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Design of fastenings

for use in concrete

Part 4-3: Anchor channels

DD CEN/TS

1992-4-3:2009

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

National foreword

This Draft for Development is the UK implementation of CEN/TS

1992-4-3:2009.

This publication is not to be regarded as a British Standard.

It is being issued in the Draft for Development series of publications and

is of a provisional nature. It should be applied on this provisional basis,

so that information and experience of its practical application can be

obtained.

Comments arising from the use of this Draft for Development are

requested so that UK experience can be reported to the international

organization responsible for its conversion to an international standard.

A review of this publication will be initiated not later than 3 years after

its publication by the international organization so that a decision can be

taken on its status. Notification of the start of the review period will be

made in an announcement in the appropriate issue of Update Standards.

According to the replies received by the end of the review period,

the responsible BSI Committee will decide whether to support the

conversion into an international Standard, to extend the life of the

Technical Specification or to withdraw it. Comments should be sent to

the Secretary of the responsible BSI Technical Committee at British

Standards House, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL.

The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted to Technical

Committee B/525/2, Structural use of concrete.

A list of organizations represented on this committee can be obtained on

request to its secretary.

This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions

of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application.

Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunity

from legal obligations.

was published under the

authority of the Standards

Policy and Strategy

Committee on 30 June

2009.

BSI 2009

Date

Comments

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

CEN/TS 1992-4-3

SPCIFICATION TECHNIQUE

TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION

May 2009

English Version

channels

Conception-calcul des lments de fixation pour bton Partie 4-3 : Rails d'ancrage

Ankerschienen

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 20 October 2008 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

2009 CEN

worldwide for CEN national Members.

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Contents

Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

1

1.1

1.4

1.4.3

Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4

General ....................................................................................................................................................4

Anchor channel loading ........................................................................................................................4

Actions not covered ..............................................................................................................................4

2

3

4

5

5.2

5.2.1

5.2.2

5.2.3

5.3

5.3.3

5.3.4

Derivation of forces acting on anchor channels ................................................................................5

General ....................................................................................................................................................5

Tension loads .........................................................................................................................................6

Shear loads .............................................................................................................................................7

Tension forces in a supplementary reinforcement ............................................................................8

Tension loads .........................................................................................................................................8

Shear loads .............................................................................................................................................8

6

6.1

6.2

6.2.1

6.2.2

6.2.3

6.2.4

6.2.5

6.2.6

6.2.7

6.2.8

6.2.9

6.3

6.3.1

6.3.2

6.3.3

6.3.4

6.3.5

6.3.6

6.3.7

6.4

6.4.1

6.4.2

General ....................................................................................................................................................9

Tension loads .........................................................................................................................................9

Required verifications ...........................................................................................................................9

Design of supplementary reinforcement .............................................................................................9

Steel failure .......................................................................................................................................... 11

Pullout failure ...................................................................................................................................... 11

Concrete cone failure ......................................................................................................................... 12

Splitting failure .................................................................................................................................... 16

Blow-out failure ................................................................................................................................... 17

Steel failure of the supplementary reinforcement ........................................................................... 18

Anchorage failure of the supplementary reinforcement in the concrete cone ............................ 19

Shear loads .......................................................................................................................................... 19

Required verifications ........................................................................................................................ 19

Design of reinforcement .................................................................................................................... 19

Steel failure .......................................................................................................................................... 21

Concrete pry-out failure ..................................................................................................................... 22

Concrete edge failure ......................................................................................................................... 22

Steel failure of supplementary reinforcement ................................................................................. 26

Anchorage failure of supplementary reinforcement in the concrete cone ................................... 26

Combined tension and shear loads .................................................................................................. 27

Anchor channels without supplementary reinforcement ............................................................... 27

Anchor channels with supplementary reinforcement..................................................................... 27

7

8

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Foreword

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/TC 250 Structural Eurocodes, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This Technical Specification CEN/TS 1992-4- 3 Anchor Channels, describes the principles and

requirements for safety, serviceability and durability of anchor channels for use in concrete, together with

specific provisions for structures serving as base material. It is based on the limit state concept used in

conjunction with a partial factor method.

This Technical Specification does not provide information about the use of National Determined Parameters

(NDP).

