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..

. 2010 .
1

1
1.1
1.2
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3
3.1
4
4.1 .
4.2
4.3
5
6 ,
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.
9. , .
.
9.1 ,
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.2 ()
9.3
9.3.1
9.4
9.4.1
9.5
9.5.1
9.6
9.7
9.7.1
9.7.2

9.7.3
9.7.4

2-4
4
5
5-6
6-7
7
8
8-9
9
10
11
12-13
13
14
14-15
16
16-17
18
18-19
19-20
20-21
22
22
22
23
24
25-26
26
27
27
28
29
30
30
30
31-33
33
34-35
35-37
37
38-39
39
39-41
42-43
43-45
46
2

9.7.5 /
9.7.6 ( )
9.7.7
9.7.8
9.7.9 ,
9.8
10.
10.1
10.2
11.
11.1
11.2
12. ,
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
13.
14.
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4 SIGMET
14.5 AIRMET
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
15.
15.1
15.1.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.4.1
15.4.2
15.4.3
15.4.4
15.4.5
16.
16.1 METAR, SPECI
16.2 ATIS, VOLMET
16.3 -TAF
16.4
16.5
16.6 SIGMET
16.7 SIGMET

16.8 GAMET
16.8

46
46-48
49
49-50
50-51
51
52
52-55
56
56-57
57-58
58
58-59
59
59
59-61
61
61-62
62-63
63
63-64
64
64-65
65
65
65-66
66
66-67
67
67-68
68
69
69
69
70
70
70
70
71
71-82
82
82-86
86
87
87-89
90
91-92
93-96
3

16.8.1
96
16.9
96-100
16.10
101-106
16.11 ,
.
106-112
..................................................................................
17.
113


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, . , ,
, , , ,
.
, (. 9.1).
(JV sin y), , ,
, .
.
sin y :

T^D + Wy,

-D
=------ .
W
, ,
, .
,
, , (W siny)
, .
, ,
, ,
.
9.7.3
,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
: (.. )
, ,
. ,
.

(GS) () (TAS) +
(WIND)
, , (
, , ,
/)
.
43

, , ,

, ,
.

, .
,
() , , .

, , ,
.
,
. , ,
, .
-
, , . 9.2.

( ), ..
, ,

, () .

, ().

. 9.2. ,
:

(L );

(L ); R ; L
;T ;D
.

( )
, , . ,
, .. , ,
, . , ,
44

, ,
(
).
,
, / ,

.
,
, ,
, .
. ,
, ,
. /
,
/ . ,
, ,
.

45

9.7.4
,
( ) , /
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
, .
, .
,
,
.
.

9.7.5

/ (.. / ,
) ,
/ , (
),
.
,
/, . .
.
,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.

, (
), .
,
,
.

9.7.6 (
)
(/ )

/ ( ).

,
. ,

.
, ,
( ) .
46


, , .

. 9.3. ()
: ;
; ;

, ,
. ,
.
,
.

( ),


. ,
.

,
.
,
(. .
, ,
, ).
,
47


.
.
9.4.

. 9.4.
( )

,
, - ,
,
,
, - .
, / ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
, 30 ,
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
,

.
,

. ,
. ,
.

.

48

9.7.7
,
, 60- ,
.
- ,
,
(. 9.5).
, ,
.
,
, .
, , ,
, ,
.
,
20 ,
.
180,
100 /.

. 9.5.

9.7.8


,
.


/ .
49

, , :
, . . , ( ),
, ;
, ;
( - ),
, ;
, ,
;
,
,
;
, ,
;
;
, ,
;
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.

9.7.9 ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
, .
,
,
. ,
(, , ..)
.
(. 9.6 ),
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
,
30 (100 ),
, .

(. 9.6 ).
,
. ,
. ,
,
, ()
,
50

(. 9.6 ).

. 9.6. ,
, ,
, (. 9.6 ).
,
, ,
.
,
, .
,
,
,

.

9.8 .
(St), -(St fr), (Frnb), 100-200 .
.
,
. .
100-150 ,
50-100 ; - 50 , + 2050 .

. ( 2-3 ) .

.

51

10. .
10.1. .
.

. ,

( ),
( ). , 23 , ,
- .

:
) , ;
)
, .. ;
) , Y=0,l- 0,2C / 100;
) .
, - -
. ,
.
, ,
. 1-2
.
. ,
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8-6 , -
0,5-1,3 .
2,5 , ,
, - .
; , .

4-5. ,
, ,
, .
,
1
1
.
300

200

,
,
, .

10.2
() -
, 8-11,
-14-16 . 30/. ,
, , , 60-80 /,

52

. 9.7
- 200/.

( ) , :
4-6 , 400-600 , - (. 9.7.).
.
, ,
, , , 8-10.
400-500
100-300 . .
(. 9.7).
, ),
, - (. 9.8).

(
)


(
)

. 9.8.

53

. 9.9. -300

,
.
- , ,
. .
, ,
, .
() ,
-
(. 9.9.).

. 9.10.
.
(. 9.10.).
6/ 100
- 5-10/ 1000 .
, .
, ,
.
.

54

. 9.11. AT.

(. 9.11.).
,
400, 300,
200, .
,
, - .
,
,
.
,
, .
300-600
50-70 .
.
9.12

. 9.13 () ( ) .
:
- , ;
- -
. 2-3,
() ;
(
1-2 100) (. 9.13);
-
.
.

55

11.
.
11.1 .
.
.
- , - .
, ,
.
. 1000
20-30.
500-1000 , 5/
100 .
. , ,
1-1,5 ,
, .
10-15 . 20/
" " 30 150 50-200, ,
(. 9.14).
- ,
, .
,
. ,
,
, , .
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
.
, , , .
, ,
,
,


.

. 9.14.


.
,
10-12/, ,
, 900
.
,
; .
, -
, , ,
.

11.2.
, 30- ,
.
.
, .
56

, , , ,
, .
. ,
, .
5.
- 30 .
, , , - -. 5-6 /.
2-4 .
- ,

. -
. - .
,
, , ,
, , .
-
( 200-400 1000), 950 .
50-100 / . Cb
16-18 .
( ) 5 20 . ..
(
). ,
(
+27).
.
, 50 ,
.
, , :
C - (SIGMET),
; .

12. ,

, : , ,
, , ,
( ) ..

12.1

. 00; 06; 12; 18
(UTC), - 3 , 00, 03 ..

.
:
- - , ;
- ( ), .
:

:
57

- ,
;
-
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

12.2

. 00 ,12
UTC. AT - ,
, , ,
.
AT

850

700

500

400

300

200

100

1.5

5,5

12

16

1-2

2-4

4-6

6-8

8-10

10-13

13-17

- ( );
- ();
- , . 00 50 10,
56 50, .
- - /.
AT ,
, ,
- .
:
-
;
- ,
;
- 700 500 ,
, ;
;
- .
850, 700 500 - 2 , 400, 300 - 4 -
;
- ;
- 400 300 ,
, ;
- AT .

12.3.

58

, .
, ,
, , , , .

(
), (),
.
, ,
.. .
, ,
, - - ,
.

12.4.
()
, , 200,
, .. 100%.
- , 3 ,
"" 30 .( 200 Cb ).

12.5

.
,
, ,
,
, , .
-,
.
.
,

.

12.6.

