8 at% 10
6
SnFig. 12. Ag-Sn (1 . ..8.67 at % Sn). OrnAg diffusion coefficient relative to the silver self-diffusion coefficient minus 1
vs. Sn concentration at various temperatures [83H2].
2

0.8 at% 1.0


0.6
0.4
Sn Fig. 13. Ag-Sn (0.218...0.773 at % Sn). OrnAg diffusion
coeffkient relative to the silver self-diffusion coeflicient vs.
Sn concentration at 1052K [85K]. Different symbols correspond to two runs of measurements.

Bakker

0.2

Landolf-BBmstein
New Series III!26

247

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
10-12
m2/S

Ag - Sn

13

10-12
m2/s
14
-13

IO
jot% Sn
I

4.1
3
15 _

0.8 lo-l4

0.108

I6

1.1540JK-' 1.20

1.9:

Fig. 14. Ag-Sn (0.108... 6 at % Sn). rromAg diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [78G].

0.85

0.90

0.95

1.00
l/T-

1.05

@K-'

1.15

Fig. 15. Ag-Sn (0.11, 1.7 at % Sn). rr3Sn diffusion coefticient vs. reciprocal temperature [78G].

10-12
m2/s
6

Ag -Zn

, 2.8

28.

1o-13
8
6

I
a

2.2

22

I
a

2.0

20

'T
6

1.8

18

1.6

16
14
0

1.1,
1

4 at%

1.65 40-3K-'

Fig. 16. Ag-Zn (1.1...4.1 at % Zn). lomAg diffusion coefficient vs. Zn concentration at various temperatures [67R].

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

1.75

l/T -

Zn -

Fig. 17. Ag-Zn (99.11 ... 99.65at % Zn). romAg diffusion


coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (D,,) and perpendicular (D,) to the c axis [69S].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

248

[Ref. p. 276

10-[

KS/s

10-12

\
2
\

10-l

I
el

I 6
,o-li
Q6
4

-13
10
1.0

1.1

1.2
l/l-

1.3

1.4.lO-K- 15

Fig. 19. AgxZn, (61,62 at % Zn; y-phase). OrnAg diffusion


coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [71S].
lo-)
l.LO

1.45

1.50

1.55
l/l -

1.60

.10-JK

1.70

Fig. 18. Ag-Zn (98.6,99.43 at % Zn). 6sZn diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (D,,) and perpendicular (D,) to the c axis [69S].

10amk

10-n
2.5
48

54
56 01% 58
co Fig. 21. AlCo (49 ... 57 at % Co). Co diffusion coefficient
vs. Co concentration at 1623 K [51N].

I
Q

50

52

10-u
10-l
m2/s

Al - Fe

10-u
10-n
1.0

14 .1O-3K- 1.5
1.3
l/l Fig. 20. Ag,Zn, (61 at % Zn; y-phase). 6sZn diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [71S].
1

1.2

I
~ 10-u

lo-l4

Fig. 22. AI-Fe (75 at % Fe). Fe diffusion coeflicient vs. b


reciprocal temperature [75L].

lo-l5
0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85.10-K- 0.90

l/T-

Bakker

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
10-12_
m21s

10-13

IO"

249

m2/s

AlFe

i
L

82ot%Fe
o 90ot%Fe
,94ot% Fe

Y
10-14 _
?I
10-15 _

I
a

0.85.1O-3
K-I
0.75
0.80
l/T Fig. 24. AlFe (51.5 ... 65.9 at % Fe). 55Fe diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [75L].
0.65

10

0.70

10

10

1o-13
8
6

10-19
0.7

- .

0.9
1.0
1.1 .lO-K- 1.3
l/l Fig. 23. Al-Fe (82 .. .94 at % Fe). Fe diffusion coeffcient vs. reciprocal temperature [81Rl]. Arrows indicate
Curie temperatures.
0.6

0.8

10-l'"

a*

6
4
2

lo-l5
8
6

10-l'"
6
6
4

1o-gIl;

-2

0.80
l/TFig. 26. AlNi (50.0 ... 58.7 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Ni concentrations (in at %): Curve f: 50.0; 2: 53.2; 3: 54.5; 4: 55.5;
5: 58.0; 6: 58.5; 7: 58.7 [71Hl].

11-1,
6
4

6 I

0.64

0.68
l/l-

0.72

/Jo-17

0.60

Landok-BBmstein
New Series III/26

14

Fig. 25. AlNi (48.3 ... 50.0 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Ni concentra0.76.10-3K-
0.80 tions(inat%):Curve1:48.3;2:48.6;3:49.0;4:49.2;5:50.0
[71Hl].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

250

[Ref. p. 276

Fig. 28. AINi, (73.2...76.2 at % Ni). 3Ni diffusion coeffi- b


cient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Ni concentrations (in at %): Curve I: 76.2; 2: 74.7; 3: 73.2 [71H2].

2.11f2I

m/s
1;-2

AlNi
I

A,
//

10-15
8
6
I
4

1i-6
6
4

4.1o-l*
0.60
1;-5

10'.Dm2,s

0.65

0.70

0.75

I
0.90

0.80

40JK-

AINi3

1557K
A
1

10-6
8
6

4.10-"7
66

,
II

,y
-1

48

50

52
54
Ni -

56

lo- 14 _

I
I

L
1427

58 at % 60

Fig. 27. AlNi (48.3 ... 58.7 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient vs. Ni concentration (48.3 ... 58.7 at % Ni) at various
temperatures: Curve I: 1623K; 2: 1573K; 3: 1523 K;
4: 1473K; 5: 1423K; 6: 1373 K; 7: 1323K; 8: 1273 K
[71Hl].

oc
1471
L27
-?
394
-v
-v
374

t
I I5 _ 1394
~ lo-

318
9

1290
L-

290
9

lo- 16 _

1190
LFig. 29. AINi, (73.2 ... 76.2 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefli- b
:ient vs. Ni concentration at various temperatures [71H2].

10-lI7
73.1
3

Bakker

73.5

74.tj
Ni -

75.0

75.5 0

251

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)


lom2/

IO+
m2/s

i.

Al Ni,

lo-

IO-

I
a

10-18
IO-91
0.6

lo-

P
*
0.7

1.0 .IOK- 1.1

0.9

0.8
1/T-

Fig. 31. AlNi, (74 ... 76 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature for various Ni concentrations (in
at %): Open circles: 74; triangIes: 75; full circles: 76. Solid
line: result from [75B] for 75 at % Ni; dashed line: result
from [71H2] for 75 at % Ni.

10-l

10
[

0.90
l/T-

Fig. 30. AINi, (74.8 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient vs.


reciprocal temperature [75B].

10-12-

8L2.5

10-L

m2/s

792.2

!,Io-13~

I o-l3

10-l 4
10-14
,
~I lo-!
10-'5
0

4 ot%

Zn -

lo-l6

Fig. 33. Al-Zn (1.16 ... 3.76 at % Zn). 65Zndiffusion coefficient vs. Zn concentration at various temperatures [77Bl].
10-l

10-l1
23.5

Landok-B&stein
New Series III/26

24.0

24.5

25.0
Al -

25.5

at%

;!6.5 4 Fig. 32. AINi, (z 74 ... x 76 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coef-

ficient vs. Al concentration at various temperatures [87H3].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)

[Ref. p. 276

10'
m*/

lo>

4
.l(p
I lo-'
a

ml/s
3
2 I
a

10-l
\
\

11
0

I
1

4 at%

lo-'
1.1

1.2

1.4

1.5

*l[ i-K 1

l/1 __)

ln -

Fig. 34. Al-Zn (1.16...3.76 at % Zn). Linear plot of the


65Zn diffusion coefficient vs. Zn concentration at various
temperatures [77Bl].

Fig. 35. Al -Zn (2.15,3.76 at % Zn). 65Zn diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77Bl].

1P
m2/s
10-

,0-x

I
a
,pI

10-l

10-p
50 at% 60
Zn -

Fig. 36. Al-Zn (lo... 58.5 at % Zn). 5Zn diffusion coeflicient vs. Zn concentration at various temperatures [7X1].

Fig. 37. AI -Zn (24.25 at % Zn). 65Zn diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature [SOC].

Bakker

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
&lo-"2
m2/s

mVs
6

lo-l2 8

253

AuCd
I
.

I
I

/I
,

821.7K_,A
--&---

_-/
/

10
8
6
4

46

L7

48

49

50 at%

51

Cd -

Fig. 39. AuCd (47.5 ... 50.5 at % Cd). Au diffusion coefficient and Cd diffusion coefficient vs. Cd concentration
at various temperatures [67G]. Full symbols: Au diffusion;
open symbols: Cd diffusion.
, o-l;

m2/s

10-y\

I
1.2

1.3

1.4
1/T -

1.5

1.6~10-3K-'1.7
,o-lZ

Fig. 38. AuCd (47.5 ... 50.5 at % Cd). rg5Au diffusion coefficient, Cd and r5Cd diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal
temperature [67G]. Open triangles: Cd diffusion in the
47.5 at % Cd compound; full triangles: Cd diffusion in the
47.5 at % Cd compound; open circles: Au diffusion in 47.5
at % Cd compound; open squares: Cd diffusion in the
49.0 at % Cd compound; full circles: Au diffusion in the 49.0
at % Cd compound; diamonds: Cd diffusion in the 50.5
at % Cd compound; full squares: Au diffusion in the 50.5 at
% Cd compound.
10-13
m2/s

I 6

TX-j-

Au-Cu
I

1o-l4
1
Q
, o-l!

1
I
lo-"

,i-44
0

IO

15
Au -

20

25 at% 30

Fig. 41. Au-Cu (72.5 ... 97.5 at % Cu). rgsAudiffusion coefficient and Wu diffusion coeftkient vs. Au concentration
at 1133 K [78H]. Full circles: Au diffusion; open circles: Cu
liffusion.
Landolt-Biimstein
New Series III/26

lo-l7
C

0.9

1.c
l/T -

Fig. 40. Au-Cu (75 at % Cu). lg5Au diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature [77B2]. Open circles: [65B]; full
circles: [69A].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

254
10-l
m2/s
ml/s

[Ref. p. 276

lo-11
m21
5

Au -To

1\

10-12

b c\

oI 10.13 -

10
a
lo-3
1.k

10.14 _

2.0 alO-K- 2.2


1.8
l/T Fig. 42. Au-Ta (1.2 at % Ta). lg5Au diffusion coeftkient
vs. reciprocal temperature [75G2].
[X(32].
1.6

10-15
1.05

10
m21

1.15

1.25
l/T-

1.35.lO-K-l 1.

Fig. 43. AuZn (49.0 ... 51.Oat % Zn). Au diffusion coefficient and 65Zn diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [71G]. A: Au diffusion in the 49.0 at % Zn compound;
A: Zn diffusion in the 49.0 at % Zn compound: o: Au diffusion in 50.0 at % Zn compound; l : Zn diffusion in the 50.0
at % Zn compound; V: Au diffusion in the 51.0 at % Zn
compound; V: Zn diffusion in the 51.0 at % Zn compound.

lo-

~I 10

10

OS
10-l

69

50

0
48.0

51 ot%

2nFig. 44. AuZn (49.0 ... 51.8 at % Zn). Au diffusion coefticient and 6SZndiffusion coeflicient vs. Zn concentration at
various temperatures [71G]. Open circles: Au diffusion; full
circles: Zn diffusion.

48.5

49.0

49.5 50.0
Zn -

50.5 at%

51.5

Fig. 45. AuZn (48.37...51.01 at % Zn). 9599Au isotope


effect Efor diffusion vs. Zn concentration at various temperatures [83H3]. Full triangles: 757 K; open triangle: 814 K;
circles: 876 K.

Bakker

Land&-BBmsfein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)


0.3

1 o-li

mVs

255

Be-Cu \

I 0.2
,o-l:
u 0.1
I

49.0

49.5

50.0

50.5
Zn -

51.0

at%

52.0

?ig. 46. AuZn (49.18...51.85 at % Zn). 65/6gmZnisotope


:ffect E for diffusion at various temperatures (see table) ac:ording to [83H3].

-14

10

Q
, 0 -l!

10-16

1.i

1 1.1

10-17L

0.7

3 I.(
--,
2

0.9

1.0
l/T-

1.1

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.8 at%

1.0

1oq3
m2/s

Cd -

?ig. 48. Cd-Pb (99.1 . ..99.995 at % Pb). Cd diffusion


:oefficient relative to the lead self-diffusion coefficient vs. Cd
:oncentration at 470.7 K [79Cl].

I
f-o-~e

730C
I

9iOC

IO.14
10-15
1o-16
I
Q

10-1'1
10-18
10-19

0.6

Fig. 49. Co -Fe (50 at % Fe). Upper part: Co diffusion


coeffkient (full circles) and s9Fe diffusion coefficient (open
circles) vs. reciprocal temperature [70F]. Full triangle: Co
diffusion [68w]; open triangles: s9Fediffusion [68w]. Lower
part: ss5sFeisotope effect E for diffusion vs. reciprocal temperature [70F].
Land&-B&m&n
New Series III/26

1.240"K-'1.3

Fig. 47. Be-Cu (1.6 at % Cu). Be tracer diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature parallel (I]) and perpendicular (I) to the c axis according to [77B2] based on [73L].

a o.!
0.E
0

0.8

Bakker

-0.2 I
0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9
l/T-

1.0

256

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)

10
ml/

[Ref. p. 276

10-l
m2/s

10-12

10
lo-

I
a

10

10-l
a

10-

lo-l5

lo-

\ ,

lolo-

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1.lo-)KJ 1.2

0.7

0.8

l/1Fig. 50. CoGa (40.0 at % Ga). 6oCo diffusion coefficient


(full circles) and 67Ga diffusion coeflicient (open circles) vs.
reciprocal temperature [8OS].

0.9
l/l -

1.0

1.1.10-3K-1.2

Fig. 51. CoGa (44 at % Ga). 6oCodiffusion coefficient (full


circles) and 67Gadiffusion coefficient (open circles) vs. reciprocal temperature [SOS].

lo-
m2/s

mVs

lo-j

10-12

10-l

10-l)

10-l'

I lo-l5
a

I
a

10-16

lo-&
lo-5

1.1.1W3K-1.2
1.0
0.9
l/1Fig. 53. CoGa (52.0 at % Ga). 6oCo diffusion coefficient
(full circles) and Ga diffusion coefticient (open circles) vs.
reciprocal temperature [8OS].
0.7

Fig. 52. CoGa (50.0 at % Ga). 6oCo diffusion coefficient


(full circles) and 67Ga diffusion coefficient (open circles) vs.
reciprocal temperature [8OS].

Bakker

0.8

257

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
10.
m2/
10-1'2
10-1'2,
mVs

\:
lo-

IO-l3
lo-l3

IOP
lo-l4
I
-10-

I
a 10-1'5
lo-"6

IO-l7
t
IO-'*
0.7

lo0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1 40" K 1.2

0.

0.75

l/T -

Fig. 54. CoGa (54.8 at % Ga). 6oCo diffusion coefficient


:full circles) and 67Ga diffusion coefficient (open circles) vs.
:eciprocal temperature [8OS].

0.80
l/T -

0.85 *10-3K-'

O.!

Fig. 55. Co-Mn (5.22, 10.24 at % Mn). 54Mn diffusion


coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [771].

10-l'
m2/s
6

\3\

\\

Co-P
I
A 92.6 at% Ti

1o-l2
m2/s '1

1723K

IO
8

Co-Ni

I
Q
6

1o-l3

I
-14
Q
Q IO

IO
8
6

IO-15
-15
IO

I
10-161
lo-'6
0

20

40

I
co-

60

I\d

Fig. 56. Co -Ni (3.7. .. 80.1 at % Ni). 6oCodiffusion coefticient vs. Co concentration at various temperatures [69M].

Land&-Biimstein
New Series 111126

0.5

80 at% 100

0.6

0.7
l/T-

0.8

0.9 .W3K-' 1.0

Fig. 57. Co-Ti (92.6...98.4 at %). 44Ti diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [75Sl].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)


I

I
I

I
I

0.80

0.85
l/l-

msl Co?Ti

[Ref. p. 276

-15

P t
6 I
1 I

I
I

I I I I FH

10-166
0.70

0.75

01
0

0.90 -10-3K- 1.00

Fig. 58. Co,Ti (21.5 ... 24.0 at % Ti). 6oCo diffusion coeflicient vs. reciprocal temperature [88N]

I
0.1

I
0.2
co-

I
0.3

I
I
0.4 ot % 0.5

Fig. 59. Co-U (x 99.5 ... x 99.7 at % U). 235U diffusion


coefficient vs. Co concentration at various temperatures

WPI.

1.00

10
t 0.95
z
0
:a90
0

10
0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75
l/l-

0.85
0

0.80 alO-K- 0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0 ot% 2.5

Fe -

Fig. 60. Cr-Zr (92.14...97.95 at % Zr). g5Zr diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [81Pl].

Fig. 61. Cu - Fe (0.2 ... 2.4 at % Fe). 64Cu diffusion coefficient relative to the copper self-diffusion coefficient vs. Fe
concentration at 1293K according to [72B].