CEN/TS 1992-4 'Design of fastenings for use in concrete' is subdivided into the following parts:

Part 1:

General

Part 2:

Headed fasteners

Part 3:

Anchor channels

Part 4:

Part 5:

The principles and requirements of Part 3 of this CEN/TS are additional to those in CEN/TS 1992-4-1, all the

clauses and sub-clauses of which also apply to Part 3 unless varied in this Part. Additional information is

presented under the relevant clauses/sub-clauses of CEN/TS 1992-4-1. The numbers for the clauses/subclauses of Part 3 continue from the number of the last relevant clauses/sub-clauses of Part 1.

The above principles also apply to Figures and Tables in Part 3.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Scope

1.1 General

1.1.6 This document relies on characteristic resistances and distances which are stated in a European

Technical Specification. In minimum the following characteristics should be given in a European Technical

Specification as base for the design methods of this CEN/TS.

0

N Rk,s,a , N Rk,s,c , N Rk,s,l , N Rk,s,s , VRk,s,s , VRk,s,l , M Rk,s,flex , M Rk,

s

NRk,p

ch, p

ccr,N, scr,N

ccr,sp, scr,sp

k5

1.4

1.4.3

fatigue loading;

seismic loading.

Normative references

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications.

These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed

hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to

this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the

latest edition of the publication referred to applies.

NOTE

The following references to Eurocodes are references to European Standards and European Prestandards.

These are the only European documents available at the time of publication of this TS. National documents take

precedence until Eurocodes are published as European Standards.

EN 1992-1-1, Design of concrete structures Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

CEN/TS 1992-4-1:2009, Design of fastenings for use in concrete Part 4-1: General

Basis of design

4.5.4 The following assumptions in respect to installation have been made in this CEN/TS. The installation

instructions should reflect them:

1)

The anchor channel should be fixed to the formwork or auxiliary constructions in a way that no movement

of the anchor channel will occur during placing of reinforcement or during pouring and compacting of the

concrete.

2)

Requirements for adequate compaction particularly under the head of the anchor and under the channel.

3)

Requirements for inspection and approval of the correct installation of the anchor channels by

appropriately qualified personnel.

4)

Placing anchor channels by only pushing them into the wet concrete is not allowed.

5)

It is accepted to vibrate the anchor channels into the wet concrete immediately after pouring under the

following conditions:

The size and number of fastenings is limited to anchor channels with a length of <1 m if placed by

1 person, so that it can be placed simultaneously during vibrating by the available personnel. Longer

channels should be placed by at least 2 persons.

The installation is carried out according to a quality system.

The anchor channels are not moved after vibrating has been finished.

The concrete in the region of the anchor and the anchor channel is properly compacted.

5.2

5.2.1

General

5.2.1.6

The distribution of tension loads acting on the channel to the anchors may be calculated using a

beam on elastic support (anchors) with a partial restraint of the channel ends as statical system. The resulting

anchor forces depend significantly on the assumed anchor stiffness and degree of restraint. For shear loads

the load distribution is also influenced by the pressure distribution in the contact zone between channel and

concrete.

5.2.1.7

As a simplification for anchor channels with two anchors the loads on the anchors may be

calculated assuming a simply supported beam with a span length equal to the anchor spacing.

5.2.1.8

For anchor channels with more than two anchors as an alternative in the following the triangular

load distribution method to calculate the distribution of tension and shear loads to the anchors is introduced.

5.2.1.9

In the case of shear loads, this CEN/TS covers only shear loads acting on the channel

perpendicular to its longitudinal axis.

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

5.2.2

Tension loads

5.2.2.1

5.2.2.2

The tension forces in each anchor due to a tension load acting on the channel are calculated

according to Equation (1), which assumes a linear load distribution over the influence length li and takes into

account the condition of equilibrium. The influence length li shall be calculated according to Equation (3). An

example for the calculation of the forces acting on the anchors is given in Figure 1.

a

N Ed,

= k A i' NEd

i

(1)

with

Ai' ordinate at the position of the anchor i of a triangle with the unit height at the position of load N and

the base length 2li

k =

(2)

A'i

1

l i = 13 I y0,05 s 0,5 s

(3)

[mm]

n number of anchors on the channel within the influence length Ii to either side of the applied load NEd

(see Figure 1)

4

Iy

The moment of inertia of the channel should be taken from the relevant European Technical Specification.