- ( 400 150 )-(FL 250 -630)


- (700150)-(FL100-450)
- ( 700 )-(FL 100)
- .
00, 06, 12 18 UTC,
3 .
, :
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
( );
)
;
)
( );
)
(, );
)
;
)
;
) , ,
( );
) , .
, 1.

59

1 .

: , ,
.
FL250-630
( 250- 630)
250.
, ,
, , .
, .
, 250,
( , , ,
, , )
. - , SIGMET . .
, 150 / 80 .
, .
CB , ,
- , : ,
,.
:
ISOL-, 50%
.
OCNL - , 5075% .
FRQ - ,
75%
.
400 :


60

, 10 .

(LOC) , ,
. ( ) :
(FEW)1-2 , (, )
(SCT)---3-4 ()
(BKN)5-7 ()
(OVC)8 ().
.
- , 400 .
- , .

13.



, .

AT, , ,
, :
1) , ,
, .
2)
, ,
, ,
.
3)
, (
), , .
4)
,
, , :
- ;
- ;
- ( , , / /, );
- ;
- ;
- , ,
, , ,
;
- , 0, -10, -20 .
5)
.
6) .

, .

14.

,
3 , ,
.
- ,
. , , :
- ;
- ;
- ;
61

- ;
- , ;
- .
: , , 1,11, III IV
, ().
, , ,
.
- ,
.

14.1 .
,
(): () , , ()
,
. 200
. 200 -

.
, ,
.
.
: 30 ,
- 1 .
00 30 .
, .
,

.
, ,
) , :
- ;
- ,
,
, ;
- ,
.

,
:
)
:
- 1500 3000; 5000 ;
)

150,
350, 600 800;
)

:
- ( );
- ;
- ( 1-2 ) ( 1 ) ( );
- , ;
- , ;
- ;
- ;
- ( );
- ;
- ( );
)
/ BKN OVC
:
62

- 30, 60, 150 300 ; 450 ;


)
450 :
- SKC, FEW SCT BKN OVC;
- BKN OVC SKC, FEW SCT;
- / , ;
)
(, )
30, 60, 150 300.


2 . ,
,
, .

10 .
,
200 .
, ,
METAR.
SPECI.

14.2

:
- ,
, ,
. : -
, - .
,
,
;
- .
, ,
,
;
- .
(, , , .);
- ( AIREP
.
. ,
" " AIREP -,
.

14.3

:
- 9, 24, .
6, 18, 24 .
6-24 3- , 24 6 . 1
, 00 UTC;
-
,
9 (6) ;
- /
;
-
2 , , .
,
.
, ;
63

- ,
,
, , -
( );
- 12
, 6 ;
- , .
- "AMD".
:
( , - ), ,
/ / , , ,
.
F
.

,
:
BECMG - ,

. (
);
TEMPO - () ,
,
,
.
NOSIG - .

(), ,
, ATIS,

.
. VOLMET
, .
14.4 SIGMET
SIGMET
(OBS) /
(FCST) ,
,
. (. . ).

14.5 AIRMET
AIRMET ,
/ 3000.
. :

)
WDSPR
-
60 /
ABV
) :
- 5
5000
:
- () WDSPR
300
CLD
.
) :
-
ISOL
-
OCNL
-
ISOL

SFC

WSPD

60KMH

BKN/OVC
BLW 300m

TS
TS
TSGR
64

)
-
) :
-
) :
-
) :
-

MT

OBSC

MOD

TURB

MOD

ICE

MOD

MTW

AIRMET ,
, . AIRMET
4-6 , UTC. AIRMET.
(FIR).

14.6


:
- ;
-;
-;
- 2- ;
- , - ();
- , ;
- ;
- 15/ ( ) ;
- -30 , +40 (
);
-

.
,

.

14.7


,
500.

, ATIS -
.
,
,
(
30 ).

14.8

. ,
.
,
- , 3 .

,
.
()
:
- ,
- / , ; SIGMET,
AIRMET.
65

- ;
-
, , ;
- ;
- , . /

, .
:
)
()
;
)
, ,
, ;
)

;
)

, ;
)

.
,
700 ,
, , 10,
,
.
,
30 . 20
,
.

.

14.9 .
, , ,
.
F
. ,
, .
:
- 2
.
'"AIRMET".
;
- 2- 5-
;
- 5
, ; ,
;
.
, ,
, VOLMET
""- .

14.10

,
, , ,
. 6 9
3 ,
.
,
66

.

.

. ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, .

, .
, ,
12-
( 18.00 06.00 06.00 18.00 ).

.
.
(
) .

, ;

.

( ) ,
.
,
.
.

.

.
, ,
,
" ",
- .
.

14.11

, 2000 ,

.

,
, ,
. CAVOK
.

15.
.

67

,
,
, ,
,
, .
,
,
(, , , , ..):
)
:
- ;
- , ;
- ;
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)
:
- ;
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- ;
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)
:
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;
)
:
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)
:
- , ;
- ;
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)
:
- ;
- , , . .

15.1


. ,
100-200
60. ,
,
.
. .
, .
,
,
.
, -, , -
, . ,
. " " - , , ,
. -
, .

68

15.1.1
.
.
, ,
, , .
-, , - -,
; , -, , -, ,
. .
200 .
.
,
.
,
.
:
- ;
- , , , -
. ();
- , , ;
- , ;
- , .

. , 100. ,
200.

15.2
, , .
( ),
( ).
, , .
- ,
,
.
200,
, ,
. .
.
- , .

15.3.

, , . ,
. ,
. : ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
, , , ,
, .
, .
:
- (, , , , , , );
- (, , );
- , , ;
- ( ).

69

15.4 .
15.4.1.
.
:
, , , ,
.
6 1,5 3 ,
. ,
, .
,

. .
200-300, 100-200,
400 .
-
,

.
.
-, -
. , - ,
; , 300-4000.
: KB, ,
.
15.4.2.
() :
- , -, , -, ;
- - , -
, ;
-
.
, , ,
.
15.4.3.
:
- ,
;
- , 0 -12;
- :
- ;
- 10-20/ - ;
- - ;
- , , ., -
;
- ,
10 - , .

15.4.4.

, - ,
. , ,
. ,
. , ,
.
70

15.4.5.
:
- , ,
, .
100 / ;
- ,
;
- ;
- , , 30-50, 100200, 1000.

16. . .
16.1

METAR, SPECI


METAR.
R-
(METAR METEROLOGICAL AVIATION ROUTINE WEATHER REPORT)

1

(METAR)

CCCC

(YYGGggZ)

4
AUTO*

dddff(Gfmfm) (dndndndnVdxdxdx)

6
RDRDR / VRVRVRVRi

VVVV (Dv) (VxVxVxVxDv)

RDRDR/VRVRVRVRVVRVRVRVRi
7
WW (WW)

8
NsNsNsNshshshs

9
(CAVOK)

VVhshshs
10
T T / T dT d
12a
RMK. . .

11
QPhPhPhPh

12
()

13
TREND

14
DRDRERCReReRBRBR

*) (AUTO) - , ,
, .

:
1. METAR .
2. METAR ,
. .
3. METAR .
, METAR
, ( UTC) .
: - ,
, , .
:
1.
: METAR or SPECI
71

, :
METAR - ; SPECI - .
2.