Bakker

Land&-Bctnmfein
New Series 11126

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
4s
.10-1
m2/s
3.5

10.
m,2

259

L Cu-Ni

3.0
I 2.5
Q 2.0
1.5
IO'
1.0

0.5

I1005K

1.5
2.0
2.5 at% 3.5
In Fig. 62. Cu - In (0.4 ... 3.1 at % In). @Cu diffusion coefficient vs. In concentration at various temperatures [82H].
0.5

1.0

0.65

0.70

87.0at%Ni 54.60i

IOAl-LLLL

-II

0.60

0.75
0.80 .loK-- 0
l/7Fig. 63. Cu-Ni (21.5 ... 87 at % Ni). 64Cudiffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature according to [77B2], based

,o-l;

-r-l-

m2/s
10-l
m2/I
5

9.8at%Pt

Cu-Ni
,o-l:

I
m

1o-14
Pt
?BSot%Pt 1
,o-l5

0.
l/T-

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80 -lo-3K- 0.90

l/T-

Fig. 64. Cu-Ni (21.5 ... 87 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature according to [77B2], based
on [64M].
Land&-Bijmstein
New Series III/26

0.60

Fig. 65. Cu - Pt (9.8 . .74.5 at % Pt). 64Cudiffusion coeffcient vs. reciprocal temperature [77B2].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)