If several tension loads are acting on the channel a linear superimposition of the anchor forces for all loads

should be assumed.

If the exact position of the load on the channel is not known, the most unfavourable loading position should be

assumed for each failure mode (e.g. load acting over an anchor for the case of failure of an anchor by steel

rupture or pull-out and load acting between anchors in the case of bending failure of the channel).

The bending moment in the channel due to tension loads acting on the channel may be calculated assuming a

simply supported single span beam with a span length equal to the anchor spacing.

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

A2' =

l 1,25 s 1

=

l

6

a

a

N Ed

,1 = N Ed ,5 = 0

A3' =

l 0,25 s 5

=

l

6

a

N Ed

=

,2

1 2

1

N = N Ed

6 3

9

A4' =

l 0,75 s 1

=

l

2

a

N Ed

,3 =

5 2

5

N = N Ed

6 3

9

k=

A2' +

A3' +

A4'

2

3

a

N Ed,4

=

1 2

1

N = N Ed

2 3

3

Figure 1 Example for the calculation of anchor forces according to the triangular load distribution

method for an anchor channel with 5 anchors - the influence length is assumed as li = 1,5s

NOTE

The assumption of a simply supported beam to calculate the moments is a simplification which neglects the

influence of partial end restraints, continuous beam action for channels with more than 2 anchors and catenary action after

yielding of the channel. The characteristic values of the moments of the resistance given in the European Technical

Specification take these effects into account. They may be larger than the plastic moment, calculated with the dimensions

of the channel and nominal yield strength of the steel.

5.2.3

Shear loads

5.2.3.1

Section 5.2.3.2 supersedes CEN/TS 1992-4-1:2009, 5.2.3.1. The provisions given in CEN/TS

1992-4-1:2009, 5.2.3.2 and 5.2.3.3 should be used to determine whether a shear load acts with or without a

lever arm on the special screw.

5.2.3.2

The shear forces of each anchor due to a shear load acting on the channel perpendicular to its

longitudinal axis may be calculated as described in 5.2.2.

NOTE

Shear loads applied perpendicular to anchor channels are transferred by compression stresses in the

interface between channel and concrete mainly directly into the concrete and a small share to the anchors via bending of

the anchor channel. In addition for reasons of equilibrium the anchors are stressed by tension forces.

In the approach presented above it is assumed that shear forces are transferred by bending of the channel to the anchors

and by the anchors into the concrete. This simplified approach has been chosen to allow for simple interaction between

tension and shear forces acting on the channel.

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

5.3

5.3.3

Tension loads

The design forces NED, re in the supplementary reinforcement should be calculated using the design load on

the anchor.

5.3.4

Shear loads

The design tension force N Ed,re in the supplementary reinforcement caused by the design shear force VEd

acting on a fixture is given by Equation (4).

e

N Ed,re = VEd ( s + 1)

z

(4)

es distance between reinforcement and shear force acting on the anchor channel

z internal lever arm of the concrete member

0,85 h'

0,85(h - hch - 0,5ds)

2hef

h' min

2c1

If the supplementary reinforcement is not arranged in the direction of the shear force then this must be taken

into account in the calculation of the design tension force of the reinforcement.

In the case of different shear forces on the anchors of the anchor channel, Equation (4) should be solved for

h

h

of the most loaded anchor channel resulting in N Ed,

the shear load VEd

re .

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

6.1

General

6.1.5 In addition to the failure modes given in CEN/TS 1992-4-1:2009, Figures 20 and 21, the failure modes

given in Figure 3 might occur.

Key

a) local failure of the channel lip

b) failure due to flexure of the channel

c) failure of the anchor

Figure 3 Additional failure modes for anchor channels

6.2

Tension loads

6.2.1

Required verifications

6.2.1.1

apply.

For anchor channels without supplementary reinforcement the verifications of Table 1, lines 1 to 9

6.2.1.2

For anchor channels with supplementary reinforcement the verifications of Table 1, lines 1 to 6

and 8 to 11 apply.

6.2.2

When the design relies on supplementary reinforcement, concrete cone failure according to Equation (7)

needs not to be verified but the supplementary reinforcement should be designed to resist the total load. The

reinforcement should be anchored adequately on both sides of the potential failure planes.

