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Surface Equipment

Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Confidential
Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV

High V

50/60 Hz

Power

Surface Equipment Options for ESPs

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

Provides a connection point for the


surface cable from the motor control
panel to the power cable in the wellbore
coming from the wellhead .
Allows for any gas to vent that may
have migrated through to the power
cable.
Provides easy accessible test point for
electrically checking downhole
equipment.
Minimum required distance from
wellhead : 35 ft; minimum required
distance from switchboard: 15 ft.

Junction box / Vent Box

Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV

High V

50/60 Hz

Power

4) Controller

3) VSD

2) Switchboard

1) Transformer

Components

Four Main

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

Surface Equipment Options for ESPs

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

Rates (BPD)

HP

kVA

Surface Equipment is measured in terms of:

Motors are measured in terms of:

TDH (feet)

Pumps are measured in terms of:

Size of Surface Equipment

Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV

High V

50/60 Hz

Power

kVA = 229 kVA

1000

kVA = 2200 x 60 x 1.732

1000

kVA = Volts x Amps x 3


Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

Surface Equipment Options for ESPs

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

The main function of the motor


controller is to protect the ESP motor
(primarily) by measuring the surface
current and voltage (overload and
underload)
Other parameters can be added to the
controller wellhead pressure, flow/no
flow, etc.
The controller also provides the
capability to monitor performance of
downhole electrical system (current,
voltage, frequency, etc).

Motor Controller

Schlumberger Private

A transformer will not add power to a


system

A transformer will not change amperage


or frequency

A transformer will change voltage from


one value to another.

Transformer
Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Confidential
Private

the voltage.

and a different number wire windings on the other side to change

Normally there is an iron core that has wire windings one side

How does it work?

Schlumberger Private

V = 11000V

1:1

VS = 11000V

Transformer with the same number of


windings:
Schlumberger Private

V = 11000V

5:1

V = 2200V

Transformer with the different number of


windings:
Schlumberger Private

Temperature

Paint

Spill Pans

kVA Size

Efficiency

Need to consider:

VSD Rated

Oil Filled

Dry Type (Air Cooled)

Transformer Types

Schlumberger Private

Only if temperature is not a concern

Only if there are no losses in any of the


other surface components

229 KVA?

What Size Transformer is


Required for this system?
Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Confidential
Private

A switchboard will not add power to a


system

A switchboard will not change amperage


or frequency

A switchboard is basically an on/off


switch.

Switchboard
Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Confidential
Private

Motor

Main Contactor

Power Fuses

Main Disconnect

Switchboard Diagram

Schlumberger Private

Disconnect Switch Mechanical, Fused

Power Fuses Short Circuit Protection

Vacuum Contactor Main Power Switching

Lightning Arrestors Voltage Surge Protection

Enclosure 12 Gauge Metal Construction,


NEMA 3

Major components

FixStar MCP Switchboards

Schlumberger Private

Main Disconnect switch/circuit breaker, Vacuum


(air break) contactor & lightning arrestor
Separate high & low voltage compartments
UniConn + UniConn CT Module & Burden
Module
3 instrument potential transformer & A095
Backspin Shunt full spec system

Bristol Ampchart recorder


Red/Green/Amber status lights, H-O-A switch

Not included as standard:

Standard features:

