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BOOKS
SPRING CATALOGUE 2017

BLOODY
HISTORY
of LOND

Crime, C

JOHN EDGELER
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Caribbean, Greece & Cyprus, The Netherlands
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Spain, Portugal, Italy,
Central & South America, Gibraltar, Malta
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Gabriele Kern
Publishers Services
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Germany
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Fax +49 69 510 695
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ners

How to pl
ay an
the uke d master
in no tim
e!

chart for you


TOM FLE
r wall insi
experienc MING is a professi
de!
e as a mus
onal mus
ician
of Music
ic teacher
and has
and exam , composer and
contribu
author with
iner. He
ted to a
studied
man
wide rang
e of instr jazz guitar at Leed y years
He lives
uctional
in London.
music pub s College
lications
.
Cover Illustr
Front cover: ations
Back cover: tbc
tbc

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ook.com/a
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Contents
Spring 2017

AJAY PARMAR
TERRITORIES: India
ADDRESS :
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Research Press
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MGF Megacity Mall,
M G Road,
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Email: marketing@researchpress.co.in

DISTRIBUTOR

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Classic Titles

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up chord

for Begin

EMING

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ON

and Murd
er

FREE pin-

Ukulele

TOM FL

EXPORT SALES & MARKETING


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orruption

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AND SCOTLAND
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UK & IRELAND

20

The History of Death

February 2017 Publication

The History of Punishment


Crimes differ as widely as the societies
that define them. Citizens of Sparta
could be whipped for being too fat.
In Ancient Rome, men and women
who had not married by the ages of
25 or 20 were fined. In Singapore,
the importation of chewing gum is
punishable by a hefty fine. Both a
historical overview and an examination
of imprisonment, corporal punishment,
the death penalty and torture, The
History of Punishment explores
the changing attitudes to law and
punishment across thousands of years
and widely different societies.

Death is universal, but each culture has


found a different way of dealing with
it. Funerals can be solemn but also
celebratory, drunken and even
lascivious. This wide-ranging book
examines the compelling subject of
funeral rites in different societies, from
the Egyptian pyramids to the Chinese
terra-cotta warriors to elaborate
Victorian mausolea. From human
sacrifice to ritual killings, from burial to
cremation, from ancestor worship to
concepts of the afterlife, The History
of Death examines how through our
passing we, in fact, define our lives.

The History of Punishment


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
110 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-489-4

032-053.qxp

15/9/16

11:43

The History of Pirates


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
120 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-490-0
19.99 Paperback

THE PIRATE CODE

Red Army Tanks of World War II


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
176pp
120 b/w photos, 50 b/w a/ws
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-492-4
19.99 Paperback

THE BRETHREN OF THE COAST

Christopher Columbus,
(foreground, third from
the left) landed on the
island of Hispaniola
during his first voyage
to the Americas in 1492.
Subsequently, Hispaniola
became a jumping-off
point for Spanish
conquests on
the mainland.

VIKING AND
BARBARY
PIRATES

conditions under which the crew was to sail. Although there were some unique
additions, the provisions in the Custom of the Coast clearly made it the
forerunner of codes later laid down by Bartholomew Roberts, John Phillips,
Edward Lowe, and George Lowther. Votes for all important matters onboard came
first, followed by the ban on gaming at cards or dice for money. Lights and
candles were to be put out at a reasonable hour of night and any drinking after
that time had to be done on the open deck. As in other codes, there was to be no
striking of one another on board. Weapons (pistols, cutlasses) had to be kept
clean and fit for purpose. Compensation for injury was also included. So was the
rule that the booty taken in a raid should be shared equally, and the provision
that appeared in Bartholomew Roberts code guaranteeing the musicians a day of
rest, usually on the Sabbath. Two particularly fearsome punishments featured in
the code. For anyone who defrauded the rest of the crew or deserted the ship, the
sentence was marooning. Stealing from another crewman had an even more
fearsome penalty, even though there was a tiny drop of mercy in it: the guilty
were to have their ears and nose slit but were left on the shore of an island with
inhabitants. This would mean hardship but not certain death.
This same penalty was imposed in a provision not mentioned in other pirate
codes, dealing with the issue of homosexuality onboard pirate ships. Here

n January 8, 793CE, the slim outline of


a ship carrying a large, square sail
appeared on the horizon, heading for
the island of Lindisfarne off the
northeast coast of England. As it drew
closer, the round shields lining the ships side
became visible. So did its fierce-looking dragon- or
serpent-headed prow. The oarsmen, about 60 in
number, were all pulling strongly for the shore,
their helmets glinting in the winter sunshine.
Lindisfarne, also known as Holy Island, lay some
12 miles (3km) out in the North Sea and was a
center of Christian learning, known and revered
throughout Europe. It was also a repository for the
stupendous wealth amassed by the Church over the
years, and the monks who lived in the islands
abbey were there to guard it.
Ships had visited Lindisfarne from time to time,
bringing food, wine, and other supplies or new
recruits for the abbey. But this ship must have
seemed different. Hugging the coast for safety had
been the rule for voyaging ever since ships first put
out to sea, but the vessel now approaching the shore
so rapidly was not following that rule. Instead, it
For the Vikings, crossing the North Sea out of sight of land
was an achievement, but a dangerous one. For this reason,
they lashed three ships together during the voyage.

A must for any enthusiast, Red Army


Tanks of World War II is the
definitive study of the equipment and
tactics of the Soviet armoured forces
that defeated the might of Hitlers
Wehrmacht. The growth of Stalins
armoured might is illustrated with 170
rare black-and-white photographs
some of which have never been
previously published complemented
by detailed profile artworks and
exhaustive specifications. These are
the fighting vehicles of such campaigns
as Barbarossa, the battle of Kursk and
the fall of Berlin.

Page 32

chapter 2

32

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
110 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-491-7
19.99 Paperback

Red Army Tanks of World War II

The History of Pirates


With features on particular pirates
such as Blackbeard and William
Kidd, and how the unwritten pirate
code evolved into todays merchant
shipping contracts, The History
of Pirates illuminates the broader
historical and geographical scope
of piracy and provides a fascinating
introduction to the reality of life on
board a buccaneer ship.

The History of Death

33

The Brethren
superstitiously
held that they
could sever
themselves from
their former life by
drowning it as
they crossed the
Tropic of Cancer.
108

The Spanish Main was a


necklace of Spanish
settlements around
the Caribbean, including
not only those on the
mainland but also the
islands in the Caribbean
Sea. The Main was the
major target for pirates.

themselves from their former life by drowning it as they crossed the Tropic of
Cancer, the northern latitude that runs south of Florida. Very conveniently, this
area between the Tropic of Cancer and the equator to the south encompassed all
the chief targets of the Caribbean pirates, as well as the sea lanes that were plied
by treasure ships sailing the Atlantic to Europe.
The Brethrens code usually applied for one expedition only. The stipulations
were agreed in detail before the start and, like all such documents, set out the

109

The History of Death

FEBRUARY 2017 PUBLICATION

The History of Punishment


Crimes differ as widely as the societies
that define them. Citizens of Sparta
could be whipped for being too fat.
In Ancient Rome, men and women
who had not married by the ages of
25 or 20 were fined. In Singapore,
the importation of chewing gum is
punishable by a hefty fine. Both a
historical overview and an examination
of imprisonment, corporal punishment,
the death penalty and torture, The
History of Punishment explores
the changing attitudes to law and
punishment across thousands of years
and widely different societies.

Death is universal, but each culture has


found a different way of dealing with
it. Funerals can be solemn but also
celebratory, drunken and even
lascivious. This wide-ranging book
examines the compelling subject of
funeral rites in different societies, from
the Egyptian pyramids to the Chinese
terra-cotta warriors to elaborate
Victorian mausolea. From human
sacrifice to ritual killings, from burial to
cremation, from ancestor worship to
concepts of the afterlife, The History
of Death examines how through our
passing we, in fact, define our lives.

The History of Punishment


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
110 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-489-4

032-053.qxp

15/9/16

11:43

The History of Pirates


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
120 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-490-0
19.99 Paperback

THE PIRATE CODE

Red Army Tanks of World War II


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
176pp
120 b/w photos, 50 b/w a/ws
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-492-4
19.99 Paperback

THE BRETHREN OF THE COAST

Christopher Columbus,
(foreground, third from
the left) landed on the
island of Hispaniola
during his first voyage
to the Americas in 1492.
Subsequently, Hispaniola
became a jumping-off
point for Spanish
conquests on
the mainland.

VIKING AND
BARBARY
PIRATES

conditions under which the crew was to sail. Although there were some unique
additions, the provisions in the Custom of the Coast clearly made it the
forerunner of codes later laid down by Bartholomew Roberts, John Phillips,
Edward Lowe, and George Lowther. Votes for all important matters onboard came
first, followed by the ban on gaming at cards or dice for money. Lights and
candles were to be put out at a reasonable hour of night and any drinking after
that time had to be done on the open deck. As in other codes, there was to be no
striking of one another on board. Weapons (pistols, cutlasses) had to be kept
clean and fit for purpose. Compensation for injury was also included. So was the
rule that the booty taken in a raid should be shared equally, and the provision
that appeared in Bartholomew Roberts code guaranteeing the musicians a day of
rest, usually on the Sabbath. Two particularly fearsome punishments featured in
the code. For anyone who defrauded the rest of the crew or deserted the ship, the
sentence was marooning. Stealing from another crewman had an even more
fearsome penalty, even though there was a tiny drop of mercy in it: the guilty
were to have their ears and nose slit but were left on the shore of an island with
inhabitants. This would mean hardship but not certain death.
This same penalty was imposed in a provision not mentioned in other pirate
codes, dealing with the issue of homosexuality onboard pirate ships. Here

n January 8, 793CE, the slim outline of


a ship carrying a large, square sail
appeared on the horizon, heading for
the island of Lindisfarne off the
northeast coast of England. As it drew
closer, the round shields lining the ships side
became visible. So did its fierce-looking dragon- or
serpent-headed prow. The oarsmen, about 60 in
number, were all pulling strongly for the shore,
their helmets glinting in the winter sunshine.
Lindisfarne, also known as Holy Island, lay some
12 miles (3km) out in the North Sea and was a
center of Christian learning, known and revered
throughout Europe. It was also a repository for the
stupendous wealth amassed by the Church over the
years, and the monks who lived in the islands
abbey were there to guard it.
Ships had visited Lindisfarne from time to time,
bringing food, wine, and other supplies or new
recruits for the abbey. But this ship must have
seemed different. Hugging the coast for safety had
been the rule for voyaging ever since ships first put
out to sea, but the vessel now approaching the shore
so rapidly was not following that rule. Instead, it
For the Vikings, crossing the North Sea out of sight of land
was an achievement, but a dangerous one. For this reason,
they lashed three ships together during the voyage.

A must for any enthusiast, Red Army


Tanks of World War II is the
definitive study of the equipment and
tactics of the Soviet armoured forces
that defeated the might of Hitlers
Wehrmacht. The growth of Stalins
armoured might is illustrated with 170
rare black-and-white photographs
some of which have never been
previously published complemented
by detailed profile artworks and
exhaustive specifications. These are
the fighting vehicles of such campaigns
as Barbarossa, the battle of Kursk and
the fall of Berlin.

Page 32

chapter 2

32

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
110 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-491-7
19.99 Paperback

Red Army Tanks of World War II

The History of Pirates


With features on particular pirates
such as Blackbeard and William
Kidd, and how the unwritten pirate
code evolved into todays merchant
shipping contracts, The History
of Pirates illuminates the broader
historical and geographical scope
of piracy and provides a fascinating
introduction to the reality of life on
board a buccaneer ship.

The History of Death

33

The Brethren
superstitiously
held that they
could sever
themselves from
their former life by
drowning it as
they crossed the
Tropic of Cancer.
108

The Spanish Main was a


necklace of Spanish
settlements around
the Caribbean, including
not only those on the
mainland but also the
islands in the Caribbean
Sea. The Main was the
major target for pirates.

themselves from their former life by drowning it as they crossed the Tropic of
Cancer, the northern latitude that runs south of Florida. Very conveniently, this
area between the Tropic of Cancer and the equator to the south encompassed all
the chief targets of the Caribbean pirates, as well as the sea lanes that were plied
by treasure ships sailing the Atlantic to Europe.
The Brethrens code usually applied for one expedition only. The stipulations
were agreed in detail before the start and, like all such documents, set out the

109

Drones

MarCH 2017 PubliCaTion

A decade ago, drones were barely


used, but today more than 50
countries armed forces use them.
And not only are they changing how
wars are fought but how crops are
sprayed, how underwater pipelines
are monitored, how weather systems
are observed and how sports events
are filmed. From drones the size of
a fingertip to drones that can carry
soldiers, Drones expertly examines
these complex vehicles that are the
latest in military and civilian aviation
technology.

drones

introduction

Introduction
Not very many years ago, few people had even heard of drones. Most of those that
had would probably have an idea from science-fiction or technothrillers about what
a drone was and what it might be capable of, but no real knowledge. Yet in just a few
years, drones have gone from obscurity to near-constant media attention. We hear of
drone strikes and drone surveillance in the worlds trouble zones and drones delivering
packages even pizza in the commercial world.

surprising number and range of


users have been operating drones
for some time, although the rest of the
world knew little about it. Outside the
military, drones have been used for
research purposes or to monitor the
environment. Commercially available
drones can now be bought at quite
a cheap price by private users for
recreational purposes.
Yet in truth there is nothing really new
about the idea of a remotely operated
vehicle. The word drone has entered
the popular vocabulary but long before
this happened users were flying remotecontrolled aircraft and helicopters, or
racing radio-controlled cars. Remotely
controlled weapons have been in use for
several years although not always with
a great deal of success. It is, however,
debatable whether these were, strictly
speaking, drones.

What is a Drone?

One useful definition of a drone is


a pilotless aircraft that can operate
autonomously, i.e. one that does not
require constant user control. This means
that traditional radio-controlled aircraft

501 Unarmed Self-Defence Skills


Were keeping it simple: no tricky
instructions, no exhaustive steps
to follow. Just brief descriptions of
moves to use to protect yourself. 501
Unarmed Self-Defence Skills takes the
reader from defusing a confrontation
through body language to putting
someone in a lock hold, from grappling
and striking to defeating someone
holding a gun. With 100 black-&-white
line artworks, the book is a pocketsized guide to ducking, throwing and
kicking your way out of trouble.

Drones
264 x 208mm (10 x 8)
224pp
220 colour photographs and
illustrations
54,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-255-5
19.99 Hardback

drones

501 Unarmed
Self-Defence Skills
210 x 128mm (8 x 5)
208pp
20,000 words
100 b/w a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-507-5
14.99 Paperback

introduction

weapons, but has the drawback that


radar signals can be intercepted at a
great distance. The effect is somewhat
like driving along a country road at night.
Without headlights, the driver may be
all but blind and has little chance of
spotting hazards or even staying on the
road, but his lights can be spotted at
greater distances than they are useful to
him, which is a drawback if he wishes to
remain unobserved.

and the like are not, in the strictest


sense, drones. Nor are many underwater
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), and
not only because they are not aircraft.
In fact, many recreational drones are
not really drones as they are semiautonomous. However, it is useful to
widen the definition of a drone somewhat
in order to cover a range of similar
vehicles that undertake the same role
using broadly the same principles.

the sensor device. Cameras might use


sophisticated electronics to enhance
low-light images or to translate thermal
radiation into visible displays, but they
only make use of what is there. Passive
sensor systems are relatively covert and
do not require much energy, but the use
of active systems takes up power and can
be detected by other sensor systems.
Active radar is used for applications
from mapping and navigation to targeting

Right: Operating a UAV is a complex


business, which has been described as
similar to flying a plane whilst looking
through a straw. In addition to piloting the
vehicle, operators must control cameras,
radar and other instruments and hand-off
data to other users, making the operation of
a large military UAV a multi-person task.

Below: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) units can be fitted to a great variety of aircraft. In
addition to military applications SAR systems can be used for terrain mapping, oceanography,
meteorology and to assist in rescue or disaster relief operations. SAR systems have even
been used to look for water on the Moon.

For civilian drones carrying radar for


mapping or navigation purposes, this
is not a problem. Military drones risk
detection when they emit radar signals,
just as with any other emission such as
radio. However, the ability to put a radarequipped drone up is very useful. It can
be used to widen a search when seeking
survivors of a disaster, or to increase
radar coverage to protect a naval task
force from attack. The drone might be
attacked by anti-radar weapons, but this
in turn provides protection to the main
platforms it is better that a drone is shot
down than a ship sunk, in terms of cost
and also loss of life.

SYNtHetIc ApeRtURe RAdAR (SAR)


Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) relies on
physicalmovement of the antenna rather than
beam-scanning to build up a highly detailed
picture of the target area over time. essentially
the SAR unit acts like a much bigger antenna by
combining images taken from many positions.

Drone flight path

RQ-4 GlObAl HAwk

Global hawks wings, tail


and control surfaces are
constructed of a graphite
composite. An enhanced
wing structure is being
developed, which will
increase the UAVs
payload capacity.

The AE3700 turbofan engine


is mounted atop the fuselage
to reduce thermal signature
when viewed from below.
The engine drives a generator
supplying electrical power as
well as propelling the UAV.

The angled tail section


reduces radar return and
conceals the jet exhaust
from most directions,
greatly reducing the
range at which Global
Hawk can be detected.

SpecIFIcAtIONS: RQ-4 GlObAl HAwk


B

Length: 14.5m (47.6ft)


Wingspan: 39.8m (130.9ft)
Height: 4.7m (15.3ft)
Powerplant: Rolls Royce-North American
F137-RR-100 turbofan engine
Maximum takeoff weight: 14,628 kg (32,250lb)
Maximum speed: 310 knots (357 mph)
Range: 12,300 nautical miles
Ceiling: 18,288m (60,000ft)
Endurance: More than 34 hours

A
ath

Rather than a
conventional rudder
and elevators on a fin
and tailplane, Global
Hawk uses a combined
ruddervator to provide
the functions of both.

The distinctive dome houses Global Hawks


satellite communications antenna, which
allows the UAV to be operated from the other
side of the world. Line-of-sight communications
are also possible using UHF radio transmissions.

Sw

1 As the drone makes its flyby, the SAR


radar system sends out a pulse which
is returned with varying strength by all
objects in the target area.
2 each pulse is a snapshot of what the
radar can see, which is a swath limited
by the characteristics of the radar
emitter.
3 Successive swaths overlap and,
since the angle of the radar beam has
changed, may reveal objects that were
occluded in a previous swath.
4 by combining the data from multiple
pulses, a detailed 3d model of the target
area is built up to a very high resolution.

Global hawks forward-looking


sensor package uses a 10-inch
reflecting telescope to enable
its visible-light and infrared
cameras to zoom in on a point
of interest.

A SAR is particularly useful for


mapping terrain features such
as steep ravines and valleys.
Successive images of the
feature may reveal details that
were hidden from one or more
of the pulses.
B combination of the data creates
a highly accurate map which
can be used to determine the
steepness of a slope, depth of a
ravine, and other useful data.

32

33

Technical Guide:
Japanese Aircraft in World War II

Special Forces in Action


From Iraq to Afghanistan to Libya in
2014, over the last 25 years military
elites have played an increasingly
important role in the policing of the
worlds trouble spots. Special Forces
in Action is a detailed account of the
operations of the worlds elite forces
from 1991 to the present day. From the
search for war criminals in the Balkans,
drug gang hunting in South America,
hostage rescues in Africa, and counterterrorism since 9/11, the book brings
the reader full details of the varied roles
played by the worlds elite soldiers.

Special Forces in Action


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
224pp
70,000 words
180 col & b/w photos & a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-254-8
19.99 Hardback

AFGHANISTAN

confirmation of this); from Denmark; from


Norway; from the Czech Republic; from
Lithuania; from Poland (Grupa Reagowania
Operacyjno-Manewrowego GROM); and from
Portugal (commandos).
Their task was to liaise with the members of the
Northern Alliance and to successfully coordinate
those forces with US and Allied ground forces.
This would involve a high level of task
coordination with the US Air Force as well as
considerable leadership skills, as the use of air
power and ground forces needed to be coordinated
to achieve the maximum effect. Special forces
would be required to identify al-Qaeda camps and
hideouts, destroy them and choose the most
favourable approaches for any attack.
The commanders of the Northern Alliance were
General Abdur Rashid Dostum, General Mullah
Daoud and General Fahim Khan, and to add to
the challenge for the special forces, although these
leaders were in a temporary alliance, they had also
in the past been rivals.

COUNTERTERRORISM
A

Facing page: Soldiers of the Australian SASR face a


sandstorm during the opening phase of Operation
Bastille, the deployment of Australian forces to Iraq
in March 2003.

the security status of both Afghanistan and Iraq


was far from stable. In both theatres the constant
insurgency and terrorist threat was wearing the
regular forces down, and there were serious
questions being asked about how long large
numbers of conventional and special forces could
be kept in the theatres.
If British troops were to come home they
would return to a country where the home
intelligence service, MI5, had doubled in size
since 2001 in order to deal with a wide variety of
terrorist threats, each potentially on a cataclysmic
scale. One example was made public in late 2006
when British intelligence services thwarted a plot
to blow up several airliners in mid air after leaving
British airports.
At the same time, the British government had a
policy of primary immigration into Britain that
added to the supply of potentially disenchanted
Muslim extremists who were being recruited and
radicalized by various offshoot organizations of
al-Qaeda.
These disenchanted extremists were going to
war, as they saw it, both against American, British
or other national troops as well as against the
civilian populations of the countries in which they
lived. Their indoctrination told them that, since
western governments were democratically elected,
the people who elected them were also directly
responsible for their policies.

JOI N T T ASK FORCE T WO (JT F 2)


This unit has its roots in the US/Canadian 1st Special
Service Force of Second World War fame, otherwise
known as the Devils Brigade.
JTF 2 was activated on 1 April 1993 when the force
took over counter-terrorist responsibilities from the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).
JTF 2 takes recruits from across the spectrum of the
Canadian armed forces, the only stipulation being a

minimum of two years service. At the Dwyer Hill


Training Center, recruits are assessed for physical
stamina as well as for mental aptitude and overall

psychological profile. Only about two out of 10


candidates pass the selection process.
Like many special operations teams, the JTF 2 are
trained in a range of specialisms, including scuba, fastroping, HALO/HAHO parachuting, amphibious assault
and mountain, arctic, jungle and desert environments.
JTF 2 was deployed to Afghanistan in December
2001 and completed its mission in November 2002.

132

Technical Guide:
Japanese Aircraft in World War II
216 x 170mm (812 x 6)
128 pages
25,000 words
120 artworks and 15 photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-474-0
16.99 Hardback

AFGHANISTAN

Operation Bastille (Deployment of Australian forces


in Iraq, 2003)

s can be seen in the previous chapters of this


book, military victory was achieved in both
Afghanistan in 200102 and in Iraq in 2003. In
both cases, the major concentrations of enemy
armed forces were defeated and key cities were
won. The capital cities of both countries were
cleared of all traces of enemy administration and
arrangements for new governments were put in
place. Despite all this, however, both wars refused
to go away.
There were 1740 casualties in Afghanistan
between the months of July and September 2006,
making it the most violent period since the
victory of 2001. The numbers of troops in
NATOs International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) had to be increased during the same
period. In November 2006, the United Kingdom
alone had 5600 members of its armed forces
deployed in Afghanistan, and about 7100 serving
in Iraq. The Iraq figure rose to 8500 when taking
into account offshore personnel such as those on
board ships of the Royal Navy.
The United States was by far the largest force
contributor, but despite these sizeable
contributions and those from other nations,

From the Second Sino-Japanese War


to the surrender in the Pacific in August
1945, Japanese Aircraft of World War
II includes 120 superb colour profile
artworks, three-quarter views and
cutaways. Organised alphabetically
by manufacturer, the book features
fighters and seaplanes, bombers and
reconnaissance aircraft. With entries
accompanied by short histories and
detailed specifications, this is an
excellent reference work for modellers
and military history enthusiasts.