:
4 , , , , , :
UUEE - (/ ) UUWW - (/ ) LFPO - (/ ) KJFK - (/ ) ..
Doc.7910 - ()
.
3
: YYGGggZ.
- UTC (Universal Time
Coordinated) zulu-time (Z).
4

: dddffGfmfm; dxdxdxVdxdxdx.
:-10 .
.

-2 . , , ,
.
, ,
( ).
3- , : 310 - - , 180 , 090 -
.. 3 , 2 /, 6 / VRB:
VRB02MPS - (variable) - 2 /. VRB03KT - 3 .
, , , ,
, .
VRB , 3 , : VRB25KT -
25 . VRB10MPS - 10 /.
( 3 , 2 /, 6 /)
60 , , ,
:
250V320 - 250 320 ( ); 080VI60 - 80 160 (
).
V (variable) - .
: 04MPS
- 4 metres per second - 4 /. 15 - 15 knots - 15 . 25 - 25 kilometres per hour - 25 /.
() ,
5 / .
, , 5 /.
G(gust).
1805G10KT - 180 , 05, 10 .
, , ,
SQ (squall) :
VRB19MPS . SQ , 19 /.
: 00000
(MPS, , ) - (CALM).
5
72

: VVVV or V1V1V1V1VV2V2V2V2
4- , :
0100 - 100, 0600 - 600, 1000 - 1000, 2500 -2500 , 9999 10000


,
.
, , .
:
) 2000. : - 2- ,
;
) >2000 : -
2- , .
:
-10 . METAR, SPECI, ,
, .
-1 . ,
.
(plus, passed)-, - .
(minus)- - .
6


RDrDr/VrVrVrVr r RDrDr/VrVrVrVrVVrVrVrVr I
,
, , , ,
1500. , 1000. ,
.
400. 25,
400 800. -50. 800. 100.
, ,
.
R- runway-
R:
R05- 05
R36 - 36 . :
R -right -
L -left -
-central -
RR -
LL -
-RVR (runway visual range) :
R25L/1200 - 25 1200.
10 , , ,
10- 20%, 50.
( , ), :
73

, 10- . R10C/1000V1400 -
10 - 1400, - 1000. Vvory- .
50, - 1500.
,
(passed, plus):
1500 - 1500
2000 - 2000. ,
, more than - , above - .
,
{minimum, minus):
100 - 100
0050 - 50. ,
, less than - , below- .
, 50 1500,
, , ,
.
,
, ,
: (touch down zone),
(middle), (end). - ,
, .
METAR .
10 ,
:
U - upward, improuve - .
D - downward, decrease
N - no change ~ .
:

R31R/1000U - 31 1000, .

R02L/0700N - 02 700, .
R15/1200V1700D - 15 1200 ( )
1700 () .
,
.
7 - .
: WW
, ,
.
:(+)
-(+) heavy - - - feeble,
- (-) light
- - moderate .
:
- - 1000., .
- - 1000-2000. .
- 2000.
74

, 8 . , VC ( in the vicinity), :
VCTS in vicinity thunderstorm - VCSS - in vicinity sandstorm -
/ ..
, :
; ; ; , , 6 .

.
I. .
RA - rain - . , -
0.5 .
SN - snow - . .
RASN - rain and snow - . ,
.
DZ - drizzle - . 0.5 ,
.
SG - snow grains - . .
-ice pellets - . 1-3 ,
, .
I - ice crystals, diamond dust - . , 1
, ,
.
5000 .
2. , .

. ()
, .
FZDZ - freezing drizzle - . .
.
FZRA - freezing rain - . ,
, , .
.
FZFG - freezing fog - .
, 0 -20.
3. , :
BR - brume, mist - .
.
1000 5000 .
FG - fog - . 1000 ,
.
MIFG - minimum fog , shallow fog - . , 2.
BCFG - broken covering, fog pathes , , ( ).
, () ,
, . ,
, METAR 1000 . , ,
1000 .
PR- part- ( ).
, ,
.
75

IV. , .
FU - fume, smoke - . - .
HZ - haze - . , ,
, . 75%.
SA - sand - . - .
DU - dust - . - .
VA - volcanic ash - .
.
: , , , 5000 .
.
V. , .
DRSA, DRDU, DRSN - drifting sand, drifting dust, drifting snow - ,
6 (2 ) , .
BLSA, BLDU, BLSN - blowing sand, blowing dust, blowing snow - ,
6 (2 ) . BLSN . BLSA,
BLDU 5000 .
DS - duststorm - . ,
.
SS - sandstorm - . .
- (pole - ), dust devil, dust whirls - . ,
, , . , ,
, - .
FC - funnel cloud - , .
. , - ,
. - ,
. ,
50-100/. (tornado). ,
, water spout.
SQ - squall - . ,
. - , .
16 (22/, 8 /)
22 (44 /, 11 /), .
VI .
SH - shower - , - , - .
, , .
, 50.
3000.
GR - grain, hail - , 5 ( 20 ) -
, - .
GS - grain small, grain soft, and (or) snow pellets , ,
5 . - ,
- .
VII .
- ,
, .

76

TS - thunderstorm - ( 10- ,
, , )
TSRA - thunderstorm with rain -
TSGS - thunderstorm with grain small - ..
8 .
,
, .
. :
-FEW-few- , , 1-2 .
-SCT- skattered - , , 3-4 .
-BKN- broken - , 5-7 .
-OVC- overcast - , 8 .
-SKC-sky clear - .
-NSC - nil significant cloud - .
, ,
c :- VV- vertical visibility .
, 30 .(100 ).
- Cb(cumulonimbus) -
TCU(towering cumulus).
9 CAVOKCAVOK (ceiling and visibility o'key) , :

- 10
- 1500 ( )
- - , : ,
, , , .
10 .
: (M)TT/(M)TdTd


, , 5,8 06, 10,2
10 ..
,
100%. , (minus).
: 03/02 - 3, 2 , 03/04 - 3,
4 .
( 0 -0.5 0 , 0 - 0 +0,4)
11 .
: QPhPhPhPh,

AphPhPhPh.

,
- QNH. QFE
RMK.
(inches of Mercury).
. : 1 .. = 1,333
() 1 = 0,75 .. 1 (inches) - 25,4 .. = 2,54 . ,
, Q (QNH,
- A (Altimeter-setting - ), : Q0992 QNH=992
77

, Q1000 QNH-1000 , 2907 QNH- 29,07 inches (), 3100


QNH-31,00 inches.
,
, , .., 982,8 Q0982, 1000,6 Q1000 ..

- AUTO METAR, SPECI


, ,
NDV.
, -UP.
,
, -///.
, ,
NCD.
,
, REUP.
12 -
METAR , SPECI
, .. ,
,
, .:

RErecent. : REFZDZ - recent freezing drizzle - , RETSRA recent thunderstorm with rain - , RESS - recent sandstorm -
..

DENEB,

:
Detection
Electromagnetique
des
Nuages
Et
de
Brouillard

:
DFS,
FDS
Dispersal Fog System - .
13 - TREND
: TREND FCST
2 .
2 , . :
)

:
BECMG - becoming - ,
.
TEMPO - temporary - -
. ,
.
78

NOSIG - significant change - -


, , 2 .
)

FM - from - - .

TL - till - - . AT - at - -
.
:
FM250800 - 25 8 00
L251520 - 25 15 20
250330 - 25 3 30
)

, .
)

, R.

NSW - significant weather -


)

. :

SKC - sky clear ~ .