FixStar -Features

Schlumberger Private

UniConn Comm.Card

Battery Enclosure

SCB Back Panel

Antenna

Internal SCB

FixStar Switchboard Options

Schlumberger Private

Motor Controller

Pilot Devices: indicator lights and switches

Protection : primary transformer fuses, secondary


circuit breakers

Backspin Shunt Backspin Detection

Current Transformers Current Monitoring

Instrument Potential Transformers Voltage


Monitoring

Control Power Transformer

Auxiliary Equipment Motor Control

FixStar MCP Switchboards

Schlumberger Private

Cable Pack

UniConn Memory Module

UniConn Phoenix Interface Card

Choke

Phoenix Surface Kit

FixStar Switchboard Options

Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV

High V

50/60 Hz

Power

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

Surface Equipment Options for ESPs

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV

High V

f
Tr
a
ns

50/60 Hz

2200
V
S
w
itc

er
or
m

rd
h
b
oa

Power

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

Medium Voltage Switchboard

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV
f
Tr
a
ns

High V
480V
S
w
itc

er
or
m

rd
h
b
oa

50/60 Hz

480V
T
r
an

er
rm
s fo

Power

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

2200
V

Low Voltage Switchboard

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

A VSD will not add power to a


system

A VSD will not change amperage

A VSD can turn an ESP on and off and


control the frequency

VSD
Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Confidential
Private

Time, or "period" = 1 second

20 cycles = 20 Hertz

60 cycles = 60 Hertz

Alternating Current

Schlumberger Private

New technology has allowed medium voltage


VSDs to be become affordable and will likely
be the standard in the future.

However, most VSDs in the oil industry are


low voltages.

VSDs also come in a low and medium


voltage design.
Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV
f
Tr
a
ns

High V
er
or
m

50/60 Hz

480V
480V
T
r
an

er
rm
s fo

Power

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

2200
V

Low Voltage VSD

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

VS
D

Capacitor
(DC Bus)

Control Logic

IGBT
(Inverter)

MOTOR

IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor): to invert DC


power into a varying AC power

Capacitors: to help smooth DC output

Diode: to convert AC power to DC power

Diode
(Converter)

VSD Operation

Schlumberger Private

D e f D is k : In te r na l

1
V

-1

0s

0Hz

Hz

X : 3 9. 0 62 5 m s

X:60

Y:7 4 7 .4 7 3 m V

Y:4 5 2 .1 3 2 m V r m s

100ms

1 .6 kH z

Poor Current wave form


caused excessive heating and
vibrations, therefore reduced
motor run life

/d iv

200
mV

C H 2 T im e

R eal

B:

V rm s

50
m Vrms
/d iv

500
m Vrms

C H 2 L in S p e c

L in M a g

A:

D a te : 0 1 -2 0 -9 7 T im e : 0 8 :5 3 :0 0 A M

S ave / R e c

Standard Six Step


Current

1
V

-1
V
0s

0 Hz
X:5 1.269 5 ms

Hz

Y:74 4.68 mV

Y:28 2.229 mVr ms

1 24.87 79ms

3.2k Hz

Better current wave form


near to a Sine wave

/div

200
mV

C H1 T ime

Rea l

B:

V rms

40
m Vrm s
/div

C H1 L in S pec
400
m Vrm s

LinM ag

A:

X:6 4

D ef Disk: In ter nal

Date : 01- 23-97 Tim e: 09:33:00 AM

Save/R ec

SWD Current

Output Wave Shapes

Schlumberger Private

Back
into the
power
system

Down to
the ESP

VSD Cause Harmonics to go both ways

Schlumberger Private

Proportion surviving

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

1000

Runlife
PWM or
6 Step VSD

2000

4000
Installed days
LRT: p=0 CPH: p=0

3000

5000

6000

7000

Traditional VSDs (> 20% THD)

SpeedStar SWD/MVD (< 20% THD)

Steadily increasing run-life over 15 year sample period. Proportion surviving


is not representative of present run-life experience

Runlife
SineWave VSD

Assumptions & Notes


SWB
 Switchboard statistics are relevant for all sine wave applications.
Unknown/VSD
 VSD statistics are relevant for all VSD types.
 Statistical sample of 20,000+ ESP System applications collated over a 15
year period.
 All failure types (surface and down-hole related) and non-failure pulls
included in statistical sample.

CPH-survival
curves
for paneltype
ESP System Survival
Sine Wave
vs Unfiltered
VSD Output Waveform

Schlumberger Private

17

12

11

Year

16
12

10

Using SWD total: 55 pulls

Using all other VSD types total: 74 pulls (34.5% MORE)

Graph shows number of units to be pulled in the next five years:

16

20

PWM VSD w/output filter

Generated for an offshore field with 44 wells, all w/VSDs 22 SWD

10

15

20

25

All other VSD Types

No. ESP failure

Field Performance Impact - Example

Schlumberger Private

Installed at output of VSD.