INSERTION
The 12-man special forces units were inserted by
160th SOAR flying CH-47 Chinook helicopters at
night in the Afghan winter. The terrain was
extremely hazardous and the insertions were at high
altitude. The severe Afghan winter was setting in,
with unpredictable wind gusts through the high
mountain passes. The enemy was ever present and
impossible to spot. The whole operation would be
carried out in extreme darkness, aided only by the
use of night-vision goggles (NVGs).
After the insertion, each team faced a daunting
march with heavy equipment loads. This would
have included not only their personal kit such as
cold weather gear and other essentials but also the
communications equipment and target illuminators
that would magnify their potential power a
thousandfold.
Soldiers of B Company, 2nd Battalion 504th
Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR) are inserted by
CH-47 Chinook into the Baghran valley.

Soldiers of 20th Special Forces Group (SFG)


Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA) 342 patrol
with members of the Afghanistan Military Forces.

depended almost entirely on the performance of


the special forces in theatre.
Apart from US special forces, a detachment of
British SAS was also thought to have been
deployed in theatre from the outset, and over the
course of Operation Enduring Freedom a number
of other countries would also deploy special forces
assets. These included contributions from Canada
(Joint Task Force Two [JTF 2], in addition to its
large conventional forces contribution); from
Australia (the Australian SAS were deployed under
US command); from New Zealand (the New
Zealand SAS worked in conjunction with the
Australian SAS); from France (1er Rgiment de
Parachutistes dInfanterie de Marine and
Detachement Alat des Oprations Spciales); from
Germany (the German Kommando Spezialkrfte
[KSK] is said to have been deployed in theatre,
though, like the British SAS, there is no official
133

167

Technical Guide:
Russian Tanks of World War II
Organised chronologically by type,
Russian Tanks of World War II is a
comprehensive survey of the main
armoured fighting vehicles used by the
Red Army from 1939 to 1945. From the
pre-war T-18 light tank to the heavy
Joseph Stalin tanks and self-propelled
guns of the final months of the war, all
the major and many minor tanks are
featured, including significant variants.
Packed with 120 colour artworks with
specifications and service histories,
this is a key reference work for
modellers and WWII enthusiasts.

The Wars of the Roses


Ive drawn on many parts of history,
says Game of Thrones author George
R.R. Martin, but the Wars of the Roses
is probably the one A Song Of Ice
and Fire is closest to. Indeed, insane
monarchs, feuding families, fierce
battles, enemies uniting against a
common foe the Wars of the Roses is
so filled with drama it feels like fiction.
Illustrated with 180 photographs,
artworks and maps, The Wars of the
Roses reveals the skullduggery and
murder behind the struggle to gain
power in fifteenth century England
and then to hold on to it.

Technical Guide:
Russian Tanks of World War II
216 x 170mm (812 x 6)
128 pages
25,000 words
120 artworks and 15 photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-475-7
16.99 Hardback

38 FOUNDATIONS OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

relieved by 23 September. No French army


had arrived during the month-long siege, other
than some local reinforcements rushed in as
soon as the English arrived, so Harfleur duly
surrendered. Although he had captured his first
objective, Henry was not in a good position.
An outbreak of dysentery among his troops,
added to casualties from the siege, reduced his
army to the point where he could not effectively
continue the campaign. A withdrawal to
England was not acceptable as it would make
the campaign look like a failure, so Henry
resolved to march to Calais.
Henrys plan was to undertake
a variant on the well-established
tactic of the chevauche. As the
name suggests, this was normally
a fast-moving mounted raid, but
Henry intended to accomplish
much the same level of
destruction

FOUNDATIONS OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES 39

Opposite: A dramatic but fanciful representation of the battle of


Agincourt. Good choice of terrain on Henry Vs part channelled
the superior French force into a killing ground where the
longbows of Henrys army were devastatingly effective.

A withdrawal to England
was not acceptable as it would
make the campaign look like a
failure, so Henry resolved
to march to Calais.
by marching an army mostly composed of
footsoldiers through enemy territory. His
army would destroy whatever his men
could not carry off, weakening the
French economically as well as
politically by demonstrating the
inability of the French king to
defend his territory.
The raid would allow Henrys
depleted army to accomplish
enough for the campaign to be
considered a success, but reaching
Calais required crossing the River
Somme, which in turn meant pushing
south until a viable
crossing was found. The
French, meanwhile, had
been gathering an army and
now moved to engage the
Left: The longbow was crucial to English
tactics, enabling English forces
to strike at a distance. Enemies
who managed to get close
enough were met with rows of
emplaced stakes and a force of
dismounted men-at-arms who
protected the archers.

The Encyclopedia of Warfare


From brief skirmishes to long sieges,
trench battles to aerial dogfights, wars
of religion to wars of independence,
from spears to drones wars have
been fought in all kinds of ways and
for all kinds of reasons. From the
ancient world to the Arab Spring, The
Encyclopedia of Warfare includes
more than 5000 entries arranged
chronologically. Featuring 600 full
colour maps across 1000 pages, this is
an authoritative compendium of almost
five millennia of conflict suitable for the
student or general enthusiast.

54

Ancient Wars c.2500 bce 500 ce

308

Roman territory, 298 BCE


Samian League, 298 BCE

Acquired by Rome to 263 BCE


Roman colonies, 272 BCE

U R I A
I G
N

Roman controlled by 270 BCE

Carthaginian possessions, 260 BCE

Ariminum

Pisae
Ancona

Sentinum

Arretium

Volaterrae

Asculum

Volsinii

Hadria

Nepet
Falerii

Alba Fucens

Tibur

ROME
Ostia

Caere

Volci

Aurinia

Praeneste
Latium
Interamna
Arpino
Lucera
Tarracina
Camusium
Saticula
Suessa
Capua
Beneventum Venusia
Cumae
Neapolis

Sardinia

Tarentum

Metapontum

Tyrrhenian
Sea

Brundisium

s
es
M

in
a

Utica
Carthage

CITIES

Syracuse

Cossyra
0
0

The Rise Of Rome, 300 BCE

50 km
50 miles

Slovenian Peasant Revolt 1515


Slovenian PeaSant Revolt, FebRuaRy 1515
Smouldering Slovenian peasant resentment
against harsh landlords flared into open revolt
in February 1515 and, within weeks, had spread
throughout Slovenia. By the spring of that
year, rebel forces numbered 80,000 men, who
had taken effective control of the countryside.
Many poorly defended castles were stormed
and the alarmed local aristocracy raised an army,
including a large contingent of mercenaries,
which defeated the rebels near Celje, inflicting at
least 2000 casualties.

Branxton
English
forces

Scottish forces
1 km
1 mile

Flodden Hill

Sentinum, 295 BCE

been driven eastwards into the Danube region;


others settled in northern Italy and accepted
Roman rule.
g PoPulonia, 282 bCe
Despite earlier defeats, the Etruscans continued
their campaign against Rome. The battle of
Populonia was a decisive Roman victory, finally
ending the Etruscan threat to Rome.

Polish and Allies

Carthaginian & Sicilian Wars


650300 bce
CarThaginian ConqueSTS, 650500 bCe
Carthage was a Phoenician colony which became
independent in 650 bce. Its location on the North
African coast close to Sicily was ideal for sea
trade, allowing a rapid increase in power. Many
small campaigns were fought to protect the trade
routes or against potential rivals, until in 509 bce
a treaty was agreed with Rome that divided the
Mediterranean into Roman and Carthaginian

Spanish Conquest of Latin America


15201680

Orsha, 1514

ver

Polish and Lithuanian reserves. The Muscovite


Army was shattered Chelyadin and at least
3,000 of his men were captured, together with
140 guns.

er Till

Crookham

er Ri

t of

Strai

Locri

Rhegium
GREEK

Riv

Gauls

iep

Panormus
Lilybaeum

N
1 mile

Dn

Thurii

Caralis

1 km

Romans

from a nearby church tower. She fled when it became obvious


that the day was lost.

to prevent a junction of Yorkist forces and he was


doing so. He could reasonably expect to stand in
his defensive position and await the attack that
Salisbury would inevitably have to deliver.
As was typical of the era, the battle opened
with an exchange of heralds, who carried to
words of the commanders back and forth in an
extended parlay. When this broke down, archers
on both sides began a long-range skirmish
that proved equally inconclusive. Salisbury
then ordered part of his force to retire as if he

THE PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS 95

fighting force for the time being. Salisbury was


able to push on to Ludlow and join up with his
allies. From there, the combined force began a
march towards Worcester.
Below: Ludlow castle was taken by Lancastrian forces in 1459,
but remained a possession of the Duke of Yorks family. Edward
IV sent his son, Edward, to Ludlow to be raised, and it was from
here that he set out for London to be crowned.

Yorkist Disaster at Ludford Bridge


By October 1459, Richard of York had
concentrated with his allies at Ludlow. He
marched towards London but became aware
of a greatly superior royal force moving to
intercept him. After a brief stop at Worcester,
York retired towards the town of Ludford,
which was associated with his castle at Ludlow.
He sent the usual messages of loyalty and

Audley was killed in the


fighting, and when a third
attack was also repelled, some
elements of the Lancastrian
forces switched sides.
planned to break contact. This prompted the
Lancastrian force to attack, which under other
circumstances might have been a decisive blow.
However, as the Lancastrian cavalry struggled
to cross the steep-sided stream, Salisburys men
advanced to meet them and drove them back
with heavy losses. A second assault succeeded
in forcing a crossing, but could not break the
Yorkist force. Audley was killed in the fighting,
and when a third attack was also repelled,
some elements of the Lancastrian forces
switched sides. Salisbury took advantage of
the confusion to launch his own attack, which
routed the Lancastrians. The Lancastrian army
reportedly suffered around 2000 casualties, but
more importantly was rendered ineffective as a

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons


of World War I
276 x 220mm (10 x 8)
272pp
1000 col and b/w photos & col a/ws
150,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-141-1
24.99 Hardback

Orsha

Russians

0
0

1 km
1 mile

309

Early Modern Wars 15001775

0
0

has it that Margaret of Anjou observed the battle of Blore Heath

Which tanks were first used at


Cambrai? What was the range of
the Paris Gun? What was a bloody
paralyser? From the first tanks to early
submarines to the repeating rifle to
the biplane, The Illustrated
Encyclopedia of Weapons of World
War I includes more than 300 pieces
of equipment. Packed with 1000
artworks, photographs and detailed
information on each featured weapon,
this is a fantastic book for any general
reader or military enthusiast.

The Encyclopedia of Warfare

Early Modern Wars 15001775

Flodden, 1513

u m
i n
n t
S e

Aleria

Cosa

94 THE PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS

Right: Although not present with the Lancastrian army, legend

The Illustrated Encyclopedia


of Weapons of World War I

240 x 189mm (912 x 712)


1024pp
600 col maps
350,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-023-0
49.99 Hardback

o f

Corsica

P l a i n

Ligurian
Sea

War and inflicted a decisive defeat at Bovanium.


It is possible that the concept of the manipular
legion came from the Samnites military system.
g Camerinum, 298 bCe
The Third Samnite War began with the Samnites
invading Roman territory. Their allies, including
Etruscans and Gauls, also made war on Rome
at the same time. Despite this, the first clash at
Camerinum was a Roman victory.
g Tifernium, 297 bCe
After failing to draw the Romans into an ambush,
the Samnite army advanced for a set-piece field
battle. A Roman flanking force was mistaken for a
large contingent of reinforcements by both sides,
causing a Samnite defeat that the Romans were
too exhausted to exploit.
g SenTinum, 295 bCe
Outnumbered by the Samnites and their Etruscan
and Gallic allies, the Romans sent off a small
diversionary force that succeeded in pulling away
the Etruscan contingent. After a hard-fought
battle, the Romans broke the Samnites then fell
on the Gauls from the flank.
g aquilonia, 293 bCe
Scraping together a new army, the Samnites
mustered at Aquilonia.They were able to withstand
Roman attack for some time, but began to waver
in the mistaken belief that Roman reinforcements
were approaching. Rout soon followed, ending
the Third Samnite war with a Roman victory.
g arreTium, 284 bCe
Various Celtic tribes lived in Italy, notably the
Boii and the Senones. The latter had clashed with
Rome previously, suffering a defeat alongside the
Samnites at Sentium.The Celts attacked Arretium,
causing a Roman army to march to its relief. The
army was defeated and its commander and seven
military tribunes were killed. Encouraged by this,
the Celts reforged old alliances with the Etruscans
and began an invasion of Roman territory.
g Vadimo, 283 bCe
A joint force of Etruscan troops and Boii
tribesmen met a Roman army near Lake Vadimo
and was defeated. Some of the Boii may have

244 x 186mm (934 x 712)


224pp
180 col and b/w photos & a/ws
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-239-5
19.99 Hardback

55

Ancient Wars c.2500 bce 500 ce

The Wars of the Roses

g tenochtitln, 1520
The Spanish conquistador Hernn Corts arrived
in Tenochtitln on 8 November 1519. Within
a few months, the Spaniards became unpopular
guests and a revolt began. During an Aztec
festival, Pedro de Alavarado a lieutenant of
Corts armed with a small force slaughtered a
large number of Aztec priests and nobles, fearing
an uprising was about to occur. Corts was at the
time subduing a rival Spanish force, under Panfilo
de Narvaez, sent out to arrest him by order of the
Spanish governor in Havana. Corts immediately
returned to Tenochtitln upon word from
Alvarado. The Aztec Emperor Moctezuma tried
to quell the anger of his subjects, but was stoned
to death by the mob. Corts decided to leave
the capital before his force was overwhelmed by
the Aztecs.
On 1 July 1520, the conquistadors exited the
palace with their Indian allies close behind.
They had muffled the horses hooves and

carried wooden boards to cross the canals. The


conquistadors were able to pass through the
first three canals, the Tecpantzinco, Tzapotlan
and Atenchicalco before, being detected by
the Aztecs. The Aztecs attacked the fleeing
conquistadors on the Tlacopan causeway from
canoes, shooting arrows at them. The Spaniards
returned fire with their crossbows and arquebuses.
Many died as the conquistadors leaped into the
water and drowned, weighed down by their
armour and booty. A third of Corts men
succeeded in reaching the mainland, while the
remaining ones died in battle or were captured
and later sacrificed on Aztec altars. The surviving
conquistadors had little reprieve after reaching
the mainland before the Aztecs appeared for an
attack and chased them towards Tlacopan. The
Spaniards finally found refuge in Otancalpolco,
where they were aided by the Teocalhueyacans.
This major Aztec victory is remembered as La
Noche Triste, or The Night of Sorrows.
0

10 km
10 miles

Fighting
retreat

Lake Xaltocan
N

Lake
Te x c o c o
Tereyacac
Tlacopan

Tenochtitlan

Texcoco

Return with
large force
late 1520

Ixtlapalapan
Coyohuacan
Lake
Xochimilco

Tenochtitln, 151921

Return in
1520 to
relieve
seige

Ships launched
to take city, 1521

Lake Chalco

Chalco

Arrival in Nov. 1519

Surviving Extreme Weather

High Winds

High Winds

Scale
Number
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5

Wind Speed
(kph [mph])
64117 (4073)
118180 (74112)
181251 (113157)
252330 (158206)

331417 (207260)
Greater than 418 (> 261)

Amount
of Damage
Light
Moderate
Considerable
Severe

Type of
Damage
Chimney damage, tree branches broken
Mobile homes pushed off foundation or overturned
Mobile homes demolished, trees uprooted
Roofs and walls torn down, trains overturned,
cars thrown
Well constructed walls levelled
Homes lifted off foundations and carried
considerable distances

Devastating
Incredible

6. Motorway flyovers (highway overpasses)


are a safe place to seek shelter under
if you are driving when you spot a
tornado.
People have been killed when seeking
shelter under flyovers (overpasses). If the
tornado strikes the flyover (overpass), you
will not be protected.

nonetheless be in contact with the


ground.

Waterspouts look like tornadoes over water,


but they are not associated with thunderstorms. Generally they are much less intense
than tornadoes. When winds rotating near
the waters surface interact with the
updraught (updraft) of a cumulus cloud, the
result is a waterspout.A tornadic waterspout
occurs when a fully developed tornado
moves out over the water, sucking up water
and raining down fish.

of LONDON
Crime, Corruption and Murder

house. He came walking home by himself, a


complete mess of blood from big cuts on his
head and shoulders. He walked like a zombie, one small step at a time.
Then it rained and hailed so we were
soaked.
Dads brother Henry Jones lived one
house away so Dad told us to follow him
and to step only where he did because
of fallen wires. They had three rooms
left upstairs and put the little ones in
bed and the ambulance came and took
two brothers to the hospital. Both Roger

and Winnis survived.


But I saw one of our neighbours, Mr
Hubbard, laying with a table leg through
his body. Mom kept saying, Dont look,
dont look.
Alices brother Winnis Jones gives
his own account of being trapped beneath
the wall:
I and three of my friends were playing
marbles near my home. It got so dark we
had to go inside. It was about eighteen minutes after four. Dad had just entered the
house. That made nine people in our large

196

CHAPTER 7

MODERN LONDON

wearing a bathing suit who fainted when he jerked her under water and required
artificial respiration to recover. Another theory by Smiths barrister was that he
had hypnotized them.
Newspapers headlined the Brides in the Bath murders during his trial, which
was attended by his real wife, Caroline Thornhill. The jury took 22 minutes to find
Smith guilty. The day after he was hanged on 13 August 1915, Caroline married a
Canadian soldier.

Lying flat in a ditch

activity from April to June in tornado alley.


The Gulf states experience most of their
tornadoes in the winter.

Though tornadoes can occur at any time of the


year, they are more likely at certain times in
certain regions. There is an overall peak in

The Blitz

flying debris. Most of the fatalities and


injuries incurred during tornadoes are caused
by flying debris.

If caught outdoors during a tornado, lie flat in


a ditch or other low-lying area. Covering your
head with your hands can help protect against

The Luftwaffe, Germanys air force, began bombing


Britain during World War II on 10 July 1940,
concentrating on military centres such as ports, radar
stations and air bases. By 8 August, nearly 1500 enemy
aircraft were conducting bombing raids, paving the
way for a land invasion. By September, however, RAF
fighters, especially Spitfires and Hurricanes, had won
the Battle of Britain in the air, shooting down 1887
German aircraft while losing 1023. The Germans now shifted to night raids on
industrial centres in 16 cities, targeting London, Coventry, Sheffield, Southampton
and Liverpool, among others.
The Luftwaffes assault on the capital city began on 7 September 1940
when 300 bombers dropped 370 tons of bombs, killing 448 civilians. The

JanuaryMarch

On 18 March 1925, tornadoes killed 689


people in Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. The
event is referred to as the Tri-State Tornado.
This is Alice Jones Schedlers account of
what happened to her family and home.
Dad said, Grab the two little ones and
lets get to a ditch. I just saw a house about

AprilJune

90

92

91

93

The Human Body


Discover how the individual parts of
the human body function and work
together in this jargon-free book. And
as you navigate from head to toe,
you will also learn some incredible
facts, such as that the average person
produces about 0.75-1.1ml of tears
every day, or that marathon runners
achieve 40 percent greater cardiac
output than an untrained person. All
artworks are annotated to make every
element clear. If you want to know
more about how the human body
works, this is the book for you.

HEAD

HEAD

Eyeball
The eyes are the specialized organs of sight, designed
to respond to light.
Conjunctiva
Transparent layer of connective tissue which is
continuous with a layer lining the inside of the eyelids
Scleral venous sinus
Aqueous humour drains into
this canal; also called
Schlemms canal

Sclera
Fibrous outer layer
of the eyeball

Posterior chamber
Chamber behind the iris, filled with
aqueous humour
Anterior chamber
Front chamber between the
cornea and lens; filled with
aqueous humour

Cornea
Transparent layer covering
front of eye

Zonular fibres
Suspensory ligament of lens

Capsule of lens
Membrane enclosing
the lens

Vitreous body
Largest chamber
of the eye

Fovea in macula
Where maximum visual
acuity is achieved

Lens
Focuses light
on to the retina

Optic nerve
Transports information from
the rod and cone cells of
the retina to the brain

Optic disc
Where the optic nerve joins the retina is
the blind spot, so-called because it
does not contain photoreceptor cells

Ciliary
muscle
Circular
fibres

Ciliary process
One of the ridges that attach to the
suspensory ligament of the lens

Scleral venous sinus


Also known as
Schlemms canal

Zonular ciliaris
One of the fibrous suspensory
ligaments of the lens
Cornea
Transparent circular
part of the front
of the eyeball

Dilator muscle of pupil


Helps to pull open the pupil,
in a darkened room, for
example

Sclera
Protective outer layer of the eye

Choroid
Lines the sclera to the front of
the eye to form the ciliary body
and the iris

40

Ciliary body
Connects the choroid
with the iris

allow light to enter, and


smaller openings at the
back, allowing the optic
nerve to pass to the brain,
and blood vessels and
nerves to enter the orbit.
chambErs
The eyeball is divided into
three internal chambers. The
two aqueous chambers at
the front of the eye are the
anterior and posterior

Central retinal
vessels
Transport blood to
and from the eyeball

chambers, and are separated


by the iris. These chambers
are filled with clear, watery
aqueous humour, which is
secreted into the posterior
chamber by a layer of cells
covering the ciliary body.
This fluid passes into
the anterior chamber
through the pupil, then into
the bloodstream via a
number of small channels
found where the base of

the iris meets the margin


of the cornea.
The largest of the chambers
is the vitreous body, which
lies behind the aqueous
chambers, and is separated
from them by the lens and
the suspensory ligaments
(zonular fibres), which
connect the lens to the
ciliary body. The vitreous
body is filled with clear,
jelly-like vitreous humour.

Sphincter muscle
of pupil
Responsible for closing
the pupil in bright light,
for example
Folds of iris
The iris is
made up of
smooth
muscle fibres

The outer layer of the eyeball


is called the sclera, and is a
tough, fibrous, protective
layer. At the front of the eye,
the sclera is visible as the
white of the eye. This is
covered by the conjunctiva, a
transparent layer of
connective tissue. The
transparent cornea covers the
front of the eyeball, allowing
light to enter the eye.

Lens
Transparent structure
behind the pupil

uvEa
The intermediate layer, the
uvea, contains many blood
vessels, nerves and
pigmented cells. The uvea
is divided into three main
regions: the choroid, the
ciliary body and the iris.
The choroid extends from
where the optic nerve
meets the eyeball to the
front of the eye, where it

forms both the ciliary body


and the iris.
rEtina
The innermost layer of the
eye is the retina, a layer of
nerve tissue containing
photosensitive (lightsensitive) cells called
photoreceptors. It lines all
but the most anterior
(frontal) part of the vitreous

body. There are two types


of photoreceptor cells: rods
cells detect light intensity
and are concentrated
towards the periphery of the
retina. Cone cells detect
colour, and are most
concentrated at the fovea at
the most posterior part of
the eyeball.