NSC - significant clouds - (-
- 1500 )
TREND:
TEMPO 28030KT 0700 SQ TSRA - 2 :
280, 30 , 700 . .
FM250930 L251030 07009G16MPS 0400 DS W001 25- 9 30 10 30
070- 9 / , - 16 /, 400. ,
30 . 100 .
BECMG 1000 BR OVC008 - : 1000 , ,
8 800 240 .

RMK:
-QBB- . ,
/ 150 . , 30. .

: QBB110- / 110 .
14 -
: DrDrErCrererBrBr
DrDriuiM 57 - . 50, :
07 - 07
57 - 07
28 - 28
78 - 28 ..
88 99 :
88 -
99 - .
79

7 - ( ) :
0 -clear and dry -
1 - damp -
2 - wet or water patches -
3 - rime or frost covered -
4 - dry snow - 5- wet snow -
6 - slush -
7 - ice -
8 - compacted or rolled snow -
9 - frozen ruts or rigges - (, )
/ - not reporded -
5 - , . 4-

1 - 10%
2- 11 25%
5 - 26 50%
9 - 51 100%
/ - .

05 - 90 , :
0 - 1
1 - 1 - 5
14 - 14 ..
91 , 92-98 :
92 - 10

96 - 30

93 - 15

97 - 35

94 - 20

98 - 40

95 - 25

99 -

// -
93 -
- braking action - :
91 -poor -
92 -between poor/medium -
93 -medium -
94 -between medium /good -
95 - good -
99 - unreliable - , // - , .
- friction co-efficient - :
29 - 0.29
35 - 0.35
40 - 0.4 ..

80

: 0.25 ; 0.25 - 0.29 - ; 0.30 - 0.35 - ; 0.36 - 0.40 -


0.4 .
, ()
CLRD - cleared- , :
17CLRD95 - 17 , .
( )
SNOKLO (snow doused),
.
,
.
15 15
15 15 ( ).

ATIS .
, R :
1. SPECI 250815Z EBBR 15008KT 120V190 1200 SHRA OVC008CB 02/03 Q0999 SEV ICE IN
APCH NOSIG 17750392
25 , 8 15 UTC. EBBR
(), 150 8 ,
120 190. 1200 ., , 8
240 ., -. -2 -3, 999 ,
, 2 ,
17 26 50%, 3 ,
.
2. METAR 250800Z HECA VRB02KT 2000 DU 32/23 2980 BECMG 08008MPS 1000 BLSA
25 , 8 00 UTC. - (),
2 , 2000 ., , +32,
+23, 29.80 . 8 00 - 808 / - 1000, 6 .

16.2 ATIS, VOLMET


. ATIS - Automatic
Terminal Information Service -
.
ATIS ,
( 00 00 UTC).
, ,
: - ( ), - (), - () ..
Y - ( ).
ATIS ,
.
VOLMET
Meteorological Information for Aircraft in flight. ,
VOLMET .
, VOLMET
( ) SIGMET ( - NIL
SIGMET).

81

16.3 .
TAF
TAF,
(), 6 , ( 3 ).
-1 .
. ,
,
, ,

,
.
.

TAF

(TAF - TERNINAL AERODROME FORECAST)



1

(TAF)

CCCC

(YYGGggZ)

8
NsNsNsNshshshs

Y1Y1G1G1G2G2 /YYGGGG

10

(CAVOK)

(TTfTf/GfGfZ)

dddff(Gfgfg)

VVVV WW

11
(6Ichihihi tL )

VVhshshs
12
(5BhbhbhbtL)

13
(PROBC2C2 GGGeGe)

14
TTTTT GGGeGe
TTGG

:
1. TAF .
2. TAF ,
. , TAF
.
FC - forecast - , 12 .
12 , FT.
YY - .
GGgg- ( UTC) .
Z - .
Y1Y1- ,G1G1G2G-2 .
YY- ,GGGG- .
3. , ,
.
4. .
, .
:
SKC -
NSC -
NSW - ( )
5.
.
82

,
( )
.

1. TAF
TAF -
TAF AMD
TAF.
2.
- , .
3. YYGGggZ .
1
.
YY - ,
GGgg - UTC ( ) ,
Z - .
4. Y1Y1G1G1G2G2 ( UTC)
Y1Y1 - ,
G1G1G2G2 .
YY- ,
GGGG -
5. dddff(Gfgfg)
, METAR.
6. VVVV
.
, METAR.
.
.
7.

WW

, METAR.
8. NsNsNsNshshshs VVhshshs -
, ,
, METAR.
9. CAVOK
. 6, 7 ,8 , :
- 10 ;
- 1500 . , ), -
;
- , , , , (,
).
10. TTfTf/YYGGZ .
T - temperature - .
83

T fT f - .
0 .
YY-
GfGf - ( UTC), .
Z - .
.
: T01/151200Z 15 , 12.00 1.
11. 6Ichihihi tL .
12. 5BhbhbhbtL

6Ichihihi tL

5BhbhbhbtL

6 -

5-

Ic-

1 -

1 -

2-

2- ,

3 -

3 - ,

4 -

4 - ,

5 -

5 - ,

6 -

6 - ,

7-

7- ,

8-

8- ,

9 -

9 - ,

hihihi hbhbhb - (30)


000 -
tL - (300)
0 -

5 - 1500

1 - 300

6 - 1800

2 - 600

7 - 2100

3 - 900

8 - 2400

4 - 1200

9 - 2700

.
1. ,
, , 2700 ,
, 640109 - 300 3000.
510000 - .
2. 10, 11, 12 .
3. CB .
13. PROB C2C2 GGGeGe .
PROB - probability -
C2C2 - . 30 40 %
84

GGGeGe - , , (
UTC)
PROBC2C2 GGGeGe (),
.

. PROBC2C2 TEMPO, GGGeGe
., PROB30 TEMPO 151200/151600 ....
14. TTTTT YYGGGeGe/YYGGGeGe TTGG .
()
:
BECMG - becoming - - ,

. , BECMG
,
.
.
, FM .
TEMPO - temporary - - ,
, ,
,
.
YYGGGeGe/YYGGGeGe- . .
TTYYGG , - GG

.
. FM - from -
YYGG - UTC ( )
FMYYGGGG, ,
, , .

16.4 .
,
,
.
1. , , .

:
- (tropical cyclone)
- (thunderstorm)
- (hail, grain)
- (snow), 1000 ., 2 .
- (freezing rain, freezing drezzle)
- (rime or frost)
- (sandstorm)
- (duststorm)
- (rising sand or dust)
-
- (squall)
85

- 0 .
- . :-30.
- . : +30.
(.
METAR, TAF, SIGMET). .

16.5. .
,
500 (1600 ) .
- , ,
500, ,
, .

,
, .

.
-
. , :
)

16.6

S I G (significant

meteorological)
SIGMET
-OBS AND FCST - ,
(OBS - observe) (FCST - forecast).
UTC: OBS 0930 - 9
30 ., ,
.
SIGMET , 4 ( 6 )
. - 4 , - 6
.
. 12
, 6
. ,
, , 12
.
SIGMET ,
VOLMET, .
, 3 SIGMET:
1)
2)
3) .
.