260
C?

[Ref. p. 276

d/s cu- Pt

10

I
Q

III

0.55

~~~~!

0.60

0.65

0.70
l/l-

0.75

0.80 .10-3K- 0.90

Fig. 66. Cu -Pt (9.8 . ..74.5 at % Pt). gsmPtdiffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77B2].

SbFig. 67. Cu-Sb (0.3 ... 1.7 at % Sb). 64Cu diflusion COGcient vs. Sb concentration at various temperatures [82H].

25ol%Sb

10-11
lo-01

I
!

Zlot% Sb

1.10

1.14

1.22

1.18
l/l

1.26@K- 1.30

Fig. 68. Cu,Sb (21 . ..29 at % Sb). 64Cu diffusion cocfficicnt vs. reciprocal tcmperaturc [7OH].

29 ot%
27
25
Sb Fig. 69. Cu,Sb (21 ...29 at % Sb). 64Cu diffusion coefficient vs. Sb concentration at various temperatures [70H].

Bakker

21

23

Landolt-BCmslein
New Series 11126

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

261

IO.'3
m2/s

3.0

lo-l4

Q
I
a

1.7ot% Sn

2.0

l.lot% Sn
0.8 at% Sn

,o-l'

2.5

I.5

0.4ot% Sn

10-b'

1.00

403K-'

1.

I/T-

Sn-

Fig. 70. Cu- Sn (0.4 ... 1.7 at % Sn). 64Cu diffusion coeffi:ient vs. reciprocal temperature [82H].

Fig. 71. Cu - Sn (0.4 .. .3.0 at % Sn). 64Cu diffusion coefficient vs. Sn concentration at various temperatures [82H].

10-1tl r
m2

10-l
m2h

I 10-l
a

I
:r16.6at% Sn

I
do

latO/oSn

,o-l;

0.95

1.00

1.05

1.10
I/T-

1.15

.IO-jK-'

Fig. 72. Cu,Sn (16.6, 20.2 at % Sn). Yu diffusion coefticient (full circles) and l13Sn diffusion coefficient (open circles) vs. reciprocal temperature [8OP].

Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

IO'.12
1.000

1.025

1.050

1.075
I/T-

1.100 dK-'

1.150

Fig. 73. Cu,Sn (l&19.8 at % Sn). Wu diffusion coefficient


(no symbols) and l13Sn diffusion coefficient (open circles) vs.
reciprocal temperature [68E].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)

262

Cu3Sn

[Ref. p. 276

I
10.11
m2/s
i

lo-

10-l
8
j.lO-l

T-l

I 10
Q

lo-

10-1
15

I
17

I
19

21

10

I
I
23 ot% 25

1 i

1.20

1.30

Fig. 74. Cu,Sn (16.6...20.2 at % Sn). 64Cudiffusion coefli:ient (full circles) and 13Sn diffusion coefficient (open cir:les) vs. Sn concentration at various temperatures [68E, 8OP].

6.0t
3.7
JO-4

1.35

.@K-

1)

l/l -

Sn -

Fig. 75. &Cu,Sn, (20.5 at % Sn). 64Cu diffusion coefficient


(open circles) and l13Sn diffusion coefficient (full circles) bS.
reciprocal temperature [68E].
I

1.0

1.2

d/s
I 3.3
Q 2.9
2.5
0

3
4 01% 5
ln Fig. 76. Cu-Zn (0.6...4.2 at % Zn). 67Cu diffusion coeficient vs. Zn concentration at various temperatures [7OP].

0.8

1.4
1.6
1.8 .10-3K- 2.2
l/T Fig. 77. CuZn (45.46... 48 at % Zn). 64Cu diffusion coefficient (full circles) and 65Zndiffusion coeffkient (open circles)
vs. reciprocal temperature [56K].

I
Bakker

Landok-ESmstein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

263

Fig. 79. Fe-Ni (z 0 ... 90 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefticient vs. Ni concentration at various temperatures [81M].
Open circles: [81M]; open squares: [76Z]; full circles: [7532];
full squares: [63F]; open triangles: [67D], full triangles: mean
values.

1o-l5

lo-"1
I
a

10-15

1
4 1o-14

1Cl-l3
m2/s

lo-l5
mVs

lo-6

IP

10-"5

I
a

aI 10-16

10-17 I

20

40

60

Fe

0
lo-l5

m2/s

NI-

80 at% 100
Ni

lo-l6

1o-l6

lo-l7

10-181
0
Fe

20

40

60
NI-

80 at% 100
Ni

Fig. 78. Fe-Ni (5 ... 90 at % Ni). 5gFediffusion coefficient


vs. Ni concentration at various temperatures [81M]. Open
circles: [81M]; open squares: 16601;full circles: [55N]; full
squares: [63F]; open triangles: [72K3], full triangles: mean
values.

10
6

Fig. 80. Fe-Pd (lo...50 at % Pd). Fe diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77F]. The Arrhenius curves
were obtained by computer calculations based on the results
given in Fig. 84.
Land&-Biirnstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

0.600

0.625 0.650

0.675
l/T-

0.700 .lOJK

0.7:

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

264
2*10ml/

[Ref. p. 276

4 Fig. 81. Fe-Pd (55...90 at % Pd). 59Fe diffusion coeficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77FJ.The Arrhenius curves
were obtained by computer calculations based on the results
given in Fig. 84.

Fe- Pd

10
8
6
4

I
el

1tY
8

6
4

10-l
0.

2*10-n,

625

0.650

0.675)
l/1-

m2slFe-Pd 1

0.700 .lO-K- 0.750

10-15

0.600

0.625

0.650

0.675

0.700 W3K

0.750

Fig. 82. Fe-Pd (lo...50 at % Pd). lo3Pd diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [77F]. The Arrhenius curves
were obtained by computer calculations based on the results
given in Fig. 84.

For Fig. 83 see next page.

Pd-

4 Fig. 84. Fe-Pd (lo...90 at % Pd). 59Fe diffusion coefftcient (full lines) and ro3Pddiffusion coefticient (dashed lines)
vs. Pd concentration at various temperatures [77F].

Bakker

Land&BBmstein
New Series Ill/26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

265

4 Fig. 83. Fe-Pd (55 ... 90 at % Pd). lo3Pd diffusion coeff,


cient vs. reciprocal temperature [77F]. The Arrhenius curve>
were obtained by computer calculations based on the result5
given in Fig. 84.

10-l'
m2/s
IO-l2

0.600

0.625

0.650

10
m2

0.675

0.700

.103K-' 0.750

Fe-S

10
0.7
b

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1
l/T -

1.2

I.3 40-3lc'

1.5

Fig. 85. Fe-Si (7.64 at % Si). Fe diffusion coeffkient vs.


reciprocal temperature [75M2]. Full circles: mechanical sectioning; open circles: chemical sectioning; open triangles:
Zener relaxation; full triangles: magnetic Zener relaxation.
The dashed line is the high-temperature extrapolation.

I 10
a

10

lo0.75

Landolt-tlknstein

New Series III/26

0.80

0.85
0.90
1/T-

0.95 *lo-

4 Fig. 86. Fe-Si (1.87 ... 19.2 at % Si). 59Fediffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Si concentrations
(in at %): Curve 1: 0; 2: 1.87; 3: 6.55; 4: 8.64; 5: 12.1; curve
a: 5.5; b: 6.5; c: 7.8; d: 11.6; e: 15.3;f: 19.2. Curves I...5
1.05
from [81T], curves a.. .f from [77M].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneousbinary alloys and intermediate phases(Figures)

266

[Ref. p. 276

10
m>/s
1173 K
I
1ll23K

10

11073K
*

I
Q
10-5

20
.,p
mVs
15

I 10
Q

2.5

5.0

7.5
Si -

10.0

12.5of% 15.0
.

Sn -

Fig. 87. Fe-Si (1.4... 12.1 at % Si). Fe diffusion coeflicient vs. Si concentration at various temperatures [81T].

Fig. 88. Fe-Sn (0.2...2.7 at % Sn). Fe diffusion coefficient vs. Sn concentration at 1168 K (83K].

lo-l0

I
Q

L
A

10-l

T-

Ao.
----SC

l- ..
*

10
0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8
l/T-

0.9 .lO-K 1.0

Fig. 89. Fe - Zr (96.5 ... 99.5 at % Zr). Fe diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [87Hl]. Full triangles: 96.5
at % Zr; open triangles: 98 at % Zr; open circles: 99.5 at %
Zr; full circles: 100 at % Zr.

98.65
I
0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75
l/T -

0.80

.10-3K-

Fig. 90. Fe-Zr


(93.63...99.02 at % Zr). gsZr diffusion
coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [81Pl].

Landolt-BCmstein
New Series III!26

267

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

=-l--l-

1-11

IO-

2/s

m2/s

GaNi

3-12

o-13

IO"
mvs

. .a
I
a

VI-'

o-l"1

10

p5

47

I
a

48

49

50

51

52 at%

NIFig. 92. GaNi (47.28. .. 52.40at % Ni). 67Gadiffusion toe


ficient vs. Ni concentration at various temperatures [76D]

o-16

10-l

IO"'
m2fs

,p

GaNi
1380K
I

lo-"
0.7

0.8

la-l2
IT

1285

0.9
l/l -

Fig. 91. GaNi (47.28. 52.40 at % Ni). 67Gadiffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [76D].

For Fig. 93 see next page.

1o-l5

Fig. 94. GaNi (47.28*.. 52.40 at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coef- b


ficient vs. Ni concentration at various temperatures [76D].
Landolt-Bbmstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

47

48

49

N50w51

[Ref. p. 276

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

268

10 r
m2k

IV3
GC
0

10-l

I=2

I
Q

1
n

0
\

lo-

lo0.68
1

0.70

0.72
l/l-

0.74

0.7640K' 0.78

Fig. 95. GaV, (75.6 at % V). 48V diffusion coefficient vs.


reciprocal temperature [84v].

10

\\

lo-"

l/l

0.9
-

1.0 JO-jK-' 1.1


l/l-

Fig. 93. GaNi (47.28... 52.40at % Ni). 63Ni diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [76D].

Fig. 96. Hf-Zr (2.1 at % Zr). lsHf diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature in single crystals, parallel to the
c axis [72D].

Bakker

Landok-B6mstein
New Series III!26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
IV"
m2/s

T0

IO-13
m2/S

Hf- Zr

K-r

10-14

IO!

269

I
m

IO-15 _
I IO-'"
m

--

10-16 a
10-12 m2/S

,o-l;

-13 _

IO

\
4

1-c

I:

li+

0.50

0.55

0.60
l/T-

0.65

0.7040" K 0.75

Fig. 97. Hf-Zr (2.1 at % Zr). isiHf diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature in single crystals, perpendicular to
the c axis [72D].

I 10-14 _
m

IO-15 _

IO-16 c
0.65

10-1'2
m2/s

0.85
.I0

0.
l/T-

I-

d
I5 0.65 0.75 0.85 ~10.
l/T-

Fig. 99. InPd (49 ... 56 at % Pd). 4mIn diffusion coefficient (open circles) and iosPd diffusion coefficient (full circles) vs. reciprocal temperature [83Hl]. Fig. (a): 49 at % Pd,
(b): 50 at % Pd, (c): 53 at % Pd, (d): 56 at % Pd.

1o-l3

10'5
mVs

I
-IO-l4

\
~I lo-l6

MnPt,

=-

10-1'5

lo-l6
0.17

0.18

0.19

0.20
l/T-

0.21

l-.-2
..
.10-JK-'

Fig. 98. Hg-Pb (96 and 99 at % Pb). 203Hgdiffusion coeficient (open circles) and iPb diffusion coefficient (full cirdes) vs. reciprocal temperature in Hg-Pb with 96 at % Pb
md 99 at % Pb, respectively [73w].
Land&-Bhstein
New Series III/26

lo-l7
0.75

0.23

0.80

0.85

O!

Fig. 100. MnPt, (65 at % Pt). 54Mn diffusion coeflicient vs.


reciprocal temperature [79A].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

270
10-l
m/s

[Ref. p. 276

lo-l5
ml/s

MnPt3

,p!

~I lo-l6

I
a

lo-l1
0.75

10-

0.90
0.95 .,oK- 1.05
l/T Fig. 102. MnPt, (82 at % Pt). 54Mn diffusion coefficient vs.
reciprocal temperature [79A].

\_

,(p;
0

0.80 0

0.80

0.85

.95

Fig. 101. MnPt, (75 at % Pt). S4Mndiffusion coefficient vs.


reciprocal temperature [79A].

lomZI

Mn-Ti

10

tr

10

I
Q
10-l
0.66

0.70

0.74
l/T-

0.78

0.8240 K-0.86

Fig. 104. Mn-Zr (98...99.5 at % Zr). 54Mn diffusion


coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [79P2].
10-l

,o-l!

0.f

A
0.i

l/l-

0.l

4 Fig. 103. Mn -Ti (79.4 ... 90.3 at % Ti). Ti diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Ti concentrations (in at %): full triangles: 79.4; open triangles: 82.1; full
circles: 86.7; open circles: 90.3 [75Sl].

Bakker

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

271

IO-
8
6
I 4
Q

250
CI

20

40

\I.

IO-
8
6
4.1o-1
0.66

0.70

0.74
l/T-

0.78

0.82.10-dKI1.86

Fig. 105. Mn-Zr (98 ... 99.5 at % Zr). g5Zr diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [79P2].

60
80 at% 100
Ti Fig. 106. Nb-Ti (lo...95 at % Ti). Activation energy and
pre-exponential factor for g4/g5Nbdiffusion vs. Ti concentration. Open circles: [63G]; full circles: [79Pl].
0

10-l
m2/1

10-l

10-l

k0

I
Q
10-l

10-l

0.8.10-jK-
l/T-

Fig. 107. Nb-Ti (10 1..95 at % Ti). 95Nb diffusion coefti:ient vs. reciprocal temperature [63G].
Fig. 108. Nb-Ti (64.3...94.6 at % Ti). g4/g5Nb and 44Ti p
liffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature [79Pl].
Land&-Blirnstein
New Series III/26

Bakker

10-l
0

I
0.60

0.65

0.70
l/T-

0.75 -lOJK-

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

272
10-10

10.

rnzfs

m2k

[Ref. p. 276

Pb-T1

10
1o-l4

lo-
~I lo-l5
I
~I lo-l3

I
lo-6

lo-

10-17.
0

60
80 ot% II
TLFig. 110. Pb-TI (5...87 at % Tl). zlPb diffusion coeflicient (circles) and 204TIdiffusion coefficient (triangles) vs. TI
concentration at various temperatures [61R].

lo-l5

10-16
0.5

10-l

0.8
0.9 .10-K- 1.1
l/lFig. 109. Nb-Zr (71.9...94.5 at % Zr). g5Zr diffusion
coeficicnt vs. reciprocal tempcraturc for various Zr conccntrations (in at %): open circles: 71.9; full circles: 83.7; triangles: 94.5 [8782].

a6

0.7

2.10.

m2/5

40

Sn-;n

10-l

-r

m2/:

10-l

10-l

I
Q
0

10-l

,o-l"

10-l
2.6
2.4
2.8.lOK- 3.0
l/TFig. 112. Sn-Zn (0.9 at % Zn). 13*3Sn diffusion coeflicicnt (lower curve) and 65Zn diffusion cocflicient (upper curve) vs. reciprocal temperature [66B].
2.2

I
0.7
l/l-

0.8

0.9 *lOK-1.0 4 Fig. 111. SC- Zr (86.4,93.3 at % Zr). Zr diffusion coeflicient vs. reciprocal temperature [87H2].
Bakker

land&B6mstein
New Series 11126

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
4.10-11m21s

4.10.11
II12/s

Ti-V

IO--11 _

IO-

12-

II

]-11 _

II

)42 _

-13 _

10.

II

]-l3-

\\
$

I
Q

I
Q

14 _

lo-

273

1C,-14

-30

10

-20

'40

I5 _

lo-

IO-15

lo-' 16
0.4

0.5

0.7

0.6

IC,-16

0.8 .10-3K-'I

0.4

l/T-

Fig. 113. Ti-V (10 ... 90 at % Ti). 44Ti diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature [68M].
10-l'I
m2/5

0.b

u.7

0.8 WK-'

l/T-

Fig. 114. Ti - V (10 . . .90 at % Ti). 48V diffusion coefficient


vs. reciprocal temperature [68M].

Ti -Zr

;r

lo-"

10-l
I
a
lo-':

IO-'4

1oP5
1.7

Land&-BBmstein
New Series III/26

Fig. 115. Ti - Zr (49 at % Zr). 44Ti diffusion coefficient vs.


reciprocal temperature [87H2].

Bakker

4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)

274

[Ref. p. 276

10

10

10

10

0.8+lOK-0.9
0.6
0.7
l/T Fig. 116. V-Zr (0.5 at % Zr). 48V diffusion coefficient vs.
reciprocal temperature[81P2].
0.1

0.5

lom2/
6
0.58
0.60 40-3K- 0.6L
l/7Fig. 117. V-Zr (0.5...2 at % Zr). 48V diffusion coeflicient
vs. reciprocal temperature for various Zr concentrations (in
at X): open circles: 0.5; open triangles: 1.0; full triangles:
1.5; full circles: 2.0 [84P].
0.52

0.68

0.71

0.76
l/l-

0.77

0.54

0.56

0.80 .lOK- 0.86

Fig. 118. V-Zr(98.0...99.5 at % Zr). 48Vdiffusion cocfficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Zr concentrations (in at %): full triangles: 98.0; open triangles: 98.5; full