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Failure mode

1

anchor

connection

between anchor and channel

3

4

5

a

N Ed

N Rd,s,c = N Rk,s,c / Ms,ca

special screw

flexure of channel

N Ed N Rd,s = N Rk,s / Ms

M Ed M Rd,s,flex =

M Rk,s,flex / Ms,flex

a

N Ed

N Rd,p = N Rk,p / Mp

a

N Ed

N Rd,c = N Rk,c / Mc

Splitting failure

a

N Ed

N Rd,sp = N Rk,sp / Msp

Blow-out failurea

a

N Ed

N Rd,cb = N Rk,cb / Mc

Steel failure of

supplementary reinforcement

Anchorage failure of supplementary

reinforcement

Pull-out failure

11

b

a

N Ed

N Rd,s,a = N Rk,s,a / Ms

10

Steel

failure

screw

Channel

a

N Ed,

N Rd,re = N Rk,re / Ms,re

re

a

N Ed,

re N Rd,a = N Rk,a / Mc

most loaded anchor or special screw

the load on the anchor in conjunction with the edge distance and spacing should be considered in determining the

most unfavourable anchor

The supplementary reinforcement to take up tension loads should comply with the following requirements (see

also Figure 4):

a)

In general, for all anchors of a channel the same diameter of the reinforcement should be provided. It

2

should consist of ribbed reinforcing bars (fyk 500 N/mm ) with a diameter ds not larger than 16 mm and

should be detailed in form of stirrups or loops with a mandrel diameter according to EN 1992-1-1.

b)

The supplementary reinforcement should be placed as close to the anchors as practicable to minimise

the effect of eccentricity associated with the angle of the failure cone. Preferably, the supplementary

reinforcement should enclose the surface reinforcement. Only these reinforcement bars with a distance

0,75 hef, from the anchor should be assumed as effective.

c)

The minimum anchorage length of supplementary reinforcement in the concrete failure cone is

min l1 = 4 d s (anchorage with bends, hooks or loops) or min l1 = 10 d s (straight bars with or without

welded transverse bars).

d)

The supplementary reinforcement should be anchored outside the assumed failure cone with an

anchorage length lbd according to EN 1992-1-1.

e)

A surface reinforcement should be provided as shown in Figure 4a) designed to resist the forces arising

from the assumed strut and tie model, taking into account the splitting forces according to 6.2.6.

10

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For anchors channels located parallel to the edge of a concrete member or in a narrow concrete member, the

plane of the supplementary reinforcement shall be located perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the channel

(see Figure 4).

Key

1 supplementary reinforcement

2 surface reinforcement

Figure 4 Arrangement of supplementary reinforcement

6.2.3

Steel failure

The characteristic resistances N Rk,s,a (failure of anchor), N Rk,s,c (failure of the connection between anchor

and channel), N Rk,s,l (local failure by flexure of the channel lips), N Rk,s (failure of the special screw) and

M Rk,s,flex (failure by flexure of the channel) are given in the relevant European Technical Specification.

6.2.4

Pullout failure

The characteristic resistance N Rk,p for pullout failure of the anchor is given in the relevant European Technical

Specification.

The characteristic resistance N Rk,p is limited by the concrete pressure under the head of the anchor

NOTE

(5)

with

Ah

=

fck,cube

2

d d 2 in case of a round head

4 h

(6)

characteristic cube strength of the concrete strength class but noting the limitations given in the relevant

European Technical Specification.

11

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

ucr,N

= 1,4 for anchor channels in non-cracked concrete

6.2.5

6.2.5.1

Characteristic resistance

The characteristic resistance of one anchor of a channel bar in case of concrete cone failure may be

calculated according to Equation (7).

0

NRk, c = N Rk

, c s, N e, N c, N re, N ucr, N

(7)

The different factors in Equation (7) are given in the following sections.

6.2.5.2

The basic characteristic resistance of one anchor not influenced by adjacent anchors, edges or corners of the

concrete member located in cracked concrete is obtained by:

0

N Rk,

c = 8 ,5 ch

1,5

f ck, cube hef

[N]

(8)

with

ch

factor taking into account the influence of the channel on the concrete cone failure load. It is

given in the relevant European Technical Specification.