Purpose: reduce/eliminate
harmonics generated in the VSD
going downhole.
Harmonics severely increase
electrical stresses on dowhole ESP
electrical system, decreasing
runlife.
Has to be tuned prior to every
installation (application specific setup).

Load filter

Schlumberger Private

Installed at input of VSD.


Purpose: reduce/eliminate
harmonics generated in the
VSD reflected back to power
source, which could generate
damage on other power users
(even shut down the grid on
occasions).
Designed-specific for every
application, after conducting
harmonics power study.

Harmonic Line filter

Schlumberger Private

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV
f
T
r
an
s

High V
er
or
m

50/60 Hz

Low Voltage VSD

T
r
an

er
rm
s fo

Power

Li

ne
F
ilt e r
ne
F
ilt e r
Li

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

Loa
d
F
ilter

VS
D

460

415

380

Low V

11 KV

13.8 KV

33 KV

High V

50/60 Hz

Power

6.9 KV

3.0 KV

High V

50/60 Hz

Power

Input

VS
D

4160 V

to

1800 V

Voltage

Variable
Hz

Power

Output

Junction
Box
(2200 V
60 amp)

Medium Voltage VSD

60 amp

2000 V

200 V

Schlumberger Private

Why use a VSD?

Schlumberger
Schlumberger
Confidential
Private

Head (ft)

HP

1.00

2.00

3.00

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Feet

Capa

50 Hz

Hz

Hz

70

70 Hz
65 Hz
60 Hz
55 Hz

50
H

55

60
H

65

Capacity - Barrels per Day

city

Hz

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500

ly Load
Pump On

Head

Reda Single Stage Pump Performance Curve

Schlumberger Private

Flow Rate

50

100

150

3500

3818
200

250

300

350

Q2
Q1

20

Hz 2
=
Hz 1

60

Frequency (hertz)

40

80

100

Q = 60/50 x 3500 = 3818 BPD

Flow Rate for a Pump is affected as follows:

Schlumberger Private

Motor Horsepower

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

HP 2
HP1

20

Hz 2
=
Hz 1

60

Frequency (hertz)

40

80

100

HP = 60/50 x 170 = 204 HP

Horse Power in the Motor is affected as follows:

Schlumberger Private

HZ
60
HZ
60

= Head 60 x

BHP HZ = BHP60

Head HZ

Flow HZ = Flow 60

HZ
60

Affinity Laws for a Pump on a VSD:

Schlumberger Private

Pump BHP

100

200

300

400

500

20

60

Frequency (hertz)

40

80

The BHP required by the pump increases with


the cube of the hertz ratio. Graphically it would
look like:
Schlumberger Private

Horse Power

100

200

300

400

500

20

40

60

Frequency (hertz)

HP delivered
by Motor
80

HP required
by Pump

Putting the two graphs together we can see the


design consideration

Schlumberger Private

SLBs objective is NOT only to sell various


surface equipment pieces.
Our objective is to ensure that the OVERALL
ESP surface equipment PACKAGE deployed
would be able to function as designed and serve
all intended purposes

Responsibility / Objectives

Schlumberger Private

System analysis that can be done:


 Conceptual Design and Engineering
 Load Flow Studies
 Short-Circuit Studies
 Motor Starting Studies
 Transient Stability Studies
 Harmonic Studies and Mitigation
 Protective Equipment Coordination
 Equipment Evaluation
 Load Filter Analysis

simulation of power systems.

Schlumberger EPCs Power System Department


specializes in the design, analysis, training, and computer

Power Study

Schlumberger Private

Custom designed control rooms.

Full distribution switchgear layouts.

Skids for Switchboards with


transformers.

Skids combining VSDs with


transformers.

support and manufacturing capability to


design & build :

Schlumberger can provide engineering

Power System Packaging

Schlumberger Private

QUESTIONS ?

Schlumberger Private