circles: 99.0; open circles: 99.5 [82P].

Bakker

Land&-BGmstein
New Series Ill!26

Ref. p. 2761 4 Self-diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys and intermediate phases (Figures)
10-l

275

m2/5

- V-Zr

\I -7r

10-l13_
9
8
1
6

4.10-51
0.52

5100.54

0.56

0.58
l/T-

0.60

~10-~K- O.Ei$

Fig. 119. V-B (0.5 ... 2.0 at % Zr). g5Zr diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Zr concentrations (in at %): open circles: 0.5; open triangles: 1.0; full
triangles: 1.5; full circles: 2.0 [84P].

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

14

I3.67

0.71

0.75
l/T-

0.79

3W3K- 0.8i
0.8:

Fig. 120. V-Zr (98.0...99.5 % Zr). Zr diffusion coefficient vs. reciprocal temperature for various Zr concentrations (in at %): Curve I: 98.0; 2: 98.5; 3: 99.0; 4: 99.5 [82P].

Bakker

276

References for 4

References for 4
51N
55H
55N
55s
56K
57Y
61Hl
61H2
61R
63F
63G
63M
64D
64M
64P
64s
65B
66B
660
67D
67G
67Ll
67L2
67L3
67P
67R
67Sl
6782
68E
68F
68G
68H
68L
68M
680
68R
68s
68W
69A
69F
69M
69s
70A
70B 1
70B2
70F
70H
70N
7OP
70R
70s
702

Nix, EC., Jaumot, FE.: Phys. Rev. 83 (1951) 1275.


Hoffman, R.E., Turnbull, D., Hart, E.W.: Acta Metall. 3 (1955) 417.
Neiman, M.B., Shinyaev, A.Ya.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 102 (1955) 969.
Sonder, E.: Phys. Rev. 100 (1955) 1662.
Kuper, A.B., Lazarus, D., Manning, J.R., Tomizuka, C.T: Phys. Rev. 104 (1956) 1536.
Yanitskaya, M.E., Zhukovitskii, A.A., Bokshtein, S.Z.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 112 (1957) 720.
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Fraden, E: B.S. Thesis, Massachusetts: Inst. of Technology, 1963.
Gibbs, G.B., Graham, D., Tomlin, D.H.: Philos. Mag. 8 (1963) 1269.
Mallard, WC., Gardner, A.B., Bass, RX, Slifkin, L.M.: Phys. Rev. 129 (1963) 617.
Domian, H.A., Aaronson, HI.: Trans. AIME 230 (1964) 44.
Monma, K., Suto, H., Oikawa, H.: Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi 28 (1964) 192.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.:Phys. Rev. 136 (1964) A 842.
Sato, K.: Sci. Rep. Fat. Lit. Sci., Hirosaki Univ. 11 (1964) 9.
Benci, S., Gasparrini, G., Germagnoli, E., Schianchi, G.: J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 26 (1965) 687.
Bergner, D., Lange, W: Phys. Status Solidi 18 (1966) 67.
Okada, T: Radioisotopes 15 (1966) 169.
De Reca, E.W, Pampillo, G.: Acta Metall. 15 (1967) 1263.
Gupta, D., Lazarus, D., Lieberman, D.S.: Phys. Rev. 153 (1967) 863.
Lai, D.A.E, Borg, R.J.: US A.E.C. Report: UCRL-50314 (1967).
Larikov, L.N., Tyshkevich, VM., Chorna, LX: Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 12 (1967) 983.
Lyubimov, VD., Geld, P.V, Shveikin, G.P., Sutina, Yu.A.: Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR,Met. (1967) 84.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.:Phys. Rev. 154 (1967) 558.
Rothman, S.J.,Peterson, N.L.: Phys. Rev. 154 (1967) 552.
Santoro, C.J.: Bull. Am. Phys. Sot. 12 (1967) 104.
Smirnov, O.A., Ivanov, L.I., Abramyan, E.A.: Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR,Met. (1967) 168.
Ebcling, R., Wcver, H.: Z. Metallkd. 59 (1968) 222.
Fedorov, G.B., Smirnov, E.A., Zhomov, EL: Metall. Metalloved. Chist. Met. 7 (1968) 124.
Gardner, A.B., Sanders, R.L., Slitkin, R.L.: Phys. Status Solidi 30 (1968) 93.
Heumann, Th., Biihmer, H.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29 (1968) 237.
Lai, D.YE, Borg. R.J.: UCRL Report No. 50 516 (1968).
Murdock, JE, McHargue, C.J.: Acta Metall. 16 (1968) 493.
Oikawa, H., Anusavice, K.J., DeHoff, R.T, Guy, A.G.: ASM Trans. Q. 61 (1968) 354.
Ray, S.P.,Sharma, B.D.: Acta Metall. 16 (1968) 981.
Shinyaev, A.Ya.: Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR,Met. (1968) 109.
Wanin, M., Kohn, A.: C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. C 267 (1968) 1558.
Alexander, WB.: Studies on Atomic Diffusion in Metals, Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. of NC., USA (1969),
cited in [77B].
Frantsevich, I.N., Kalinovich, DE, Kovenskii, I.I., Smolin, M.D.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30 (1969)
947.
Million, B., Kucera, J.: Acta Metall. 17 (1969) 339.
Santoro, C.J.: Phys. Rev. 179 (1969) 593.
Ananin, VM., Gladkov, VP., Zotov, VS., Skorov, D.M.: At. Energ. 29 (1970) 220.
Bowen, A.W, Leak, G.M.: Metall. Trans. 1 (1970) 2705.
Bowen, A.W., Leak, G.M.: Metall. Trans. l(l970) 2767.
Fishman. S.G., Gupta, D., Lieberman, D.S.: Phys. Rev. B2 (1970) 1451.
Heumann, Th., Meincrs, H., Stiier, H.: Z. Naturforsch. 25a (1970) 1883.
Nohara, K., Hirano, K.: Proc. Int. Conf. Sci. and Technol. Iron and Steel, Tokyo, Sept. 1970,Section
6 (1970) 1267.
Peterson, N.L., Rothman, S.J.:Phys. Rev. B2 (1970) 1540.
Ray, S.P.,Sharma, B.D.: Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 23 (1970) 77.
Spasov, A., Ivanov, G.: God. Solii. Univ. Khim. Fak. 65 (1970/1971) 39.
Zemskii, S.V.,Grigorkin, VI., Moskaleva, L.N.: Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Chern. Metall. 13 (1970)
106.

References for 4
71A
71D
71F
71G
71Hl
71H2
71M
71s
71w
72B
72D
72H
72J
72Kl
72K2
72K3
72M
72P
72s
73L
73N
73Tl
73T2
73w
74A
74B
74K
75B
75Gl
75G2
75K
75L
75Ml
75M2
75Sl
7582
7533
76D
762
77Bl
77B2
77F
771
77M
77R
77s
78G
78H
79A
79B
79Cl
79c2
79D
Landolt-Bihstein
New Series III/26

277

Askill, J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 8 (1971) 587.


DeCormales, C.O., DeReca, N.E.W: .I Phys. Chem. Solids 32 (1971) 1067.
Frantsevich, I.N., Kalinovich, DX, Kovenskii, II., Smolin, M.D.: Proc. Europhysics Conf., Lodding,
A., Agarwall, I: (eds.),Verlag Z. Naturforsch., 1971, p 100.
Gupta, D., Lieberman, D.S.: Phys. Rev. B 4 (1971) 1070.
Hancock, G.E, McDonell, B.R.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 4 (1971) 143.
Hancock, G.E, McDonell, B.R.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 7 (1971) 535.
Million, B., Kucera, J.: Czech. J. Phys. B 21 (1971) 161.
Seith, W, Heumann, Yh., Wever, H.: Z. Metallkd. 62 (1971) 294.
Wade, WZ.: J. Nucl. Mater. 38 (1971) 292.
Bocquet, J.L.: Acta Metall. 20 (1972) 1347.
Davis, B.E., McMullen, WD.: Acta Metall. 20 (1972) 593.
Hirano, K. and Cohen, M.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 13 (1972) 96.
Jeffery, R.N., Gupta, D.: Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 4432.
Korolev, A.A., Pavlinov, L.V, Gavrilguk, M.I.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 33 (1972) 295.
Kucera, J., Million, B., Peskova, J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 11 (1972) 361.
Kutnetsov, E.V: Uch. Zap. Gork. Gos. Univ. 148 (1972) 38.
Million, B.: Z. Metallkd. 63 (1972) 484.
Patil, R.V., Sharma, B.D.: Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 25 (1972) 1.
Shcherbedinskii, G.V, Ipatova, VM., Grechnyi, Ya.V, Yakovlev, S.G.:Dopov. Akad. Nauk. Ukr. RSR.
Ser. A 34 (1972) 759.
LeHazif, R., Edelin, C., Dupouy, J.M.: Metall. Trans. 4 (1973) 1275.
Nohara, K., Hirano, K.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 37 (1973) 51.
Tiwari, G.P., Saxena, M.C., Patil, R.R: Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 26 (1973) 55.
Tiwari, G.P., Sharma, B.D., Raghunathan, VS., Patil, R.R: J. Nucl. Mater. 46 (1973) 35.
Warburton, WK.: Phys. Rev. B 7 (1973) 1330.
Assassa,W, Guiraldenq, P.: C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. C 279 (1974) 59.
Bristotti, A., Wazzan, A.R.: Rev. Bras. Fiz. 4 (1974) 1.
Kucera, J., Million, B., Ruzickova, J., Foldyna, V, Jakobova, A.: Acta Metall. 22 (1974) 135.
Bronfin, M.B., Bulatov, G.S., Drugova, LA.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 40 (1975) 363.
Gbdeny, I., Beke, D., Kedves, EJ., Groma, G.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 32 (1975) 195.
Gupta, D., Rosenberg, R.: Thin Solid Films 25 (1975) 171.
Kucera, J., Million, B.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 31 (1975) 275.
Larikov, L.N., Geichenko, VV, Falchenko, VM.: Diffusion Processesin Ordered Alloys, Naukova
Dumka Publ., Kiev 1975, Nat. Bur. Stand. New Delhi: Amerind. Publ. Co., 1981.
Maramatsu, EI: Trans. Nat. Res. Inst. Met. 17 (1975) 21.
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(a) 29 (1975) 115.
Santos, E., Dyment, E: Philos. Mag. 31 (1975) 809.
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Shinyaev, A.Ya.: Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Met. (1975) 162.
Donaldson, A.T., Rawlings, R.D.: Acta Metall. 24 (1976) 285.
Zemskii, S.V, Lvov, VS., Makashova, L.S.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 41 (1976) 775.
Beke, D.L., Godeny, I., Kedves, EJ., Groma, G.: Acta Metall. 25 (1977) 539.
Butrymowicz, D.B., Manning, J.R.,Read, M.E.: Diffusion Rate Data and Mass Transport Phenomena
for Copper Systems,INCRA Monograph V, Washington: Nat. Bur. Stand., 1977.
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Million, B.: Czech. J. Phys. B 27 (1977) 928.
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Bakker

References for 4

278
79Pl
79P2
8OC
8OP
80s
81M
81Pl
81P2
81Rl
81R2
81T
82H
82P
83Hl
8382
83H3
83K
84B

Pontau, A.E., Lazarus, D.: Phys. Rev. B 19 (1979) 4027.


Pruthi, D.D., Anand, MS., Agarwala, R.P.: Philos. Mag. A 39 (1979) 173.
Cermak, J., Ciha, K., Kucera, J.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 62 (1980) 467.
Prinz, N., Wever, H.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 61 (1980) 505.
Stolwijk, N.A., Van Gend, M., Bakker, H.: Philos. Mag. A 42 (1980) 783.
Million, B., Ruzickova, J., Velisek, J., Vrestal, J.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 50 (1981) 43.
Patil, R.V, Tiwari, G.P., Sharma, B.D.: Philos. Mag. A 44 (1981) 717.
Pelleg. J.: Philos. Mag. A 43 (1981) 273.
Raghunathan, VS., Sharma, B.D.: Philos. Mag. A 43 (1981) 427.
Ruzickova, J., Million, B.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 50 (1981) 59.
Treheux, D., Vincent, L., Guiraldenq, P.: Acta Metall. 29 (1981) 931.
Hishino, K., Iijima, Y,Hirano, K.: Acta Metal!. 30 (1982) 265.
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Switzerland, 1983, p. 389.
Bakker, H.: Diffusion in Crystalline Solids, Murch, G.E., Nowick, AS. (eds.),Academic Press, 1984,
p. 250.

84P
84V
85K
86M
87Hl
87H2
87H3
88N

Pruthi, D.D., Agarwala, R.P.: Philos. Mag. A 49 (1984) 263.


Van Winkel, A., Lemmens, M.P.H., Weeber,A.W, Bakker, H.: J. Less Common. Metals 99 (1984)257.
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Mundy, J.N., Ockers, S.T, Smedskjaer,L.C.: Phys. Rev. B 33 (1986) 847.
Herzig, C., Neuhaus, J., Vieregge, K., Manke, L.: Mat. Science Forum 15-18 (1987) 481.
Herzig. C., Kiihler, U.: Mat. Science Forum 15-18 (1987) 301.
Hoshino, K., Rothman, S.J.,Averback, R.S.:Symp. Diffusion Processesin High Technology Materials,
Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 12-14, 1987.
Nakajima, H., Nakamura, Y., Koiwa, M., Tagasuki, T, Izumi, 0.: Scri. Metall. 22 (1988) 507.

Land&-B6mstein
New series III,/26

Ref. p. 3661

5.1 Introduction

279

5 Chemical diffusion in inhomogeneousbinary alloys


5.1 Introduction
In this chapter are listed data on chemical diffusion processesin inhomogeneous binary alloys. Only data
for essentially bulk samples (5 2um) are given, thus thin-film data are not presented.
Use of tables
For a given metal pair, the metal having the chemical symbol earlier in the alphabet always comes first.
All alloy concentrations are expressedin atomic percentagesunless specifically given as otherwise e.g. weight
percent.
The tables give data for the interdiffusion coefficient d, sometimes also called the chemical diffusion coeficient or mutual diffusion coefficient, see section 1.4.3. In many casesthe interdiffusion coefficient 0 is conveniently expressed by an Arrhenius equation:
6=D exp(- Q/RT)

(5-l)
where Do is the pre-exponential, Q is the activation enthalpy, R is the gasconstant (R = 8.3145J mol- K- ) and
Tis the absolute temperature. Long extrapolations beyond the temperature range given are not generally
recommended.
In some cases,intrinsic, sometimes known as partial, diffusion coefficients are also given in the tables. These
are denoted by, for example D,, and D,,. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients are related to b, see Eq. 1.30 in
1.4.4.The intrinsic diffusion coefficients can also be conveniently expressedby an Arrhenius equation, e.g.
D,,=Dk ew(- Q&T)
(5.2)
At the limit of the concentration of one metal component approaching zero, the interdiffusion coefficient
approaches the impurity diffusion coefficient, see Chapter 3. Ideally, in an impurity diffusion experiment, the
impurity is present at very low concentration, so low that it does not chemically affect the host. When these
conditions are obviously not met, the experiment is strictly a chemical diffusion experiment and the data are
presented in the tables here.
The following methods for measuring interdiffusion coefficients are used in the tables.
Method A Use of the Boltzmann-Matano analysis gives the concentration dependence of the interdiffusion
coefficient 8, see section 1.6.1.2.2.(The Hall analysis [53H2] is sometimes used near terminal
concentrations). Method A is by far the most common and reliable method. Early work used
sectioning and chemical analysis but since about 1965 most concentration profiles have been
obtained with the electron microprobe.
Method B When it is evident or assumedthat the interdiffusion coefficient d is not a function of concentration
an analytical solution is used, the usual one is Eq. 1.47 in 1.6.1.2.2.