1

fck,cube

[N/mm], characteristic cube strength of the concrete strength class but noting the limitations

given in the relevant European Technical Specification.

hef

[mm]

6.2.5.3

The influence of neighbouring anchors on the concrete cone resistance is taken into account by the factor s, N

according to Equation (9).

s,N =

1

1,5

s

i

1

Ni

1+

scr,N

N0

i =1

(9)

si

distance between the anchor under consideration and the neighbouring anchors

scr,N

Ni

12

(10)

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

n

number of anchors within a distance scr,N to both sides of the anchor under consideration

Key

1 anchor under consideration

Figure 5 Example of an anchor channel with different anchor tension forces

6.2.5.4

The influence of an edge of the concrete member on the characteristic resistance is taken into account by the

factor e, N according to Equation (11).

e,N = (

c1 0 ,5

) 1

ccr,N

(11)

with

c1

ccr,N

= 0,5scr,N = (2,8 1,3 hef / 180 ) hef 1,5 hef

(12)

With anchor channels located in a narrow concrete member with different edge distances c1,1 and c1,2 (see

Figure 6b)) the minimum value of c1,1 and c1,2 should be inserted in Equation (11).

13

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

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6.2.5.5

The influence of a corner of the concrete member on the characteristic resistance is taken into account by the

factor c, N according to Equation (13).

c, N

c

= 2

c cr, N

0 ,5

(13)

with

c2

If an anchor is influenced by two corners, then the factor c, N has to be calculated for the values c2,1 and c2,2

and the product of the factors c, N should be inserted in Equation (7).

6.2.5.6

The shell spalling factor re,N takes account of the effect of a dense reinforcement for embedment depths

hef < 100 mm:

re,N = 0,5 +

hef

1

200

[-]

(14)

with

hef

[mm]

Irrespective of the embedment depth of the anchor channel, re,N may be taken as 1,0 in the following cases:

a)

Local to this anchor channel reinforcement (any diameter) is provided at a spacing 150 mm, or

b)

14

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Key

a) Resistance of anchor 1 is calculated

b) Resistance of anchor 2 is calculated

c) Resistance of anchor 2 is calculated

d) Resistance of anchor 1 is calculated

Figure 7 Definition of the corner distance of an anchor channel in the corner of a concrete member

6.2.5.7

The factor ucr,N takes account of the position of the anchor channel in cracked or non-cracked concrete.

ucr,N = 1,0 for anchors in cracked concrete

(15)

6.2.5.8

For the case of anchor channels with hef > 180 mm in an application with influence of neighbouring anchors

and influence of an edge and 2 corners (Figure 7c)) located with edge distance less than ccr,N from the

anchor under consideration the calculation according to Equation (7) leads to conservative results. More

precise results are obtained if the value hef is substituted by the larger value of:

'

hef

=

cmax

s

'

hef 180 mm or hef

= max hef 180 mm

c cr,N

s cr,N

(16)

with

cmax

maximum distance from centre of an anchor to the edge of the concrete member ccr,N. In the

example given in Figure (7c)) cmax is the maximum value of c1, c2,1 and c2,2

smax

'

The value hef

is inserted in Equation (8) as well as in Equations (10) and (12).

15

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

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6.2.6

Splitting failure

6.2.6.1

Splitting failure is avoided during installation of the special screw by complying with minimum values for edge

distance cmin , spacing smin , member thickness hmin and requirements on reinforcement as given in the relevant

European Technical Specification.

NOTE

Minimum values for edge distance, spacing and member thickness are also observed for anchor channels to

allow adequate placing and compaction of the concrete.

6.2.6.2

6.2.6.2.1

No verification of splitting failure is required if this is stated in the relevant European Technical

Specification or at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

a)

The edge distance in all directions is c > 1,0 ccr,sp for anchor channels with one anchor and c > 1,2 ccr,sp for

anchor channels with more than one anchor.

The characteristic values of edge distance and spacing in the case of splitting under load, ccr, sp and scr, sp

are given as a function of the member thickness in the relevant European Technical Specification.

b) The characteristic resistance for concrete cone failure, concrete blow-out failure and pull-out failure is

calculated for cracked concrete and reinforcement resists the splitting forces and limits the crack width to

wk 0,3 mm.

6.2.6.2.2

If the conditions a) and b) of 6.2.6.2.1 are not fulfilled, then the characteristic resistance of one

anchor of a channel bar should be calculated according to Equation (17).