41

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
256pp
250 col a/ws
90,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-516-7
Paperback 14.99

The blood circulatory system


can be divided into two parts:
Systemic circulation those
vessels that carry blood to
and from all the tissues of
the body
Pulmonary circulation the
vessels that carry blood
through the lungs to take
up oxygen and release
carbon dioxide.
SyStemic ArteriAl SyStem
The systemic arterial system
carries blood away from the
heart to nourish the tissues.
Oxygenated blood from the
lungs is first pumped into the
aorta via the heart. Branches
from the aorta pass to the
upper limbs, head, trunk and
the lower limbs in turn. These
large branches give off
smaller branches, which then
divide again and again. The
tiniest arteries (arterioles) feed
blood into capillaries.
PulmonAry circulAtion
With each beat of the heart,
blood is pumped from the
right ventricle into the lungs
through the pulmonary artery
(this carries deoxygenated
blood). After many arterial
divisions, the blood flows
through the capillaries of the
alveoli (air sacs) of the lung
to be reoxygenated. The blood
eventually enters one of the
four pulmonary veins. These
pass to the left atrium, from
where the blood is pumped
through the heart to the
systemic circulation.

238

Major arteries of the body

Subclavian artery
Supplies blood to the
neck and arms

Common carotid
artery
Branches of
pulmonary artery
The only arteries in the
body that transport
deoxygenated blood

Heart
Central pump of the body,
which drives blood around
the blood vessels
Aorta
Oxygenated blood from the
heart is pumped initially into the
large aorta (the main artery of
the body). Arteries divide
increasingly into small arterioles
and feed blood into capillaries
(microscopically small vessels
which run through the tissues)
Radial artery

Renal artery
Supplies blood to the
kidneys
Common iliac artery
Supplies most of the
blood to the lower
limbs and pelvic region

Digital arteries
These supply the fingers
Femoral artery
Main artery of leg

Ulnar artery

Aortic arch

dEath takEs a ridE


Londons population doubled in the first half of the nineteenth century, and the city was running
out of burial sites. The London railway that opened on 13 November 1854 offered trips that
nobody wanted to take. The London Necropolis Company (LNC) began the railway to carry
cadavers and mourners from Waterloo to its newly opened Brookwood Cemetery 40km (25
miles) southwest of the city at Brookwood in Surrey. When it opened that year, the cemeterys
2000 acres comprised the largest ground for burials in the world. Up to 60 coffins were carried on
the one train that ran each day, with three classes of funerals offered.
The last Necropolis train ran in 1941, when its London terminus was
bombed that April by German warplanes, but special
trains continued to make the
trip until after 1945.
The cemetery today,
still the largest in the
UK, has had nearly
235,000 burials.

left: The original private


Necropolis station in London

was located just outside


Waterloo Station. A larger
building replaced it

Necropolis
in 1902.

Hitler
264 x 208mm (10 x 8)
224pp
200 col & b/w photos & a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-494-8
19.99 Hardback

THE WHOLE BODY SYSTEM

There are two blood vessel networks in the body. The


pulmonary circulation transports blood between the heart and lungs;
the systemic circulation supplies blood to all parts except the lungs.

Meridional
fibres

Retina
Contains photoreceptors
that react to light

Iris
Pigmented diaphragm
visible through the cornea
Ciliary body and
ciliary muscle
Secretes aqueous
humour

Our eyes allow us to receive


information from our
surroundings by detecting
patterns of light. This
information is sent to our
brain, which processes it so
that it can be perceived as
different images.
Each eyeball is embedded
in protective fatty tissue
within a bony cavity (the
orbit). The orbit has a large
opening at the front to

Retina
Innermost of the three layers
of the eyeball; contains lightsensitive rods and cones

Conjunctiva
Mucous membrane covering the eyeball

Ciliary process
A series of ridges that attach to the
suspensory ligaments of the lens

He carried their bodies to


Mrs Lovetts pie shop where
the flesh was baked in a pie.

Artist, soldier, politician, madman? We


know the headlines, we know about
the atrocities, but what do we really
know of the man? Hitler looks behind
the image of the dictator and explores
his childhood, his military service, his
artistic aspirations, the formation of
his political views, his love life and
his time in power. Illustrated with 180
colour and black-&-white photographs,
paintings and artworks, this tells the
inside story behind the man whose
actions may appall us, but still continue
to fascinate.

The Human Body

overview
of blood circulation

The eyeball is covered by three different


layers, each of which has a special function.

above: The original


18-part series of Sweeney
Todd stories was primarily
written by James Rymer and
Thomas Preckett, prolific
writers of penny dreadfuls,
but others later contributed.
An instant hit, it was quickly
expanded into a book.

Sweeney Todd, whose real name


was Benjamin Barker, was first
introduced to readers in 1846 in
The String of Pearls: A Romance,
one of the popular penny
dreadfuls sensational fiction
sold in episodes each week for
one penny. Many Londoners
believed there was a factual basis
for the story of a barber who
murdered his clients and gave
their meat for use in his neighbours pie shop. No criminal records have ever been
found, but the legend has endured.
In this 18-part story, Todds barbershop was supposedly at 186 Fleet Street.
When his customers were seated, he would pull a lever causing them to flip
backwards and down a trap door into the basement. If the fall did not kill them,
Todd would hurry down with his straight razor and slit their throats. He then
carried their bodies via a tunnel to Mrs Lovetts pie shop where the flesh was
baked in a pie for her customers.
Todds story has often been retold, including a play in 1973, a musical in 1979
and a movie in 2007.

175

Mrs Robinsons Diary

One would think a wifes detailed diary account of her extramarital affair was
enough evidence for a divorce, but Isabella Hamilton Robinson outwitted her
husband and a jury to stay married.
The couple had wed in 1844, she being a wealthy widow with a child. Henry
Robinson, a civil engineer, discovered the incriminating diary in 1858 when
they were living in France and his wife was bedridden with diphtheria. Her
journal described her torrid affair with a doctor, Edward Lane. Even though
Henry had produced two children with a mistress, he was infuriated at reading
the revelations, such as Isabellas evening full of passionate excitement, long and
clinging kisses, and nervous sensations. He took
custody of their two children and threw her out,
intending to end their 14-year marriage.
Their case in 1858 in the new Court of Divorce
and Matrimonial Causes in Westminster Hall
was the 11th petition filed under a new law that

Hitler

THE WHOLE BODY SYSTEM

Layers of the eye

The Legend of Sweeney


Todd

right: The street photographer Herbert


Mason captured St Pauls during the Blitz on
29 December 1940, an iconic image of Londons survival.

244 x 186mm (934 x 712)


224pp
180 b/w and colour photos,
diagrams and maps
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-496-2
19.99 Hardback

NINETEENTH CENTURY

morning and by the afternoon


a housekeeper noticed heat
and smoke from the floor that,
turned out to be a smouldering
chimney. The stoves were put
out at 5 p.m., but an hour
later the fire erupted, soon
exploding over the building in
a great fireball that lit up the
London sky. Prime Minister
William Lamb would call this
one of the greatest instances of
stupidity on record. Damage
was estimated at 2 million.
No one died and no one was
prosecuted, but an inquiry
found a few guilty of negligence.
The government found
temporary quarters until
parliaments New Palace of
Westminster, begun in 1840, was
opened in 1860. It was created
by the architect Charles Barry
and the designer A.W.N. Pugin,
who devised the Clock Tower to
hold the giant bell, Big Ben.

One amazing survivor of the Blitz was St


Pauls Cathedral. On 29 December 1940,
enemy aircraft dropped incendiary devices
on the old City of London, causing a massive
conflagration and destroying most of the
buildings. As bombs rained around the
cathedral, Winston Churchill sent word
to do anything to protect the building.
Eventually one incendiary device lodged
on the roof and the dome began to melt.
As firemen watched, the bomb suddenly
came loose and fell to the stone floor
below. They smothered it with a sandbag,
and St Pauls survived to become
a symbol of Londons resolve and
resilience.

Bloody History of London

CHAPTER 6

st pAuls
uls Above
the Fire

JulySeptember

JulySeptember

174

197

opposite: Despite the fury


of the Blitz, Londoners
stood firm. In 1945,
Winston Churchill recalled,
This Blitz was borne
without a word of complaint
or the slightest sign of
flinching, and it proved
London could take it.

St Pauls survived to become


a symbol of Londons resolve
and resilience.

Spray

Survivors stories

9. A tornado is always accompanied or preceded by a funnel cloud.


Especially in the early stages, a tornado
can be causing damage on the ground
even though a visible funnel cloud is not
present. Likewise, if you see a funnel cloud
but it does not appear to be touching
down, a tornadic circulation may

BLOODY
HISTORY

Funnel

Waterspouts

8. Areas near lakes rivers, and mountains


are safe from tornadoes.
Tornadoes can climb up and down hillsides. One tornado near Yellowstone
National Park left a path of destruction
along the slopes of a 3050-m (10,000-ft)
mountain.

My brother Winnis was on the table with


the whole wall on him mashing the breath
out of him by inches.
My dad screamed for help to different
people in the street. No one came so he told
me to help him get the wall up off Winnis.
He with Gods help did the impossible and
raised the wall 2 to 3 inches [58cm],
enough so I could help Winnis to the floor.
Later they came back and said it couldnt
be lifted by one man, but he did it.
My other older brother, Roger, flew with
the back door two blocks to the school-

When tornadoes are most likely to occur


Distended cloud base

10. Downward-bulging clouds mean tornadoes are on the way.


This may be the case, especially with
those which show evidence of a rotating
motion, but many of these clouds are not
associated with tornadoes and may be
completely harmless.

7. Tornadoes cannot cross water.


A waterspout is a type of tornado that
actually forms on water, and tornadoes
that form on land can cross bodies of
water such as rivers and lakes.

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
120 b/w line drawings
ISBN: 978-1-78274-493-1
Paperback 19.99

From plagues and poverty to


financial scandals, Bloody History
of London digs deeply into the citys
past and ranges widely across the
social, political and cultural life of
the metropolis. Included are tales of
medieval torture in the Tower, burnings
at the stake during the Reformation,
and Cold War assassinations. From
political skullduggery among the
Tudors to the Kray Twins and serial
killers, the book is a lively, highly
illustrated account reaching across
2,000 years of history.

High Winds

a mile away blown up into bits.


Then our swing on the porch came
through the front window and we were all
out for a while.
I came to and started crawling around
a lot of bricks what had been the chimney.Dad hollered at me and asked if I could
get up and walk. He took me by the hand
and led me outside to where Mom and the
two little ones were sitting on the ground.
He said, Ill go find the two older boys as
he said this, he was walking up the side of
a wall leaning on the kitchen table.

cause updrafts. Moist air rotating in the vortex


cools as it rises, and the condensing water
droplets make the whirling wind visible.

Waterspouts are rapidly rotating columns of


air that form over warm oceans and lakes.
Variations in wind near the waters surface

Extreme Weather

High Winds

Waterspouts

Fujita Scale

Bloody History of London


BLOODY HISTORY OF LONDON

Tornadoes can lift vehicles into the air.


Snow and ice storms can imprison
entire communities. Torrential rainfall
can bring metres of flood water racing
through towns and villages. Each
chapter in Surviving Extreme Weather
explains how to cope with a different
element how to drive safely in deep
snowfall; how to survive a lightning
storm; and what to do if caught in an
avalanche. With 120 detailed black-&white artworks, the book is invaluable
reading whether you live in the
countryside or the city.

aPril 2017 PubliCaTion

Left
pulmonary
artery

Right
pulmonary
artery

The pulmonary circulation involves


the flow of blood between the
heart and lungs. In the lungs, blood
gains oxygen and loses waste
carbon dioxide.

Anterior tibial artery

The vessels of the


systemic arterial system
carry blood from the
heart to the tissues.
Blood carries oxygen
and essential nutrients
around the body.

the venous system


The systemic venous
system carries blood
back to the heart from
the tissues. This blood is
then pumped through the
pulmonary circulation to
be reoxygenated before
entering the systemic
circulation again.
Veins originate in tiny venules
that receive blood from the
capillaries. The veins converge
upon one another, forming
increasingly large vessels until
the two main collecting veins
of the body, the superior and
inferior vena cavae, are
formed. These then drain into
the heart. At any one time,
about 65 per cent of the total
blood volume is contained in
the venous system.
DifferenceS
The systemic venous system is
similar in many ways to the
arterial system. But, there are
some important differences:
Vessel walls arteries tend
to have thicker walls than
veins to cope with the
greater pressure exerted by
arterial blood.
Depth most arteries lie
deep within the body to
protect them from injury,
but many veins lie superficially, just under the skin.
Portal venous system the
blood that leaves the gut
in the veins of the stomach
and intestine does not pass
directly back to the heart.
It first passes into the
hepatic portal venous
system, which carries the
blood through the liver
tissues before it can return
to the systemic circulation.
Variations the pattern of
systemic arteries tends to be
the same from person to
person, but there is greater
variability in the layout of
the systemic veins.

t h e fr on t l i n e

Major veind of the body

t h e fr on t l i n e

Hitlers military pass of 1914 offers


no hint of the horrors awaiting its
bearer nor those he was later to

Superficial temporal vein

inflict upon the world.


Facial vein
External jugular vein

Internal jugular vein


Subclavian vein

Superior vena cava


One of the two main veins;
carries deoxygenated
blood from the other veins
to the right atrium of the
heart
Brachial vein

Branches of pulmonary
veins
These are the only veins in
the body that transport
oxygenated blood
Cephalic vein
Renal vein

Inferior vena cava

knees and thanked Heaven from an


overflowing heart for granting me
the good fortune of being permitted
to live at this time.
His only worry, he tells us, as he
marched off to meet the enemy, was
that he might yet miss out: would
we not reach the front too late?

Common iliac vein


External iliac vein
Digital veins

Femoral vein
Great saphenous vein
One of the two superficial veins
of the leg; drains blood from
the foot

Under Fire LiteraLLy


Hitlers anxiety was to prove
misplaced. As an infantryman

Popliteal vein

in the 1st Company of the 16th


Bavarian Reserve Regiment,
Schtze (Private) Hitler was to
see any amount of action, starting
within weeks of his arrival at
the front, with the First Battle of
Ypres, October 1914. Among
those killed in the first days
fighting was regimental
commander Colonel Julius List: the
16th Bavarian Reserve was to be
known as the List Regiment from
that time on.
Of its 3,600 men, only 611
survived the three days of the
battle an extraordinary attrition,
but no more than a foretaste of
things to come. One of those who
did make it through was Adolf
Hitler, though he was extremely
lucky to, if his letter to his Munich
friend Ernst Hepp is to be believed:
We push forward four times
but each time were forced to
retreat again. Of the group around
me, only ones still standing then
he too falls. A shot rips off my
right sleeve but as though by a

The venous system


transports blood
back to the heart
from the bodily
tissues. The blood
is reoxygenated
and then returns to
the heart via the
pulmonary veins.

239

In Germany, the month-long First


Battle of Ypres quickly came to be
known as the kindermord: this
was how Herods massacre of
the Holy Innocents (Matthew
2, 1618) was referred to in the
German Bible.

Early accounts claimed that up


to three-quarters of the 8000 or so
casualties killed on the German side
had been young student volunteers.
Subsequent scholarship suggests that
stories of wide-eyed idealists, going
singing to their deaths, were an

Deeply disapproved of, even in


those countries where it isnt
explicitly illegal, the straight-arm
salute is inextricably associated
with Nazism now, despite the fact
that Hitler and his followers had
adopted it from Mussolini and his
fascist followers, for whom it had
been the (fittingly nativist) Roman
salute. There is no archaeological
evidence to support this label, but it

seemed the sort of thing the ancient


Romans might have done.
Hitler made it his own, however
just as he was to make his party
and his country his own. Made
mandatory in 1926, it was known
in Germany as the Hitler Salute,
and had to be accompanied by the
greeting Heil Hitler!It accordingly
gave the Fhrer at least a symbolic
presence at every interaction

whether official or simply


social between party members,
(and ultimately, by the time the
totalitarian state was being built
in the 1930s, at every interaction
between German citizens).
ready to break ground for the
construction of the reichsbank,
workers greet their leader with a
straight-armed nazi-style salute.

Under Fire FigUrativeLy


Scholarly opinion often,
inevitably, influenced by partisan
hostility or (less often) sympathy
Opposite: Hitler, trying out an
unusual moustache, is seen here

known as the Golden Twenties. As


of 1924, the so-called Dawes Plan
named for Americas Vice-President
Charles G. Dawes (18651951),
who had introduced it had helped
reduce the reparations burden.
In the end, a movement that had
originated in the chaos following
World War I and the Versailles
Treaty was not to find new impetus
until a fresh disaster had come
along.

with his comrades from the 1st


Company, 16th Bavarian reserve.

exaggeration. That the myth should


have arisen is understandable,
though. A nation entering the War
on a patriotic high was brought
judderingly down to earth at Ypres.
A certain sort of innocence had
assuredly been lost.

Personality and Cult


Half Plebeian, half god! Goebbels
reported remark on finishing Mein
128

86

M y S t r u ggl e , M y S u c c e S S

Personal GreetinG

Kindermord

Dorsal venous arch

M y St ru ggle, M y Su cceSS

miracle Im still safe and sound.


The fifth time we advance we
manage to occupy the forest edge
and adjoining farms.
How scrupulously exact this
account of events is we have no
way of knowing. That Hitler
handled himself more or less
commendably does seem certain,
though. After the battle, he was
awarded an Iron Cross for rescuing
a wounded comrade.
He was also promoted from
the rank of private to that of lance
corporal, and reassigned to duties
as a Meldeganger or regimental
runner. Its harder to be sure
whether this elevation was made
in recognition of his courage and
resourcefulness in the field of battle
or the devastation that had been
wrought in the higher ranks (or
both).

the authorities at landsberg could hardly have made Hitler much more
comfortable. Here he relaxes with rudolf Hess (second left) and others.

Kampf in October 1925 reflects


the peculiar mix of adoration
and disdain one follower felt in
relation to his leader Adolf Hitler.
Joseph Goebbels (18971945) was
himself seen half-derisively as the
Little Doctor: short in stature, he
had been left crippled by polio in
childhood, and his humiliation had
been compounded by his rejection
from military service in World War
I. His personal arrogance, virulent
anti-Semitism, corrosive cynicism

and wild suspicion were widely felt


to have been a sort of compensation
for a more profound self-hatred.
Another bohemian manqu, he
made a more convincing intellectual
than his leader. He wrote poetry
and essays, and in 1926 even
published a novel.
At first, attracted more by the
NSDAPs socialist side than by its
nationalism, Goebbels had backed
the partys anti-capitalist wing,
which was led by Gregor Strasser
129

87

Technical Drawings
of Aircraft of World War II

Essential Identification Guide:


Aircraft of World War I

With the aid of 116 extraordinarily


detailed line artworks, Technical
Drawings of Aircraft of World War II
reveals how a wide selection of classic
military aircraft were put together.
From the Messerschmitt Bf109k-4
to the North American B-25 Mitchell,
each line drawing is annotated with an
exhaustive key. The illustrations are
complemented by captioned colour
photographs, plus detailed information
about each aircrafts specifications
making this an invaluable reference
guide.

Packed with more than 200 colour


profiles of every major type of combat
aircraft from the era, The Essential
Aircraft Identification Guide: Aircraft of
WWI is a reference guide for modellers
and aircraft enthusiasts. Arranged
chronologically by theatre of war and
campaign, the book offers a complete
organizational breakdown of the units
on all fronts. A compact history of each
campaign includes the role and impact
of aircraft, as well as orders of battle,
lists of commanders and campaign
aces such as Manfred von Richtofen.

Technical Drawings of Aircraft


of World War II
297 x 227mm (11 x 9)
256pp
200 col photos,
120 line illustrations
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-90570-432-3
19.99 Hardback

Illustrated with detailed artworks of


Wehrmacht vehicles and their markings
with captions and specifications, The
Essential Vehicle Identification Guide:
Panzergrenadier Divisions, 193945 is
the definitive study of the equipment
and organization of Germanys
motorized army divisions during World
War II. Organized chronologically by
division and formation date, the book
describes the various models of tank
and other armoured and soft vehicles
in service with each panzergrenadier
division.

Uniforms of World War II


285 x 213mm (11 x 812)
288pp
270 col a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-329-3
19.99 Hardback

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

Uniforms of World War II

1st Lieutenant
Jagdgeschwader 52
Army Group Centre

A Private of a Luftwaffe field division. In late


1942, in response to army requests for additional manpower, the decision was taken to
transfer surplus personnel from the air force
into the army. However, Gring insisted that
these personnel be organised as Luftwaffe
field divisions under air force control, a move
which ensured they suffered on the battlefield as the officers and other ranks had no
experience of combat.
A standard Luftwaffe field division comprised two
regiments, each, in turn, of three battalions.They had
a strength of around 9800 men.All in all some 20 field
divisions were formed, but they suffered badly
during combat, and the divisions that were most
heavily mauled were subsequently absorbed into the
army.
The uniform worn by the field divisions was the
same as in other Luftwaffe branches, though collar
patches were often omitted from tunics and flying
jackets. The most distinctive item of the uniform was
the camouflage jacket. The smock featured a camouflage pattern of angular segments or splinters in three
colours, and was identical to that used by the army for
camouflaged shelter quarters, helmet covers and
smocks.The original air force camouflage pattern was
rather short-lived. It consisted of rounded splodges
and elongated streaks. Used during the invasion of
Crete in 1941, it was eventually replaced by a slategreen pattern, which, in turn, was replaced by the
segment camouflage design mentioned above.

By the early summer of 1944 the Luftwaffe was


able to deploy 2085 aircraft along the whole of
the Eastern Front. However, the Soviets still
had numerical superiority in the East, and by
early 1945 the German Air Force, being desperately short of fuel, was able to offer only
token resistance. Many German pilots, such as
Lieutenant Erich Hartmann of Jagdgeschwader
52 illustrated here, fought with great skill and
bravery, but were only able to delay the
inevitable.
In particular, the Luftwaffe could not stop the
Soviets deploying ground-support aircraft, which,
during the early battles on the Eastern Front, acted as
mobile air artillery.
The uniform worn by Luftwaffe personnel basically remained the same throughout the course of the
war , and any changes that did occur were small. From
1943, for example, some officers began to wear their
tunic and flying blouse closed at the collar, as opposed
to open with shirt and tie. In addition, the side cap
was swapped for the standard peaked field cap. Lieutenant Hartmann is wearing the peaked cap with
Jagdfliegerknicke (literally, pilots nick), an effect
achieved by removing the wire stiffener from the cap
and squashing it flat. His other items are the Luftwaffe
leather flying jacket with Luftwaffe silver eagle
emblem on the right breast and rank badges on the
shoulder, blue-grey trousers and Luftwaffe black
leather and suede flying boots. Note the altimeter fastened to his brown leather belt.

Date:
Unit:
Rank:
Theatre:
Location:

46

March 1944
Luftwaffe Field Division
Private
Eastern Front
Lvov

Date:
Unit:
Rank:
Theatre:
Location:

The Soviets launched a massive counterattack on 5


December. Unable to dig proper defences in the iron
ground, many undermanned German units were
devastated; the few German tanks still in working
order struggled to operate in the conditions and their
fuel was out of reach hundreds of kilometres behind
the front line.

It seemed as though the Wehrmacht might suffer


the fate of Napoleons Grand Army, melting away in
the Russian winter. Yet Hitlers iron determination
stopped the headlong retreat and destruction of his
hopes. Grossdeutschland fought a bitter series of
defensive battles around Yefremov and Tula, where it
would remain on the defensive until April 1942.

Schtzenpanzerwagen-Kompanie / Kraftrad-Bataillon Grossdeutschland

June 1944
Jagdgeschwader 52
1st Lieutenant
Eastern Front
East Prussia

47

A further reorganization followed that autumn.