Method C The interdiffusion coefficient is calculated by using measurements on rates of migration of phase
boundaries, typically using the Wagner equation of parabolic growth kinetics [69W2].
Method D The interdiffusion coefficient is determined by an electrochemical method. There are several variations of such a method, all of them indirect and relaxational in nature.
Method E The interdiffusion coefficient is determined by in-diffusion and out-diffusion followed by determination of concentration profile, and use of the Boltzmann-Matano analysis or Eq. 1.47 of the General
Introduction, see also section 1.6.1.2.4.
Method F The interdiffusion coefficient is determined by total gain or loss of material or rate thereof, this is
really an indirect form of Method E.
Method G The interdiffusion coefficient is determined by ferromagnetic relaxation, seesection 1.6.2.1.a.
Method H The interdiffusion coefficient is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, see section 1.6.1.2.3.
Method I The interdiffusion coefficient is determined by a resistometric method, see section 1.6.1.2.3.

Landolt-B6mstein
New Series III/26

Murch, Bruff

280

5.1 Introduction

The full list of alloys, treated in chapter 5, is presented below. In contrast to the tables in section 5.2, the alloys
are given here in the order A - B and B-A. In this way it is immediately clear which Ni systems,for example,
occur in the tables.

List of alloys
System

Page

System

Page

System

Page

System

Page

Ag-AI
Ag-Au
Ag-Cd
Ag-Cu
Ag-Ga
Ag-Hg
Ag-Mn
Ag-Pb
Ag-Pd
Ag-Zn

282f.
283
283
283f.
284
284
284
284
285
285

Ce-Mg
Ce-Pu
Ce-U

294
294
294

284
288
297
302f.
31Of.
321
321

282 f.
285
285
286f.
287
287
287f.
288
288
288
288 f.
289
289
290
290 f.
291

285
291
295
295
295 ff.
297
297
297
298
298
298
298
298

301
31Of.
311
312f.
314
314
315
315f.
316
316f.
317
317
317
317f.

Mn-Ag
Mn-AI
Mn-Co
Mn-Cu
Mn-Fe
Mn-Ni
Mn-Ti

AI-Ag
Al-Be
Al-Co
AI-Cu
Al-Fe
AI-Li
Al-Mg
Al-Mn
AI-Na
AI-Nb
AI-Ni
AI-Pu
AI-Si
AI-Ti
Al-Zn
Al-Zr

Co-Al
Co-Au
Co-Cr
co-cu
Co-Fe
Co-Mn
CO-MO
Co-Ni
Co-Pd
Co-Pt
Co-Ti
co-v
co-w

Fe-Cu
Fe-Mn
Fe-MO
Fe-Ni
Fe-Pd
Fe-Sb
Fe-Si
Fe-Sn
Fe-Th
Fe-Ti
Fe-U
Fe-V
Fe-W
Fe-Zn

Cr-Co
Cr-Fe
Cr-Mo
Cr-Ni
Cr-Ti
Cr-U

295
299f.
300
300
301
301

Ga-Ag
Ga-Cu
Ga-Pu
Ga-Ti

284
301f.
318
319

Ge-Nb

319

Hf-Ti
Hf-W
Hf- Zr

319
319
319

MO-CO
Mo-Cr
MO-Cu
MO-Fe
Mo-Nb
Mo-Ni
MO-OS
Mo-Pd
Mo-Pt
Mo-Re
Mo-Ta
Mo-Ti
MO-U
MO-W
Mo-Zr

297
300
302f.
311
107f.
322
322
322f.
323
323
323
323
324
324
325

Na-AI

288

284

291

Au-Ag
Au-Co
Au-Cu
Au-Fe
Au-In
Au-Ni
Au-Pd
Au-Pt
Au-Sn

283
291
291
292
292
292
293
293
293

In-Au
In-Cu
In-Ni
In-Pb

292
302
319
320

La-Mg
La-U

320
320

Be-AI
Be-cu
Be-Fe

285
293
294

287
294
294
320
320
320
320

288
319
321f.
325
325
325
325f.
326f.
327
328
328
329

293

Li-AI
Li-Bi
Li-Cd
Li-Mg
Li-Sb
Li-Si
Li-W

Nb-Al
Nb-Ge
Nb-Mo
Nb-Ni
Nb-Pd
Nb-Sn
Nb-Ta
Nb-Ti
Nb-U
Nb-V
Nb-W
Nb-Zr

Ba-U

283 f.
286f.
291
293
294
295
301
301f.
302
302f.
303
303f.
304
304
305
305
305ff.
307
307ff.

Hg-Ag

As-Fe

Cu-Ag
Cu-AI
Cu-Au
Cu-Be
Cu-Cd
cu-co
Cu-Fe
Cu-Ga
Cu-In
Cu-Mn
Cu-MO
Cu-Ni
Cu-Pd
Cu-Pt
Cu-Sb
Cu-Si
Cu-Sn
Cu-Ti
Cu-Zn
Fe-Al
Fe-As
Fe-Au
Fe-Be
Fe-Co
Fe-Cr

287
291
292
294
295 ff.
299 f.

Mg-AI
Mg-Ce
Mg-La
Mg-Li
Mg-Ni
Mg-Pu
Mg-U

287 f.
294
320
320
320
321
321

Ni-AI
Ni-Au
Ni-Co
Ni-Cr
Ni-Cu
Ni-Fe
Ni-In
Ni-Mg
Ni-Mn
Ni-Mo
Ni-Nb
Ni-Pd

288f.
292
297
300
303f.
312f.
319
320
321
322
325
329f.

Bi-Li

294

Cd-Ag
Cd-Cu
Cd-Li

283
294
294

Murch, Bruff

Landok-Bhstein
New Series III/26

5.1 Introduction

281

System

Page

System

Page

System

Page

System

Page

Ni-Pt
Ni-Si
Ni-Sn
Ni-Ta
Ni-Th
Ni-Ti
Ni-U
Ni-V
Ni-W
Ni-Zn

330
330
33Of.
331
331
331
331
332
332
333

Pu-Ga
Pu-Mg
Pu-Ti
Pu-u
Pu-Zr

318
321
334
334
335

Ta-Ti
Ta-W

336
337

Th-Fe
Th-Ni

316
331

U-Sm
U-Sr
U-Ti
u-w
U-Zr

336
336
337
339
339

Re-Mo
Re-Pt
Re-W

323
334
335

Rh-W

336

298
328
332
334
337f.

322

Pb-Ag
Pb-In
Pb-Sn
Pb-Tl

284
320
333
334

Sb-Cu
Sb-Fe
Sb-Li

305
314
320

Pd-Ag
Pd-Au
Pd-Co
Pd-Cu
Pd-Fe
Pd-Mo
Pd-Nb
Pd-Ni
Pd-Ti
Pd-V

285
293
298
304
314
322f.
325
329f.
334
334

Si-Al
Si-Cu
Si-Fe
Si-Li
Si-Ni
Si-U

289
305
315
320
330
336

Sm-U

336

290
298
301
307
316f.
319
319
321
323
326f.
331
334
334
336
336
337
337f.
339

v-co
V-Nb
V-Ni
V-Pd
V-Ti

OS-MO

Ti-Al
Ti-Co
Ti-Cr
Ti-Cu
Ti-Fe
Ti-Ga
Ti-Hf
Ti-Mn
Ti-Mo
Ti-Nb
Ti-Ni
Ti-Pd
Ti-Pu
Ti-Sn
Ti-Ta
Ti-U
Ti-V
Ti-Zr

w-co
W-Fe
W-Hf
W-Li
W-MO
W-Nb
W-Ni
W-Re
W-Rh
W-Ta
w-u

298
317
319
320
324
328
332
335
336
337
339

334

336

Pu-Al
Pu-Ce

289
294

Ta-Mo
Ta-Nb
Ta-Ni

323
325f.
331

293
294
301
317
320
321
324
327
331
334
336

285
290f.
307ff.
317ff.
333

Sr-U

U-Ba
U-Ce
U-Cr
U-Fe
U-La
U-Mg
U-MO
U-Nb
U-Ni
u-Pu
U-Si

Zn-Ag
Zn-Al
Zn-Cu
Zn-Fe
Zn-Ni

293
298
304
323
330
334

293
305ff.
315f.
325
330f.
333
336
336

Tl-Pb

Pt-Au
Pt-Co
Pt-Cu
Pt-Mo
Pt-Ni
Pt-Re

Sn-Au
Sn-Cu
Sn-Fe
Sn-Nb
Sn-Ni
Sn-Pb
Sn-Ti
Sn-Zr

Zr-Al
Zr-Hf
Zr-Mo
Zr-Nb
Zr-Pu
Zr-Sn
Zr-Ti
Zr-U

291
319
325
329
335
336
339
339

Landolt-Biimstein
New Series III/26

Murch, Bruff

5.2 Chemical diffusion tables


Composition
at.%

A&!
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
6.5
8.5
1.76
3.98
0.869
1.76
4.0
0.518
1.84
0.86
1.85
4
7
64
g:,

61.90

DO

Dl

D2

10S4 m*s-r

kJmol-

rn*s-l

m*s-

m*s-

0.21
0.30
0.33
0.55
0.78
1.5
3.0
11.0
16.0
0.21
0.21

121
124
125
129
131
136
141
155
159
113
113

7.3.10-14
1.8. lo-l3
3.8 . IO- l4
1.16.10-13
1.73.10-2
9.2 . IO- l2
-

1.22.10-13
7.87. lo-l4
3.20 . lo- l3
2.75 - lo- l3
1.85 . IO- l3
7.78 . IO- l3
6.61 . 10-13
11.22. 10-13
9.94.10-13
1.22.10-12
5.01 - 10-12
-

773 ..a 868

;0.10-4
4.9. 10-14
1.6. lo- l3
1.6. lo-l3
1.2. 10-13
3.9 * 10-13
4.1 * 10-13
5.3 * 10-13
5.0.10-13
-

773

1.3

121

Temperature
range
K

AI

;02.10-2
1.141 . lo-
-

DL =

D;, =

2.2 * 10-s
QA, = 113

2.4. 1O-4
QA, = 124

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

l=Ag,2=Al
Method A

57H

Method A

70K2

Method C

75Y

Method A
Further data at pressures up to 3 GPa given
in reference.

84M

808

845
868
770
808
770
808
770
808
633...713
753.a.833
731... 828

1.63

1.53

648...793

0.14
2.42. IO-
-

175
155
-

See Fig. 1.

1036... 1238
1079e.. 1290
1173

See Fig. 2.
3.8. lo-l3

7.3.10-13

1.7.10-13

1213
1213

4.7. 10-3

131

923... 1168

0...25
5.5
8.0
9.8
14.8
18.9
24.8
27.7
32.7
33.8

See Fig. 3.
3.4. lo-
5.2. IO-
7.4.10-11
1.2.10-0
1.7 * lo-0
7.3 . 10-10
8.04. 10-I
4.7. 10-g

2.14. IO-
2.72. IO-
3.29. IO-
5.62.10-l
9.12.10-I
1.91 . lo-I0
2.78. IO-
5.53 . 10-10
6.61 * 10-10

2.9. IO-
3.97. IO-
5.07.10-I
1.04. 10-10
1.89~10-10
4.61 . IO-
7.31 . 10-10
1.66.10-g
2.09. lo-

900..* 1053
873

CL

6...30
=O... 6
zo...17
zO...24

See Fig.
See Fig.
See Fig.
See Fig.

&

CU
1.2. 10-z
0.52

149.0
183.8

0...20

Ag

Au

50.8
0 . . .8.77
xO...lOO
5O.e.85
63.5

Ag

Cd
o... 5

0...2

4.
5a.
5 b.
5c.

883...933
1179
1087
1073

990... 1140
1023 .... 1073

87C

425
50E
52S,
53Hl
54B

50K

3
-

59Ml
731

4
5a
5b
5c

73U2
78B

50K
67C2

Method D
Data listed are for
15at.% Al.
Slight dependence on concentration, see reference.
l=Ag,2=Au
Method A
Method A
Method A

Method A
l=Ag,2=Cd
Reanalysis of earlier data
Method B
Method A
Method A
0 determined from
intrinsic diffusion
coefficients.

Method A
Method A
Many intrinsic diffusion
coefficients given in
reference.
1 =Ag,2=Cu
Method B
Method B

(continued)

Composition
at.%

AlZ

0.**2

DO

10m4ms-

kJmol-

Cu (continued)
1.2
0.1
1.7
1
2
2.5
3.1
4
6.8
6
98.5
6.8
99
3.1
99.5
1.6
99.9
0.88
0.21

1.1
xo...3
go--- loo

m2s-

192
196
200
203
210
216
208
201
195
184.5 143c*,
G,: atomic
fraction Ag)
SeeFig. 6.
See Fig. 6.

Method/Remarks

m2s-

Temperature
range
K

818.e. 1043

Method A
b available at higher
concentrations, e.g. up
to 18 at.% Cu at
1043 K and down to
95 at.% Cu,
see reference.

974*** 1273

Method A

0.28 . lo- l3
-

1174
1023
1193

D,

D2

m2s-
-

1.56. lo-t3
-

Fig.

Ref.

71B

7302

Methods A. H
6
Concentration profiles
determined from microprobe and X-ray intensity
bands. See figure for
effect on b(C).

76U

Ag

Ga
1.9..- 3.5

0.42

163

873 --. 1213

Method B

77B2

Ag

Hg
56

3.181 . IO-

32.5

313.e.388

Method A

86L

Ag

Mn
0 . . a8.5

0.18

180

849... 1206

Method A

69B1

63
-

1.5 - 10-12
3.13 * 10-12
5.43 * 10-12
9.14 * 10-12

493 ... 558


493
538
518
493

Method B
Do not reported.

32s

Pb
Ag
0.**0.12

Pd
In solid
solution
50

6.36. 1O-4

85

7ooe.e 1000

Method B

335

1.5. 10-6

103

898... 1198

Method A

7ON2

1.64. lo-
-

69
-

See Fig. 7.
2.45 . IO-l3
8.75. IO-l3
1.7.10-13
1.7. IO-
See Fig. 8.

673..*883

l=Ag,2=Zn
Method A

55Hl

923
973
873

Method E

59G

Method A

70Hl

8.1 . IO-
-

2.3. IO-
-

823 ... 1023

Method A

73U2

See Fig. 9.

See Fig. 9.

583...673

78Sl

See Fig. IOa.

Method A
Do and Q depend on
couple used, see figure.
Method C

IOa

81W

See Fig. lob.

lob

See Fig. 10~.

IOC

See Fig. 11.

See Fig. 11. -

52
126

163
169

550

180

10.5

295

Zll
50
40 . . .55
26.5
26.5
u
P
CL

40
4.e. 30

CL

74 to sfq
phase
boundary
31..*39
wt. %(P)
46...51
wt. %(y)
55...81
wt. %(&)
0.e. 18

Al

Al
0...5

Be
0.005 wt.%
0.0075
wt. %
0.91 wt.%

673

823 ... 1023

Method A

11

86S2

773...908

Methods B
and C

51B

1273 -.. 1473

Method A

85G

co

Composition
at.%
Al

D,

D2

10s4 ms-

kJmol-

m*s-l

m*s-*

rn*s-l

0.29
0.19
0.131
0.231
0.287
0.364
0.588
1.033
1.293
0.85
2.1
1.6. IO6
2.2
0.56
0.18
0.432
0.306
0.425
0.393
0.424
0.556
0.13

130
115
185
188
188
187
189
194
191
136
138
231
149
128
126
194
187
187
183
181
179
113

SeeFig. 12.
0.65

SeeFig. 12. 177


-

D'&=

D& =

0.13.10-4
Q,,, = 163

2.2.10-4
Qc. = 182

cu
0..*0.215

z25

DO

P
2.5 *** 5.0

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Y2

L2
Jl2

0
0 . . . x2

X0
2
4
6
8
10
74 . . +80

6.0. lo-l4
1.31 .10-9
-

Temperature
range
K
778...908
923 ... 1023
782
814
985 -.a 1270

Method/Remarks

1 =Al,2=Cu
Method B
Method C
Method B

Fig.

Ref.

61Ml
64A
70H2

Method A
Empirical equations for
Do and Q given in
in reference.

700

673 ... 808

Method C

71F

977-e. 1277

Method A

72C
75M2

823.a.1113

Method A
Slight dependence of
B on concentration.
Method A
Method A

853-e. 1273
1073 a.. 1223

75Pl

12
-

75P2
83R

I I I$

I I IZ

5.2 Chemical diffusion in inhomogeneous binary alloys (Tables)

I I I I I I I

Ref. p. 3661

I I I I I I

%a
1ddd

Murch, Bruff

$1
.Y
F4

I I I I I I I

I I I I IIS

I I I I I I

I I I I I I

Land&-B6mstein
New Series III/26

287

Composition
at.%
Al
Y

Al

Method/Remarks

690...818

Method A
Further data at pressures
up to 3.3 GPa given in
reference.

83M

873.e.923

Method A

15

43B

Dl

D2

10m4rns-

kJmol-

m2s-l

m2s-

m2s-

125
124
127
122
122

See Fig. 15.

Mg (continued)
ZO
0.42
1.0
0.49
2.0
0.61
3.0
0.32
4.0
0.45
Mn

0.02~~~0.15 Al

Temperature
range
K

DO

Na

Fig.

Ref.

0.*.0.002

1.1

134

823.0.923

Method F

50R

33
25

Nb
Nb,AI
Nb,AI

2.0. 10-3
2.5

230
366

1473-e. 1773

Method C

75A

Al

Ni

1.87
1.5
4
10
-

268
197
172
50
201
230
268
272
-

1372+..1553
701... 883
928..- 1273
928..- 1273
928 ..a 1273
1533

Method B
Method C

16

56s
675

Method A

72W

1273 ... 1573

Methods A, C

735

1143
1203
1273
1143
1203
1273

Method C

75H

Al

0..*0.7
Y
6
;
2
4
6
8
NiAl
N&Al

62
86

See Fig. 16.


See Fig. 16.
See Fig. 16.
See Fig. 16.
1.2 * 10-13
1.5.10-3
1.5.10-13
1.1 . 10-13
2.1 . 10-12
6.0. IO-l2
1.1 . 10-11
1.5 . lo- l4
6.3. IO-l4
3.5. lo-

NiAI(G)
(36 . . .54)
N&AI(s)

3.7. 10-z

See Fig. 17 See Figs.


18a...d.
5.0.10-l5
6.3. IO-
2.95 . IO- l4
3.6 . lo- I4
1.16. lo-l3
266
24 . IO-l5
3.8.10-l
11.5.10-15
24.0. IO-l5
55.0.10-5
234
1.5. 10-15
3.0.10-15
7.9.10-15
16.0. IO-l5
37.0.10-5
234
See Fig. 19.
123

1.3

257

2.25. 1O-4

107

1 ... 19
Ni,AI,
w
0...5

Al

Pu

3...9.1

Al

Si
wO...O.48

See Fig. 20.

~0~~~0.5

0.346

124

xo...o.5

2.02

136

wo.31 ...
0.51

-----------

D;, =

D$ =

5.07.10-4
QA, = 143

3.95.10-4
Qsi = 140

1223 ... 1423

Method A

17,
18

7835

1223
1273
1323
1373
1423
1273 ...
1223
1273
1323
1373
1423
1223 ...
1223
1273
1323
1373
1423
1223 ...
1323...

1423
1573

Method A

SOY2

1073 ... 1273

Method C

19
-

1323 ... 1473

Method A

85G

623...790

Method B

69T

743...853

1 = Al, 2 = Si
Method B

43B
79F

1423

1423

617...904

Method B

20
-

753 ... 893

Method A

82s

73Bl

Composition
at.%

Al
2
12.0
10.0
3.8
TiAl,
Al

DO

iJ

Dl

D2

lob4 m2s-

kJmol-

m2s-

m2s-

m2s-

Temperature
range
K

1.4. 10-5
9.0. 10-5
1.6. 1O-5

92
107
99

1256.e. 1523

1 = Al, 2 = Ti
Method A

60G

8.10-

95

1.411~10-*
-

4.61.10-
-

1107...1173
1523
789.e.915

Method C

73v

128

1.84 . IO- l5
3.98 . IO- l5
12.7 . IO- I5
4.92. IO-l4
1.49 * 10-13
6.1 . IO-r3
1.95.10-1s
4.85 . IO- l5
19.3.10-15
6.96 . IO- l4
1.74 * 10-13
6.1 - lo- l3
3.64 . lo- *s
6.12. lo-l5
21.6. lo-l5
6.92. lo-l4
2.12.10-13
3.64.10-15
6.12 . IO- l5
2.0.10-4
7.48. IO-l4
2.2. 10-15
6.66.10-1s
7.08 - lo-l4
1.10. to-15
5.1 * to-14
-

Method A

59H

Ti
i
u
B

Zn
x0

9.1

18.1

18.2

37.6
x0*** x 3.1

1.33

603
633
673
713
758
1086
603
633
673
713
758
1086
603
633
673
713
758
603
633
673
713
758
633
713
633
713
673.e.868

Method/Remarks

Method I

Fig.

Ref.

80M

X0
Al

AU

1373*.. 1573

Method A

78G

4.3
0.58

220
247

1223 a.. 1653

Method A

0.22

183

973 ..* 1323

Method H

5.7. 10-4
-

115
-

700 ... 1000

Method B

1006+.. 1130

Method A

50
50

2.36 +1O-6
7.94 * 10-E
-

57
45
-

823.e.973
573...723
323 ... 1023

Method A
Method A

0.5
4.2
7.2
11.2
14.6
21.8
28.3
38.6
55.3
63.9
79.0

8.99 . IO- 3
12.4. 1O-3
15.6. 1O-3
21.7. 1O-3
29.9f10-3
53.6. 1O-3
89.1 . 1O-3
0.214
0.828
1.69
6.092

133
136
138
141
144
149
154
161
173
179
191

659..-827