0

N Rk,sp = N Rk

s,N e,N c,N re,N ucr,N h,sp

[N]

(17)

with

0

0

N Rk

= min( N Rk,p , N Rk,

c)

0

N Rk,

c , s,N , e,N , c,N , re,N , ucr,N , h,sp according to 6.2.5. However the values ccr,N and scrN should be

replaced by ccr,sp and scr,sp in Equations (9) to (13). The values ccr,sp and scr,sp are valid for the member

thickness hmin. The factor h,sp takes into account the influence of the actual member depth h on the

splitting resistance. For anchor channels according to current experience Equation (18) is valid:

h

h,sp =

hmin

2/3

2hef

hmin

2/3

(18)

For fastenings with several edge distances (e.g. fastening in a corner of the concrete member or in a narrow

member), the smallest edge distance c shall be inserted in Equation (17).

If the edge distance is smaller than the value ccr,sp a longitudinal reinforcement should be provided along the

edge of the member.

16

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

6.2.7

Blow-out failure

Verification of blow-out failure is not required with anchors when the distance between the anchorage area

and the side surface of the structural component exceeds c = 0,5 hef. If verification is required, the

characteristic resistance of one anchor in case of blow-out is:

0

N Rk,cb = N Rk,

cb s,Nb g,Nb c,Nb h,Nb ucr,N

[N]

(19)

NOTE

For anchor channels located perpendicular to the edge, which are loaded uniformly, verification is only required

for the anchors closest to the edge.

6.2.7.1

The basic characteristic resistance of a single anchor without influence of neighbouring anchors and corner or

member thickness effects is given by Equation (20):

o

N Rk,

= 8 c1 Ah

cb

f ck,cube

[N]

(20)

with

Ah

=

c1

4

(21)

6.2.7.2

The influence of neighbouring anchors on the blow-out resistance is taken into account by the factor s, Nb,

which may be calculated analogous to Equation (9), however with scr, Nb = 4 c1.

6.2.7.3

The influence of a corner of the concrete member on the characteristic resistance is taken into account by the

factor c, Nb according to Equation (22):

c, Nb

c2

=

c cr, Nb

0 ,5

(22)

with

c2

corner distance of the anchor, for which the resistance is calculated (see Figure 7)

If an anchor is influenced by two corners ( c2 < 2c1 ) example see Figure 7c) then the factor c,Nb

should be calculated for the values of c2,1 and c2,2 and the product of the factors should be inserted in

Equation (22).

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DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

6.2.7.4

g,Nb = n + ( 1 n )

with

s1 4c1

(23)

6.2.7.5

s1

1,

4 c1

The influence of a distance 2 c1 between the anchor head and the upper or lower surface of the concrete

member is taken into account by the factor h, Nb according to Equation (24).

ah,Nb =

hef + f

2c + f

1

1

4c1

4c1

(24)

with

f

distance between the anchor head and the lower surface of the concrete member (see Figure 8).

6.2.7.6

The factor ucr, N takes into account of the position of the anchor channel in cracked or non-cracked concrete.

= 1,4 for anchor channels in non-cracked concrete

6.2.8

(25)

(26)

N Rk,re = n As f yk

with

18

As

fyk

(27)

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

n

6.2.9

The design resistance NRd,a of the supplementary reinforcement of one anchor is given by

N Rd,a =

l d s f bd

1

n

(28)

with

anchorage length of the supplementary reinforcement in the assumed failure cone (see Figure 4)

lb,min = 4 ds (anchorage with bends, hooks or loops)

lb,min = 10 ds (anchorage with straight bars with or without welded transverse bars)

l1

lb,min

ds

fbd design bond strength according to EN 1992-1-1, taking into account the concrete cover of the

supplementary reinforcement

= 0,7 for hooked bars

6.3

Shear loads

6.3.1

Required verifications

6.3.1.1

apply.

For anchor channels without supplementary reinforcement the verifications of Table 2, lines 1 to 5

6.3.1.2

For anchor channels with supplementary reinforcement the verifications of Table 2, lines 1 to 4

and 6, 7 apply.

6.3.2

Design of reinforcement

When the design relies on supplementary reinforcement, concrete cone failure according to Equation (32)

needs not to be verified but the supplementary reinforcement should be designed to resist the total load. The

supplementary reinforcement may be in the form of a surface reinforcement (Figure 9).