On 1 October 1942, the 1st Infantry Regiment was
renamed Grenadier-Regiment Grossdeutschland, while
the 2nd Infantry Regiment became Fsilier-Regiment
Grossdeutschland.
After the massive Soviet offensive (known as
Operation Uranus) led by Generals Vatutin and
Pz.Aufkl.Bn GD / SPW Aufklrungs-Kompanie / 1.Zug

The SdKfz 250/10 was used by platoon commanders in the half-track companies

HQ with two SdKfz 250/3


Crew: 7

(100hp)

Weight: 5.5 tonnes (5 tons)

of armoured reconnaissance battalions. Armed with a 3.7cm (1.5in) Pak 35/36, it

2-cm Flak auf leichter Zugkraftenwagen 1t (SdKfz 10/5)

Specifications
Speed: 65km/h (40mph)

Length: 4.75m (15ft 7in)

Range: 300km (186 miles)

Width: 2.15m (7ft 1in)

Radio: None

Height: 3.20m (10ft 6in)

Armament: Twin 20mm (0.7in) Flak 38 L/112.5

provided fire support for the machine-gun-armed vehicles of the platoon.

The artillery regiments self-propelled light Flak battery controlled 12 2cm (0.7in)

Specifications

guns. There was also a medium self-propelled Flak battery with 9 3.7cm (1.5in)

Crew: 4

weapons, and a heavy battery with 12 towed 8.8cm (3.5in) Flak 18s.

Heavy platoon with four SdKfz 250/7 mortar carriers and three SdKfz 250/1

JANUARYJUNE 1943

In January and February of 1943, Grossdeutschland and XLVIII Panzer Corps, along with II SS
Panzer Corps took part in the Battle of Kharkov, the third fought around that city.
the SS Divisions
TTotenkopf
Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, Das Reich and
during these battles. After the fall of
HE DIVISION FOUGHT ALONGSIDE

Kharkov, in one of the last


successful battles fought by the
Wehrmacht in the East, the
division was pulled back into
reserve and refitted.
During this process, the 1st
Battalion of the GD Divisions

REGIMENTAL HQ

Weight: 6.3 tonnes (5.67 tons)

Speed: 60km/h (37.3mph)

Length: 4.56m (14ft 11.5in)

Range: 320km (199 miles)

Width: 1.95m (6ft 5in)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Height: 1.97m (6ft 6in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Pz.Aufkl.Bn GD / Schtzenpanzerwagen-Aufklrungs-Kompanie

After mopping up operations around Kiev, the Grossdeutschland Regiment was again moved
north, to take part in Army Group Centres final assault on Moscow.

General Winter
Each advance was getting harder. October had seen
the onset of the rasputitza incessant autumn rains
that turned dirt roads into bottomless mud, and

Panzergrenadier-Division
Grossdeutschland

(100hp)

leichter Funkpanzerwagen (SdKfz 250/3)

OCTOBERDECEMBER 1941

to the south. The tanks would link up east of


Moscow, cutting the Soviet capital off from
reinforcements and supplies. Assigned the codename
Taifun (Typhoon), the German drive on Moscow
began on 2 October.
At the beginning of October, Grossdeutschland was
in position near Roslavl. Advancing eastwards, it took
part in the succesful battle to take Bryansk, and by
the end of October was advancing slowly towards
Tula, southwest of Moscow. By 18 November, the
regiment had fought its way through Tula and was
advancing towards Ryazan.

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

Yeremenko trapped General Friedrich Paulus


German Sixth Army in Stalingrad in November, the
Grenadier Regiment was involved in heavy winter
fighting with the rest of the division near Rzhev.
Continued Soviet pressure prevented any respite from
the fighting, and units were being worn to the bone.
Neverthless, the exhausted Grossdeutschland Division
managed to take part in Generalfeldmarschall Erich
von Mansteins abortive Operation Wintergewitter,
the failed attempt to relieve Stalingrad.

HQ
spw mot mot

hv

Grenadier Regiment was re-equipped with SdKfz 251


armoured half-tracks. The Fusilier Regiment did not
receive such vehicles until the spring of 1944. A
further enhancement of the divisions fighting power
came with the addition of a company of PzKpfw VI
Tiger I heavy tanks.
The increased strength brought about a change of
status, in common with other motorized infantry
formations. From June 1943, the division became
the Panzergrenadier-Division Grossdeutschland.

15-cm schwere Panzerhaubitze auf Geschtzwagen III/IV (SdKfz 165)


GD Artillerie-Regiment / II.Bataillon / 3.Batterie

Known as the Hummel (Bumble Bee), this heavy self-propelled artillery piece

Entering large scale service from 1941, the SdKfz 250 was built in more than a

was issued to the Grossdeutschland Panzergrenadier

dozen variants. The Funkpanzerwagen was used primarily to communicate with

Division in the summer of 1943.

and to control Luftwaffe air support units.

Specifications
Crew: 6

Specifications

which brought BATTALION HQ


movement to a
Krds.Btl
near standstill.
HQ
The rasputitza
lasted for four
Aufkl.Skw car krd krd schw.
weeks. Then on
7 November,
the temperature plunged and the liquid mud turned
rock hard.
The German advance began again with
breakthroughs in the south as well as towards
Moscow. However, daytime temperatures around
Moscow varied from -5C (23F) to -12C (10F)
and the Germans found it increasingly hard to go on
fighting in the thin uniforms they had worn all
through the baking heat of summer. Supplies of every
kind were simply failing to arrive at the front, where
battalions were reduced to a fraction of their
authorized strength. Panzer divisions counted
themselves lucky to have 50 tanks still running.

PzGren.Rgt GD

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

Operation Typhoon

N ANOTHER GIANT BATTLE OF ENCIRCLEMENT

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-905704-29-3
19.99 Hardback

Artillerie-Regiment Grossdeutschland / 4.Bataillon / leichte Flak-Batterie

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

, Hoth
Iand Hppners Panzers were to bypass Moscow
to
the north, while Guderians Panzergruppe would pass

Essential Identification Guide:


Panzergrenadier Divisions

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

leichter Schtzenpanzerwagen 3.7-cm Pak (SdKfz 250/10)

By 1942, the key reconnaissance assets of the motorcycle battalion of motorized infantry divisions was provided by armoured cars and half-tracks.

54

10

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

Germany

Private
Luftwaffe Field
Division

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-906626-65-5
19.99 Hardback

Essential Identification Guide:


Panzergrenadier Divisions

Uniforms of World War II


From the fur-lined winter tunics
designed for the Eastern Front to the
cotton shirts worn in the North African
desert, Uniforms of World War II is
an illustrated collection of 260 of the
conflicts most distinctive uniforms
worn by troops on land, sea and in
the air. Grouped by country, a page
is devoted to each entry, complete
with a description and specification
box. From a Captain in the Luftwaffe
to a Lieutenant in the Royal Canadian
Womens Naval Service, this is a
fascinating collection.

Essential Identification Guide:


Aircraft of World War I

Three reconnaissance platoons each with one SdKfz 250/10 and two SdKfz 250/1

Speed: 42km/h (26mph)

Weight: 26.5 tonnes (24 tons)

Range: 215km (133.6 miles)

Length: 7.17m (23ft 6in)

Radio: FuG Spr 1

Length: 4.56m (14ft 11.5in)

Range: 320km (199 miles)

Width: 2.97m (9ft 8in)

Armament: 1 x 150mm (5.9in) sFH

Width: 1.95m (6ft 5in)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Height: 2.81m (9ft 2in)

Height: 1.66m (5ft 5in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM (265hp)

Crew: 4
Weight: 5.35 tonnes (4.87 tons)

(100hp)
Speed: 60km/h (37.3mph)

18/1 L/30; 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

7.5-cm Pak 40/3 auf PzKpfw 38(t) Ausf H (SdKfz 138)

Panzerkampfwagen V Ausf A (SdKfz 171)


Panzer Regiment Grossdeutschland / I Abteilung / Stab

Panzerjger-Bataillon Grossdeutschland / schwere Kompanie (SF)

Grossdeutschland was one of the first formations to be equipped with the

Issued to Panzerjger units from late 1942, this tank-hunter featured a Pak 40

PzKpfw V Panther.

mounted on the hull of a Panzer 38(t) Ausf H. In September, the


divisions heavy tank-hunter company had nine guns on strength.

Specifications
Specifications
Crew: 4

Speed: 35km/h (22mph)

Weight: 10.8 tonnes (9.8 tons)

Range: 240km (150 miles)

Speed: 46km/h (28.6mph)


Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

(45.5 tons)

Radio: FuG5

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Length: 8.86 (29ft 0in)

Armament: 1 x 75mm (3in)

Armament: 1 x 75mm (3in) Pak 40/3 L/46

Width: 3.4m (11ft 2in)

KwK42 L/70; 2 x 7.92mm

Height: 2.51m (8ft 3in)

anti-tank gun; 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Engine: Praga EPA 6-cylinder (140hp)

55

Crew: 5
Weight: 50.2 tonnes

Length: 5.77m (19ft 11in


Width: 2.16m (7ft 1in)

58

Height: 2.98m (9ft 10in)

(0.3in) MG (one hull-mounted,

Engine: Maybach HL230P30

one coaxial)

59

11

The Great Commanders


of the American Civil War
In Great Commanders of the American
Civil War, the best military leaders
of both sides are pitted against
each other and their strengths and
weaknesses at major are battles
examined, such as Robert E. Lee
versus George Meade at Gettysburg,
and Ulysses S. Grant versus Albert
Sidney Johnston at Shiloh. Featuring
full-colour illustrations, paintings and
photographs alongside battle maps,
this is a fascinating comparison of
the greatest Confederate and Union
military leaders.
Page 88

by 11,000 Federals.

Hookers corps began the

attack on the Confederate


left at daybreak on September

UPPER
BRIDGE
PORTER

17. It was a disjointed effort.

VICKSBURG, 1863

BURNSIDE

MIDDLE BRIDGE

of the Tennessee struggled against Lieutenant General John Pemberton, commander


of the Confederate Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, for control of the
Mississippi River.

M
TA

IE

AN

LOWER
BRIDGE

uring the Vicksburg Campaign, Major General Ulysses S. Grant and his Federal Army

SUMNER

RE

HOOKER

EK

While the campaign ended with the siege


of Vicksburg, the true brilliance of
Grants generalship lay in his use of
maneuver to trap Pembertons force
inside the city. The Battle of Champion
Hill was decisive in the campaign
because it was after that defeat that
Pemberton withdrew to Vicksburg and
was subjected to Grants siege. The only
way a besieged force can survive is either
by breaking out itself or by being relieved
by the attack of an outside force. Neither
of these two possibilities was going to
happen at Vicksburg, and the Federals
won control of the strategic Mississippi

D. H. HILL

LONGSTREET
DUNKER
CHURCH

RSON

DE

AN

SHARPSBURG

By the time Burnside


finally got his attack
moving, the hardmarching A. P. Hill had
arrived from Harpers
Ferry to meet the threat.

Lee took advantage of the


Federal delays to reposition
forces. By the time Mansfields
corps entered the battle,
Hookers corps were ineffective.

Contrary to McClellans
assessment, Lee had no
reserves to deploy. Instead he
hung on for dear life, desperately
moving forces from one

KEY

C
U

ONFEDERATE ARMY
NION ARMY

PRELIMINARIES

Kentucky, and Island No. 10 near the


Kentucky-Tennessee border had in fact

The Mississippi River dominated the


western theater of the Civil War. It was

gobbled up control of much of the river.


On May 1, 1862, Admiral David Farragut
had captured New Orleans and began

the main northsouth artery in the


interior of the United States, and farmers

working upstream. By November, the


Confederates controlled only the stretch

in places like Illinois and Wisconsin


had long relied on it to get their goods

of river between Vicksburg, Mississippi,


and Port Hudson, Louisiana. Still, that

to the market. In fact, at the time of


the Civil War, the Mississippi River was

was enough to block Federal commerce


and maintain a tenuous rail connection

the single most important economic


feature of the continent. With the
outbreak of hostilities, Confederate
forces closed the Mississippi to
navigation, which threatened to strangle
Northern commercial interests. For the
Confederacy, the agricultural produce of
the relatively peaceful trans-Mississippi
Confederacy was making a substantial
contribution to the Confederate armies
in Virginia and Tennessee. If the Federals
could gain control of the Mississippi
River, they would not only secure the
free flow of their internal commerce,
they would cut the Confederacy in two
in a way that challenged its very identity
as a nation.
Lieutenant General Winfield Scott
had recognized this importance of the
Mississippi in the opening stages of the
war. His original Anaconda Plan had
envisioned an amphibious attack on
New Orleans from the Gulf of Mexico
that would serve as a springboard for

with the trans-Mississippi Confederacy.


President Lincoln had understood the
situation and put it in perspective. See
what a lot of land these fellows hold, of
which Vicksburg is the key! The war can
never be brought to a close until that key
is in our pocket, he told his civil
and military leaders.

R ANK : L IEUTENANT GENERAL


B ORN : 1814
E DUCATED : U NITED S TATES M ILITARY ACADEMY
M ILITARY C AREER
V ETERAN OF M EXICAN WAR

R ESIGNED FROM THE ARMY IN 1854


C OMMANDED AT F ORT D ONELSON AND S HILOH
F INISHED WAR AS A LIEUTENANT GENERAL AND GENERAL - IN -

C OMMANDED D EPARTMENT OF S OUTH C AROLINA , G EORGIA ,


AND F LORIDA
R ESIGNED M AY 18, 1864, AND FINISHED THE WAR AS A

71

74

VIKING SOCIETY

Norse lands
Danish lands

Confederate: Army of
the Mississippi (33,000)

Trondheim

Norwegian
Sea

Casualties and losses


10,142
1,581 killed
7,554 wounded
1,007 missing

Lands of the Svears and Gtars

Strength
Union: Army of the
Tennessee (77,000)

9,091
1,413 killed
3,878 wounded
3,800 missing
29,000 surrendered

VE

afterlife and continue working


for him there. Those thralls who no
longer served a purpose on earth
could be killed by their owner, in
the same manner as a domesticated
animal. While an owner was legally
within his rights to murder his
thralls, killing another owners
thrall was a crime that required
compensation. The cost of a thrall
differed from country to country,
but in the slave markets of Dublin
a female thrall could be bought for
eight ounces of silver and a male for
12 ounces.

The lot of a Viking thrall


depended entirely on his or her
owner. There is evidence that
some thralls were adopted into the
family life of a particular Viking
longhouse and lived a relatively
comfortable existence. Thralls
were also allowed to marry each
other, although their children
would be born as thralls. Some
earned enough money to buy their
freedom or were granted it by
their owners. However, a slave had
no property or rights, and if they
attempted to escape they would

and genteel. The Karls in the middle


are industrious and capable, and in
Viking Scandinavia the free made
up the largest social group.

Karls

The free were the backbone of


Scandinavian society. Free was
also something of an umbrella
term that included everyone from
landless labourers and tenant
farmers to large landowners who
did not have noble status. Hunters
and servants also fell into the free
category, as did merchants and
professional soldiers. There were
three things that all free men held
in common, regardless of their
social standing or level of wealth:
they were allowed to bear arms,
they were protected by the law
and they had the right to attend

where they farmed, fished


and, at times, fought one another.
Before long, many of these
settlements became fortified local
centres of power as the regions of
Scandinavia became organized
into chiefdoms. One such centre
was Eketorp on the Swedish island
of land; another was at Gamla
Uppsala in Swedens Uppland.
Founded in the third century ce,
Gamla Uppsala was an important
economic, religious and political
centre before, during and after
the Viking Age proper. The great
burial mounds constructed for
members of the Yngling dynasty
at Gamla Uppsala can still be seen
today and are of great archeological
significance: they symbolize
Scandinavias evolution from a
population made up of small tribes
to regions ruled by kings.

and vote at Things assemblies


where lawsuits and disputes were
heard and political decisions made.
However, Viking Scandinavia
was far from an egalitarian culture,
and there were different levels of
status among the free. This was
most apparent when compensation
had to be made to a victims family
in the case of a murder or violent
personal injury. If a murdered or
injured man came from a wealthy
or influential family, the size of the
compensation payment would be
markedly higher than if the man
was poor. The rich were also more
likely to receive compensation, as
it was up to the parties involved
to organize the payments. A
wealthy landowner with warriors
at his disposal had little problem
collecting what was owed to him,

During the final part of the


Scandinavian Iron Age, known as
the Vendel Period (600800 ce),
lavish burials also took place north
of Gamla Uppsala at Valsgrde and
Vendel. Here, kings were buried
aboard their ships along with fine
objects and weapons, a signature
of their wealth, power and warrior
spirit. This tradition of ship burials
continued into the Viking Age.
As we have seen, even the
earliest Scandinavian settlers were
great ship-builders and sea-farers.
Sea voyages were essential to travel
around Scandinavia, and the waters
around its fjords, inlets and islands
served as the major transport
arteries, replacing the need for
longer and more perilous journeys
by land. The Scandinavians early
maritime prowess showed itself in
the daring and dangerous overseas

S TFO

Sigtuna
Birka
Linkping

Sarpsborg
Kaupang
Skara

Kpingsvik

Viborg
Aarhus
Kpenhamn Helsingborg
Lund
Roskilde
Uppkra

Above: Viking longships are pictured


here travelling through the calm waters
of a Norwegian fjord.

F I N N S

Uppsala

Visby
Paaviken

North
Sea

E
S

Oslo

be hunted down and killed like a


dangerous animal.
Thralls were on the bottom
rung of the Viking social ladder
that included free men above them
and rulers at the top. The Vikings
believed this three-tier class system
had been divinely ordained, as
described in the mythological
tenth-century poem Rgsula.
According to Rgsula, the god Rgr
another name for Heimdall was
responsible for creating the classes,
and the first offspring from each
one was given a name to distinguish
them: Thrall (slave), Karl (free
men) and Jarl (nobility). In the
story, the thralls are described as
disagreeably ugly and unrefined,
and literally born to a life of
servitude. By comparison, the Jarls
at the top are beautiful, cultivated

75

VIKING SOCIETY

L A P P S

Viking homelands, 845 CE

Ribe

Hedeby

raids that gave the Vikings their


fearsome reputation. But while the
history of the early Scandinavian
people was dominated by the sea,
it was the land, with its vast and
varied geography, that would shape
the people of each of its countries.

FR

AN
SI

FRANKS

THE HOMELAND
COUNTRIES

500 kms

the proto-Vikings and the present


day, such as reclaimed land and
deforestation, but it is largely the
vast and varied region it was for
the first Bronze Age inhabitants.
Scandinavia is impressively
long it stretches for over 1931km
(1200 miles) from the northern tip
of Norway to Denmarks southern
border along the Eider River and
it encompasses a wide range of
landscapes and climates, from the
freezing, forbidding north to the
mild, fertile south.
At their northernmost reaches

The countries of Scandinavia


Denmark, Norway and Sweden
were not clearly defined territories
with strictly controlled borders
during the Viking Age, but they
did make up the three basic
areas of the Viking homeland.
Scandinavia has experienced some
small changes between the time of

WENDS

the countries of Sweden and


Norway lie across the same latitude
as Greenland and experience the
seasonal extremes of the Arctic
Circle. This means an average of only
around one hour of daylight in midwinter, but constant daylight during
the middle of summer. Southern
Sweden and Denmark, by contrast,
lie on the same latitude as England,
Scotland and northern Poland; the
winters here are relatively mild and
the summers warm. The Vikings
and their ancestors had many
cultural elements in common, but

300 miles

Above: The Viking homelands as they


looked after the Viking Age had begun.
Although the territories are clearly
marked here, borders between the three
countries were often vague and volatile.

their ambitions and destinies were


formed by the different regions they
inhabited.

Norway

Norway is largely defined by its


rugged coastline, one of the longest
in the world at 18,000km
(11,185 miles). Its coastal seaboard

LIEUTENANT COLONEL OF ARTILLERY

D IED : 1881

137

136

89

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:88

US Text (AB)

US Text (AB)

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:89

US Text (AB)

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:136

Camouage at War

I nfantry Camouflage I n the World Wars

I nfa nt ry Ca mo u f l ag e I n t h e Wo r l d Wa r s

Infantry Camouflage in World War II

(1943)

Few nations began World War II with much camouflage

The US Marine Corps

equipment on issue to their forces. Specialist and elite


units generally received camouflage, or forces operating in

German Infantryman (1940)

experimented with

The early-war feldgrau uniform

camouflage equipment

of the Wehrmacht reflects a

during the island-hopping

move towards mechanised

warfare in the Pacific

Belgian Infantryman (1940)

warfare. A short jacket is less

theatre. The difference in

The Belgian Army began

encumbering when moving in

terrain between assault

the war wearing uniforms

and out of vehicles.

theatres where it seemed most beneficial.

beaches and inland

somewhat French in style

German Infantryman (1943)

combat zones proved to

and had little chance to

The rapid change in

be a problem.

develop new equipment

colouration between
autumn, winter and spring

during the conflict.

caused many nations


including Germany to
issue reversible coveralls.

US 1st Infantry Division

thereby to reduce the chances of an attack


from the air. In the event of such an attack,
the difficulty of determining the most effective
point at which to aim weapons might permit the
installation to survive.

The US military became interested in


camouflage for its vehicles during the 1960s,
but it was not until 197475 that camouflage
was officially adopted. Up until that point,
olive drab was the standard colour for military
vehicles, although the exact specification for
olive drab varied over time. Some vehicles were
camouflaged before 1975, although usually on
a local and ad-hoc basis.
The four-colour patterns adopted in 1975
are sometimes referred to as MERDC, for the
Mobility Equipment Research and Development
Centre operated by the army. These were
standard on US army vehicles until the mid1980s, when NATO countries standardized a
three-colour camouflage system. The adoption
of a single system was for a very good reason
to deny information to the enemy. Up until that
point, it was possible to determine which NATO
countries were operating in an area by their
camouflage patterns, even if they were using

Parachute troops, seen as


elite forces in all nations,
British Commando (1942)

were often the first to

A simple khaki battledress

receive camouflage as

offered good concealment

standard issue. Italy, like

Europe. The practice of camouflaging combat vehicles has


been in place in France since well before World War II.

in some cases equipped

After the surrender of

with camouflage gear. This


caused some to be mistaken

received equipment

for SS troops, the main

produced for the Italian

users of camouflage in the

army. The Hitlerjgend

European theatre.

many nations, provided a

the commando forces

camouflage smock worn

division was one such

fielded by Britain excelled.

over conventional combat

recipient of Italian pattern

dress.

camouflage smocks.

48

Normandy landings were

Italy, many German units

during night raids at which

49

268 x 205mm (10 x 8)


224pp
60,000 words
200 col & b/w photos and a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-498-6
19.99 Hardback

tone colour scheme well suited to conditions in Northern

US troops taking part in the


German Hitlerjgend
Division (1944)

Camouage at War

Below: A French Leclerc main battle tank, wearing a three-

(1944)
Italian 184th Parachute
Division (1942)

128

How the Brain Works


What happens in the brain when
we laugh? Whats the checklist for
assessing the severity of a brain injury?
And how is Alzheimers different from
other dementias? In this accessible
and fascinating book, readers will learn
the answers to these questions and
many more. With more than 600 colour
photographs, medical imaging and
anatomically accurate artworks, How
The Brain Works is a highly detailed but
simply written wide-ranging guide that
will appeal to both general readers and
students.

Where in the brain would you find the


hippocampus and what is its function? What
happens in the brain when we laugh? Whats
the checklist for assessing the severity of a
brain injury? And how is Alzheimers different
from other dementias? In this accessible and
fascinating book, readers will learn the answers
to these questions and many more.