Method D

Fe
cf.
Y
co
X0
CU
In solid solution
lo.*.90

AuCu
(disorordered)
(ordered)
IO...90
wt.%

82M

169
179
189
192
192
283
272
382

A1,Zr 3
Al,Zr,

AU

Method A
Data at pressures up to
3GPa given in reference.

9.2.10-3
2.3. 1O-2
5.2. IO-
7.6. IO-
8.0. IO-
9.2
3.4
1.6. lo5

Zr

M3Zr5

0.6 . . .4.6

757...881

124
121

8
10
12
14
16

As

0.406
0.28

3.5

See Fig. 21.

See Fig. 22.

1473 **. 1573


1373 ... 1573
1273 ... 1573
1273 ... 1573
-

76B2

77F
335
21

69B3,69B4
70Kl

22
-

71P
81L

Composition
at.%
Fe
0.~.15.6
X0
5***40
AU
3

In

33

AuIn,

50

AuIn

69

Au,In,

80

Au.&

91
Ni
2
IO
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
70
75
98
0-e. 100

DO

Dl

D2

10m4 ms-

kJmol-

ms-

m2s-

m2s-

See Fig. 23.

4.7 * 10-l
9.9 * 10-l
7.0 * 10-16
1.8 - IO-
2.6. IO-l6
3.6. IO-l6
5.8. IO-l6
5.8. IO-
4.9 * 10-l
7.8. IO-
2.4 1 10-l
6.2. IO-

2.4. 10-l
5.0.10-15
2.9. IO-l5
7.4.10-1s
6.6.10-16
9.1 . 10-16
9.8. IO-l6
9.8. IO-l6
6.8 * 10-l
1.1 . 10-16
2.8.10-
7.1 . 10-l

415
424
415
424
415
424
415
424
415
424
415
424

1123...1198

1198

l.157.10-4

102

0.19
-

172

4.3. 10-2
3.9. 10-2
9.5. 10-2
7.8. IO-*
2.2. 10-2
1.3. 10-2
5.9. 10-3
6.8. 10-2
1.4. 103
2.0 . IO
6.1 . 10s
1.8. lo4
-

173.3
173.8
183
183.8
175.9
177.5
174.6
204.3
305.6
402.8
439.6
356.7
-

See Fig. 24.

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1026... 1276

Method B

44K

973 .a. 1323

Method H

77F

973 ... 1273

Method A

23

831

l=Au,2=In
Method A

64P

Method A

57R

Method A

24

67L5

D,, calculated assuming

Au

Pd
In solid
solution

1.11.10-3

157

3.2. 1O-4

153

1.23. 1O-3

163

98 .
96 ..
94
92
90
~
88
.86
84 -.
82
80
2...8

0.62
1.0
0.73 0.67
0.60
0.58
0.53
0.52
0.47
0.43
0.37

229
234
232
232
231
231
231
231
231..
230.
262

94.9

D;,=O32
QAu= I&

D;t=9.0.1d-2

Sn
0 ... 1.75
o... 1.4

See Fig. 25.


See Fig. 25.

Ba
o...solubility
limit

U
Y

0.112

171

Be
o...x15
x33
~48
75

CU
u
P

174
115
130
138

1.9.
8.4.
5.4.
1.2.

D;, =

50
Au

Pt
In solid
solution

Au

33

IOOO... 1250

Method B

335

899 ... 1313

Method A

70N2

1000... 1250

l=Au,2=Pt
Method B

1198..+ 1328

--

Method A
Data for 0 resulting from
rolled Pt used in couples
are also given in reference.

61B

335

QR = 226
:

10-l
1O-2
10-z
10-3

3.5.10-6
QBe = 121

Method A

1090
1129

25

72H2

1123 ... 1313

Method C

64T

823...1113
923...1113
823.e.1113
823...1113

63R

D& =4.5. IO-


Qcu = 105

l=Be,2=Cu
Method A

Composition
at.%
Be

Bi

Ref.

1073 .** 1373

Method A

64L

See Fig. 26.

653-a-873

Method D
Seereference for 6(T)
details.

26

77W2

27

38R

6;

D,

10s4 m2s-r

kJmol-

m2s-*

m2s-

Fe
0 . . .0.2

1.0

226

Li
Li,Bi

Cll

Cd

Li
35 **e47.5
Mg

Pu
Ce
3.74 ***
7.17wt.%
Ce
O.**solubility
limit

Fig.

Cd
0.075 . . .
0.525
0.5

Ce
In solid
solution

Method/Remarks

m2s-

Temperature
range
K

DO

U
y

See Fig. 27.

773.0.853

Method A

3.5 * 10-3

122

773...1123

Method B
Data from A. Klein
presented by 0. Kubaschewski [50K]

See.Fig. 28.

774-e. 802

Method D

450

176

823...871

Method C

1.31 .10-t

124

676.e. 801

Method B

3.92

278

1073 ..a 1273

Method C

50K

28

84L

co

co
0.1

C-3
0...40

0...15.2wt.%
0...28.3wt.%
0...25
CU

2
1.12
1.75
2.02
2.20
0.98
1.35
1.63
3.21
4.12
4.92
co
o..* 100
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

Fe

0.443

266

1273... 1633

8.4. 1O-2
8.0 IO-
0.14

254
250
253

1273... 1573

Method A
(0 reported to be a function of concentration but
dependence is very slight)
Method B

1273 ... 1573

Method A

0.6
5.7

214
243

1073.** 1346

see remarks

seeremarks 6.8 . 10-l


1.5.10-l
2.2.10-l
9.0.10-18
5.1 . 10-16
6.4. IO-l6
3.8 . lo-l6
4.5.10-16
9.6. lo-l6
3.6 . lo- l6

1158

1273

Method A
Data for intermediate
compositions are also
given in reference.
Method B
Do = 1.0 * 10m4m2sm1
and Q = 275 kJmol-
calculated from 2 points
only.

See Fig. 29.

1409..+ 1629

1.5. 10-3
2.9 * 10-3
4.4. 10-3
5.8. 1O-3
7.0. 10-3
8.8. 10-3
11.5.10-3
12.0.10-3
13.1 .10-3

219
215
212
216
215
217
218
218
219

1273... 1673

52W

63D1,63D2
73Gl
73B2

84A

l=Co,2=Fe
Method A

29

Method A

69B3,
69B4
73Ul

(continued)

Composition
at.%

co
3
5
15
20
25
30
3.5
40
45
50
55
60
65
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
80
85
90
95
45
52

Fe
CL

DO

D,

10S4 m2s-

kJmol-

m*s-*

m*s-

m*s-

3.01 .10-5
1.76.10-

1.33 * 10-14
4.18.10-

(continued)
3.02 . 10
4.13 * lo4
1.15. 10s
1.52. 10
3.02 - 10
5.89. IO
1.4 * 10s
1.54 * 104
4.34 * 103
1.02. 103
3.67 . lo*
84.4
30
45.2
21.6
10.5
5.33
2.54
1.01
4.21
5.67
2.5
2.7
1.53
5.75
0.871
0.783
1.37
2.11
5.01
5.72
-

318
343
361
366
373
378
363
339
323
306
292
274
261
329
319
319
303
293
276
270
273
276
277
281
294
276
273
281
291
306
318
-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1123...1168

Method A

77H

1073***1168
1073+.. 1228

993... 1228

993 *a* 1141


1323-e. 1573

1273 .a. 1573

1228
1168

56
i7
io
ZO

Mn
5
5
10
20
30
40

7.79
0.78
3.07
0.70
0.721
0.627

296.
273
284
257
248
241

33
:0

:0

MO
o..* 15 wt.%

0.23

263

2.48

295
See Fig. 30.

xo*..go

szo... 100

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
zo-..

1.76
1.61
1.89
1.50
0.48
0.166
0.140
0.725
1.94
-

299
295
295
290
273
258
254
273
285
-

Ni
10 . . .90

IO...90

100

See Fig. 31.


See Fig. 32.

See Fig. 33.


See Fig. 34.

9.0.10-6
5.5.10-16
8.2. 10-l

2.09 * 10-15
1.45. 10-lS
5.29.10-16

1141
1123
1073

1133 ... T, (ferro)


T,.-. 1150 (para)
1133...1423

1273 .-. 1573

Method B

63Dl

1273 ... 1573

Method A

74H

1428... 1673

Method A

30

53H

1423 ... 1578

Method A

31

67B2

1409 ... 1629

Method A

32

67B3,
69B4

1153...1573

Method A

711

7711

D& =

Do

2.2 * 10-s
Q, = 263

9.8. 1O-s
QMn = 229

l=Co,2=Mn
Method A

Mn

1373

Method A

33

73H

1373... 1673

Method A

34

73Ul

Composition
at.%

co

Pd

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
IO***90
co

co
Co,Ti
Co,Ti
CoTi

DO

Dl

10-4mZs-1

kJmol-

m2se1

m2s-*

mzs-*

Pt
0.e. 100
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

0.872
1.27
0.887
0.746
0.667
0.639
0.536
0.447
0.465
0.516

286
288
279
275
274
274
272
272
274
277

21

Ti
4.s.8
21
30 . . a32
46.e. 50
90***95(L3)

15.0
5.3 * 10-z
0.28
4.4 * 10-4
67

281
167
218
173
207

13.7 * 10-15
25.6. IO-
55.0 * 10-15
12.0 * 10-14
14.5 * 10-14
12.0 - 10-14
70.7.10-14
28.2. lo-l4
13.9.10-14
See Fig. 35.

See Fig. 36.


-

Ok=

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1423

Method A

66B

1153*.. 1466

Method A

35

721

1398..*1573
1271... 1673

1 =co,2=Pt
Method A
Method A

36
-

67B2
801

Method C

76V

D;=

2.25. 1O-4
8.09. 1O-4 1473 e-e1673
Qc, = 278
QR = 291
-

1173***1413

973 .a. 1123

co
co
Cr
IO...20
o..-11
11
15
5.4
37
42
52
62
72
81
91
0...7.1
13.7
15.5
16.8
18.2
19.3
20.7
12.1
13.9
15.3
16.8
18.0
19.1
O.e.28.3

V
0...14.8wt.%

2.1 . IO-

222

W
0...14.6wt.%

8. 1O-3

238

1.48
7.1 . 10-5
1.2. 10-3

230
170
219
240
252

Fe
u
y
u
u
u
u
u

y
See remarks

u
Y

2.4
6.27

1373 **. 1573

Method B

1373 ... 1573

Method B

I =Cr,2=Fe
Method A

1.7. IO-
1.42. IO-
1.22 * lo-
1.53 * 10-7

0.8. IO-
o.95.1o-g
0.9.10-7
l.o~Io-
-

1096... 1713
1223 ... 1423
1096
1323
1688
1713
1523

Method A

6OPl

1173...1473

Method B

63D1,63D2

1473

Method A
Fe samples are actually
steels with 0.014 % C,
0.18 % Mn, and
O.l6%Si.

70s

948-e. 1758

Method B

74A

8.0. IO-
5.6. 10-l
2.78.10-l
1.17.10-I
7.1.10-0
4.9.10-10
4.64. 10-l
1.1 . 10-12
1.16. 10-l
1.30.10-2
1.23. IO-
1.20 * 10-12
1.14 * 10-12
3.5.10-12
3.76. IO- I2
3.76. IO-
3.68. IO-
3.68. IO-l2
3.56. IO-l2
-

63DI,63D2
63D1, 63D2

(continued)

Composition
at.%
Cr

I7
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
47.8
X0
5
10
I5
20
25

MO

Cr

Ni

o*** 10.3
wt. %
s-.-45
5 ... 20

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1453

Method A

74c

1044... 1124
1049... 1124
1039... 1124
984-e. 1124
974-e. 1124
974.e. I124

Method A

85B

1323 ... 1473

Method B

71HI

1373 *** 1573

Method B

SeeFig. 37. SeeFig. 38. -

1268 ... 1573


1268-e. 1573

Method A

D,

D2

IOm4m2s-t

kJmol-

m2s-l

m2s-*

m2s-

299
292
279
280
269
269

7.5 . IO- 1X
7.5 . IO- 1X
7.0.10-*3
6.4. IO-l3
5.8. IO-l3
5.2 . IO- l3
4.8 . IO- l3
4.3 * 10-13
4.1 . 10-13
3.8 . IO- l3
3.4 . IO- l3
2.8 . IO- l3
2.3 . IO- l3
2.0.10-13
1.7.10-3
1.5.10-3
-

2.27. lo-
-

0.66 * lo-
-

2.9. 1O-3

257

0.6

257

SeeFig. 37.
SeeFig. 38.

Fe (continued)
CL
1.69. IO3
8.24 . IO2
2.21 . 102
2.56. IO2
60
15

Cr
SoIid
solution
range

Temperature
range
K

DO

37
38

63D1,
63D2
67U

Cr
9

Ti
P

3.6. IO-

Cr
0. . . solubility
limit

U
y

0.7

142

3.7. 10-g

2.8. IO-

1258

Method A

62P

1173...1273

Method C

60M

l=Cu,2=Fe

Fe
xO...6

See Fig. 39.

See Fig. 39.

D&=
6.1 . 1O-4
Qn, = 268

21.0
1.3.103
300.0
0.19
0.091

251
301
284
273
193

0.504

208

1073 ... 1323

Ga
CuGa,

1.34.1o-2

43

2.5
4.9
7.6
10.3
13.1
15.9

3.0. 10-4
1.8. 1O-3
1.6. IO-
1.8. IO-
1.3. 10-l
8. IO-

134
142
153
167
157
146

DoGa =
11.1 .10-5
QGa = 155

0.5
1
CL
k-

cu

0;. =
2.7. 1O-4
QFe = 266

97 *-. 99.5(E)

0.**7.4wt.%
O...2wt.%

0;. =
8.9 +1O-4
QFe = 314

0; =
3.6 1 1O-4
Qc, = 274

2.6
wt. %

12.5

D& =
6.5. IO-
Qcu = 140

1173 ... 1323

Method A

39

71K

1133 ... 1283

Method A

74Tl

1045 **. 1153


1198 ... 1323
923 ... 1073

Metliod

77s

Method B.

7883

313 . ..433

1 =Cu,2=Ga
Method C

70T2

773...973

Method A

74Wl

(continued)

Composition
at.%

DO

10m4m2sS1 kJmol-

cu

cu

cu

Ga (continued)
16.3

Dl

D2

m2s-

m2s-i

m2s-r

D& = 1.2. 1O-6

0;. = 8.6. 1O-6

18.4

X0...
0.3
In
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.58

194

0.93
1.2
1.8
5.8
9.8
11.0
18.0

188
188
189
195
198
196
198

Mn
O.e.28
3.3
6.0
6.85
9.0
10
20
30
40
50
72
76
80

0.52
5.66
17.5
4.62
9.22
2.11 * 102
1.4 * 106
2.42 . 10
2.78 . 10

177
207
211
198
209
241
366
400
408

0.54.10-3
0.61 . lo- l3
0.71 . 10-13
1.18. lo-l3
-

Qcu = 135

D& = 6.3. IO+

Qcu = 136
-

QGa= 135
-

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

74Wl

Method A

Qo.= 14

D& = 4.7. 1O-6

Temperature
range
K

973... 1323

Method B

77B2

949***1119

Method A

81H2

913.e. 1093
1123

l=Cu,2=Mn
Method B
Method A

67C2
7ow

1021... 1203

Method A

7714,
7712

949.a. 1089

Much data on intrinsic


diffusion coefficients are
given in reference from
0.6 at.% In to 4.6 at.% In
and at temperatures
x lOOOK.

408
397
397

29

D& = 12.0.10-4
Q, = 210

0; = 1.7.10-4
QMn = 190

1043 ... 1118

77

Dk = 1.3. IO7
Q, = 490

0; = 1.4. 10

1171... 1203

0.37
0.56
0.51
0.53
0.66
1.17
1.33
2.34
10.7
93.6
41.0
2.1
0.14
7.0. 10-z
0.16

187
187
183
181
181
186
189
197
216
241
239
218
198
195
204

0.6. IO-l3
0.8.10-13
0.88 . IO- l3
1.04.10-3
-

Qm = 40
-

2.82. 1O-6

146

82
84
86

3
5
6.0
6.85
9.0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
CU
MO
0.016.. .5.45
CU
70*.* 100

2.11 . 107
7.12. IO6
6.06 * IO6

85A

1173...1548

Method B

55B
52T

1196..* 1322

See Fig. 40.


-

3.7.10-14

1.7.10-14

1333

Method A

40
-

See Fig. 41.

See Fig. 41.

See Fig. 41.

1273

Method A

41

o... 100

Method A

1 =Cu,2=Ni
Method A

Ni

83

850
750-s. 850
850
850
850
750s.. 850

54B
67L3
(continued)

Composition
at.%

CU
Ni
O***loo
o... loo
o*** loo

DO

Dl

D2

10m4m*s-l

kJmol-

m*s-r

m*s-

See Fig. 42.


See Fig. 43.
See Fig. 43.

See Fig. 44.


See Fig. 44.
6.09. IO-l4
2.3 . IO- l3
.exp(-5.94X,,)
.exp(-6.13X,3
Xni is mole fraction Ni
See Fig. 44.
See Fig. 44.

(continued)
.
-

0..- loo
o-.. 5
-

o*** 100
CU
IO*..90
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
O.--l00

Pd

50
6 a.. 95

0.48
-

224
-

See Fig. 47.

4.2. lo3
0.67

233
233

Pt

0..*13.9
1.5 ... 2.5

See Fig. 45.


2.7. lo-l5
4.9.10-15
8.5 . IO- Is
1.53.10-14
4.01 . 10-14
8.88 . lo- I4
1.54. 10-13
1.65 . IO- l3
1.28 . lo- l3
See Fig. 46.

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

m*s-i

Temperature
range
K

983-s. 1339
1273
1193

Method A
Method A
b(c) near 100% Cu
depends on calculational method used,
see figure.

42
43

69B2
71M2

See Fig. 44.


6.11 . lo-l4
=exp(-9.08X,3

1273
1273

Method A
Method A

44
-

72Hl
78H

See Fig. 44.

1273

Method A

44

8212

1151... 131
1292

Method A
Method A

45
-

52T
66B

1204.e. 1334

46

69B3,
69B4

.-

1048...1313
1173

Method A
See figure for d(C)
at 1204 and 1334K.
Method A
Method A

70N2
74T2

1314...1674
1023... 1348

Method B
Method B

47
-

44K
72F2

Sb

1.0
2.0
3.0
1.0

CU

0.32
9.4. 10-Z
3.0. 10-2
-

1.7

.-

0.6

Si
~0~~~10
a/a+K
boundary

11.4

CU
6

Sn
w37wt.%

Y
&
rl

28 ... 33 wt.% -

Cu,Sn

(4

o... 33 wt.%

C!u,,Sn,

.I74
160
147
-

1.3. IO-
6.9. lo-*
-

663

1 =Cu,2=Sb
Method A

56H

,
949 -:1040

Method A

81Hl

2.9 . IO- l4
6.1 . lo-l4
2.15. IO-l4
4.05.10-14
7.8. IO-l4
2.5. lo-l4

1005
1040
970
1005
1040
1005
Method A
Method C

48
-

38R
68A

l=Cu,2=Sn
Method C
d values in 6 phase
are averaged.

64s
49,
50a,b

1.8. IO-l4
3.7.10-14
0.5.10-14
1.85 . IO- l4
3.7.10-14
1.3.10-14

See Fig. 48.


L

973 ... 1075


938 ... 1048

7.7.10-14
3.6 . IO-l3
1.0.10-l*
1.1 . lo-
1.65. lo-1
1.3. 10-l
See Fig. 50a.
4.3.10-16
3.7.10-15
2.7. lo-l6
2.2.10-15
See Fig. 51.

See Fig. 49.


See Fig. 50b.
-

See Fig. 49.


See Fig. 50 b.
-

701
714
731
780
818
845
979
453
483
453
483
523...623

199

78

2.4. lo-
1.0.10-14
2.2 10-14
1.6. IO-l4
3.0 . lo- l4
2.9. IO-*

473
573
673
723
673
723

Method C
Do not given.
Method A
Activation energies
for interdiffusion of
Cu,Sn and Cu,Sn,
given in reference.

51

70F

75L

(continued)
i ,

Composition
at.%

DO

10s4 m2sw1 kJmol-


CU

Sn (continued)
34***38wt.%
Cu,Sn
Cu,Sn,
62~~~lOOwt.% 00.07
2.10-2

40.--bowt.%

90
87
156

Dl

D2

m2s-

m2sv1

m2s-*

2.4. lo-
1.0 * lo-t4
2.4. IO-l4