The supplementary reinforcement should be anchored outside the assumed failure cone with an anchorage

length lb,net according to EN 1992-1-1.

In general, for all anchors of the channel bar the same diameter of reinforcement should be provided. It should

consist of ribbed bars with fyk 500 N/mm and a diameter not larger than 16 mm. The mandrel diameter, db,

should comply with EN1992-1-1.

If the shear force is taken up by a surface reinforcement according to Figure 9, the following additional

requirements should be met:

a)

Only bars with a distance 0,75 c1 from the anchor should be assumed as effective.

19

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

b)

min l1 = 10 ds,

= 4 ds

c)

A reinforcement along the edge of the member should be provided and be designed for the forces

according to an appropriate strut and tie model (see Figure 9). As a simplification an angle of the

compression struts of 45may be assumed.

Table 2 Verifications for anchor channels loaded in shear

Failure mode

1

2

3

Steel

failure

without

local flexure of

lever arm

channel lip

shear force

with

special screw

lever arm

4 Pry-out failure

5 Concrete edge failure

6 Steel failure of supplementary

reinforcement

7 Anchorage failure of supplementary

reinforcement

screw

Channel

VEd VRd,s,l = VRk,s,l / Ms,l

a

VEd

VRd,cp = VRk,cp / Mc

a

VEd

VRd,c = VRk,c / Mc

h

N Ed,

re N Rd,re = N Rk,re / Ms,re

h

N Ed,

re N Rd,a

The load on the anchor in conjunction with the edge distance and spacing should be considered in determining the

most unfavourable anchor

20

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Figure 9 Surface reinforcement to take up shear forces simplified strut and tie model

6.3.3

Steel failure

6.3.3.1

The characteristic resistance VRk,s (failure of special screw) and VRk,s,l (failure due to local flexure of channel

lips) are given in the relevant European Technical Specification.

6.3.3.2

The characteristic resistance of a special screw in case of steel failure, VRk,s may be obtained from

Equation (29).

VRk,s =

M M Rk,s

l

[N]

(29)

with

M The value M depends on the degree of restraint of the anchor channel at the side of the fixture of

the application in question and should be determined according to good engineering practice. No

restraint ( M = 1,0 ) should be assumed if the fixture can rotate freely. Full restraint ( M = 2,0 ) may

be assumed only if the fixture cannot rotate. If restraint of the special screw is assumed the channel

and/or the fastened element must be able to take up the restraint moment.

l

lever arm

o

M Rk,s = M Rk,

( 1 N Ed /N Rd,s )

s

(30)

21

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

= N Rk,s /Ms

NRd,s

o

M Rk,

s

given in the relevant European Technical Specification

6.3.4

The characteristic resistance of the most unfavourable anchor for concrete pry-out failure should be calculated

according to Equation (31):

VRk,cp = k 5 N Rk,c

(31)

with

k5

factor to be taken from the relevant European Technical Specification valid for applications

without supplementary reinforcement; in case of supplementary shear reinforcement the factor k5

should be multiplied with 0,75

NRk, c

6.3.5

6.3.5.1

General

For anchor channels with an edge distance in all directions c > 10 hef and c > 60 d (d = diameter of the special

screw), a check of the characteristic concrete edge failure resistance may be omitted. The smaller value is

decisive.

6.3.5.2

Characteristic resistance

The characteristic resistance of one anchor loaded perpendicular to the edge corresponds to:

0

VRk,c = VRk,

c s,V c,V h,V 90 ,V re,V

[N]

(32)

6.3.5.3

The basic characteristic resistance of an anchor channel with one anchor loaded perpendicular to the edge

not influenced by neighbouring anchors, member thickness or corner effects is:

0

VRk,

= p

c

[N]

(33)

with

p

fck,cube

[N/mm ], characteristic cube strength of the concrete strength class but noting the limitations

given in the relevant European Technical Specification.