:
86

TS - thunderstorm -
SQL TS - ,
GR - grain, hail -
- tropical cyclone -
SEV TURB - turbulence -
SEV ICE - icing -
ICE(FZRA) -
SEV MTW - mountain wawes -
SEV DS - duststorm -
SEV SS - sandstorm -
VA - volcanic ash - .
:
-OBSC TS, (OBSC TSGR)- obscured- , ( ) ,
, - .
- EMBD TS, (EMBD TSGR) embedded-
.. .
-FRQ TS (FRQ TSGR)- frequent- ,
( - 75%).
-SQL TS (SQL TSGR)- squall line
.
SIGMET ,
,
:
-
- -
-
-

, SIGMET:
1

WSUK 31 EGGY 170910Z


4

EGLL SIGMET 2 VALID 171000/171400


7
EGKK11

LONDON
12

FIR
13

10
OBSC

TS

HVY

GR

OBS

AND

FCST

14

S OF 52N TOPS F390 MOV NE 15KT NC=


SIGMET
:
1.WS-Weather - . SIGMET UK -
() 31 -
2. EGGY -
3. 170910Z - (17- , 9 . 10.)
4. EGLL - , ,
SIGMET.
87

5. SIGMET 2 - .
:
NR 5 - number 5 (.) - 5 NO 3 - numero 3 (.)- 3
6.
VALID
:

171000/171400

Validity--

171000 - ( 17- , 10 00 UTC)


171400 - (17140- 17- , 14 00 UTC).
EGKK
LONDON
FIR

.
6. SIGMET
(EGKK)

, :

LONDON FIR - London flight information region- . SIGMET


,
UIR:
LFPO UIR - LFPO upper flight information region - ( LFPO).
8.
OBSC,
:

HVY

LAND AREAS -
COAST -
MAR -
GND - ground -
SURFC, SFC - surface -
INC - in clouds -
ASSW - associated with -
:
TOPS FL390 -tops flight level 390 - ( ) 390
BASE 3000FT - base 3000 feet - 3000
BTN FL250-350 - between - 250 350
BLW 2000M - below - 2000
ABV FL300 - above - 300
LOW LEVEL - ( 3000 )
MOV
NE
moving
north-east
.

:
MOV FM S - moving from south -
MOV W - moving west -
MOV N - moving to north - ..
15 -15 knots -
.

( - kilometers per hour).


, :
SLW - slowly - ( 10 /). STNR - stationary -
, .
NC
:

()

WKN - weaken - .
INTSF - intensify - .
88

NC - change -
, SIGMET - , cancel ,
: CANCEL - CANCELLED - CNL .

16.6.1 SIGMET :
SIGMET
, SIGMET,
12 . , 12
,
6 .
SIGMET :
RJJM SIGMET 3 VALID 021530/022130
RJAA - OSACA FIR GLADIS OBS 25.3N 136.8E AT 1530UTC FRQ TS TOPS FL450 WI 160NM OF
CENTRE MOV N 20KT
OTLK TC CENTRE 022300 26.7N 136.6E 030400 28.2N 136.4E=
: WI - within - - .
NM - nautical miles - .
CENTRE-.
OTLK - outlook - , .
:
- RJJM, SIGMET 3 2-
15 . 21 30 . - RJAA
. 25.3'... 136.8.. 15 .
450 160 .
20 .
4- - : 2-
23 00 - 26.7'.. 136.6'., 3- 4
00 28.2'.. 136.4..
SIGMET :
PAFR SIGMET 4 VALID 10200/110200
PANC - ANCHORAGE FIR VOLCANO SANFORD ERUPTED 101640
VA ASH CLOUD EXTENDING APRX TO 20000FT MOV
10KT SW FCST - 110600 VA EXTENDING OVER RGN 67N 146W 61N 150W
111000 68N 157W 58N 152W
: VOLCANO .- ERUPTION- ,
ASH CLOUD - .
EXTENDING - .
R - approximately .
RGN - region .
:

- PAFR, SIGMET 4 10
20 00 2 00 11 .
.

89

10 16 40 .
20000 .
10 -, .
5 6- - : 11 6 00
, 67 61 .. , 146 150..
11 11 00 , 68 58 .., 157
152...
16.7 GAMET.
GAMET - ,
,
.
GAMET 3
/ , :
0200 FA 0309
0500 FA 0612 ..
6 .
:
GAMET, ,
, 1
.

. :
FARS32 RUSP 241400 AAA
ULOL GAMET AMD VALID 241500/242100 ULOLULOL VELIKIE LUKI FIR BLW FL100 CNL AT 1600Z=
, GAMET :
- /(MPS), / ()
- () (AGL) ,
() (AMSL).
GAMET
. (Doc 8400 ).
GAMET 2 . 1
, , ..
AIRMET, 9 , ,
2 , ,
.
, , , ,
GAMET , .

:

) , (-) ,
(-) . , USSS.
) GAMET.
) -, UTC, ,
VALID 220600/221200.

90

) , ,
; , USSS/
) - ,
: : EKATERINBURG FIR/2
BLW FL120.
) -
SECN I.
) , 60/, 30 .,
15/. , SFC WSPD: 10/12 65 KMH.
) 5000.,
, . : SFC VIS: 06/08 3000 M BR N OF N051.
) , (
, SIGMET.
: SIGWX: 11/12 ISOL TS.
) , , MT OBSC: MT PASSES S OF N048.
) /
3000.(1000 ) (AGL) (AMSL) /
- ( ) (TCU) /
/. : SIG CLD : 06/09 OVC 8000/1000 FT AGL N OF N51 10/12 ISOL TCU 1200/8000 FT
AGL.
) ( ,
SIGMET).
: ICE: MOD FL050/080. MTW; MOD ABV FL080 E OF N63.
)
(
, SIGMET).
: TURB: MOD ABV FL090.
) ( ,
SIGMET ). : MOD ABV FL080 E OF N63.
) SIGMET , ,
, : SIGMET APPLICABLE: 3, 5.
) -
SECN II.
) , . : PSYS: 06 L 1004
HPA N5130 E01000 MOV NE 25 KT WKN.
) , : 600, 1500,
3000 (2000, 5000 10000 ). : WIND/T : 2000 FT 270/70 KMH PS03 5000 FT 250/80
KMH MS02 10000 FT 240/85 KMH MS11.
) , , ,
/ / (AGL) (AMSL).
: CLD: BKN SC 2500/800 FT AGL.
) () 0 ,
/ , . :
FZLVL: 3000 FT AGL.
) QNH . : MNM
QNH:1004 HPA.
) ,
. : SEA: T15 HGT 5M.
) , ,
, , .
91

: VA: MT. HOKKAIDO KOMAGATAKE PSN N4255 E14040 ERUPTED VA CLD TOP 4900
FT MOV SE.
, , ,
SIGMET , 1,
, . 1 HAZARDOUS WX NIL..
16.8
,
, .
.
,
, , .
, :
12

MCI SA 0758 15SCT 25 OVC 1R-F 132/58/56/1807/993/ 10 /R01VR20V40=


:
1. MCI - , .
2. SA - .
: SA - scheduled aviation -
. SP - special observation -
RS - record special - , .
URS - urgent special - . .
3.

0758 - UTC(zulu)

4.

15SCT M250VC - .

,
.
, : - aircraft - ,
- balloon - - estimated -
- measured - R - radar -
W - vertical visibility - , (obscuring sky).
, , : 5
- 500 (150 ) 15 - 1500 (450 ) 150 - 15000 (45Q0 ) ..