5.1 * lo- l4
9.0 * lo- l6
3.5 * lo- *s
1.2 * lo- *z
3.8. lo-l2
3.0 * 10-l
7.5 * 10-15
3.0.10-1s
4.0.10-5
3.1 . 10-1s
3.0.10-13
2.0 * 10-12
5.2. IO-*
2.0. IO-
3.4.10-1s
4.0.10-5
-

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

473
573
673
723
473
573
673
723
473.0.723
473
573
673
723
473
573
673
473... 673
473
573
673
723
lOOO*.*1100

Method A

Method A

7501

7502

Fig.

Ref.

75L

. 1013.3Ns.

(IV,,: atomic
fraction Sn)
1.43 * 10-4
70
1.55. 1O-4
65

E
rl

1
2
3
4
5
6
0.6

0.295
0.240
0.313
0.265
0.666
1.02
-

177
173
173
169
174
175
-

463e.0493

Method C

9.3 * 10-14

973...1101

Method A

6.1 . lo-l4

973 ... 1057


1089

80H

0.9

14.5(P)

9.11

134

1.25 . lo- I4
3.7 * 10-14
4.1 .10-4
1.35.10-14
4.9.10-14
6.5 . IO- l4
1.5. 10-14
5.2. IO-I4
5.5 . lo- I4
2.1 . 10-14
Docu =
2.58. 1O-4
tmQcu = 103
See Fig. 52.
1.10-5

3.10-15

0.693
0.934
1.41
1.92

196
199
204
208

7.1 . 10-14
3.7.10-12
9.1 . 10-13
See Fig. 53.
See Figs.
54a... c.

4.7.10-12
1.2.10-12
See Figs.
54a...c.

1.0.10-13
6.3 +IO-I2
See Figs.
54a...c.

2.6
3.1

4.9

Cu,Sn
(E)
Cu,Sn
6-l)

Ti
ZO
0.5
1.0
1.5

Cu

Zn
P
Y
E

cf.

1.4
1.7

Cu

84
2...28
28
1
5
10
16
20
25
28

5.6. IO-
6.2. IO-
8.3 . lo-
9.5. 10-2
9.0. 10-2
3.1 . 10-2
1.6. 1O-2

167
167
165
158
152
136
124

2.4 . IO- I4
1.0~10-13
1.1 . lo-3
2.9 . lo-l4
1.2.10-13
1.5. 10-13
4.3 . lo- I4
1.8. IO-I3
2.0.10-13
6.5 . IO-I4

Dzn =
3.05. 1O-3
Qsn = 144
-

1014
1089
1014
1089
1014
1089
1101
1014
874. . . 993

Method A

52

8OYl

493

Method C
Non-parabolic growth,
possible grain
boundary diffusion
dominated.

84C

Method A

7713

668

1 =Cu,2=Zn
Method C

53Hl

1163

Method A

53

54B

1053 ... 1188

Method A

54a
. ..c

55H2

973 ... 1283

997... 1188
(continued)

Composition
at.%
CU
u

g (disordered)
Y

S (disordered)
P (ordered)

Zn
10
15
20

DO

Dl

D2

10m4m2s-

kJmol-

m2s-

m2s-

m2s-

170
170
170

D!?"= 0.81

D& = 2.1

Qcu = 178
-

Q& = 178
1.4.10-12
1.5. lo-
6.7 . lo- l2
1.1 * lo-0
4.6 . IO- lo
1.8 . IO- lo
-

648
753.e.983

SeeFig. 58.

(continued)
0.13
0.21
0.36

28

1.7

172

4.4..-48

1.8.e.
1.3. 10-2
2.45. lO-2
2.44.10-2
1.71 * 10-2
2.45. lO-2
l.14.10-2
0.99.10-2
0.62. lO-2
0.19.10-2
0.28. lO-2
-

83 . . .76

98
95
91
91
84
80
74
65
64
-

See Fig. 55a.

1.4.10-13
1.6. IO-l2
7.2 . lo- l3
9.5.10-12
8.1 . IO- *
2.1 . lo-
-

800.. 85(~) 48
6.9. 1O-2

78

See Fig. 55 b.
-

48

1.4. IO3

150

M...
47.5 (p)

SeeFig. 59. SeeFig. 57.

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
65.5
66.5
65.3
65.7
65.7
67.2
68.2
68.2
62*.*66(y)

SeeFig. 58.

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

973...1183

Method E

55R

773.e. 1073

Method A

56L

648 . . .923

Methods A and C

6lM2

698.0. 923
798-e. 923
648
748
698
798
923
848
648

Method A

55
ab

69U

56

71Ul

591 .*a720

Method A
Seefigure for b
dependence at 877 K.

734-e. 924

Method A

57.e. 75F
59

41.5...

See Fig. 59. See Fig. 57.

See Fig. 58.

See Fig. 58.

602...718

523...673

Method A

60

76F

748.e.827

Method C

61,

76s

48.5 (P)
79 ... 86(E)
45 . ..49(P)
55...

66.5 (Y)

6
0.9

See Fig. 60.


See Fig. 61.
See Fig. 62.
2.5. IO-
3.0.10-12
4.6. 10-l
x1.0~10-0
9.7 . lo- l4
1.1 . 10-13
1.2. lo-3
1.2.10-13
1.4.10-13
1.4.10-13
-

4.10-14
9.10-14

2.3
3.2
3.5
4.6
4.7
5
9
15

0.412
0.285
0.614

196
182
184

X0

0.966

201

1.10

200

1.14

198

1.15

196

1.13

194

10

1.02

191

;: : :;I::
; : g:::
-

9.6. IO-l4
1.1 . 10-13
1.2.10-13
1.2.10-1:
1.4.10-13
1.4.10-13
-

0;" =

62

748
768
827
842
1168

1105... 1213

966... 1183

82H

Method A
Data at pressures up to
3 GPa also given in reference.
Method A

84T

Method A
0 = 8.9. IO-l4
* exp(8.9AJz,)m2s-
@L : mole fraction Zn)

87s

11.3.10-5
Qz,, = 203
DoZn =
15.3.10-S
Qz,, = 203

Do
Zn=

19.0.10-5
I c+ I 203
Z
20.2. 1o-5
i Qz,, = 201
DoZn =
22.1 * 1o-5
i Qz,, = 200

D;, =
21.8. 1O-5
Qz,, = 198

(continued)

Composition
at.%
CU

Fe
Y

Y
CL
CL

Zn

DO

D,

D2

10e4 m2s-

kJmol-

m2s-

m2s-r

(continued)

Method/Remarks

m2s-l

Temperature
range
K

D,o,=

966.a. 1183

Method A

12

0.957

188

14

0.920

186

16

0.671

181

12.6. lO-5
i Qzm= 185

18

0.518

176

20

0.346

170

22
24
26
28
30

0.228
0.14
0.0796
0.0366
0.0128

164
157
150
140
128

4 + 0.02
wt. %C
14 + 0.02
wt. %C

0.57

276

0.54

273

xo***o.59
1.9.e. 3.6
In solid
solution
5
10
15
20

6.8 * 10-2
3.467
IO

246
241
250

1423 ..a 1533


1203...1533
1063 a.*1458

5.95
3.04
3.37
2.89

314
303
305
301

1363.v.1523

Mn

Fig.

Ref.

87s

17.3 * 10-s
Qzn = 193

0;" =

14.0~10-~
I Qzn = 189

0;. =

0;. =
10.1.10-S

1323 ..a 1723

1 =Fe,2=Mn
Method A
An empirical eqn. for d
is given in reference.
Further d data at 1.25wt.% C
and also at 1473K are given.
Method B

4lWl

45H

Method C

69P

Method A

70Tl

25
30
35
40
45
50
55
38
41.2
38.0
36.4
5
10
15
20
25
30
24

2.83
2.53
3.12
2.44
2.17
1.96
2.04
7.2.10-
1.75.10-Z
0.3
0.163
7.2. 1O-2
0.12
-

297
295
299
294
291
286
289
-

251
264
270
262
249
251
-

9.07. lo-5
3.36. lo-l5
5.29.10-16
3.48. IO-l6
-

D;, = 0.27
QFe= 269

Fe
CL

MO
0 **. 5.05

;0
95
95...97
2.5 (u)
4.1
5.0
5.7
7.5
8.3
4.4
4.4
4.4
&
R
CF

0.785
3.6
2.29
2.19
18.1
3.6
4.2
4.0
4.8
3.8
4.0
73.2
62.3
2.35 . lo2

226
240
238
236
256
257
260
262
263
268
270
336
346
380

6.03. IO-l5
3.52 +IO- l4
1.68 * 10-13
-

2.42 . IO- l4
8.04. IO-l5
1.55. lo-5
6.22. lo-l6

Do =
?.26. 1O-2
QMn = 241

1.78. lo-l4
9.24.10-14
3.87. lo-l3

1523
1443
1363
1283
1123 ... 1573

Method A

73N

948 ... 1758

l=Fe,2=Mo
Method B

74A

1373 ... 1573

Method A

74H

1073 *.. 1573

Methods A and C
B values extend to
15 at.% at 1300C in
ref. d for y phase
(estimated from growth
rate of E) given in
reference.

77N2

1273 ... 1473

1373
1473
1573
1265e.. 1635
1515.e. 1673
1515 ... 1673

DO

Dl

D2

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-

m*s-

rn*s-l

m*s-

Temperature
range
K

Ni
o*** loo

1423-e. 1583

10

5.3
8.9
15.0
24.5
41.5
58.5
38.5
44.5
49.5
-

See Fig. 65. See Figs. 63,


64.
2.9. lo-*
2.75 . lo- l6
318
317
316
316
316
316
306
308
312
-

973
1073
1273-a. 1561

1.1 .10-5
2.5.10-l
4.6. lo-l5
-

0.25. lo-l5
1.2 * 10-15
6.7. IO-
-

1373

DFe=

Dii =

QNL=

Composition
at.%

Fe
u
Y

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
12
37
76
O***lOO

See Fig. 66.

1409...1629

Fig.

Ref.

53H

Method A

63...
65
-

Method A

66

67B1,
6984

Method/Remarks

1 = Fe, 2 = Ni
Method A

65G

1.6. 1O-4
304

5*.*95

See Fig. 67.

3.6. 1O-4
QFc = 274
-

1373.e. 1578

Method A

67

67B2

O.-e loo

See Fig. 68.

See Fig. 68.

See Fig. 68.

1473

Method A

5.0 * 10-15
7.8. IO-l5
1.2 * 10-14
1.8 . lo- l4
2.6 - lo- l4
3.6 - lo- l4
4.6 + lo- l4
4.8. lo-l4
4.2. lo-l4

1.0. 10-14
1.9. 10-14
2.8 . lo- l4
3.8. IO-l4
4.8. IO-l4
5.6. IO-l4
6.2. lo-l4
5.6. lo- l4
4.4.10-14

3.0 * 10-15
3.6. 10-l
4.2.10-
5.2. 10-l
6.2.10-
8.0.10-
9.6 . IO- l5
1.2 * lo- l4
1.6. IO-l4

1473

Method A

68
-

67L4

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

0.32

70K3

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 ... 100

0.2
0.15
0.26
0.30
0.38
0.41
0.56
0.71
0.63
See Fig. 69.

264
263
262
258
256
254
254
255
254

923 ... 1223

Method A

69

74B3

IO...90
wt. %
7.5 wt.%
7.5 wt.%
12.5 wt.%
12.5 wt.%

See Fig. 70.

1223 ... 1373

Method A

70

84G

2.7. 10-l
4.4.10-19
3.6. 10-l
2.3. IO-

86D

1184
1124
1075
1030

Method B

83N

1.6. IO-
1.2.10-21
4.0.10-22
9.0.10-16
1.5.10-16
1.1 . 10-18
3.3 . 10-20
6.8.10-21
1.1 . 10-21

Method B
(Reference [83N] is closely
related to [86D])
Method B

978
923
883
1126
paramagnetic
1078 >
978
927
ferromagnetic
877
827

17.5 wt.%
22.5 wt.%
27.5 wt.%
0.5 wt.%
0.5 wt.%
1.0 wt.%
1.0 wt.%
1.0 wt.%
1.0 wt.%

978 .-. 1699

Method A

908 ... 1699

86D

5.2 Chemical diffusion in inhomogeneous binary alloys (Tables)

Murch, Bruff

[Ref. p. 366

Iandolt-Btimsrcin
New Series III./26

Fe
Y

Si
O...lwt.%

3 wt.%
5 wt.%
8.5 wt.%
4
5
8
18

17
17
35

249
247
249

4.10-0
1.7.10-g
2.67 .
;;I::
7.87 .
2.66 . 10-12
-

1.8

209

7 ... 21

See Fig. 71. -

18
u

CL

Fe

0 . . .4.7
+ 1.8%
V to stabilize u
phase
8.35
8.69
9.04
9.38
9.73
10.07
10.41
SIR
xl wt.%
3 wt. % . . .
solubility limit
- e.g.
17 wt.%
at 1123K

_
-

0;. =

Dzi = 2.2

5.6. 1O-4
QFe = 226
-

Qsi = 209
-

0;. =

D,91
=
2.2. 10-4
Qsi = 209
-

I
-

l=Fe,2=Si
Method B

52B

Method C

53F

1073 ... 1673

Method A

67V

1423 ... 1473

Method C

67M

1403 ... 1493

Method A

71

680

1173...1673

Method A

70B

1479
1566
1423

0.735.(1 +
12.4X,,)
(Xsi: atom
fraction Si)

219

5.6. 1O-4
QFe = 226
-

1403 ... 1493

1.82
1.87
1.77
1.62
1.52
1.55
1.66

215
214
213
212
211
211
211

1173 ... 1373

Method A

72M

12.9. 10
3.16. IO6
1.59. 106

345
356
356

1003...1173
1003~~-1113
1113...1173

Method A

73T

(continued)

Composition
at.%

Fe

CL
Y
c?

Fe
ci
Y

Y
CL

Dl

D2

10-4m2s-1

kJmol-*

m2s-
.

m2s-

Sn (continued)
0...80
wt. % Sn
FeSn,
81...100
wt. % Sn
0...9
-

0.3 ..+ 1.6


wt. %

Y
Fe

DO

-Ill
Th,Fe,
Ti
0.7 * ** 3.0
o.e.o.7
2
85
90
95
0 *. .0.4
wt. %

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

m2s-

Temperature
range
K

3.0 * lo-l9

473

Method A

75L

1.0 * 10-16
9.3 * 10-16
1.2 * 10-16
2.1 * 10-16
1.9 * 10-14
9.1 * 10-14
2.4. 10-l
2.0 * 10-l

573
673
723
473
573
673
723
473

Method A

81Y

Method E

72
-

Method B

86Sl

0.931
5.04.10-5
0.8

221
136
160

4.4*10-7
6.2 . lo- l6
3.6 . lo- *
See Fig. 72.
-

2.32

185

1235-e. 1473

1.34.102

207

823 ... 1073

Method C

7834

3.15
0.15
68
3.6
0.77
0.6
8.5. IO

247
250
260
213
192
188
377

1348-a. 1498

Method A

59M2

973.e.1573
973-e. 1323
973-e-1573
1173.e. 1573
1423 a.. 1573

Method A

68H3

Method B

6882

2.89 . IO2

274

1123...1323

Method C

79
-

573
673
723
473e.o 723
1073*** 1373

1183... 1680
1273-e. 1580
1033... 1235

81A

76T

222
252
217

4.41 .10-Z
2.08
3.23

Fe
O**.solubility
limit

U
y

1.3

133

1063 ... 1273

Method C

60M

Fe
u

V
0.7
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
In solid
solution

0.61
3.9
1.1
0.7
0.71
0.63
0.59
3.4

266
237
223
219
220
220
221
221

1223 ... 1523

Method A
Atmospheric pressure
data only.
Reference contains data
up to 40 k bar pressure
for the y phase.

65Hl

973 ... 1273

Method C

7886

11.52

592

2473 ... 3073

Method F

45v

1.6
0.13

244
268

948 ... 1758

Method B

74A

5.2. IO-l6
6.1 . IO- l6
1.14.10-5
1.44.10-15
6.78. IO-
6.0 . IO- l6
7.9 . lo- l6
1.41 .10-5
1.75.10-15
8.39. IO-
-

1273
1289
1322
1333
1425
1273... 1425
1273
1289
1322
1333
1425
1273 ... 1425

Method A

Fe,Ti
FeTi

Fe
0...0.026
wt. %
ct
Y

Fe
Y

Zll

0...2.9

1
2

257
-

260

73B3

(continued)
L

Composition
at.%
Fe
CL

6.8.e.9.9
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
II.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
21.5...22.5
31 ... 32
Ga
3.o.s.7.9

0.48 . . 2.6
0.73 - *.
1.97wt. %

Zn

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

1223
1282
1333
1368
1424
1223.m.1425
513...593
513***595
741 .a. 798

Method A

623 .+. 790

DO

Dl

D2

IOm4rn*s-l

kJmol-t

m*s-

m*s-*

m*s-

226
75
75
64
72
80
79
80
78
74
75
75
78
80
92

5.7 . IO- l4
1.4. 10-13
3.82 . IO-
5.81 . lo-*
1.37 * lo-*
-

156
55
138

(continued)
4.25 . IO-
3.99 * 10-3
2.97 * 10-3
7.88. 1O-3
1.39. lo-*
5.53.10-3
2.82. IO-
1.02. 1O-3
5.81 . 1O-4
6.98. 1O-4
1.26. 1O-3
8.21 . 1O-3
2.04. 1O-4
1.05.10-J
I.3
5.3 * 10-4
9.8. lo-*

833.e.913
673 ..a 807

Fig.

Ref.

73B3

Method C
Method C
Method A

7303
7301
77WI

Method B
Method A
Method A

68E
7lH2
67R

Ref. p. 3661

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

8
29
r.k
8
VI

5.2 Chemical diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys (Tables)

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

G8:
l I lItihlc.4

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

IIIIIIIIIl

Murch, Bruff

319

Composition
at.%
In

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

m2s-*

Temperature
range
K

388.e.446

Method A

76

76Cl

388.e.446

DO

D,

D2

low4 m*s-

kJmol-

m2s-*

m2s-

2.9. 1O-3

57

Pb
Dp. =

41
x20*.*50

1.1.10-6

t Q,. = 61
SeeFig. 76.
-

2.2. 10-2

102

813.e.871

Method C

66L

La
In solid
solution

Mg

La
In solid
solution
O*..solubility
limit

U
y

117

233

1123.a.1363

Method C

59A

118

233

1123...1363

Method C

64T

Li
34*** 50

Mg

SeeFig. 77.

768...800

Method D

77

84L

Li
Li,Sb

Sb
-

x 19 **a29 SeeFig. 78.

633...900

Method D

78

77W2

Li
X0

Si
2.5. 10-s

63.2

1073 ... 1623

Method F

6OP2

Li
!ZO

W
5.0

174

1365 a.. 1500

Method B
Li concentration not
given but probably small.

63L

Mg
O...l

Ni
0.44

234

1323s.. 1573

Method B

57s

Mg

PU
0.01

0.562
1.124
1.686

Mg
Mn
0 ... 4

U
0.025

2.45. IO-
1.05.10-2
3.6. 1O-4

119
118
94

6.1 . 10-l
2.5. lo-l4
1.3~10-13
-

1.2.10-1s
3.3 . 10-15

7.5

281

693
748
807
693...807

Method A

63C, 65C

673
773

Method A

63C

1376... 1570

l=Mn,2=Ni
Method B

56s

1073 ... 1323


1173
1223
1273
1323

Method A

79

79Yl

Method A

60G

65H2

Ni

See Fig. 79. -

4.62 . IO- l5
10.4.10-5
32.4.10-l
66.3. IO-

1.4 . 10-15
4.83. lo-l5
12.2 * 10-15
27.5. IO-

1 .10-3

147

1103...1463

1 . IO3
1 . IO3
1 .I03

553
573
578

2073 ... 2436

X0

DoMO=
9.2. 10-z
QMo= 549

19.9

5...25
19.7

Mn
8

Ti
P

MO
WO
50
~100

Nb

16.2

~100

DoMO=
1.4. 10-l
1 QMo= 571
DoMa=
1.1 . 10-l
i QMo= 563
D;, =
4.0 . 10-4
QM,,= 481

l=Mo,2=Nb
Method A
Values of Do and Q
taken from smoothed
curves given in reference.

Dib = 1.3
QNb = 586
DR = 1.9 . 10-l
QNb = 548
D&, = 1.0 . 10-l
QN,, = 582

(continued)

Composition
at.%
MO
20
40
60
80
20 . . .80
10

Nb

DO

D,

low4 rns-

kJmol-

m2sTt

m2s-

m2s-

429
413
411
345
399
-

8.75. IO-r6

1.67. lo-l6
SeeFig. 80.
SeeFig. 81.