NOTE

22

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

6.3.5.4

The influence of neighbouring anchors on the concrete edge resistance is taken into account by the factor

s, V according to Equation (34)

s,V =

n

1 s i

1+

s cr,V

i =1

1,5

V

i

V0

(34)

si

distance between the anchor under consideration and the neighbouring anchors

scr,V

scr, V = 4 c1 + 2 bch

(35)

Vi

V0

number of anchors within a distance scr,V to both sides of the anchor under consideration

6.3.5.5

Effect of a corner

The influence of a corner on the characteristic edge resistance is taken into account by the factor c,V .

c,V

c

= 2

c

cr,V

0,5

(36)

with

23

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

(37)

If an anchor is influenced by two corners (example see Figure 11b)), then the factor c, V according Equation

(36) shall be calculated for each corner and the product shall be inserted in Equation (32).

Figure 11 Example of an anchor channel with anchors influenced by one (a) or two (b) corners,

anchor 2 is under consideration

6.3.5.6

The influence of a member thickness h < hcr, V is taken into account by the factor h, V.

h, V

h

=

hcr, V

0 ,5

(38)

with

hcr, v = 2 c1 + 2 hch, see Figure 12

hch

(39)

6.3.5.7

The factor 90,V takes into account the influence of shear loads acting parallel to the edge (see Figure 13).

90,V = 2,5

24

(40)

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

6.3.5.8

The factor re,V takes account of the effect of the position of the anchor channel in cracked or non-cracked

concrete or of the type of reinforcement at the edge.

re,V

= 1,0

re,V

= 1,2

anchor channel in cracked concrete with straight edge reinforcement (> 12 mm)

re,V

= 1,4

anchor channel in cracked concrete with edge reinforcement and stirrups with a spacing

a < 100 mm and a 2 c1 anchor channel in non-cracked concrete (proof according to

CEN/TS 1992-4-1:2009, clause 5)

In case of presence of edge reinforcement for applications in cracked concrete a factor re,V > 1 shall only be

used, if the height of the channel is hch 40 mm .

6.3.5.9

For an anchor channel in a narrow, thin member (see Figure 14) with c2, max ccr, v (ccr, V according to Equation

(6.9e)) and h < hcr, V (hcr, V according to Equation (39), the calculation according to Equation (32) leads to

conservative results. More precise results are achieved if the edge distance c1 in Equation (32) is limited to c1'

(see Equation (41)):

( max (c 2 ,1;c2 ,2 ) bch )/ 2

c1' = max

(h 2 hch )/ 2

(41)

with

c2,max

The value c1' is inserted in Equations (33), (35), (37) and (39).

25

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Figure 14 Illustration of an anchor channel influenced by two corners and member thickness

(in this example c2,2 is decisive for the determination of c'1)

6.3.6

The characteristic resistance the supplementary reinforcement NRk,,re of one anchor is:

N Rk,re = n As f yk

(42)

with

As

fyk

6.3.7

The design resistance NRd,a of the supplementary reinforcement of one anchor is given by:

N Rd,a =

l d s f bd

1

n

with

l1

(see Figure 9)

lb,min = 4 ds (anchorage with bends, hooks or loops)

lb,min = 10 ds (anchorage with straight bars with or without welded transverse bars)

ds

f bd design bond strength according to EN 1992-1-1, taking into account the concrete cover of the

supplementary reinforcement

26

0,7 for hooked bars

(43)

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

6.4

6.4.1

6.4.1.1

For combined tension and shear loads the following equations shall be satisfied (see Figure 15):

N2 + V2 1

(44)

In Equation (44) the largest value of N or V for the different failure modes shall be taken.

6.4.1.2

For combined tension and shear loads either of the following Equations (45) (see Figure 15) or Equation (46)

shall be satisfied:

N + V 1,2

1,5

N

+ 1,5

V 1

(45)

(46)

where

In Equations (45) and (46) the largest value of N and V for the different failure modes shall be taken.

6.4.2

For anchor channels with supplementary reinforcement to take up tension and shear loads

6.4.2.1

Section 6.4.1 applies.

6.4.2.2

For anchor channels at the edge with supplementary reinforcement to take up shear loads,

Equation (6.14) shall be used.

N + V 1

(47)

with

In Equation (47) the largest value of N or V for the different failure modes shall be taken.

27

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009 (E)

Key

1) according to equation (44)

2) according to equation (45)

3) according to equation (46)

4) according to equation (47)

Figure 15 Interaction diagram for combined tension and shear loads

Fatigue

Seismic

28

DD CEN/TS 1992-4-3:2009

DD CEN/TS

1992-4-3:2009

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