FRONT: MRI scan of a normal, healthy brain (BSIP SA/Alamy)


BACK: X-ray image of the brain produced by computed
tomography (Merznatalia/Depositphotos)

the same vehicles and taking pains to conceal


their nationality. A common camouflage system
deprived the opposition of this capability.
NATO camouflage of this era was sometimes
referred to as CARC (Chemical Agent Resistant
Coating), and made use of three colours. Black
and green were combined with red-brown to
create standardized patterns, which could be
adapted for winter use by overpainting part or
all of the black areas in white. The greens used
by various nations varied; Germany favoured
bronzgrun (bronze-green), while the US
military preferred a darker shade.
For desert operations, a single-shade tan
colouring was standardized within NATO.
Vehicles intended for units operating in
temperate areas left the factory painted solid
green, but since 1991 the vast majority of
operations have been in desert areas, resulting
in vehicles supplied painted tan instead.
However, at the time of writing, emphasis is
shifting back to operations in Europe, with
temperate camouflage becoming the default.

modern Vehicle Camouflage

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:137

Professor Peter Abrahams has practiced


medicine for more than 30 years and has
taught medicine and anatomy in various
international institutions, including the
University of London, the University of
Cambridge, and the University of Iowa. He has
also lectured in countries such as Egypt, Israel,
and Ghana and worked for the World Health
Organization. He has written and edited many
books, including Clinical Anatomy of Practical
Procedures, An Atlas of Normal Radiological
Anatomy, Essentials of Clinical Anatomy, and
An Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy.

Ca mo u fl ag e i n la nd Wa r fa r e

US 2nd Marine Division

US Text (AB)

Understanding Brain Function,


Thought, and Personality

An expert and comprehensive medical reference work on the


physiology of the brain, brain disorders, and psycholgical illnesses
Includes more than 75 topics, ranging from the structure of the
brain to depression, from brain damage to the effects of caffeine
on the brain to what happens in our heads when we laugh
Features more than 600 color photographs, medical imaging,
and detailed graphics to help the reader quickly understand the
workings of the human mind

With more than 600 color photographs, medical


imaging, and anatomically accurate artworks,
How the Brain Works is a highly detailed but
simply written, wide-ranging guide that will
appeal to both general readers and students.

General Editor:
Professor Peter Abrahams

Printed in China

Physiology

Physiology

the brain

The brain comprises three major


parts: forebrain, midbrain and
hindbrain. The forebrain is
divided into two halves, forming
the left and right cerebral
hemispheres.

hemispheres

probably based on long experience in the field.


On the other hand, the Chinese military has
recently begun using pixellated designs, some in
bold colours such as blues and greys.
It is possible that these patterns are intended
to provide concealment in snowy environments
or when conducting amphibious operations.
However, many observers have suggested that
this colouration is not camouflage at all but
ostentation. Tanks and other vehicles wearing
these patterns have appeared in military parades,
which fits with this theory. It seems likely that
a different version of these pixellated patterns,
perhaps in a less obvious colour scheme, might
be used for combat operations. Such colour
schemes do exist and have been observed on
Chinese armoured vehicles.

a pixellated maritime colour scheme. It has also been


suggested that the colours could be rapidly replaced in the
same pattern by a computer-controlled process, tailoring
the camouflage scheme to various environments.

This does not mean that operations in desert


areas will cease in the immediate future. Indeed,
another recent development in the British army
is the implementation of a new colour scheme
for this region. After decades of using a light
stone or dark yellow colouring for vehicles
intended for desert operations, the British army
has moved to a shade called army brown.
The paint used for this new colour scheme
is designed to react to certain compounds,
acting as a warning against chemical weapons
contamination.
Russian armoured vehicles are typically given
camouflage suited to their expected operating
environment, usually with greens and browns on
a tan base colour, although this can vary. These
schemes are conventional in nature and are

Advances in Vehicle Camouflage


In the modern environment, optical detection is
not the only threat faced by armoured vehicles;
indeed, it may not be the main threat. Thermal
imaging is available at all levels, down to
129

The cerebral hemispheres form


the largest part of the forebrain.
Their outer surface is folded
into a series of gyri (ridges)
and sulci (furrows) that greatly
increases its surface area.
Most of the surface of each
hemisphere is hidden in the
depths of the sulci.
Each hemisphere is divided
into frontal, parietal, occipital
and temporal lobes, named
after the closely related bones
of the skull. Connecting the
two hemispheres is the corpus
callosum, a large bundle of
fibres deep in the longitudinal
fissure.

Grey and white matter

The hemispheres consist of an


outer cortex of grey matter and
an inner mass of white matter.
n Grey matter contains nerve
cell bodies, and is found in
the cortex of the cerebral and
cerebellar hemispheres and in
groups of sub-cortical nuclei.
n White matter comprises nerve
fibres found below the cortex.
They form the communication
network of the brain, and can
project to other areas of the
cortex and spinal cord.

Left cerebral hemisphere

Right cerebral hemisphere

Frontal pole
The most anterior
part of the forebrain
Superior frontal gyrus

Longitudinal fissure
The division between the
two cerebral hemispheres

Precentral gyrus
Contains the
motor area of
the cortex that
controls the
skeletal muscles.
As well as
moving the
limbs, this
part of the
cortex controls
movement of
the fingers,
thumbs
and lips

Precentral
sulcus

Central
sulcus
Separates the
frontal and
parietal lobes

Postcentral
gyrus
Contains the
sensory area
of the cortex

Parieto-occipital
sulcus
Forms a boundary
between the
parietal and
occipital lobes

Sulcus
An infolding of
the cerebral cortex

Calcarine sulcus
Contains the visual
part of the cortex

Gyrus
A raised ridge
of cerebral cortex

Ridges and furrows


Primary motor
cortex
Frontal lobe
Part of the
forebrain that
deals with
emotions

Primary somatosensory
cortex
Receptive
speech area
(Wernickes
area)
Parietal
lobe
An area
involved
with
orientation
in space

Motor
speech
(Brocas area)
Temporal lobe
The area concerned
with sound and spoken
language

The four lobes of the cerebral


hemispheres are highlighted
on this left hemisphere.

Primary
auditory
cortex

Occipital lobe
Part of the
hindbrain
and the main
area for visual
interpretation

The central sulcus runs from the


longitudinal fissure to the lateral
fissure, and marks the boundary
between the frontal and parietal
lobes. The precentral gyrus runs
parallel to and in front of the
central sulcus and contains the
primary motor cortex, where
voluntary movement is initiated.
The postcentral gyrus contains
the primary somatosensory
cortex that perceives bodily
sensations. The parieto-occipital
sulcus (on the medial surface
of both hemispheres) marks the
border between the parietal and
occipital lobes.
The calcarine sulcus marks the
position of the primary visual
cortex, where visual images are
perceived. The primary auditory

Psychological conditions

inside the brain

The brain is the part of the central nervous system that lies inside the skull.
It controls many body functions including our heart rate, the ability to walk
and run, and the creation of our thoughts and emotions.

Above: These Chinese ZTD-05 amphibious tanks feature

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


176pp
430 col photos & a/ws
90,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-517-4
16.99 Hardback

Whether looking to identify a medical complaint,


seeking further information about a diagnosis,
or just keen to understand the processes of
the human mind, How the Brain Works is an
excellent, accessible reference work written by
medical professionals.

BG - Reference

Ca m o u fl ag e i n la nd Wa r fa r e

How the Brain Works

How the Brain Works takes the reader from


the physiology of the brain through to its
processessuch as what happens in the brain
while we sleepand on to traumas, diseases,
and psychological conditions. From learning
about the blood vessels in the head to what
goes wrong when someone has a stroke, from
how the brain processes language to diagnosing
meningitis, from anorexia nervosa to post natal
depression, How the Brain Works expertly
explains the processes of the brain in a way that
we can all understand.

General Editor: Professor Peter Abrahams

Packed with 200 colour and black


and white photographs and colour
artworks, Camouflage at War explores
uniforms, military vehicles and
buildings from World War I to the
present day. From dummy tanks and
the uniforms of Waffen-SS in World
War II to zebra-striped dazzle ships
and todays pixelated pattern uniforms
used by US soldiers in Iraq, the book
is a fascinating exploration of how
warfare has changed over the last
hundred years.

12

VIKING SOCIETY

May 18July 4, 1863


Warren County, Mississippi
Union victory

Facing page: The remains of a


Viking longhouse in the Shetlands,
an archipelago 170km (105 miles)
northeast of the British mainland.

J OHN C. PEMBERTON

R ANK : M AJOR GENERAL


B ORN : 1822
E DUCATED : U NITED S TATES M ILITARY ACADEMY
M ILITARY C AREER
V ETERAN OF M EXICAN WAR

D IED : 1885

88

VIKING SOCIETY

V I C K S BU RG

Above: Here, re-enactors play the part


of Karls, or free men, who represented
the majority of men in Viking-Age
Scandinavia.

U LYSSES S. G RANT

CHIEF OF THE ARMIES

threatened area to the next.

these results were shaped by experiences


they had had earlier in their careers.

70

. PEMBERTON: VICKSBURG, 1863

Bridge, where about 550


Georgians stalled an attack

VS

Date
Location
Result

ni

GRANT VS.
PEMBERTON

Perhaps the greatest

Federal debacle of the


battle occurred at Burnsides

time wisely.

had been rejected, various Federal


operations at places like Columbus,

th

members of McClellans army


sat idle. Lee again used the

securing the Mississippi and splitting


the South in two. Although Scotts plan

Gulf of B
o

away at the Bloody Lane


for nearly four hours, other

River. The campaign clearly showed both


Grants genius as a modern general and
Pembertons limitations. In both men,

GRANT

While Sumner bludgeoned

Se

. MCCLELLAN: ANTIETAM, 1862

ic

A NTIETAM , 1862

VS

LEE

. MCCLELLAN: ANTIETAM, 1862

12:23

285 x 213mm (11 x 8)


224pp
160 col & b/w photos
50 line drawings & 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-515-0
19.99 Hardback

lt

VS

264 x 202mm (10 x 8)


224pp
160 col & b/w photos
50 line drawings & 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-513-6
19.99 Hardback

The Viking Warrior

3/10/16

Great Commanders
of the American Civil War

LEE

Beginning in 789 CE, the Vikings raided


monasteries, sacked settlements
and invaded the Atlantic coast of
Europe. But that is only part of their
story. Sailing their longboats, they
discovered Iceland and North America,
colonised Greenland, founded Dublin,
and also sailed up the River Seine and
besieged Paris. Illustrated with more
than 200 maps, photographs and
artworks, The Viking Warrior examines
these fearsome warriors through their
origins, social structure, raiding culture,
weapons, trading networks and
settlements.

88-89.qxp

The Viking Warrior

cortex is located towards the


posterior (back) end of the
lateral fissure.
On the medial surface of
the temporal lobe, at the
rostral (front) end of the most
superior gyrus, lies the primary
olfactory cortex, which is
involved with smell. Internal to
the parahippocampal gyrus lies
the hippocampus, which is part
of the limbic system and is
involved in memory formation.
The areas responsible for
speech are located in the
dominant hemisphere (usually
the left) in each individual.
The motor speech area (Brocas
area) lies in the inferior frontal
gyrus and is essential for the
production of speech.

A midline section
between the two cerebral
hemispheres reveals the
main structures that
control a vast number
of activities in the body.
While particular areas
monitor sensory and
motor information, others
control speech and sleep.
speech, thouGht
and movement

The receptive speech area


(Wernickes area) lies behind
the primary auditory cortex and
is essential for understanding
speech. The prefrontal cortex has
high-order cognitive functions,
including abstract thinking,
social behaviour and decisionmaking ability.
Within the white matter of
the cerebral hemispheres are
several masses of grey matter,
known as the basal ganglia.
This group of structures is
involved in aspects of motor
function, including movement
programming, planning and
motor programme selection and
motor memory retrieval.

diencephalon

The medial part of the forebrain


comprises the structures
surrounding the third ventricle.
These form the diencephalon
which includes the thalamus,
hypothalamus, epithalamus
and subthalamus of either side.
The thalamus is the last relay
station for information from the
brainstem and spinal cord before
it reaches the cortex.
The hypothalamus lies below
the thalamus in the floor of the
diencephalon. It is involved in

Corpus callosum
A thick band of nerve fibres, found
in the depths of the longitudinal
fissure that connects the cerebral
hemispheres

Precentral
gyrus

Central sulcus

Postcentral
gyrus

Pineal gland
Part of the
epithalamus
that synthesizes
melatonin

Right cerebral
hemisphere
One of two
hemispheres
that form the
largest part of
the forebrain

Parietooccipital
sulcus
Divides the
occipital and
parietal lobes

Ventricle
Fluid-filled
cavity
Thalamus
Directs sensory
information from
the sense organs
to the correct part
of the cerebral cortex

Calcarine sulcus
Where most of
the primary visual
cortex lies

Optic nerve
Carries visual information
from the eye to the brain

Cerebellum
Controls body
movement and
maintains balance;
consists of grey
matter on the outside
and white matter on
the inside

Pituitary stalk
The pituitary gland is not included when
the brain is removed from the skull
Hypothalamus
Concerned with emotions and
drives, such as hunger and
thirst; it also helps to control
body temperature and the
water-salt balance in the blood

Midbrain
Important in
vision; links the
forebrain to the
hindbrain

a variety of homeostatic
mechanisms, and controls
the pituitary gland that
descends from its base. The
anterior (front) lobe of the
pituitary secretes substances
that influence the thyroid
and adrenal glands, and the
gonads and produces growth
factors. The posterior lobe

Pons
Part of the
brainstem
that contains
numerous
nerve tracts

Spinal cord

produces hormones that increase


blood pressure, decrease urine
production and cause uterine
contraction. The hypothalamus
also influences the sympathetic
and parasympathetic nervous
systems and controls body
temperature, appetite and
wakefulness. The epithalamus
is a relatively small part of the

Medulla oblongata
Contains vital centres that
control breathing, heart-beat
and blood supply

dorso-caudal diencephalon that


includes the pineal gland, which
synthesizes melatonin and is
involved in the control of the
sleep/wake cycle.
The subthalamus lies beneath
the thalamus and next to the
hypothalamus. It contains
the subthalamic nucleus that
controls movement.

Brainstem and cerebellum


Parietal lobe
Frontal lobe

Primary visual
cortex

Primary
olfactory cortex
Parahippocampal gyrus

Temporal lobe
Brainstem

Occipital
lobe

The posterior part of the


diencephalon is connected to
the midbrain, which is followed
by the pons and medulla
oblongata of the hindbrain.
The midbrain and hindbrain
contain the nerve fibres
connecting the cerebral
hemispheres to the cranial
nerve nuclei, to lower centres
within the brainstem and to the
spinal cord. They also contain
the cranial nerve nuclei.
Most of the reticular
formation, a network of
A view of the medial surface of
the right hemisphere, with the
brainstem removed, allowing the
lower hemisphere to be seen.

nerve pathways, lies in the


midbrain and hindbrain. This
system contains the important
respiratory, cardiac and
vasomotor centres.
The cerebellum lies posterior
to the hindbrain and is attached
to it by three pairs of narrow
stalk-like structures that are
called peduncles. Connections
with the rest of the brain and
spinal cord are established via
these peduncles. The cerebellum
functions at an unconscious
level to co-ordinate movements
initiated in other parts of the
brain. The cerebellum also
controls the maintenance of
balance and influences posture
and muscle tone.

Psychological conditions

depression

Depression is a mental state that involves mood disorder, leaving the


person feeling low. There are a variety of symptoms, both physical
and mental, which can be mild or severe.
An episode of depression may
occur singly or recurrently
(with intervening periods of
normal mood). In both cases,
the condition is referred to as
unipolar depression, because
there is only one direction of
mood change.
Some people, however,
develop depression in the
context of a manic-depressive
illness, called bipolar affective
disorder. In this case, there are
manic (high) episodes as well
as low mood swings.
Although the vast majority of
features of unipolar depression
would apply equally to bipolar
depression, it is thought that
there may be some subtle
differences between the two.

classifying depression

As well as the distinction that is


currently made by psychiatrists
between unipolar and bipolar
disorders, classification is based
on its severity, recurrence and
the presence or absence of
psychotic symptoms.
Only rarely, however, does
a depressive illness become so
severe that the individual loses
touch with reality and becomes
psychotic (whereby delusions or
hallucinations are experienced).

Frontal lobe
The part of the brain
concerned with
controlling voluntary
movement and
other functions; it is
also the centre for
conscious emotion

Area of abnormal activity


It is thought that in depressed people,
part of the cortex of the frontal lobe
is overactive, leading to an abnormal
fixation on emotional state

Research has attempted to


identify the specific areas in the
brain that are affected when
an individual is depressed. This
cross-section through the brain
shows one such area.

elderly, the degree of impairment


can be such that it is difficult to
distinguish between depression
and dementia.
Other symptoms that occur
as part of a depressive illness
include anxiety and phobias,

obsessions, irritability, agitation


and restlessness.
n Behavioural symptoms
The ability to function from
day to day, both socially and
at work, is decreased at least
to some extent. People may
avoid leaving home and isolate
or neglect themselves, and facial
expressions and body language
of the severely depressed may
be easily recognizable.

mild depression

Depression is primarily a
disorder of the mood. This is
in contrast to mania, in which
there is elation and elevation
of mood.

Who is affected?

What causes depression?


Attempts have been made
to distinguish between
depressive episodes, which are
understandable in terms of
traumatic life events (reactive
or neurotic depression), and
those that occur spontaneously,
depending on factors within
the individual (endogenous
depression). Although it is
tempting to classify further on
this basis, the initial observation
that reactive depression is less
severe, and forms a separate
entity, need not necessarily be
true. In every case, there must be
a mixture of causes that are both
internal and external.
Genetic factors appear to be
important (more so in bipolar
depression), as are hormonal
changes, such as increased
cortisol levels and abnormal
control of thyroid hormones.
Adverse events, especially
those associated with losses

Among the many factors that


can increase vulnerability to
depression are a lack of social
support and a difficulty in
forming close relationships.

Anxiety and obsessive symptoms


in particular appear to occur
more frequently in mild episodes;
indeed, rather than differing
merely in terms of severity,
mild depression may represent
a separate syndrome. Other
important differences of mild

Some people are reluctant


to visit their GP to discuss
feelings of depression,
but this is often the first
step towards receiving treatment.

At any given time,


approximately 1015 per cent
of people in this country will
be suffering from moderately
severe depression and 23 per
cent from severe depression.
Every year, about 10 per
cent of the population develop
a depressive illness, although
many more cases may remain
undetected. Typically, onset
is in the late 20s and, overall,
women are twice as likely as
men to get depressed. Innercity housing, low social class,
unemployment, poor education
and being single are other
important associations that
have been recognized.
New mothers are also at risk
of becoming depressed in the
six weeks following childbirth,
1015 per cent become
depressed enough to warrant
some kind of help.

134

The key features of depression


are a persistent lowering of
mood and loss of enjoyment,
interest and motivation. There
are also important changes in
biological function, thinking
and behaviour.
n Biological symptoms
These are most prominent in
severe depression and include:
sleep disturbance, typically
with early morning wakening;
decreased appetite; weight loss;
reduced sex-drive; fatigue;
aches and pains; psychomotor
disturbance slowing of
movements, thought and speech
or, in rare cases, agitation.
The mood is often worse in
the morning and lifts as the day
goes on. In very severe, lifethreatening cases, an individual
will refuse to eat or even drink.
n Mental symptoms
Thought content is extremely
negative, with ideas of guilt,
worthlessness and hopelessness.
People can find it hard to
imagine any sort of future, and
ideas of self-harm or suicide
may be common. Concentration
and memory can be severely
impaired; in some cases in the

such as bereavement and


physical illness, can trigger
depressive episodes. It seems
that underlying vulnerability to
such events can be increased by
circumstances for example,
abuse or parental separation in
childhood, unemployment, low
social class and poor self-esteem.

changes in the brain

There is known to be a change


in the function of several
neurotransmitters and their
receptors in the brain during
periods of depression. Most
research has concentrated on
serotonin and noradrenaline, the
hypothesis being that depression
is associated with decreased
activity of both of these
chemicals. It is now accepted
that this represents a huge
oversimplification and that many
other neurotransmitters are likely
to be implicated.

A common feature of mild and


severe depression is insomnia. A
chronic lack of sleep can serve to
exacerbate symptoms of fatigue.

depression include a tendency


to initial insomnia (difficulty
falling asleep with subsequent
oversleeping in the morning),
an increase in appetite and
the presence of few biological
symptoms. The pattern of
variability throughout the day
can vary, with a worsening of
mood in the evening.

psychotic depression

It is important to identify
psychotic symptoms, as they
represent a severe illness, where
the individual has begun to lose
touch with reality. Symptoms
are usually in keeping with
the patients mood: delusions
often concern illness, death,
punishment, guilt or persecution;
hallucinations (which occur
less frequently and are usually
auditory) are distressing for
example, a voice that accuses,
urges suicide or confirms the
patients low self-esteem.

depression in older people


Although the prevalence of
depression is almost identical in
elderly and middle-aged people,
the diagnosis of the condition
can often be missed in the older
group. This is probably because
the features of low mood can be
less obvious; elderly people may
not complain of feeling depressed
or suicidal at all, perhaps going
to see their doctor with physical
problems or simply sleep
disturbance, a degree of which
is normal in old age.
It is always important for the
doctor to bear the condition
in mind, however, because of
the relatively poor prognosis in

this group. Elderly depressed


patients (especially men) are at a
high risk of suicide and, for this
reason alone, early detection
and treatment is of paramount
importance. It is also very
important in preventing relapse
and depressive episodes of long
duration, which are more likely in
people of this age group than in
younger people.
It is easy to overlook depression
in older people, but the problem
is significant. It is often difficult
to diagnose, as it can be hard to
distinguish between depression
and dementia.

135

13

Ukulele for Beginners

Ukulele
How to play and master
the uke in no time!

TOM FLEMING

h as

These days the ukulele is becoming


the most popular classroom choice as
a childs first instrument. Its cheap,
light, suitable for childrens small hands
and can be used to play a wide variety
of songs. Aimed at children, Ukulele
for Beginners is a perfect introduction.
From choosing which kind of ukulele
to learn on to playing your first chords
and first songs, the book guides the
new learner through the necessary
steps. With clear diagrams and
photographs, a large variety of musical
styles is covered.

for Beginners

ludes
erns,

Essential Identification Guide:


Waffen-SS Divisions

Ukulele for Beginners

Illustrated with detailed artworks,


captions and specifications, The
Essential Vehicle Identification Guide:
Waffen-SS Divisions 193945 is the
definitive study of the equipment and
organization of Himmlers armoured
divisions. Organized chronologically
by division, the book describes the
various models of tank and other
vehicles in service, with listings of unit
commanders, vehicle types, numbers
and unit structure. Each section
includes orders of battle, a brief
divisional history of the campaign and
specific unit markings.

Ukuele for Beginners


285 x 220mm (11 x 8)
144pp
150 col artworks and photos
20,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-518-1
14.99 paperback

TOM FLEMING

Choosing
A UkUlele

your first chord


Concert
The concert ukulele is
usually tuned the same
way as the soprano, but
offers a bigger, fuller
tone. A concert uke may
be easier to play if you
have large hands.

from the smallest (sopranino) to the largest (bass). By far the


most common is the soprano or standard ukulele, which is
the second smallest instrument in the family.
Price variations
Ukuleles vary in price and quality, from extremely cheap
instruments to much more serious and expensive ones. You
can get started with any of them, but it is worth spending
a little more than the bare minimum, as the very cheapest
ukes can be difficult to keep in tune.
Soprano
The soprano ukulele is
the most popular. The
very cheapest ukes are
sopranos, but higherquality instruments
are also available.
The cheapest instruments tend to have simple wooden
or plastic tuning pegs that can easily slip, causing tuning
errors. If possible, try to find an instrument with guitar-style
tuning pegs, also known as machine heads.
The most basic ukes are made of plywood or even
plastic. More expensive instruments are usually made of
genuine wood, giving them a fuller tone and greater volume.