SeeFig. 82.

(continued)
13.5
3.8
2.1
5.2 * 10-2
1.5
-

90
IO...80
x10***90

See remarks

x10..*90

MO
0 . . .0.93
0-m.13.5
wt. %
5
15

Ni

MO
OS
lo... 100 vol. %
MO

Pd
61
66
71
75
80
85

3.0
0.853

288
270

1.56
0.97

283
278

SeeFig. 83.

5.5 * 10-s
4.0 - 10-s
5.0 * 10-s
2.4. 1O-4
1.6. 1O-3
1.6. 1O-2

188
165
178
201
219
253

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1673-a-2648

Method A

66W

1573

Average of data given.


Method A

67P1,
67P2

1253
1373-e. 1773
1473...2173

Method A
Method A
Method A
Curved Arrhenius plots,
see reference.

80
81
82

69s
7ov
73B4

1423 ... 1673


1373...1573

Method B
Method B

1273 ... 1568

Method A

57s
63D1,
63D2
74H

2147...2450

Method A

83

73E

1273 ... 1873

1 =Mo,2=Pd
Method A

722

90
95

0.9
0.14

293
283

85
MO

MO
MO

MO
O...lO
solid
solution
range
0
10
20
30
40

DL = 1.5. 1O-6 Dgd = 1.2 . 1O-7


QMo= 260
QPd = 193

Pt
u
P
E
rl
Y

8.0. lo-l6
1.63. IO-
3.59.10-15
6.27. IO-l5
1.05.10-4

1773

Method C

77M

Re
0 ... 100

See Fig. 84.

1773

Method A

84

77M

Ta
Ta rich
MO rich

4.68. IO-
4.16. IO-

251
234

2173...2573

Method A

701

Ti
p
CL

1.23. 1O-4
3.42. IO-*

139
119

1173 ... 1973


873 ..+ 1073

l=Mo,2=Ti
Method B

62E

w2.10-2
x2.10-2
z2.10-2
w9.10-2
z 10-2

197
209
218
264
255

1483 ... 1873

Method A
Further data for Do
and Q are given in
reference but the scatter
is large.

65H2

1173
1773
1623
1373 ... 1673

Method A

85
86
87
-

69F

tzlO0

11.1

X0

20...50
30...50
30...50

1.64. 1O-4

0 ... x 40

D;,=40
QMo= 481

Dii =6.3. 1O-3


QTi = 211

Die = 1.0. 1O-2 D$ = 1.8 . 1O-3


QMo= 204
QTi = 161

205

See Fig. 85.


See Fig. 86.
See Fig. 87.
-

D;, = 2.5.10-2
QMo= 197
- -

Method B

73s

Composition
at.%
MO
2
4
6

U
Y

8
IO
I2
I6
20
24
26
MO

DO

10m4m2s-

kJmol-

2.2
0.58
20
I6
28
3.2
9.6. IO-2
3-10-3
4.5.10-4
2.1 . Io-4

IO wt.%
20 wt.%
30 wt.%
40 wt.%
50 wt.%
60 wt.%
70 wt.%
80 wt.%
90 wt.%
IO wt.%
20 wt.%
30 wt.%
40 wt.%
50 wt.%
60 wt.%
70 wt.%
80 wt.%
90 wt.%

4.48
2.41
0.64
0.48
0.30
0.17
0.14
8.0. IO-2
5.0.10-2
0.52
0.24
5.6. IO-2
1.1 * 10-3
3.8 . 1O-3
7.5 * 10-3
4.0 * to-3
1.7 * 10-4
4.6. IO-4

3.4. lo-l3
1.4.10-'2
1.6. IO-l2
3.4.10-12
-

1123...1323

Method A

2273...2773

Method A

71N

1973.e.2673

Method A
Polycrystalline data given
here.
Single crystal data also given
in reference.

76KI

m2s-

m2s-

m2s-

199
192
222
230
238
219
191
165
162
142

5.2. lo-l4
2.1 . 10-13

491
481
459
458
451
441
438
430
422
448
425
405
394
382
372
386
355
344

Ref.

Method/Remarks

02

Fig.

Temperature
range
K

D,

58Al

1123
1223
1123...1323
1273
1123...1323
1323
1123...1323

MO

Zr
O...lO

Mo,Zr
Nb

449
233

3.3. 10-8
3.0. 10-5

71
163

Pd

Nb

2.2. 10-z

Ta
10
90
x10...90
10
20
25
35
40
45
55
60
65
70
75
90

!O wt. %

65H2

1173...1303

Method C

75Ml

See Fig. 88.


See Fig. 88.
See Fig. 88.

88

71U2

1473
1473
1473

Method A

232

1573 ... 1623

Method C

71Rl

1.58. IO-l7
2.76 .+,-Is

1573

Method A

67P1,
67P2

See Fig. 89.


-

1573...2073

Method A

2273 ... 2653

Method A

89
-

7ov

1673
1773
1873
1973
2073
2173
1673...2173

Method A
Values of d and Q extrapolated to 0 and
100 wt.% Nb are given
in reference.

74W2

Sn

Nb,Sn

Xb

1923...2108
1098... 1718

Method B and C

;d,Nb
P

1.1 . 10-z
1.34.1o-2
1.0. 10-z
9.3. 10-3
1.0. 10-2
1.56. lo-
1.26. 1O-2
2.0. 10-z
3.16. IO-
4.4. 10-z
5.6. lo-
1.24. IO-

Ni

NbNi,
NbNi
Nb

1.6
1 .10-3

343
352
343
347
352
360
364
373
385
394
398
414
293

6.0. lo-l6
1.77.10-15
1.6 . IO-l4
4.3.10-14
7.7.10-14
1.8. IO-l3
-

74s

(continued)

Composition
at.%
Nb
40 wt.%

60 wt.%

80 wt. %

Nb

DO

Dl

D2

10T4 m2sm1

kJmol-

m2sS1

m2s-

7.6. lo-l6
2.3.10-"
2.3. IO-l4
6.1 . IO-l4
1.12 * lo-3
2.8. IO-l3
9.4*10-'6
3.1 . 10-15
3.1 . 10-14
8.7. lo-l4
1.63 . IO- l3
4.2. IO-l3

313

1
-

322

l.18~IO-15
4.1*10-'5
4.4.10-14
I.25 -10-13
2.4. IO-l3
6.2.10-13
-

Ta (continued)
-

308

1
-

Method/Remarks

m2s-

Temperature
range
K

1673
1773
1873
1973
2073
2173
1673...2173
1673
1773
1873
1973
2073
2173
1673...2173
1673
1773
1873
1973
2073
2173
1673...2173

Method A

Ti

Ref.

74W2

74W2

1 =Nb,2=Ti

D;, =
X0

2.5 -10-j

293

20
40
60
80

2.5.10-3
3.2. lo-
3.8. lo-
3.8. 1O-3

263
239
209
184

Xl00

Fig.

3.8. lo-

167

3.8. IO-
QNb = 164
-

Dsf = 5.0. IO-'


Qr,= 259

1273.a.1863

Method A
Values here taken from
smoothed plots given
in reference.

65H2

DoNb =

81.1
-

3.48 . 10-15
3.9.10-14

See Fig.
See Fig.
See Fig.
See Fig.

~0~~~100

See Fig. 92.

IO...90

See Fig. 93. -

10
90

lo...60
IO..*70
40..*90
x10...90

Nb

U(Y)
2
12
18
22
28
38
46
54
62
68
74
78
82
93

2.8 . IO
2.3 . IO
9.6. lo6
9.1 . 10-z
0.113
0.149
6.4. lo-
0.45
0.84
1.94
0.82
1.16
1.19 * 10-4
1.63. 1O-4

623
604
586
308
305
305
285
293
287
292
253
252
140
126

97

2.31 . 1O-4

125

85.
90.
87.
91.

2.2. 10-7
QN,, = 177
-

-!

Dii = 1.7. IO-

( QTi = 164

D;, =
7.1 . 10-7
Qm= 39

0; =
3.82. lo-
Qu = 30

1573

Method A

1173
1273
1623
1373 ... 1573

Method A

Method A

85
90
87
91

1273 ... 1473

Method B

92

71P

1273 ... 1673

Method A

93

75u

63P

1773 ... 1923

1673 ... 1873


1573 ...
1423 ...
1423 ...
1348 ...

1773
1673
1663
1573

1223 ... 1448


1165s.. 1398
966... 1298

l=Nb,2=U
Method A
Further data are available in the reference.

67P1,
67P2
69F

7ov

Composition
at.%
Nh

DO

D,

D2

10v4 ms-

kJmol-

m2s-

m2sS1

m2s-

--

X0

1.6. IO-*

410

20
40
60

1.95 * 10-2
2.3. 1O-2
2.8. IO-

343
293
268

80

3.3 * 10-2

264

85

DE, =

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1 =Nb,2=V

D;=
2.9. 1O-4
( Qv = 405
-

1678.a.2023

Method A
Values have been taken
from smoothed plots
given in references.

65R,
65H2

67P1,
67P2

D;=
I

4.9 * 10-6
QNb = 278

4.2 - IO+
QV = 253

D;=
2.6. 10-j
QV = 247

DE, =
100

1573

Method A

10
90

1.4.10-15
2.3. IO-l4

xlO***90

See Fig. 94.

1573 a** 1773

Method A

94

7ov

See Fig. 95.

1473

Method A

95

7lU2

1.39 * 10-1s

1573

Method A

3.74 . lo- l9

See Fig. 96.


-

1573e.02073

Method A

2273 ... 2673

Method A

o*.-90
Nb

8.6. 10-6
QNb = 275
-

W
10

90
xlo*~*90

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

81.45
22.2
1.97
1.4. 10-2
7.4. 10-J
3.0. to-3
1.8. IO-
1.0 * 10-3
6.0. lO-4

440
419
376
280
272
255
247
236
228

wt.%
wt.%
wt.%
wt.%
wt.%
wt.%
wt.%
wt.%
wt.%

---

67P1,
67P2
96
-

7ov
71N

Nb
X0

197

4.0. 10-z

209

23

40
60
80

0.1
0.3
2.0

255
301
347

10.0
10
90
~10~~~90
x5...85

Ni

20

30

40

50

1.74.10-15
2.5. lo-l4

10

See Fig. 97.


0.68 .10-15
1.30.10-5
1.79.10-15
1.86.10-14
1.03~10-15
2.01 . 10-15
3.37.10-15
3.0. 10-14
1.52. IO-l5
3.54.10-15
7.39.10-15
7.04 . lo- l4
1.72. IO-l5
5.37.10-15
1.17.10-14
9.82. lo--l4
1.97.10-15
6.61 * 10-15
1.61 . IO-l4
1.58. IO-l3

1718.+.1963

Method A

1573

Method A

1373 ... 1573

Method A

97

7ov

1173...1973

Method A

98

73R

1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423

Method A

66B

65H2

D;, =
3.8 1O-7
Qzr = 185
-

389

See Fig. 98 b. See Fig. 98a.

Pd

l=Nb,2=Zr

DO
Nb =
1.1 . 10-6
QNb = 191

D;, =
2.2. 10-4
Qzr = 415
-

67P1,
67P2

(continued)

Composition
at.%
Ni

Pd

60

70

80

90

O...lOO
Ni
o-.- 14.9

Ni

Dl

D2

low4 m*s-*

kJmol-

m2s-

m2s-

1.40 * 10-15
5.42 . IO- I5
1.56 1IO-l4
1.31 * 10-13
0.84. IO-l5
3.06 . IO- l5
1.13.10-5
1.04.10-3
0.56 . IO- l5
1.90.10-s
5.58 . IO-
5.87 . IO- l4
o.s.lo-s
1.25.10-1s
2.30. IO- l5
3.50. lo-l4
SeeFig. 99.

68
-

180
-

SeeFig. 100.

1.5

258

4.5.10-14
4.8. IO-l4
5.0. lo-4
5.5 * lo-4
5.8. IO-l4
6.0. lo-l4
6.5 3IO- l4
7.0.10-4

(continued)
-

Pt

0.e. loo
Ni

DO

Si
o*** < 1
Sll
0

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Method/Remarks

m2sv1

Temperature
range
K

1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423
1132
1223
1292
1423
1385

Method A

Method A

1316... 1674
1223 ... 1573

1393 .-. 1573


1373

Fig.

Ref.

66B

99

69B4

Method A
Method A

100

44K
67B2

Method B

57s

8211

1 =Ni,2=Sn
Method A
Data determined from
figure in reference.
Some intrinsic data also
given at 1373 K.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0.8
1.5
2.2
4.5

259
257
255
251
253
251
250
-

1.9.10-14
2.2.10-14
1.8 . lo- l4
3.0 . IO- l4

2.6 . lo- 3
2.1
0.1
1.7. 10-5
0.9 . 10-z

231
307
250
134
334

2.5
2.3
2.3
1.9
2.5
2.4
2.3

Method A

841

1423 ... 1573

Method C

77P

823 ... 1073

Method C

7884

1377... 1555

Method B

56s

773 **. 1173

Method C
Phase growth data for TiN,
and Ti,Ni given in reference.
Method C

68H4

1223 ... 1423

;4.10-14
3.7. 10-14
4.2 . lo-l4
6.0. IO-l4

1373

1223 ... 1473

Ni
Ta,Ni
TaNi
TaNi,
TaNi,
TaNi,

Ta

Ni

Th
ThNi

1.6. IO-

74

Ti
0 . . .0.9

0.68

61

5.48. IO-

103

141
142
137
138

193

1123 ... 1273

Method C

180
222
130

803 ... 1003


803 ... 1003
803 ... 1003

Method C
Do is multiplied by 6,,
where 6, is the range of
solubility in the phase.

Ni

TiNi

6
50
51
52

P
TiNi

Ni
0 . . . solubility
limit

UY
U,Ni
U,Ni,
mi5

2.5 . lo2

s:e
marks

8.5 . IO2
7.4.10-3

1073 ... 1213


923 ... 1213

74B4

Composition
at.%
Ni

V
0.~. 14.8
wt. %
5*..95
25
33
60
65
In solid
solution

Ni

w
0.v. 1.5
O.-e14.6
wt. %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

m2s-

Temperature
range
K

1273...1573

Method B

1083 ... 1448


1343 ... 1448
1083 ... 1293
1223... 1448
1083...1163
1253 ..- 1448
1083 ... 1223
1253 ... 1448
1083 ... 1223
773 ... 1273

Method A
Method A

101

63D1,
63D2
78Kl
78K2

Method C
Limited data on d for
other VfNi phases given
in reference.

7836

1426-v. 1562
1273 ... 1573

Method B
Method B

1273-e. 1589

Method A

56s
63D1,
63D2
69Wl

DO

D,

D2

10v4 m2s-r

kJmol-

m2s-

m2s-

0.287

248

36
4.2. 1O-6
1.2 * 10-3
2.0 - 10-s
0.2
7.0 * 10-4
6.8 * 10-2
6.0. 1O-4
1.6. 1O-4

301
87
165
117
234
167
227
172
132

SeeFig. 101.
-

11.1
0.862

322
295

2.24
2.16
2.11
2.07
2.04
2.01
1.98
1.95
1.94
1.92
1.90
1.89

303
303
304
304
304
305
305
306
306
306
307
307

Ni

Zll
Is...95

1.05. IO3

180
.exp(-14.24X,,)
(XNi: mole fraction)
15
255
20
255
6
75
u
79
:6-.90(y) 243
P
55 . ..6O(B) 6
7.1 . 10-z
85
1.2. 10-l
91
Y,,,
3.0. 10-z
97
Y
l.e.40
Pb

Sn

1.82.10-
2.63. 10-l
1.35.10-14
2.29.10-14
1.0. 10-13
3.31 . 10-15
4.68. IO-l5
2.45 . lo- I4
4.16. lo-l4
1.86. IO-l3

I
SeeFig. 102a. SeeFig. 102b. SeeFig. 102~. SeeFig. 103.

1
-

In solid
solution (PI
u solid
7.0
solution

99
101

3.12. lo-l5
6.9. IO-l5
1.96. IO-l4

O...lO

SeeFig. 104.

882... 1281

Method A

69A

1169
1203
1266
1293
1373
1169... 1373
1169
1203
1266
1293
1373
1169...1373
700..*758
1203
790... 1073
883
1173...1273
1203
483...873

Method A

74B5

Method A and C
Do values not given.

77B3
102a

Method C

102c
7882

1073 -.. 1323

Method A

103

518...558
518
538
558
443...454

Method B
Do not reported.

32s

Method A
B increases with concentration. Equation for
Do(C) given in reference.
Method A
104

60C

523

102b

79Y2

87M2

DO

D,

D2

10s4 ms-

kJmol-

m2s-

m2sW1

m2s-

87
-

2.7. IO-
1.5. to-14
3.13.10-4

1.26 alo-
1.6.10-*
3.6. lO-4
1.6. 1O-6
6.4. 1O-4

132
45
129
84
145

Temperature
range
K

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

493.a.558
493

Method B
Do not reported.

32s

973 ... 1273


973...1173

Method A
Several intrinsic diffusion
coefficients given in
reference.

73L

SeeFig. 105.

1473

Method A

105

7lU2

SeeFig. 106.

1773

Method A

106

77M

9.4. 10-4
2.3. 1O-3

124
128

1173.0.1373

Method B

71L

Pu
U
0.35 wt.%

0.17.10-7

57

683.e.813

Method A

1.75wt.%
3.50wt.%
5.25wt.%
7.0 wt.%
8.75wt.%
10.50wt.%
12.25wt.%
14.0wt.%
15.75wt.%
17.15wt.%

0.14. IO-
0.15.10-7
0.18. IO-
0.28 . IO-
0.44.10-7
0.88.10-7
1.18. IO-
2.0. IO-
2.57. IO-
1.83. lo-

56
57
59
64
68
75
79
84
86
84

65D,
65C,
67D

Composition
at.%
Pb

TI

In solid
solution
(Iv
Pd

Ti
B
Y
6
E
rl

Pd
2..-98

Pt

Re
0-a. loo

Pll

2
15

Ti
B

538
558

Ref. p. 3661

I I I I I

Murch, Bruff

5.2 Chemical diffusion in homogeneous binary alloys (Tables)

I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I

Land&-Biimstein
New Series III/26

335

Composition
at.%
Rh
3
6o

Method/Remarks

Fig.

Ref.

1573+..2073

Method A

64R

1123...1323

Method C

60M

1073 *** 1313

Method C

64T

64
125
-

9.18 . IO- *

2.65 - 10-l

1277... 1523
1363-v. 1523
1523

1 =Sm,2=Ti
Method A
Between 1.0 and
8.0 at.% Sn,
d increases linearly.

60G

3.0. 10-4

92

873...1123

Method B

53R

6.9. 1O-4

153

1373 ... 1573

2.38

197

1073 ... 1273

Method C

59A,
64T

8.62. IO-

202

SeeFig. 85.
SeeFig. 90.
-

1173
1273
1373 ... 1673

Method A

85
90
-

69F

I3

Dl

10s4 ms-

kJmol-

ms-

m2s-

m*s-l

1.3. 10-6
1.5 * to-6
2.5.
3.1 . 10-6

243
175
182
174

20

188

4.08 . IO

229

8.4. IO-
2.7. 1O-4
-

CL

Zi( 1) E
Si
Gzo...

Temperature
range
K

DO

U
y

solubility limit
Sm
U
0 .. .
Y
solubility limit
Sn

1.0
8.0
2.0

Ti
B

Zr
Sn
In solid
CL
solution
0...3.9
p

Sr
U
y
zo*..
solubility limit
Ta
IO*** 35
IO.-* 55

Ti
0 ... z30

Method B

73s

Ta

W
10 wt.%
20 wt. %
30 wt. %
40 wt. %
50 wt. %
60 wt. %
70 wt. %
80 wt. %
90 wt. %

10
20...80
90
30
Ti
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
95
16.5
18.0

U
Y

Ti

V
2.0
3.5
Solid solution range
o... 10

7.0. 10-4
1.0. 10-4
1.22.10-5
6.08.10-6
3.34.10-6
1.66.10-6
1.5. 10-6
1.23. lO-j
2.2. 10-7
1.0
1.0
1.0

309
302
262
254
245
231
232
229
198
544
553
502

1.1 . 10-Z
1.4. 10-3
1.6. 1O-3
4.0. 10-3
9.5. 10-3
2.6. 1O-3
2.6. 1O-3
2.2. 10-3
1.1 . 10-3
4.6. 1O-4
-

153
138
146
161
176
165
165
157
142
126
-

6.0. 1O-3
-

166

1.25. IO-

173

2273 . . .2673

1 = Ta, 2 = W
Method A

71N

1573...2373

Method A

85R

6OAl

D;a =
1.8. 1O-4
QTa = 554

D;=
1.7. 10-S
Q, = 511
1223 ... 1348

5.8. IO-l3
1.2.10-13
2.9. IO-l3
4.1 . 10-13

2.2.10-12
4.7. lo-3
9.