(10 , . )
, ,
V (variable), :12V16 - 1200
1600 . 9V11 - 900 1100 .
,
, ,
.

:
AGL - above ground level - ().
: CLR - clear - , FEW, (1-2 )
SCT - scattered - (3-4 ).
BKN - broken - , (5-7 )
OVC - overcast - (8 )
92

-, SCT, BKN, OVC


.
-X -obscuration partial - - 9
- (, )
X - obscuration - , -
.
(TCU - towering cumulus). ( - cumulonimbus) ,
:
M20BKN TCU - 5-7
- 2000
, , Cumulonimbus,
towering cumulus, : THUMB, BUILD UP - , .
:

15SCT 25 OVC - 1-4


1500 , 8 2500
.
5. 1R-F - , .

: 1SM (1 statute mile) = 1600


, .
, ,
+: 6+ - 6 .
(10 , )
, , ,
V - vary, :
2V21/2 -
1/4VI3/4 -
.
, ,
: - very light - - - light - , moderate , + - heavy - .

:
1R-F - 1 . (1600 )

.
132
,

(QNH).
, .
9 10 , :132 13,2 - 1013,2 mb (hPa),980 - 98,0 - 998,0.
7.
58/56
(F)
8.

1807 - .

( ).
( ):
1807 180 -7
: 0000.
LV - light variable -
93

G (gust): 1217G27 120 17 , 27


.
Q (squall): 0818Q30 80 18 ,
30 .
9.
993

,
(altimeter-setting).

(QNH),

- , . ,
2 3 ,
28 32, : 993 - 9,93 - 29,93 inches 880 - 8,80 - 28,80 072 - 0,72 - 30,72 115 1,15 - 31,15 ..
10.

R01VR20V40 - ,

REMARKS - , .
: R01 - runway - 01 VR - visual range - ,
.
,
VR VV (visual visibility)
, ;
VV11/4 - 20V40 -
2000 4000 : 01 2000 400 .
:
R18VR15 - runway 18 visual range 1500 feet - 18 1500
R04LVR12 - runway 04 left visual range 1200 feet - 04 1200
R34VV1 - runway 34 visual visibility 1 statute mile - 34 1
..
REMARKS ,
- ,
, , .

. , (
/, ). ,
, ,
MSL - mean sea level - ASL - above sea level
, ,
:
23 OVC - (top) 2300
.
BASE 15 BKN - (base) 1500 .

C90VC - - ( - ceiling) 900


. -
, , ,
, . :
VSBY 2 S - visibility 2 miles to south - 2 . .
VSBY 11/4 NE 1 N - 1 -, 1 /.
,
, , .
:
:
94

1, ICG - icing - ICGIC - icing in cloud - .


ICGIP - icing in precipitation -
LLWS - low level wind shear -
LTGCC - lightning cloud - cloud -
LTGCG - lightning cloud - ground -
SQL - squall -
TORNADO - ()
TSTM - thunderstorm -
TURB, - turbulence -
TORNADO - ,
WATER SPOUT -
WSHPT - wind shift -
WX - weather -
- : LGT - light -
MDT - moderate - HVY - heavy - SVR - severe - XTRM exstreme - ISOL - isolated - OCNL - occasional - FQT - frequent
OBSC - obscure - EMBD - embeded -
: HND - hundred - THSD - thousand - BLO below - LO - low - LWR - lower - UPR - upper - ABV - above -

REMARKS
. .
(.. 6). {beginning) , (end) - .
( ) - , : RE07 Rain End 07 - 07 RSE19 - Rain and Snow End 19 19 . ZLE25 - freeZing drizzLe End 25 -
25 , SB34 - Snow Begin 34 - 34 ,
RWB45 - Rain shoWer Begin 45 - 45 .IPB52 - Ice Pellets Begin
52 - 52 .
16.8.1 .


,
.
: 0.40
- (good) 0.36 - 0.39 - (medium/good) 0.30 - 0.35 (medium) 0.26 - 0.29 - (poor/medium) 0.21 - 0.25 - (poor) 0.20
- (NIL).
:
WR - wet runway - ; SLR - slush runway -
LSR - loose snow runway - ; IR - ice runway - ; FR frost runway -
S - hard packed snow - ; - patchy - ,
, WRP - wet runway
patchy - .. SA - sand applied - UA - urea
applied - .
95

, .
[19]

12 3
PWM
12

RS

6
1755

7
8
9
02
12

M19V

10
OVC

1R-F

125/36/34/2116G24/990/

R29LVR10V50 CIG 16V22 TWR VSBY 2 WND 2032/1732


12 PRESFRZRNO $=
:
1. PWM - ().
2.
RS

RS - record special - ,

SA - scheduled record hourly- SP special record - USP - urgent special - (


)
3.
1755
UTC.
4.

02 -

- Automatic Observation -
02, 02 - .
AWOS - Automatic Weather Observing System -
AMOS - Automatic Meteorological Observing Station -

RAMOS - Remote Automatic Meteorological Observing Station -



AUTOB - Automatic Observing Station -
ASOS - Automatic Surface Observation System - .
5.
M19V
OVC

- measured -
- estimated - . ,
.
(
).
V(variable), .
(Remarks) .
: 7 - 700 27 -
2700 30V -
3000 ,
.
: CLR BLO 120 - clear below 120 -
12000 ( )
CLR BLO 60 - clear below 60 - 6000 2
. .

96

NO CLD BLO 40 -no clouds below 40 - 4000 SCT - scattered -


1-4 1-5 BKN - broken- 5-7 6-9 OVC - overcast - 8
10 W - vertical visibility - X - obscured -
, :
- missing - , CHI - cloud height indicator -
.
6. 1R-F - .
SM -statut miles (1 1600 )
: 1/4 - - - 11/4 - 11/2 - 13/4 -
21/2 - 31/2 - ..
, 10+, - 10 SM.
BV - backscattered visibility - ,
. 1 7
SM, : BV5 - 5 ..
V, . :
31/2V - , 3 ..
.
M(missing),
.
OTV -Obstruction To Vision,
7SM.
: - precipitation -
S+, S, S- - , , +, R, R- - , ,
ZR - - -
F - . -
TORNADO - , (, ) VOLCANIC ASH or VA - .
125 - , - QNH.
9 10,
: 125 - 1012,5 .

.
8.

36/34 - .

. -.
,
. :
/ - .
-6/-8 - -6F, -8F.
9.

2116G24 -

- , -
.
G, - Q. : 2116G24 210 16 , 24 0920Q34 - 90 20 , 34 .
, , , :
0715 - estimated wind 0715 - 70 15 .
10.
990

BbicoTOMepa.(QNH).

97

2 3: 990 - 9.90 - 29.90 inches.


QNH, -
- Density altitude.
, ,
.
- ,
. , - ,

.
: ,
. ,
, , ,
,
, ,
. ,
, .
( 10-13%)
. 4-10% ,
, .
11. Cumulative precipitation - .
, ,
, 6- ,
. , ,
( UTC): 00 06 , 06 12 , 12 18 18 24 .

3- .
12.
R29LVR10V50 CIG 16V22 TWR VSBY 2 PK WND 2032/1732 PRESFR ZRNO $ -
, -REMARKS
:
1)

R - runway -

.-R29LVR10V50.