Tenor
The tenor uke is normally
tuned re-entrant (see
re-entrant Tuning, p. 21),
but it can be retuned
with a low G string for an
alternative chord shape.

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION
strummiNg

Two Guitar Style


Headstocks
Above: Acoustic guitar
style. This offers stable
tuning and ease of use.

Chord boxes provide the simplest way to show how to


play a chord. The box is really a grid, with four vertical
lines representing the strings, and a number of horizontal
lines representing frets. A thick horizontal line at the top
represents the nut.

Finger Numbers
Pay attention to the
finger numbers shown
for all of the chords in
this book.

2
1

CHORD

f chord

Left: Classical guitar


style. This type also
offers stable tuning.
Some players prefer the
look, but re-stringing
may take a little longer.

ORGANIZATION, SS POLIZEI DIVISION, 1942

Almost all music has a time


signature: this is the number
of beats that you would
have to keep counting if you
were counting along to the
music. In most pop and rock
music, this number is four,
so we keep counting 1 2 3
4, 1 2 3 4, 1 2 3 4. Each
group of four beats is known
as a bar. In written music,
bars are separated using
vertical lines called barlines.
The symbol / at the
beginning shows that there
are four beats per bar.

ChOrd BOxes

There is a whole family of ukuleles available in various sizes,

Sizes
Ukuleles from left to
right: Baritone, tenor,
concert and soprano.

the c chord

A chord is a group of notes that sound good together. On the ukulele, a chord can contain
up to four notes one on each string that may be either fretted notes or open strings.

SS-Totenkopf-Div
St
SS-Pol-Inf 1

Finger
positions

If you have a little more money to spend, you may want


to consider a concert ukulele. This is slightly larger than
the soprano, and usually of a higher build quality than the
cheapest sopranos. As well as being easier to play if you
have large hands, a concert uke will generally give a fuller
sound and more reliable tuning.

12

13

II

II

II

St
III

II

SS-Pol-Flk

III
SS-Pol-Pzjr

St
III

II

II

SS-Pol-Nch

St
III

II

II

SS-Pol-Pio

St

III

SS-Pol-Vrg

St
III

St
III

III

across swamp and forest land. After a number of


bloody assaults, the Polizei Division was one of the
formations that managed to fight into the northern

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION

Infanterie regiments. Early in 1943, they became grenadier regiments.

Engine: Volkswagen 998cc petrol (24hp). Later

Weight: 0.64 tonnes (0.58 tons)

In 1943, the Polizei Divisions Flak battalion was fully motorized. The earlier Krupp

Protz used to tow light anti-aircraft weapons had been supplanted by variants of
the Wehrmachts standard heavy car.

Specifications

exercise 1

Engine: Horch 6-cylinder petrol (90hp)


Speed: 88km/h (55mph)

Length: 4.44m (14 ft 7in)

Range: 400km (250 miles)

Width: 1.68m (5ft 6in)

Radio: None usually fitted

Height: 1.73m (5ft 8in)

44 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
] 1 2 3 4 |1 2 3 4 |1 2 3 4 |1 2 3 4
1.

Crew: 1
Weight: 2.4 tonnes (2.2 tons)

22

to the Balkans in
B
mid-July 1943, where they were attached to Army
Group E. The complete SS-Polizei-Division finally

Volkswagen 1131cc petrol (25hp)

Length: 3.73m (12ft 3in)

Speed: 100km/h (62mph)

Width: 1.60m (5ft 3in)

Range: 600km (375 miles)

Height: 1.35m (4ft 5in)

Radio: None

OTH REGIMENTS WERE SENT

arrived in Thessaloniki in December 1943.


After the conquest of Greece in 1941, the country
was divided between Germany, Italy and Bulgaria.
German forces occupied the strategically important
areas, including Athens, Thessaloniki, central

Siege of Leningrad

19411943

By early December 1941, the German armies that had steamrollered into the Soviet Union in
June of that year had all but run out of momentum.

in the main, were still equipped with little more than


the summer-weight clothing with which they had
begun the campaign. However, on the northern
front, it seemed only a matter of time before
Leningrad was taken.
Stalins failure to relieve besieged Leningrad
appeared to have doomed the city. Since Hitler had
ordered that the cradle of the Bolshevik revolution be
levelled, it seemed only a matter of time before it fell.

Its population swollen to over three million by


refugees flooding into the city, Leningrad was cut off
by Germans to the south and to the north by the
Finns, eager to avenge the Winter War.
Communist Party chiefs anxiously calculated their
food reserves: on 1 November, they realized there was
only enough food for another week. And with winter
approaching, there was so little fuel that buildings
could not be heated electricity was rationed to an
hour a day.
What followed was the most appalling siege in
history, a long-drawn-out agony in which nearly a

Leichte Schtzenpanzerwagen (SdKfz 250/1)

Crew: 2

Engine: BMW 750cc petrol (26hp)

Weight: 0.67 tonnes (0.61 tons)

Speed: 92km/h (57mph)

Length: 2.4m (7ft 10in)

Range: 340km (211 miles)

Width: 1.73m (5ft 8in)

Radio: None

Height: 1m (3ft 3in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG (if fitted)

1.Zug

2.Zug

3.Zug

Mittlere Zugkraftwagen 8t (SdKfz 7)

4.SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division / Stab / Flak-Zug (Sf)

In the summer of 1944, the 4th Divisions headquarters was protected by a Flak

4.SS-Polizei-Flak-Abteilung (mot)

platoon with four self-propelled 2cm (0.7in) guns. These were just as likely to be

The standard tractor for the 8.8cm (3.5in) Flak 18 anti-aircraft gun and the 15cm

used against partisans on the ground as against attacking aircraft.

(5.9in) sFH18 howitzer, the SdKfz 7 was designed by Krauss-Maffei.


It was also manufactured by Mercedes, Bssing-NAG and Borgward.

Specifications

Crew: 2 plus 4 troops

23

(100hp)

8.8cm Fliegerabwehrkanone (Flak 18)

Specifications

Crew: 7

Speed: 60km/h (37mph)

Crew: 2

Engine: Maybach HL62 6-cylinder (140hp)

SS-Polizei-Flak-Abteilung / 8.8cm Flak-Batterie (mot)

Length: 4.61m (15ft 1in)

Range: 300km (186 miles)

Weight: 1.16 tonnes (1.06 tons)

Speed: 50km/h (31mph)

Flak battalions attached to German divisions had one light (2cm/0.7in) battery,

Width: 1.95m (6ft 5in)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger f

Length: 6.85m (20ft 3in)

Range: 250km (156 miles)

Height: 1.66m (5ft 5in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Width: 2.40m (7ft 10.5in)

Radio: None

Height: 2.62m (8ft 7.1in)

6-cylinder (100hp)

Weight: 5.5 tonnes (5 tons)

Weight: 5.9 tonnes (5.38 tons)

one medium (3.7cm/1.5in) battery, and one heavy battery equipped with four
8.8cm (3.5in) Flak guns towed by SdKfz 7 half-tracks.

Specifications

Speed: 65km/h (40mph)

Crew: 2
Weight: 1.16 tonnes (1.06 tons)

Engine: Maybach HL62

Length: 4.75m (15ft 7in)

Range: 300km (186 miles)

Width: 2.15m (7ft 1in)

Radio: None

Length: 6.85m (20ft 3in)

Speed: 50km/h (31mph)

Height: 3.20m (10ft 6in)

Armament: Twin 20mm (0.7in)

Width: 2.40m (7ft 10.5in)

Range: 250km (156 miles)

Height: 2.62m (8ft 7.1in)

Radio: None

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM

63

Flak 38 L/112.5

6-cylinder (140hp)

66

67

Essential Identification Guide:


Wehrmacht Panzer Divisions

Paris has been sacked by the


Vikings, besieged by the Prussians
and occupied by the Nazis. It has been
the site of religious massacres, the
execution of a king and of thousands
of people in religious and political
conflicts. Romantic it can be, but
the story of Paris is also one of riots,
revolution and plague. Illustrated with
180 colour and black-&-white artworks
and photographs, Bloody History of
Paris takes a broad sweep over the
citys story, ranging from the Romans
to Joan of Arc, from Princess Diana to
the Islamic State attacks in 2015.

Including colour artworks, captions


and full technical specifications, The
Essential Tank Identification Guide:
Wehrmacht Panzer Divisions 193945
is the definitive study of the equipment
and organisation of the Wehrmachts
armoured divisions. Organised by
division, the book describes the
various models of tank in German
service during the war. Each section
is further broken down by campaign,
accompanied by orders of battle, a
brief divisional history of the campaign
and any specific unit markings.

Bloody History of Paris


244 x 186mm (934 x 712)
224pp
180 b/w and colour photos,
diagrams and maps
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-495-5
19.99 Hardback

4TH PANZER DIVISION

NAPOLEONS CORONATION

M O D E R N PA R I S

121

There would be further violence. In February 1962, nine were killed during
an FLN demonstration against the Organisation de lArme Secrete (OAS), a
far-right paramilitary terror group trying to keep Algeria French. Once again,
the deaths came at the hands of the police who charged the FLN and caused a
crush at the Charonne metro station as thousands tried to take refuge inside.
Then, in 1962, the Algerian War came to an end: the country was granted its
independence by de Gaulle.

203

4TH PANZER DIVISION

opposite: Thousands
attend the 1962 funeral
of the nine killed at the
Charonne metro station.
A crush had occurred
when the police charged
protesters down.

4th Panzer Division, 1940

Pz. Rgt 31 / I Battalion / 4th Company / 5th Zug / tank number 1

In June 1944, the Division was reinforced with a Panther Abteilung of 79 tanks. The

The Ausf D variant of the Pz.Kpfw IV was introduced in October 1939. The main improvements over

The rapid German attack in the Balkans eventually forced the Greeks to

old 1st Battalion, equipped with Pz.Kpfw IVs, was renamed the 2nd Battalion while the

earlier variants were the provision of thicker armour and the fitting of an external mantlet or gun shield

surrender, while the British fought a series of stubborn rearguard actions.

Panther unit became

for the 7.5cm (3in) KwK. Some 229 examples of this model were produced between

gun on a modified Panzer II chassis. Six kill rings are painted on the barrel of this example.

Specifications
Crew: 3

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)


Range: 190km (118 miles)

Width: 2.28m (7.5ft)

Radio: FuG Spr d

Height: 2.2m (7.2ft)

Crew: 5

Specifications

Specifications

Specifications
Crew: 5

Height: 2.98m (9.8ft)

Crew: 5

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM

Weight: 49.4 tonnes

Engine: Maybach HL230P30

Weight: 22 tonnes (20 tons)

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)

(44.8 tons)

Speed: 46km/hr (28.6mph)

Length: 5.92m (19.4ft)

Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

Length: 8.86m (29ft)

Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

Width: 2.84m (9.3ft)

Radio: FuG5

Width: 3.42m (11.2ft)

Radio: FuG5

Height: 2.68m (8.8ft)

above: Napoleon rewards himself with the


ultimate accolade: the crown of the Emperor
of France.

called the crown of Charlemagne, from the


altar, Napoleon seized it and placed it on
his own head! At that moment he was really
handsome, and his countenance was lighted
up with an expression of which no words
can convey an idea. He had removed the
wreath of laurel which he wore on entering
the church, and which encircles his brow in
the fine picture of Gerard. The crown was,
perhaps, in itself, less becoming to him; but
the expression excited by the act of putting
it on, rendered him perfectly handsome.
(Duchess of Abrantes, Memoirs, translated by
Gerard Shelley)

Radio: FuG5

Height: 2.68m (8.8ft)

Schwere Panzersphwagen (Fu) 8-rad (Sd Kfz 232)


Unknown unit

The SdKfz 232 had driving controls at both front and rear, allowing for

Length: 7.17m (23.5ft)

War in the Balkans

Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf H (Sd Kfz 161/2)

Width: 2.97m (9.7ft)

Pz. Rgt 35 / II Battalion / 5th Company / Company HQ tank

Height: 2.81m (9.2ft)


Engine: HL120TRM

In July 1944, 4th Panzer was sent to the Warsaw area

Speed: 42km/hr (26mph)

where it clashed with the Soviet 2nd Tank Army.

6 APRIL 1941

Early in 1941, 5th Panzer Division was transferred to Field Marshal Lists 12th Army in Romania
and Bulgaria. The Division played a key part in Germanys conquest of the Balkans.

Specifications

103rd Panzer Artillery Regiment / 3rd (mot) Battalion

The SdKfz 165 first saw action at Kursk in 1943. This example belongs to one of the two heavy batteries assigned to the 4th Panzer Divisions Artillery Regiment.

Mittlerer Kommandopanzerwagen Ausf B (Sd Kfz 251/6)

Crew: 5

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM

Weight: 27.6 tonnes (25 tons)

Speed: 38km/hr (23.6mph)

Length: 7.02m (23ft)

Range: 210km (130.5 miles)

Width: 2.88m (9.4ft)

Radio: FuG5

YUGOSLAV BORDER on 6 April, the


5th Panzer Division drove towards Skopje as part
of Panzergruppe Kleist before turning northwards to
seize Nis in company with the 11th Panzer Division.
By 17 April, the Germans had captured Belgrade, and
the Yugoslav government was forced to surrender.
Turning southwards, 5th Panzer drove through the
centre of Greece. After passing through Lamia, the
Division encountered a stubborn British rearguard on
the ancient battlefield of Thermopylae. Forced to
ROSSING THE

Height: 2.68m (8.8ft)

Schtzenpanzerwagen I Ausf D (Sd Kfz 251/3)

4th Panzer Division / Division Staff / command vehicle of Gen Lt Deitrich von Saucken

33rd Panzergrenadier / Regimental Staff Company

The SdKfz 251/6 was a command and control vehicle for senior officers. It carried the same radios as

By the end of 4 July, Panzer Division had been divided into two kampfgruppen.

Black and green are the


colours of the
Panzergrenadiers.

the similar 251/3, but its equipment fit also included the Enigma cryptographic machine.

Specifications

Specifications

Crew: 8

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

Crew: 8

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

Weight: 9.4 tonnes (8.5 tons)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

Weight: 9.4 tonnes (8.5 tons)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

Panzer Unit

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Radio: FuG11 plus FuG Tr 100W;

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Radio: Various, depending upon

31st Pz. Rgt.

Height: 1.75m (5.7ft)

later FuG19 plus FuG12

Height: 1.75m (5.7ft)

Pz. I

Pz. II

Pz. III

Pz. IV

Pz. Bef.

40

51

16

mission

Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf E (Sd Kfz 141)

found on the pavement around the crime


scene. The episode was later fictionalized in
Frederick Forsyths 1971 book The Day of
the Jackal.

Speed: 42km/hr (26mph)


Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

Width: 2.84m (9.3ft)

Crew: 6

15cm Schwere Panzerhaubitze auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen III/IV (Sf) (Sd Kfz 165)

above: Protesters march against the far-right OAS,


the group responsible for the assassination attempt
on de Gaulle.

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM

Weight: 24.6 tonnes (22.3 tons)


Length: 5.92m (19.4ft)

Weight: 26.5 tonnes (24 tons)

Range: 215km (133.6 miles)

The OAS were responsible for


around 2000 deaths during its wave
of terror between 1954 and 1962.
Among its high-profile targets were
Jean-Paul Sartre, a supporter of the
FLN, and Charles de Gaulle. The
most prominent would-be assassin
of de Gaulle was Jean BastienThiry, a former lieutenant-colonel
of the air force. On 22 August
1962, Bastien-Thiry and a group
of gunmen sprayed de Gaulles
car with machine-gun bullets
as he drove through the suburb
of Petit-Clamart. Miraculously,
de Gaulle, his wife, and a chicken in the boot
all survived the ordeal: although 14 bullets
penetrated the Citron DS and two of its tyres
were shot out, it was still able to speed away.
The trial of Bastien-Thiry, the last man to be
executed by firing squad in France, concluded
that the assassination attempt had failed
because the terrorists had been bad shots:
more than 200 spent shell casings had been

Specifications

October 1939 and May 1941.

the 1st Battalion.


Engine: Maybach HL62TRM

Weight: 11.9 tonnes (10.8 tons)


Length: 6.36m (20.9ft)

Radio: FuG Spr 1

KILL DE GAULLE

5TH PANZER DIVISION

Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf F (Sd Kfz 161)

Pz. Rgt 35 / I Battalion / 1st Company / 1st Zug / tank number 3

The Marder II was a tank hunter that mounted a powerful antitank

Immigrant Influx

The 1962 vian Accords gave Algeria its independence and led to decolonization
agreements across the French Empire. Under new repatriation laws, many
immigrants were encouraged to move to France to fill the positions created by a
booming economy.
There had been a general wave of immigration into Paris after World War
II that included Italians, Germans, Russians and Portuguese, followed by excolonials from Indo-China, Tunisia, Morocco and West and North Africa. By
the end of the twentieth century, foreigners made up around 13 per cent of Paris

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-904687-46-7
19.99 Hardback

5TH PANZER DIVISION

Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf D (Sd Kfz 161)

Panzerkampfwagen V Ausf A (Sd Kfz 171)

Essential Identification Guide:


Wehrmacht Divisions 193945

49th Panzerjger Battalion

Mittlerer Schtzenpanzerwagen Ausf C (Sd Kfz 251/1)


12th Panzergrenadier Regiment

Kurland, 1944. The Sd Kfz 251/1 crew consisted of a driver, co-driver and a 10-man grenadier squad.

Leichter
Panzersphwagen (2cm)
(Sd Kfz 222)
Kampfgruppe Christen / 4th

Specifications

Reconnaissance Battalion

Crew: 2 plus 10 infantrymen

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

The 4th Panzer Division fought back

Weight: 8.8 tonnes (8 tons)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

through the Baltic states in the last

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Height: 1.75m (5.7ft)

50

14

Specifications

Partisan war
The increasing frequency of attacks by partisans in
the Balkans resulted in executions and the slaughter
of civilians in reprisal. The 4th SS Polizei
Panzergrenadier Division saw action in Greece on
anti-partisan duties between January and September
1944, before Soviet advances on the Eastern Front
threatened to cut off Army Group E in the Balkans.
In September and October 1944, the division
retreated through Yugoslavia and southern Romania,
seeing combat around Belgrade. It continued its antipartisan duties in the Banat, the region straddling the
borders of Serbia, Romania and Hungary.

Stab

Bloody History of Paris

EMPIRE AND INSURRECTION

The Duchess of Abrantes was a Parisian


socialite and guest at Napoleons imperial
coronation. She was a lover of the writer
Honor de Balzac, who helped her compile
her memoirs, which included this extract:
Napoleon, as he passed along, was greeted
by heartfelt expressions of enthusiastic love
and attachment. On his arrival at Notre
Dame, he ascended the throne, which was
erected in front of the grand altar. Josephine
took her place beside him, surrounded by the
assembled sovereigns of Europe. Napoleon
appeared singularly calm The length of the
ceremony, however, seemed to weary him,
and I saw him several times check a yawn
During the ceremony of anointing, the Holy
Father delivered that impressive prayer But
just as the Pope was about to take the crown,

unit was upgraded to become a full reconnaissance battalion.

Specifications

7.5cm PaK40/2 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf) (Sd Kfz 131)

below: Napoleon leads


the bitter retreat from
Moscow in 1812. Over
500,000 of Napoleons
600,000 soldiers were lost
during the campaign.

In February 1944, the Polizei Division was ordered to form a motorcycle battalion
in place of its bicycle reconnaissance battalion. While it was being formed, the

the battalion was established the third company was one gun short with only 13 vehicles.

Originally a bicycle reconnaissance battalion, the Polizeis recce force was

May 2017 PubliCaTion

had been dominated by political assassinations, poverty, food shortages, and


occasional street riots. The memory of the revolution hung over the city like a
shroud and Parisians wanted no more violence; the smell of blood lingering in
the Place de la Concorde was allegedly so strong that horses refused to cross it. At
the simplest level, Napoleon had brought stability, bread and peace to a grateful
Parisian population.
But in 1812, everything changed. Napoleon, spurred on by hubris, invaded
Russia at the head of a massive 600,000-man army. It was a disaster: Napoleons
own scorched earth policy meant his men had nothing to eat as they made their
bitter retreat through a Russian winter. More than half a million lives were lost.
Napoleons failure in Russia would be exacerbated by a decisive battlefield defeat
in Leipzig. This time, he retreated into France with the armies of Russia, Prussia
and Austria in pursuit.
Paris had received news of Leipzig, but few suspected the city would be
subject to a foreign invasion until refugees of the Grande Armee began streaming
through its gates. A rag-tag procession of deserters, refugees and wounded filled
the streets, where they begged, died, and terrified onlookers with news of violent
reprisals by Russia. The city quickly reached fever pitch: the hospitals cleared
out their insane and elderly to make way for the wounded, as morgues reached
capacity and bodies were hoisted into the Seine. Parisians cut down trees to make
barricades across streets and shops were boarded up against looting. Then, in late
March, a cry went up from the city walls: The Cossacks are coming!
The allied armies bombed the city and then invaded. The battle was short,
lasting only a few hours before an armistice was signed and the clatter of the

4.SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division / Kraftrad-Aufklrungs-Abteilung

The 4.SS-Polizei-Sturmgeschtz-Abteilung had a staff company, which was equipped with two self-propelled Flakvierling anti-tank guns, and three Sturmgeschtz
companies. The standard table of equipment was for each company to have a staff platoon with two guns and three platoons with four guns each. However, at the time

had one company equipped with half-tracks.

62

CHAPTER 5

In May 1944, after re-equipping to bring the formation up to Panzergrenadier strength in fact as well as name, the Polizei Division had been assigned an armoured
detachment for the first time. The 4.SS-Polizei-Panzer-Abteilung was a three-battalion unit equipped with Sturmgeschtz assault guns rather than tanks. By August

converted into a motorcycle unit while in the Balkans in 1944, and by May 1944 it

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

120

Schwere Kraftrad mit Seitenwagen BMW R75 750-cc

Macedonia, and some ORGANIZATION


key Aegean islands.
SS-Pol.Inf.Rgt 7
Responsibility for
St
internal security was
initially in the hands
I
II
III sIG Flk Pnr
of the Wehrmacht,
which was primarily
interested in keeping open lines ORGANIZATION
1/SS-Pol.Pz.Ab
of communication to Greek
ports to supply German troops
St
fighting the British in North
SG SG SG
Africa. After the fall of Tunisia,
German troops were mainly
used in anti-partisan operations.

2cm Flak 38 auf Fahrgestell Zugkraftwagen 1t (SdKfz 10/5)

4.SS-Aufklrungs-Abteilung / 1.Aufklrungs-Kompanie (Spw)

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION

4.SS-Sturmgeschtz-Abteilung, 1.Kompanie
1944, the unit had been redesignated as 4.SS-Polizei-Sturmgeschtz-Abteilung.

In April 1943, the division began to upgrade to an armoured infantry formation with the
establishment of Polizei Panzergrenadier Regiments 1 and 2 at Cracow in Poland.

Specifications

UPPLY LINES WERE OVERSTRETCHED

SS-Polizei-Flak-Abteilung

19431944

regiments until October 1942, when they were redesignated as SS-Polizei-

, the troops
S
were exhausted and the full horrors of the Russian
winter were being visited upon German soldiers who,

Protz Kraftwagen (Kfz 69)

2nd fret

Greece and the Balkans

1.Polizei-Schtzen-Regiment

The three infantry regiments of the Polizei Division were designated Schtzen

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-905704-55-2
19.99 Hardback

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION

Leichte Personenkraftwagen VW (Kfz 1)

Crew: 1

Officially part of the SS


Even though the division was definitely under
Himmlers control, it was still known as the Police
Division. Its members continued to use police
insignia and rank badges until the division came fully
under SS administration early in 1941. It was not
until January 1942, while its troops were heavily
engaged in the fighting around Leningrad, that the
division was finally given official Waffen-SS status. Its
title was changed to the SS-Polizei-Division as the
formation was absorbed into the Waffen-SS, and all of
the divisions subordinate units received SS rather
than police designations.