29L -29 left- 20


VR - visual range - 10V50 - 1000
5000
, , -,
:
R11RVR2- 11 200
, +, : R07VR60+ - 07
6000 .
,
- Visual visibility . VR
VV, :
R27VV4.5 - runway 27 visual visibility 4.5 SM - 27 4,5 .
R05CVV3 - 05 3 . R13W0.7 - 13
0,7 . R22LVV9+ - 22 9 ..
2)

VIRGA

VIRGA VCNTY STN - virga in the vicinity of station


( 35 . )
3)

98

: min Vmax - ceiling minimum Variable maximum. : CIG 5V10 500 1000 (150 - 300 ) CIG 20V30 -
2000 3000
4)

: VSBY 1/2VI1/2 - ( )
( ).
VSBY 1VI1/4 - .
SFC VSBY - surface visibility of mile- .
5)

TWR VSBY- tower visibility. , : TWR VSBY 1 -


1 .
6)

: Btt - Ett

- begining, E - end - , tt
, :
FB10E55 - Fog Begining 10 minutes End 55 minutes of this hour - 10 ,
55 .
0322 - Haze Begining 03 min End 22 min - 03 , 22

RB05E20SB20E50 - Rain Begining 05 min End 20 min, Snow Begining 20 min End 50 min -
05 20 , 20 50 .
7)

PCPN - Precipitation rrrr, PCPN -


rrrr - . : PCPN0005 - 0,005
( 0,125 )
PCPN0020 - 0,02 ( 0,5 )
PCPN0000 - (trace)
, .

- , . ,
4 .
3, 6, 7 -
:
3 - , 3- 6 - 6-
7 - , 6 , .
,

: 3009 - 0,09 ; 0050 -


0,5 . 7,
7 ( ),
, ,
:7117 - 1 ( 25,4 ) 17 ; 7224 2 24 .
7 .
8)

: WSHFT mm, WSHFT - wind shift -


hh mm - UTC.
5 10 UTC.

: WSHFT0510 -

99

9)

: WND ddVdjdj.

WND - wind -
dd, did - V - vary - :
WND 03VI2 - 30 120.
10)

: WND ddff/hhmm

WND - peafe wind - ddff -


hhmm - UTC. : WND
2835/0710 - 280' 35 7
10 UTC. WND 0222/1432 - 20-22
14 32 UTC.
) - Pressure Change/
Tendency. : PBJMP - PRessure JuMP -
PRESFR - PRESsure Falling Rapidly - PRESBR - PRESure Rising Rapidly -
.

JMP - JuMP - FR - Falling Rapidly - RR - Rising Rapidly . :


PRJMP 13/1250/1312 - 0,13 12 50 13
12 .
PRESRR 05/0710/0755 - 0,05 7 10 7 55

PRESFR 10/1216/1248 - 0,1 12 16 12 48

JMP 09/1005 - 0.09 10 05


.
12) , , - :
PWINO - Present Weather Identification Not Operational - ()
.
ZRNO - freeZing Rain Not Operational -
TNO - Thunderstorm Not Operational - ,
IS) $ - - .
, ,
: , PWINO, ZRNO, TNO. : ZRNO $ -
.
$ ,
- .
14)
WEA - WEather Approach -
.

, ,
( ), 3
( OTV - obstruction To Vision).

100

16.9
.

-altimeter-setting-
ABV - above .
AMD-amend-.
AT-at-.
AFI - Africe/Indian - /
AFT - after - AIREP - air report -
- approach - APRX - approximately
ARP - air report - ARS - air report special -
ASC - ascending
ASH - ash -
ASSW - assosiated with -
AVBL - available -
BASE - base -
BCFG - fog patches -
BECMG - becoming -
BKN - broken - , 5-7
BL - blowing - 2
BLW - below -
BR - brume, mist
BTN - between
- central -
CALM - calm
- cumulonimbus - -
CAT - clear air turbulence' -
CLD - cloud -
CLRD - cleared -
CNL - cancelled
COAST - coast -
CROSS WND - cross wind -
D - down, downward - ,
DEG - degrees
DENEB -
DES - descending -
DFS - dispersial fog system -
DIF - diffuse -
DP - dew point -
DR - drifting - 2
DS - duststorm -
101

DU - dust -
DZ - drizzle
- east
EMBD - embeded -
END - end -
ERUPTED - erupted -
EXTENDING - extending
F - flight level
FBL - feeble - ,
FT - forecast - 18/24
FC - funnel clouds - ,
FCST - forecast - ,
FG - fog -
FIR - flight information region -
FIT - frontal inter tropical -
FL - flight level -
FLUC - fluctuating -
FM - from -
FRONT - front
FRQ - frequent -
FT - feet -
FU - fume
FUEL - fuel -
FZDZ - freezing drizzle - ()
FZRA - freezing rain - .
G - gust -
GND - ground -
GR - grain -
GS - grain small - ,
- high -
HG - height -
HRCN - hurricaine
HVY - heavy
HZ - haze
I - ice crystals -
ICE - icing -
INS, INCHS - inches
INTSF - intensify -
ISOL - isolated
KMH - kilometres per hour -
102

KT - knots
L - left -
L - low -
LAND - land -
LDG - landing
Less -
LGT, LIGHT - light - , ,
LL - left left -
LLWS - low level wind shear -
LYR- layer-
- magnetic
-
- minus -
MAR - maritime -
- maximum -
MEAN - mean -
METAR- meteorological actual report -
MID - middle -
MIFG - (minimum) shallow fog -
MIN, MNM - minimum -
MOD - moderate -
MOV - moving -
MPS - metres per second -
MSL - mean sea level -
MT - mountain -
MTW - mountain waves -
NC- no change -
N - north -
NAT - North Atlantic -
NE - north-east - -
NEXT - next -
NIL - nil - ,
NM - nautical miles -
NOSIG - no significant change -
NR - number -
NSC - no significant clouds -
NSW - no significant weather -
OBS - observed -
OBSC - obscure -
OCNL - occasional -
103

OTLK - outlook -
OVC - overcast
P - passed -
- Pacific -
PART - part
- pellets -
- (pole) dust whirl - ()
PROB - probability -
PS - plus -
PY - spray - ,
Q - , ()
QNH - ,
QFE - ,
QNE - , 760 ( .)
R - right
R - runway
RA - rain -
RASN - rain and snow -
RE - recent -
RGN - region
RR - right right -
RVR - runway visual.range - RWY - runway
S - south
SA - sand -
SA - summary actual -
SCT - scattered - , 1-4
SE - south-east - -
SEV - severe -
SFC, SFCE - surface - ,
SH - shower - ,
SG - snow grains -
SIGMET - significant meteorological -
SKC - sky clear -
SLW - slow -
SN- snow -
SNOCLO - snow closed -
SPECI - special -
SPOT - spot -
SQ- squall -
STG - slight -
104

STNR - stationary -
STORM - storm - , ,
SURFC - surface -
SW - south-west - -
- temperature
TAIL - tail -
TAF - terminal aerodrom forecast - TAF
- tropical cyclone -
TCU - towering cumulus -
TDZ - touch down zone -
TEMPO - temporary
TIME TRANS - time transmetted -
TKOF - take-off -
TL- till -
TORNADO - tornado - ,
TOP - top - ,
TREND - 2-
TRUE - true -
TS - thunderstorm
TURB - turbulence -
TYPH - typhoon - ,
U - up, upward - ,
UIR - upper flight informatin region -
UP - unknown precipitation -
V - vary -
VA - volcanic ash -
VALID - validity -
VALUE - value - ,
VAL - valley -
VAR - volcanic air report -
VC - viciniy -
VIS - visibility -
VRB - variable - ,
VSP - vertical speed -
VV - vertical visibility -
W - west -
WARM - warm -
Water spout -
WI - within -
WKN - weaken -
105