Nut
1st fret

CHORD

Almost everything in this book can be applied to


any model of ukulele, although some ideas will
sound slightly different on a tenor or baritone
without re-entrant tuning (see p. 21).

A number of dots are used to show where to place the


fingers. For beginners, these are usually numbered, so you
know exactly which fingers to use.
All we need to show how to play a basic chord is a box
with these finger dots, and often just a few other symbols.
If there is no fingering dot on a string, it is either because
the open string is part of the chord (shown with an O)
or because the string should not be played in this chord
(shown with an X).
The name of the chord is shown above the box.

Uke vArieties

SS-Pol-Art

St
III

St

Open strings

ConCert UkUlele

II

SS-Pol-Rad

44

SS-Pol-Inf 2

St
I

edge of Luga, where the Germans encircled and


destroyed the Soviet defenders. After the battles for
Luga, the division was moved to the fighting around
Leningrad. From January to March 1942, the
division saw action along the Wolchow River and
helped in the encirclement and destruction of the
Second Soviet Assault Army.

Essential Identification Guide:


Waffen-SS Divisions 193945

Pz. Rgt 31 / I Battalion / 1st Company / 2nd Zug / tank number 3

Specifications

attack in single file, the division lost 20 Panzers in


quick succession, and the delay allowed the British to
withdraw safely.
Chasing the retreating British southwards, 5th
Panzer crossed the
Corinth canal on 28 ORGANIZATION
April. The panzers
Pz. Rgt. 31
headed for the beaches
l
at Kalamata where an
II.
I.
evacuation was taking
place, and after a
St
St
vicious fight captured
m
l
l
m
l
l
the last 7000 British
soldiers on the beach.

rapid manoeuvring of the vehicle in reverse.

Specifications
Crew: 4

Engine: Bssing-NAG L8V

Weight: 9.1 tonnes (8.3 tons)

Speed: 85km/hr (52.8mph)

Length: 5.85m (19.2ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Width: 2.2m (7.2ft)

Radio: FuG12 plus

Height (no aerial): 2.35m (7.7ft)

fuG Spr Ger a

The 704th was the last of the six Infanteriegeschtz


Abteilung to still be listed in service in 1943.

Specifications
Crew: 4

Engine: Maybach NL38TR

Weight: 9.4 tonnes (8.5 tons)

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)

Length: 4.67m (15.3ft)

Range: 140km (87 miles)

Width: 2.06m (6.8ft)

Armament: One 15cm (6in) sIG33 L/11

Height: 2.8m (9.2ft)

15cm sIG33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B


Mittlerer Schtzenpanzerwagen I Ausf B (Sd Kfz 251/1)
5th Schtzen Regiment / II Battalion / 9th Company

704th Schwere Infanteriegeschtz Abteilung

The 15cm (6in) sIG howitzer could be dismounted and used as towed artillery.

The Sd Kfz 251/1 Ausf B eliminated the vision ports in the side of the vehicle.

Crew: 3

Nineteen Pz.Kpfw III armed with the 3.7cm (1.5in) cannon were listed

Early vehicles like this had unprotected machine gun mounts; armoured shields

Weight: 5.3 tonnes (4.8 tons)

operational at the time of 5th Panzers attack through the centre of Greece.

would become standard in new models, and were retrofitted to earlier variants.

Length: 4.8m (15.7ft)


Width: 1.95m (6.4ft)

Specifications

Height: 2m (6.6ft)

Crew: 5

Engine: Horch 3.5 or 3.8


Speed: 85km/hr (52.8mph)

months of the war. The division

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

surrendered to the Soviets in West

Radio: FuG Spr Ger a

Specifications
Engine: Maybach HL120TR

Crew: 2 plus 12 troops

2.16m (7ft) with MG shield

Weight: 21.5 tonnes (19.5 tons)

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)

Weight: 9.9 tonnes (9 tons)

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

Length: 5.38m (17.7ft)

Range: 165km (102.5 miles)

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

Width: 2.91m (9.5ft)

Radio: FuG5

Height: 2.44m (8ft)

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Height : 1.75m (5.7ft) or

Radio: FuG Spr Ger f

Prussia in April 1945.

51

54

55

15

THE HISTOR Y OF PIRATES

TORTURE

s ad quas nos quiatia volore si quam,


con et quis alit vid ut laut dendanit
moditiam velessum que nimaxim
ilibus volupti tendi repedio rument del id
quid maionese nonectur sam ad et am fugit
voloreium fugia volupta speria doluptat
porepel iunt hilligendel mi, comnit etum
ipis rem in corecabore sam nonsequo cus,
inum landi si rationse labor alis reprovit re
sit a doluptatem eos mintent, qui omnist,
sam reperia et lia suntibus et accus simincto
que dollam que in rendam non nulloria ea
consed mo dolorem adias maio maximin
ciendant omni vides seniminis es et ommolo
berenitiant, sin re Catis eum andanditat
quiaspe dictem doluptatio. Lendandam,
sam et atincim quia vollo etur aliquibus aut
fuga. Nem. Nam aut inciduc ieniae illatur?
Tium niae moleniendit ommolup tatur? Qui
dolorerro tet et voluptatis sundent autesti
ores Us ad quas nos quiatia volore si quam,
con et quis alit vid ut laut dendanit moditiam
velessum que nimaxim ilibus volupti tendi
repedio rument del id quid maionese
nonectur sam ad et am fugit voloreium
fugia volupta speria doluptat porepel iunt
hilligendel mi, comnit etum ipis rem in
corecabore sam nonsequo cus, inum landi si
rationse labor alis reprovit re sit a doluptatem
eos mintent, qui omnist, sam reperia et
lia suntibus et accus simincto que dollam
que in rendam non nulloria ea consed mo
dolorem adias maio maximin ciendant omni
vides seniminis es et ommolo berenitiant,
sin re Catis eum andanditat quiaspe dictem
doluptatio. Lendandam.

BRENDA RALPH LEWIS

However repugnant, torture has been


practised for thousands of years. From
the rack to electrodes, from witchhunts to the Inquisition to a postcolonial world, it is something that
we have always lived with. Ranging
from the ancient world to Abu Ghraib,
Guantanamo and Islamic State today,
from the Algerian War to the Troubles in
Northern Ireland to Cambodias Killing
Fields, The History of Torture tells the
story of physical cruelty and mental
torment used by governments and
terrorist organizations across millennia.

The History of Torture


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
110 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-519-8
19.99 Paperback

Dr. David C. Cook & Dr. Wendy L. Kirk

The History of Torture

82

The Spanish
Inquisition
F

ew legal institutions have earned a worse reputation, or inspired


more fear, than the Inquisition in Spain. Yet, compared with such
events in most of southern Europe, it had a relatively late development.
While the fight against heresy went on in other parts of Europe during
the thirteenth century, the inhabitants of Christian Spain had a more
pressing concern. The struggle against Moorish occupation was long
and hard, and served to strengthen their faith. It was only as the
reconquest of the peninsula was gradually completed that the question
of the need for religious unity within the kingdom was raised.
At first, the Jews were regarded as the principal obstruction to this
aim. They had been tolerated under Moorish rule: scholars and
merchants, they had grown in numbers and influence for seven
centuries. And so, in the late fourteenth century, Henry III of Castile and
Leon began to exert pressure on the Jewish community: they were given
the alternatives of baptism into the Christian faith, or death.
Those who openly converted from Judaism, but frequently continued
to practise their religion in secret, were known as marranos an
unfortunate name that more commonly meant filthy swine. It has been
calculated that there were more than 100,000 of them, and when Castile
and Aragon were united in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and
Isabella (the Catholic kings), these marranos were declared a danger to
the faith in Spain, and so to the safety of the kingdom.
In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV was persuaded to issue a bull that authorized
the Catholic kings to name the inquisitors they wished to be appointed.
This was intended to be an alliance of Church and State, but in reality
it resulted in a strengthening of the absolute power of the throne. The
earliest Spanish inquisitors, who set themselves up in Seville, showed
such zeal in the pursuit of heresy that the pope attempted to restrain
them; but the Spanish Government now realized what a powerful
weapon they had in their hands, and Sixtus found that he was unable to
influence them. In 1483 he was compelled to agree to the appointment
of Inquisitors General for Castile and Leon; Aragon, Valencia, and
Catalonia came under the control of the Inquisition during the same year.

Some prisoners at an
auto-da-f were
sentenced to be flogged,
or committed to the
galleys, but the more
obdurate heretics were
burned at the conclusion
of the ceremony.

Then were severally called the number of 53 one after another, and
every man had his several judgment, some to have 200 stripes on
horseback, and some 100, and condemned for slaves to the galleys, some
for 6 years, some for 8, and some for 10. And then was I, Miles Philips,
called, and was adjudged to serve in a monastery for 5 years, without
any stripes, and to wear a fools coat or san benito during all that time.
Then were called John Story, Richard Williams, David Alexander,
Robert Cooke, Paul Horsewell, and Thomas Hull: the six were
condemned to serve in monasteries, without stripes, some for three years
and some for four Which being done, and it now drawing toward
night, George Rively, Peter Momfry, and Cornelius the Irishman were
called and had their judgment to be burnt to ashes, and so were presently
sent away to the place of execution in the market-place ... [and] quickly
burnt and consumed. And as for us that had received our judgment,
being 68 in number, we were carried back that night to prison
Now after that the time was expired for which we were condemned
to serve in those religious houses, we were then brought again before the

The Spanish Inquisition

Altogether, it has been calculated, in 277 years of the Inquisition in


Mexico, 41 were burned as relapsed heretics, and 99 burned in effigy.
The auto-da-f of 1659 was one of the largest: out of 23 men and six
women, seven were burned, five for heresy and two for Judaism; the
others were convicted of such varied crimes as blasphemy, bigamy,
forgery, perjury, and witchcraft.
In Peru, the Inquisition held 29 autos-da-f, the first in 1581, and the
last in 1776. In all, 59 heretics were committed to the stake. In the
Portuguese territories of Brazil, the Inquisition was not established, but
visiting commissioners were sent there regularly from 1591 onward.
Those who were arrested were sent to Lisbon for trial, and no autos-daf were ever held in Brazil. It has been calculated that between 1591 and
1763 some 400 Jews were shipped to Portugal: 18 were condemned to
death, but only one of these, Isaac de Castro, was burned alive (in
1647), the others being garrotted and burned in effigy.
The Inquisition was much more severe in Goa, where more Hindus
than Jews were imprisoned. The Portuguese Torres de Castilla described
their confinement as:

others were
convicted of such
varied crimes as
blasphemy,
bigamy, forgery,
perjury, and
witchcraft

the dirtiest, darkest and most horrible that can possibly be, into which
the rays of the sun never penetrate. The kind of noxious air that must
be breathed may be imagined when it is known that a dry well in the
middle of the space where the prisoners were confined, and which is
always uncovered, is used as a privy, the emanations from which have
no other outlet for escape than a small opening. The prisoners live in a
common privy.

(Opposite) An 18thcentury impression of


tortures employed by the
Spanish Inquisition,
including the strappado,
the use of fire on the
soles of the feet, and the
water torture. The chief
inquisitor sits at the back
of the room, and a clerk
in front of him takes
down the answers to
his interrogation.

For more than three centuries the Inquisition was active in Spain and
Portugal, and their overseas territories. It was suppressed in Spain by
Joseph Bonaparte in 1808, restored in 1814, suppressed again in 1820,
restored in 1823, and finally suppressed in 1834. Public autos-da-f
were banned in Portugal in 1771, and the Inquisition suppressed in
1820. An era of terror, it was hoped, was at an end.

Ted Fuller &


Julian Hayman

Features 150 of the worst


cars to roll off the production
line, from the poorly built
AMC Gremlin to the financially
disastrous Bricklin SV-1
Includes a brief history of each
car, outlining the reasons for the
vehicles failure
Each car is illustrated with
annotated photography,
highlighting key faults

Guitar Chords
163 x 123mm (6 x 4)
320pp
60,000 words
300 col a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-378-1
9.99 Flexibound

Worlds Worst Cars

Worlds Worst Cars

Including 300 chord diagrams, this


book features all of the most popular
major and minor guitar chords from
AG which are used in a wide range
of music styles, including rock,
pop, folk and classical music. Each
chord entry has a detailed colour
diagram with colour-coded dots for
finger positioning, accompanied by
explanatory text and a full colour
picture showing the chord being played
on the guitar.

300 essential chords

Worlds Worst Cars takes a detailed


look at motoring mistakes old
and new and asks the pertinent
questions: why did they ever reach
the showrooms? What went wrong?
And what kind of person actually
bought them? From East Germanys
Trabant to the DeLorean, each of the
150 cars featured is illustrated with
full-colour studio photography and
archive images from the cars heyday.
Informed and (mostly) affectionate text
brings each cars troubled story to life.

PICTURE CREDITS
FRONT: Amphicar Art-Tech/Midsummer Books
BACK: Dodge Dart The Culture Archive
Printed in China

From Design Disasters to Financial Failures

T H E C C H O R D FA M I LY
C

C
E
NUT

E b MAJOR7

T H E E b C H O R D FA M I LY
E flat major 7

NUT

E b MAJOR7

acceleration and
heavy bodywork

in-line four

DISPLACEMENT:

82ci (1340cc)

WEIGHT:

1995lb (898kg)

MILEAGE:

28mpg

The first 109Es had an engine with


just three main bearings. As the cars
were heavy, the engines had to be
worked hard, and premature wear
to the front end was common.

The fluted wings, incorporating the


indicator lights, were touted as a
styling feature of the 109E. But while
they looked good, they provided a
convenient rust trap, from which
the rest of the front structure would
rot out.

ou cant improve on perfection, and the Mini Clubman is all the evidence
youll ever need. It was launched in 1969 as a supposed update to the
then 10-year-old Mini, and, in creating the Clubman, British Leylands

It might have looked sporty, but the


109E wasnt a particularly dynamic
car to drive. The weight made the
handling difficult, and performance
was never great.

designers took the original Alec Issigonis shape and modified it to wear the
companys new corporate nose, shared with the unspectacular Maxi. In essence,
it wasnt such a bad ideaafter all,
the original Minis engine bay was
cramped, which made it difficult
to work on. But whoever was
responsible for the redesign was

(10.0l/100km)

Left: We havent got a clue why theres a


woman sitting on a deckchair in the trunk of

unsympathetic toward the original


Minis gorgeous looks, and the
Clubman appeared too long,

this Capri 109E. Perhaps the driver ran out of


seats inside?

while the squared-off nose sat


awkwardly with the curvaceous
tail inherited from the standard
Mini. After twelve years of
production, where it sold
alongside the original car,
the Clubman was shelved
and the original continued.
29

36

The front of the Clubman resembled


that of the Austin Maxi. A fact that
really isnt much to shout about
when you consider the larger cars
many faults.

SPECIFICATIONS
TOP SPEED:

90mph (145km/h)

060MPH (096KM/H): 13.3secs


ENGINE TYPE:

in-line four

DISPLACEMENT:

78ci (1275cc)

WEIGHT:

1555lb (699kg)

MILEAGE:

40mpg (7.0l/100km)

Left: While Britain may indeed be small,


driving from one end to the other in a Mini
Clubman remains a deeply uncomfortable
experience.

BL tried to make the Clubman more


elegant than the standard Mini, so the
dials were moved from the center to
behind the steering wheel. Unfortunately,
that meant you couldnt see them.

Power came from standard Mini


engines, but with more room to
work on them. The 1275GT version
is as quick as a Mini Cooper, but
much cheaper to buy.

37

FRET 3

FRET 4

X = DO NOT PLAY
THIS STRING

This is a very useful moveable major seventh shape.


Adding the middle finger at the 3rd fret on the A string
changes it to an equally jazzy Cm9 chord.

= OPTIONAL
NOTE

Your index finger should play the 1st fret of the B string, while your
middle finger plays the 2nd fret of the D string and your ring finger
the 3rd fret of the A string.

16

95mph (153km/h)

before the Cortina


appeared, with far
more success.
28

FRET 4

92

ENGINE TYPE:

120 x 161mm (4 x 6)
320pp
35,000 words
300 col a/ws & b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-365-1
9.99 Flexibound

FRET 2

FRET 3

STRING

TOP SPEED:

060MPH (096KM/H): 13.7secs

Production lasted
just three years

2
3

O = OPEN

SPECIFICATIONS

that caused the


skinny tires to lose
grip prematurely.

FRET 1

FRET 2

This shape is relatively easy to learn for many three-chord


songs in C, F and G. Try adding the little finger on the B
string, 3rd fret, for a great-sounding and easy alternative
shape for C(add9).

slow sellers in a marketplace where buyers favored more traditional designs.


There were also problems with the original three-bearing engine, which was
prone to premature big-end failure. And despite those alluring looks, neither
was great to drive,
with sluggish

FRET 1

here was certainly nothing wrong with the styling of Fords new family

contender for 1961. The Classic bore several U.S. design influences and
looked fantastic, with its distinctive grille, quad headlights and reverse-raked
rear window. The two-door Capri coup looked even prettier, but the 109E
series was a definite case of beauty being only skin deep. In Ford terms, the
Classic and Capri were disastersexpensive to develop, difficult to build and

Worlds Worst Cars

MINI CLUBMAN (196981)

FORD CLASSIC/CAPRI 109E (196164)

163 x 123mm (6 x 4)
320pp
60,000 words
300 col a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-259-3
9.99 Flexibound

83

Craig Cheetham

Guitar

Chords

Chords

Minerals and Gemstones

chief Inquisitor and had all our fools coats pulled off and hanged up in
the head church and every mans name and judgment written thereon
with this addition, A heretic Lutheran reconciled. And there were also
all their coats hanged up which were condemned to the galleys, and
underneath his coat Heretic Lutheran reconciled: and also the coats and
names of the three that were burned, whereupon was written an
obstinate heretic Lutheran burnt.

Guitar Chords

Guitar

From simple sandstones through to


jade and diamond, this is an accessible
and informative reference guide to
300 different gemstones and minerals.
Learn what the Earth is made of,
how its rocks were formed and how
minerals and gems are used today.
Divided into sections covering the
internationally recognized classification
groups, each entry includes a colour
photograph, background information,
chemical formula and an information
table with specifications such as
colour, hardness and crystal system.

300 of the Earths Natural Treasures

BRIAN INNES

Chapter Five

Minerals and Gemstones

Minerals
and Gemstones

Minerals
and Gemstones

The
History of Torture
U

THE HISTOR Y OF

O = OPEN

STRING

X = DO NOT PLAY
THIS STRING

= OPTIONAL
NOTE

Using your index finger play the 1st fret of the D string, then let your ring
finger cover the 3rd fret of the top E, B and G strings.
93

174

175

17

Small size makes the


Makarov easy to carry and
handle in close confines,
such as aboard a vehicle.

MAKAROV PISTOL 1957


he 1950s-vintage Makarov is typical of Russian handguns, which have
never been considered to be serious combat weapons. Although small
and easy to carry, and fairly well made from good materials, the Makarov is
hampered by two main problems.
Firstly, the 9x18mm round used by the Makarov is weak and offers little
stopping power, and there are not even very many of them as the Makarov
has only an eight-round magazine. Secondly, while accurate shooting is
difficult with any handgun, the Makarovs universally bad trigger action
makes any sort of marksmanship an exercise in blind luck.

he M16 assault rifle suffered from some serious flaws when it was first
introduced. M16s failed quickly in the filthy Vietnam jungle. As the
weapon was designed not to need cleaning, no cleaning kits were available.
Another problem with early M16s was the tendency of the plastic butt and
furniture to become brittle in very cold conditions. This could lead to a
broken rifle, as soldiers are not renowned for their gentleness when moving
around or taking cover under fire. Later versions corrected these problems,
but the early M16 was not a good weapon at all.

SPECIFICATIONS
TYPE:

Handgun

LENGTH:

16cm (6in)

CALIBRE:

9x18mm Soviet

AMMUNITION
CAPACITY:

8 rounds

EFFECTIVE
RANGE:

40m (131ft)

COMPLEXITY:

Moderate

USERS:

Military

120 x 161mm (4 x 6)
320pp
35,000 words
300 col a/ws & b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-364-4
9.99 Flexibound

A N

TANKS

I L L U S T R A T E D

H I S T O R Y

The M16 is still intolerant


of dirt and grit in its
mechanism, and needs to
be looked after carefully.
Troops in Iraq discovered
this to their cost.

SPECIFICATIONS
TYPE:

Longarm

LENGTH:

1m (3ft)

CALIBRE:

5.56x45mm

The M16 is sighted out to long


ranges and is very accurate; few
soldiers can effectively use the
weapons long accurate range.

Mk III Valentine
Infantry Tank (1939)

AMMUNITION
CAPACITY:

Derived from a previous Vickers design, the A10, the Mk III Valentine Infantry

30 rounds

EFFECTIVE
RANGE:

1000m (3280ft)

COMPLEXITY:

Moderate

USERS:

Military, worldwide

the Commonwealth nations as a potential Nazi invasion of Britain loomed.


Initial discussions with Vickers to join the production
effort for the new Matilda II tank ended due to the fact that

the Mk III Valentine entered production with little testing.


It was a calculated risk, but the experience with the A10

Although some observers were sceptical of early Vickers


designs, particularly due to small turrets that might not

never considered pistols to be

the new tank, which, in fact, turned out to be quite reliable.

Dimensions

US troops deployed to Vietnam had high

or emergency weapons. The

hopes for these new wonder rifles that did

Makarov is reliable and makes a

not need cleaning. The M16 fell far short

decent-enough threat, but is not a

of expectations, although it did mature into

71

72

a decent weapon.

The first of the new Vickers tanks, the Valentine I, rolled off

Weight

Quantity rather than quality was the order of the day and

assembly lines in late 1940. From there, great quantities

Engine

Turret
The two-man turret of the Mk III
Valentine Infantry Tank required the
commander to serve as a loader for
the 2pdr gun.

the illustrated history of the

Picture credits:
Front Cover: UH-1B helicopters and troops in a Green LZ in
1965 William James Warren/Getty Images.
Back Cover: A detachment of the MRF disembarks rapidly during
an amphibious landing along the My Tho River US Navy.

Bloody History of America

A thorough and well-illustrated history of the decades-long conflict


in Southeast Asia, from Frances involvement in the First Indochina
War to the participation of the United States and its allies, including
Australia and South Korea, in the Vietnam War.

Fourteen chronological and thematic chapters trace the evolution


of a tragic and costly conflict; also includes more than 40 highly
informative feature boxes.

Provides authoritative text by two historians, complemented


by some 300 photographs, display extracts
and nearly 30 maps and diagrams.

war

andrew wiest and Chris mcnaB

A NEW WORLD

21

left: Ren-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle,


claims possession of the Mississippi region,
naming it Louisiana after his king, Louis XIV.

A skilled bowman could fire


six well-aimed arrows
a minute.