WND - wind -
WRNG - warning -
WS - weather significant - SIGMET
WS - wind shear -

16.10 ,
.
, ACCAS - altocumulus castellanus - -
ACTV - active -
AFT - after -
AFDK - after dark -
AGL - above ground level -
ALT - altitude -
AMD, AMDTS - amendment - ()
AMOS - , 02, 02 -
- at or above -
- at or below -
APRCH - approach -
ASL - above sea level -
AWIS - Aviation Weather Information Service -

- begin -
BCKG - backing - ,
BD - blowing dust -
BFR - before -
BFDK - before dark -
BIN - breaks in overcast -
BL - between layeres -
BLZD - blizzard - ,
BN - blowing sand -
BNK - bank - ,
BOVC - base of overcast -
BS - blowing snow - ( )
BUILD UP - ( )
BV - backscattered visibility -
- ceiling
- cumulonimbus mamma - - ..
CF - cumulus fractus -.
CFP - cold front passed -
- chance - ,
106

CHI - cloud height indicator -


CLNC - clearence - CLR - clear -
CLRS - clear and smooth -
CN - Canada- CONDS - conditions
CONTUS - continuous - ,
COR - correction - ,
CST - coast -
CTR - centre -
CUFRA - cumulus fractus -
CYC - cyclonic -
D - dust - , .
DCRG - decreasing -
DEG - degrees -
DFUS - diffuse - ,
DRFTG - drifting - ,
DP - deep -
DSNT - distant - ,
DNST - density - ,
DVLPG - developing -
DUR, DURG - during -
DWNDFTS - downdrif ts -
E - east -
E - end -
E - estimated
ERN - eastern -
FNT - front -
FROPA - frontal passage -
FRZG - freezing
FT - feet -
FQT - frequent -
GF - ground fog -
GND - ground
GNDL - ground level -
- haze -
HI - high
HIR - higher - ,
HND - hundred -
HLYR - haze layer aloft -
HR - hour -
HVY - heavy .
107

HRBR - harbour
I - ice crystals -
ICE, ICG - icing -
ICGIC - icing in clouds -
ICGIP - icing in precipitations -
IF - icing fog -
IFR - Instrumental Flight Rules -
1 3 . 500 1000
INCRG - increasing
INTMT - intermitten -
IP - ice pellets -
IPV - ixnprouve -
IPW - ice pellets shower -
JBI - James Brake Index -
KLYR - smoke layer aloft -
KOCTY - smoke over city -
LGT - light - ,
LIFR - Low Insrumental Flight Rules -
- 1 .
500
LIMITED - , (amer.) -
LLWS - low level wind shear -
LO - low - ,
LTG, LTNG - lightning - ,
LTGCC - lightning cloud-cloud -
LTGCG - lightning cloud-ground -
LTGIC - lightning in cloud -
LV - light variable -
LVL - level
LWR - lower - ,
LYR - layer
- measured -
- missing - ,
MDT - moderate -
MLTLVL - melting level -
MOVG - moving - ,
- mile per hour -
MSL - mean sea level -
MSTR - moisture -
MTNS - mountains - ,
108

MVFR - Marginal Visual Flight Rules -


() - 3 5 .,
1000 3000 .

MXD - mixed -
N - north -
NAT - North Atlantic -
NE - north-east - -
NR - near - ,
NR - number
NRN - northern
NS - nimbostratus - -
OAT - outside air temperature -
OBSN - observations -
OCFNT - occluded front -
OCLN - occlusion -
OCNL - occasionally -
OFP - occluded frontal passage -
OMTNS - over mountains -
OTL, OTLK - Outlooks -
OTV - Obstruction to Vision -
OVHD - overhead - ,
OVR - over
- precipitation - ,
PAWRS - Private Aviation Weather Reporting Station -
PD - period -
PCPN -'precipitation .
- peak -
PRES - pressure -
PRESFR.- pressure falling rapidly -
PRESRR - pressure rising rapidly -
RPJMP - pressure jump -
PROG - prognostic -
PSN - position -
PTCHY - patchy - ,
PWINO - Present Weather Indication Not Operational -

PY - spray - ,
Q - squall -
QDS, QUAD - quadrants - ( - )
QSTNRY - quasistationary
109

R - rain -
RAMOS - Remote Automatic

Meteorological

Observing

Station

RE - recent -
READAC - Remote Environmental Automatic Data Acquisition Concept
RGD - ragged
RGN - region
RGT - right - ,
RISK - risk -
RS - regular special -
RSC - Runway Surface Condition - ,

RTD - Received Time Delay - ,
RW - rain shower -
RWU - rain shower of unknown intensity -

RWY - runway
S - south
SN - snow -
SA - scheduled aviation -
SAWR - Special Aviation Weather Report - (
)
S - south-east - -
SF - stratus fractus - -
SFC - surface -
SG - snow grains -
SLGT - slight -
SLO - slow -
SM - statute mile -
SNOINCR - snow depth increase in past hour -

SNWFL - snowfall -
SP - special -
SF - snow pellets -
SPLS - specials -
SQL - squall
SQLN - line squall -
SRN - southern -
STFRA - stratus fractus - -
STG - strong - ,
110

STN - station -
STM - storm - ,
SVR - severe -
SW - snow shower - SW - south-west - -
SWU - snow shower of uknown intensity -
S- thunderstorm
- turbulence -
TCU - towering cumulus -
THN - thin
THSD - thousand -
TIL - until -
TNO - thunderstorm no operate -

TOPS - tops - ,
TOVC - top of overcast -
TROWAL - trough of warm air aloft-
TWR - tower - -
THUMB - ( )
U - up - , UP - unknown precipitation -
( )
UPDFTS - updrafts -
UPR - upper -
US - Unated States -
USP - Urgent Special -
UTC - Universal Time Coordinated -
VAR - variation

VCNTY - vicinity
VFR - Visual Flight Rules -
5 .
3000 VFR WND - VFR 25
( ).
VRGA - virga -
VLGT - very light -
VMC - Visual Meteorological Conditions -
VR - visual range -
VRBL - variable -
()
VSBY - visibility
V - visual visibility - ( . )
VV - vertical visibility -
111

W - west -
WEA - weather approach -
WET SNW - wet snow -
WFP - warm front passed -
WI - within -
WND - wind
WNG - warning -
WRM - warm -
WRN - western
WSHFT - wind shift -
WV - wave -
X XTND - extending -
XTRM - extreme

112

17. :
1. .., . ., . . . ., "",
1985. A.M., . . .. , 1981.
2. A.M. . ., "". 1971.
4. .. . 1987.
5. .. - 1996
6 ..
. 1996.
7. 3 15 ,2004.
8. .., .. , ,
, . ., , 1979.
9. .. . ., , 1983.
10. .., .. . .,
"", 1978.
11. 3.
, . 2009.
12. ( -95).
13. -
31.05.2009
14. , , 1995.
15. -. 2009.

113