18

Tobacco

Although the English had not found gold in Virginia, they had come across a
palatable strain of tobacco smoked by the Indians, which, when business took
off, sold in England for up to ten times what it cost to produce in the colony.
The problem was securing sufficient manpower to farm it. While in New France
the difficulty was attracting migrants, in Virginia the trouble was keeping them
alive. Between 1607 and 1624, about 7600 people had emigrated from England
to Virginia, but, after almost 20 years, Virginias English population was still
only about 1200 with disease killing off many of the settlers. The local Indian
population, too, was being depleted through disease, as well as being driven away
in the land grab.
Indentured servants were introduced to work on the farms. Given a free
passage to Virginia from England, the workers contracted themselves to a master
for seven years. After that, they were free to work as wage earners, and, if they
saved enough money, to buy their own land something easier to achieve in
Virginia than in Europe. Not that life was easy: in the early years the chance of
survival for indentured servants was 50 per cent.
Nor were things getting any easier. With the end of the English Civil War

above: Despite having


guns, the Europeans could
still be overrun by the
Native Americans. Unlike
a bow and arrow, a musket
could, at best, be fired
three times a minute, while
its aim was uncertain at
distance.

Main: Initially 1 x 37mm (1.45in)

Facebook: www.facebook.com/amberbooks

andrew wiest and Chris mcnaB

Printed in China

With Japanese expansion across the Pacific


and attacks on US merchant shipping, fears
grew of an invasion of the American West
Coast. No attempt at invasion happened,
but there were some isolated assaults. In
February 1942, a Japanese submarine
fired shells at the Ellwood Oil Field near
Santa Barbara, southern California. That
June, another Japanese submarine fired
shells at Fort Stevens on the Columbia
River, Oregon though without causing
significant damage. Three months later,
the continental US saw its only air raid
of the war when a floatplane launched
from a submarine dropped two
incendiary bombs on the mountains of
Oregon. Due to poor weather and the
actions of fire patrols, the fires were
put out with minimal damage.
above:
Between November 1944 and
These young
April 1945, the Japanese Navy
evacuees of Japanese ancestry are awaiting
launched more than 9000 fire
their turn for baggage inspection upon arrival at this Assembly
balloons towards North America.
Most were ineffective, but five
children and a woman were killed in Oregon when one of the children tampered with a bomb
that one of the balloons had been carrying they would be the wars only deaths in mainland
America due to enemy action.
Worries about traitors in the nations midst after the attack on the Ellwood Oil Field had led to
the justification of the internment of almost 120,000 Japanese-Americans in mainland America
nearly two-thirds of whom were US citizens. Of course, Germany and Italy were also at war with
the US, but there was no internment of the many Americans from German or Italian families. As
the proportion of Japanese-Americans in Hawaii was too large for mass internment, martial law
was imposed on the islands instead.
However, a number of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii, some of whom had been in the
Hawaii National Guard, successfully petitioned to be allowed to serve in the US armed forces,
and in 1943 the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team of Japanese-American soldiers was
formed. Generally forbidden from front-line action in the Pacific War, some used their language
skills in intelligence work, while others fought in Europe. In total, about 14,000 men served with
the 442nd. With 9486 Purple Heart military honours awarded, it became, considering its size, the
most decorated unit in the war.

W O R L D WA R I I

127

Pearl Harbor

Beginning at 7.48am, the attack at Pearl Harbor on 8 December 1941 consisted


of two waves of 353 Japanese aircraft fighters, bombers and torpedo planes
launched from six aircraft carriers, which the U.S. had failed to spot manoeuvring
into range. All eight US battleships in port were damaged, with four of them sunk,
while three destroyers and three cruisers were also damaged or sunk.

Although the US
Marines fought with
distinction in Vietnam,
the ambiguous nature

All eight battleships in port


were damaged, with four of
them sunk.
below: USS SHAW
exploding during the
Japanese raid on Pearl
Harbor.mediocrem, eu
graece putent inimicus
sed. Ad mel mandamus
honestatis, ne vel nullam
eloquentiam.

1550mm (0.591.97in)

Range

155km (96 miles)

Crew

carried aboard the Ausf N, which was later also assigned to


independent Panzer battalions as an escort for PzKpfw VI
Tiger heavy tanks.

German soldiers and tank crewmen sit atop at PzKpfw III as


it fords a stream early in World War II. Note the distinctive
headwear of the Panzerwaffe on the crewman at far right. The
PzKpfw III Ausf M, produced in 194243, included a deep-wading
exhaust system.

Champion Chassis
The PzKpfw III chassis proved to be quite versatile during
World War II. Particularly with the improved torsion bar
suspension of the Ausf F, the chassis gained a reputation
as a steady gun platform, both in the tank and assault
gun roles. The Sturmgeschtz self-propelled assault gun

Long Road Eastward

mounted a 75mm (2.95in) main weapon and was highly

Even as the German Army rolled across the Russian frontier

successful. Armoured recovery and observation vehicles

that weapon ineffective, 100 Ausf F tanks followed with

on 22 June 1941, the main battle tank capability of the

also utilized the chassis, which were produced throughout

the heavier KwK 38 L/42 50mm (1.97in) cannon.

PzKpfw III, the most prominent tank in its panzer divisions,

the war.

two or three 7.92mm (0.31in) MG 34 machine guns,


mounted in the hull and in the turret adjacent to the main
gun. By the time of the German invasion of France and
the Low Countries on 10 May 1940, large numbers of the
The imposing frame of the PzKpfw III was compact and
efficient, actually incorporating turret armour with a slight slope
to improve protection while the hull armour remained more
square. As the main weapon was upgunned, the firepower was
comparable to early Allied tanks.

of the war resulted


in the breakdown of
discipline and
organisation in some
units which had not
been witnessed in
previous conflicts.

RIGHT: AN F-8 CRUSADER


LAUNCHES A MISSILE ATTACK
AGAINST A
IN

Ausf F had been deployed.

VIETCONG

SITE

SOUTH VIETNAM.

BELOW: US MARINES
ENGAGE

VIETCONG

TROOPS

IN A FIREFIGHT NEAR

CHU

LAI, JANUARY 1966.

VIETNAM

Proof 1

Buildings blaze in the background as German soldiers,


supported by a PzKpfw III, clear a war-torn street
somewhere on the Eastern Front. The PzKpfw III was

The G variant added armour to the gun mantlet, while

continually modified during World War II and evolved


from a main battle tank to an infantry support vehicle

was increased with 30mm (1.18in) of additional bolted-

as its firepower and armour protection were eclipsed by

on plating. Engine performance was increased with the

subsequent generations of Allied tanks.

Ausf H and wider tracks were added for greater stability in

Producing Panzer Power

such conditions as the North African desert or the muddy

When the Ausf E entered production in 1939, it was armed

terrain of the Eastern Front.

with a 37mm (1.45in) KwK 36 L/46.5 main weapon. In

Evolving Combat Role

armour protection for the front and rear hull of the Ausf H

The PzKpfw III was the frontline German tank during the
early months of World War II. It was available in relatively
large numbers and held its own for a time against the

Following the shocking debut of the superb Soviet

1940, the Ausf F, virtually identical to the Ausf E, was

T-34 medium tank, the PzKpfw III Ausf J was introduced

introduced. The improvements with the Ausf F included

with a longer-barrelled 50mm (1.97in) gun to generate

a different engine ignition system, modified air intakes

higher muzzle velocity. Subsequently, the L and M variants

and improved torsion bar suspension. Approximately

provided armour upgrades, nearly doubling the weight of

300 Ausf F variants were produced with the 37mm main

the original PzKpfw III to more than 22.7 tonnes (22.3 tons).

gun; however, as improving Allied tank designs rendered

The Ausf M also included a chassis with greater stability.

Soviets until the T-34 arrived in sufficient numbers to


complement the older Red Army BT and T-26 models.
In North Africa, the PzKpfw III was more than a match
for British armour and dominated the battlefield until the
arrival of the American M3 Grant/Lee and M4 Sherman
medium tanks with their 75mm (2.95in) main guns.

49

48

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 43

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 48

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 49

The
Illustrated History
Vietnam
war
of
the Vietnam War
the illustrated history of the

Break the will of the enemy to fight, and


you accomplish the true objective of war.
sun tzu, The Art of War

Forty years after it ended, the Vietnam


War remains a controversial conflict
internationally, while the scars of
defoliation are still in evidence in parts
of the country. Before pulling out,
the US dropped eight million tons of
bombs and suffered 46,370 fatalities
against a technologically inferior force,
while 900,000 Vietnamese people
were killed. From Indochina to the
fall of Saigon, this illustrated history
is a timely account of the 6,000-day
conflict.

in the aftermath of world war ii the decolonization


process gained pace, but the transition to self-rule
was often violent. with us material and financial
aid, france fought a campaign in indochina to
regain colonial control over those territories it had
held before the Japanese occupation, but by 1954 it
was forced to admit defeat and accept partition. The
revolutionaries in southeast asia had demonstrated
how to achieve political objectives in the face of
overwhelming odds, but they continued their
struggle to reunify Vietnam.

The repercussions of this bitter, tragic and costly


conflict were far-reaching, for it has affected us
foreign policy ever since. as The Illustrated History
of the Vietnam War reveals, the war remains a
fascinating military study, embracing such diverse
topics as guerrilla and conventional warfare,
urban and jungle fighting and political and
ideological struggle.

isBn: 978-1-78274-288-3

reintroduced. Vicariously at least, writes historian Philip Jenkins, the United


States was in all essential ways a combatant power for most of 1941.
The mass raid on Pearl Harbor may have come out of the blue, but an attack
of some kind had been expected, although Malaya
or the Philippines had been thought more likely
targets. Back in 1937, Japanese aircraft had sunk
the US gunboat Panay while it was anchored on the
Yangtze River, China, and, concerned about Japans
imperialistic expansion in China and southeast
Asia, America was already offering covert aid to the
Chinese war effort, including the use of American
pilots. Following the sinking, commercial treaties with Japan had been annulled
and economic restrictions imposed including, crucially, access to American oil.

Armour

fearing an aggressive expansion of communism,


the usa took the fateful step of intervening
in southeast asia. initially only political and
monetary support was given to the new south
Vietnamese government, but as the situation grew
ever more complex, direct us military participation
escalated. in the late 1960s there were as many as
500,000 american troops in Vietnam. By the time
the us forces finally withdrew in 1973, the war had
destabilized the entire region, spilling over into
laos and Cambodia.

Twitter: @amberbooks

W O R L D WA R I I

ATTACKS ON
AMERICA

A major change in Frances fortunes came with Ren-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, a lapsed
Jesuit turned explorer. With a troop of Frenchmen and Indians, he established forts in the
Great Lakes, before, in 1682, canoeing down the Mississippi
River to the Gulf of Mexico although
this was not the destination he was
seeking. Hed been hoping to find a
route to the Pacific and so on to Asia
but he claimed the new territory for
France, anyway, naming it Louisiana
after his king, Louis XIV.
La Salles next expedition from
France approached America from the
Gulf of Mexico. After a troubled voyage
that saw three of his four ships lost, he
landed too far west; his men then spent
three years trying to find the mouth of the
Mississippi. In 1687, with no end in sight,
his troops mutinied and shot him. A sorry
end, but today La Salles achievements
as an explorer are commemorated across
France, Canada and the US.

wife, powdered her [with salt], and had eaten part of her before it was knowne.
Once discovered, he was executed.
Like the Spanish in Florida, the English had arrived in Virginia with the hope
of finding gold, and also of navigating a passage through the continent to Asia.
Instead, there was no gold and they soon proved
that they werent capable of feeding themselves. Help
came from the local Powhatan Indians, but the tribes
good will was soon tested. By 1620, the colonists were
taking land from the Powhatans without any attempt
at payment. This led, in 1622, to the Powhatans killing
347 settlers more than a quarter of the colony.
Following further disputes, in 1644 the Powhatans
butchered a further 400 colonists in a single day.
It might seem surprising that the Native Americans, who had no guns unless
they had obtained them from Europeans, could inflict such losses on the English.
However, a skilled bowman could fire six well-aimed arrows a minute, whereas
someone wielding a musket could, at best, fire it three times a minute. Even then,
the aim was uncertain at distance, and the musket often liable to malfunction.

126

Armament

MG 34 machine guns

Vietnam

the illustrated history of the

Dr Chris McNab is a freelance writer, editor


and researcher based in south wales, uK, who
specializes in twentieth-century military history.
following a degree in Classical history and english
at the university of wales in aberystwyth, he
completed a Phd in social and political theory at
the same university, before focusing his attentions
on his primary interest, military affairs.
he is the author of Military Uniforms Visual
Encyclopedia, Battles that Changed Warfare,
Germanys Secret Masterplan and Sporting Guns.

Website: www.amberbooks.co.uk

(2.95in) gun, which had originally been installed on the


PzKpfw IV. A total of 64 rounds of 75mm ammunition were

KwK L/46.5; later 50mm (1.97in)

43

Vietnam war

Andrew Wiest is Professor of history at the


university of southern mississippi and serves as
director of the Vietnam studies Program. he is
author of The Boys of 67.

Appstore: itunes.com/apps/amberbooksltd

The PzKpfw III Ausf N was modified as an infantry


support tank and armed with a short-barrelled 75mm

KwK 38 L/42 gun

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 42

Encyclopedia of Warfare
Foreword by Dennis Showalter
978-1-78274-023-0

in 1943.

Throughout production, secondary armament included

82

A NEW WORLD

Road: 40km/h (25mph)

Secondary: 2 x 7.92mm (0.31in)

Main Armament
The 2pdr (40mm) QF main gun of the
Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank lost its
effectiveness with the advent of heavier
Axis tanks and was replaced in later
variants with the 6pdr (57mm) gun.

June 2017 PubliCaTion

CANOEING DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI

Speed

Cross-country: 20km/h (12mph)

42

Other titles of interest:


Illustrated History of World War I
Andrew Wiest
978-1-78274-137-4

versus tank fighting until the arrival of the PzKpfw V Panther

1 x 12-cylinder inline water-cooled


engine developing 224kW (300hp)

Secondary Armament
The BESA machine gun was a
British version of the Czech-made
ZB-53 air-cooled machine gun
and was utilized extensively by the
British military during World War II.

Engine
The AEC A190 six-cylinder
diesel engine of the Mk III
Valentine Infantry Tank
generated 103kW (131hp).
It was replaced in later
variants with an American
GMC diesel engine.

244 x 186mm (934 x 712)


224pp
180 b/w and colour photos,
diagrams and maps
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-497-9
19.99 Hardback

support role, then shouldered the great weight of the tank

17.41 tonnes (17.1 tons)


Maybach HL 120 TRM petrol

Armour Protection
The armour protection of the
Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank
varied from 865mm (0.31
2.55in), heavier than the A10
Cruiser Tank from which the
Valentine was derived.

Bloody History of America traces the


narrative of this still young nation
from the adventurers of the sixteenth
century to the soldiers fighting the
Islamic State (ISIS) today, from
Revolutionary War to Civil War, from
slavery to Civil Rights, from the Salem
Witch Trials to the McCarthy era witchhunts, from Prohibition to Hollywood
excess, and from religious cults to
political corruption. Illustrated with 180
captivating paintings, photographs,
and artworks, this is a vivid account of
the darker side of the United States.

Length: 5.38m (17ft 8in)


Height: 2.44m (8ft)

Valentines with Vickers Vigour

by the Nazis a real possibility, tank production was critical.

73

Bloody History of America

Gradually, the PzKpfw III evolved into an infantry support


tank while the PzKpfw IV, intended originally for the infantry

Width: 2.91m (9ft 7in)

accept heavier armament easily, tanks were in short supply


and World War II was going badly for Britain. With invasion

The Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank was rushed into production


in 1940 without extensive field testing but proved reliable
largely due to Vickers experience with its forerunner, the
A10 Cruiser Tank.

20

Panzer III Ausf F


was waning. The Soviet T-34 soon eclipsed other designs.

Specification

to develop an infantry tank based on the A10 and the

much more than status symbols

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
65,000 words
200col a/ws & photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-108-4
19.99 Hardback

The Worlds Greatest Tanks

the company already had facilities dedicated to its own

Soviet and Russian forces have

The Worlds Greatest Tanks

assuaged some of the concern about the performance of

cruiser tank, the A10. Instead, Vickers was asked


The distinctive plastic barrel
shroud has become a trademark of
the M16 and its offspring, which
include the Colt Commando.

weapon on which to trust your life.

design was eventually approved for production in the


summer of 1939.

Tank was available in large numbers at a critical time for Great Britain and

The weapon lacks stopping


power but has low recoil and
controllability.

70

From World War I to the present day,


The Worlds Greatest Tanks features 52
of the best armoured fighting vehicles.
From the Mark V Male to the Soviet
T-34 to todays M1A2 Abrams, each
entry is examined over two spreads
and includes a brief description of
the tanks history, a colour profile
artwork, photographs, key features
and specifications. Packed with 200
artworks and photographs, this is a
colourful guide for the military historian
and general enthusiast.

Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank

M16 EARLY VERSIONS 1960

The Makarovs basic configuration


is based on a Walther design.

Worlds Worst Weapons

The Worlds Greatest Tanks

T H E W o r l d S G r E AT E S T

Proof 1

Exploding Tanks, Uncontrollable Ships, and Unflyable Aircraft

From Soviet dog mines to the


supersonic aircraft that couldnt
break the sound barrier, Worlds Worst
Weapons features 150 land vehicles,
small arms, naval vessels and aircraft
that many soldiers, sailors or pilots
would prefer to forget. With thoroughly
researched text complemented by
photographs, full-colour artworks,
first hand accounts and full technical
specifications, the book is an excellent
guide to the weapons that went badly
wrong.

The Worlds GreaTesT TaNKs: aN illusTraTed hisTory

Worlds Worst Weapons

Martin J. Dougherty

Worlds Worst Weapons

illustrated throughout with both colour


and black-and-white photographs that bring
the 10,000-day conflict to life, and including eye
witness accounts of the battles and incidents of
americas undeclared war, The Illustrated History of
the Vietnam War provides a graphic and compelling
account of one of the most brutal conflicts of
modern history.

FROM THE SEA

186

83

The Illustrated History


of the Vietnam War
244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
60,000 words
250 col photos, 30 col a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-288-3
19.99 Hardback

VIETNAM

THE HOME FRONT

187

THE TURBULENT 1960S

engaged in the Search and


Destroy (S & D) missions
which characterized US
ground force operations
between 1965 and 1968. As
discussed earlier, Operation
Starlite was the first such
US Marine operation,
attacking from land, sea and
helicopter on 18 August
1965 against the VCs 1st
Regiment in the Van Truong
peninsula. One of the first
S & D operations of the war,
Operation Starlite gained a
significant amphibious presence when three US Marine battalions and a Special Landing
Force (SLF) battalion were beach-landed near An Cuong before attacking the enemy.
Other US Marine units closed the trap on VC forces via three major helicopter landings to
the west and an overland assault from the north. The operation was a resounding success
with 614 VC killed to only 45 Americans, and it inspired over 70 smaller-scale amphibious
operations along the South Vietnamese coast between 1965 and 1969, coordinated
between the SLF of the 7th Fleet and the MACV. None were as heavily contested as
Operation Starlite, yet the amphibious units remained a useful tool for tactical deployment
and reinforcement.

RIGHT: A

DEFIANT

REVERSAL OF HIPPIE
PHILOSOPHY IS SCRAWLED
ON THE HELMET OF THIS
SOLDIER IN

US

VIETNAM. THE

PSYCHOLOGICAL GULF
BETWEEN

VIETNAM
US

VETERANS AND

CIVILIANS COULD
BE PROFOUND.

BELOW: DR MARTIN
LUTHER KING, JR.,

LEADS A

CROWD OF AROUND

10,000

PEOPLE DURING A

50-MILE (80KM)
MARCH IN

PROTEST

ALABAMA

ON

MARCH 1965.

The US Marines were involved


in many other S & D operations,
but they also executed their own
distinctive pacification programmes. General Lewis W.
Walt, the commander of 1
Corps, and Lieutenant General
Victor Krulak, commander of
Fleet Marine Force Pacific,
both favoured a military
approach which involved the
active protection of Vietnamese
communities from VC infiltration. Subsequently, Vietnamese villages in the 1 Corps area became the beneficiaries of extensive US
Marine welfare and medical programmes, with each battalion of III MAF being given its
own tactical area of operation (TAOR). Pacification units were expanded in August 1965
with the Combined Action Company (CAC) programme. This programme was based on

ABOVE: US MARINES
DEPLOY ASHORE IN LANDING
CRAFT IN ONE OF THE MANY
AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS
CARRIED OUT IN

SOUTH

VIETNAM.
LEFT: DECEMBER 1967.
A US MARINE

ADVANCES

ACROSS A STREAM DURING A


SEARCH AND DESTROY MISSION SOUTH OF

VIETCONG

DANANG.

BOOBY TRAPS

WERE OFTEN SUBMERGED


BELOW THE WATERLINE OF

25

LEFT: AS US

oiling beneath the surface calm, however, were currents that would threaten
the countrys unity of purpose during the
coming decade. Most importantly, the landmark US Supreme Court decision in Brown
vs Board of Education ruled out segregated
schools, shining a glaring light on American
race relations and fuelling the Civil Rights
Movement. Advocates of civil rights would
find their leader in the person of Rev. Martin
Luther King, Jr. The nation, and the world,
watched in wonder as Dr King led peaceful
marches protesting against the inequities of
the segregated South. White southerners did
not want change, however peaceful or otherwise. King was arrested several times, his
marchers were beaten, leaders were assassinated and the racist Ku Klux Klan terrorized the
night. Advocates of civil rights persevered, and perfected the tactics of civil disobedience,
such as sit-ins, that would later be adopted by anti-war elements. Kennedy, who was
beginning the American involvement in Vietnam, had to intervene in what was a worsening situation. But before he could make a substantive difference he was assassinated, leaving the war and the problems of the home front to his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson.

IN

INVOLVEMENT

VIETNAM

GREW,

PROTESTS AT HOME
ESCALATED.

HERE

MARCHERS PASS DOWN

PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE
FRONT OF THE

HOUSE,

IN

WHITE

ADVERTISING THEIR

MESSAGE ON BANNERS AND


THROUGH CHANTS.

Although the political

THE BEGINNING OF PROTEST

s American involvement in the Vietnam War began in 1965, Johnsons social and foreign policy enjoyed widespread support. Most Americans believed in the Cold War
theory of containment and agreed that defence of South Vietnam was critical to the security of their own nation. However, the manner in which the United States became involved
in the conflict aroused suspicion among many and added to the problems. Several inconsistencies, from campaign promises that American boys would not be sent to Vietnam to
fight a war to the seeming falsehoods surrounding the Gulf of Tonkin incident and the
dictatorial nature of the regime in South Vietnam, caused doubt concerning the US role in
Southeast Asia. Many Americans were critical of Johnson and called on him to launch
more devastating attacks upon North Vietnam and end the war quickly. Most noticeable,
though, were protesters who believed that the country should exit the conflict. Anti-war
sentiment was concentrated in the universities, where protest groups were formed, the
most important of which was the Students for a Democratic Society.
Anti-war elements were an amorphous group. Due to their disorganization protesters
never wielded any true political power, though they were adept at causing trouble and
grabbing headlines. Most protesters were students or members of the counter-culture who
vaguely believed that American involvement in Vietnam was wrong and participated in
protests as part of the in thing to do. There were, however, some minor groups of people
who were true radicals and sought to bring down the existing system. The most infamous
group was the Weathermen, anarchists who bombed Reserve Officer Training Corps
(ROTC) buildings. Most popular protest, then, had as its goal the ending of a conflict that
was wasting American lives not a fundamental restructuring of power within the United
States. Thus, as painful as the protests became, they never portended revolution.

power of protesters
was in many senses
limited, the anti-war
mood caught on
with many in the
wider electorate
and left government
leaders looking
politically indecisive.

POPULAR CROSSING POINTS.

19

Drones

MARCH 2017 PUBLICATION

A decade ago, drones were barely


used, but today more than 50
countries armed forces use them.
And not only are they changing how
wars are fought but how crops are
sprayed, how underwater pipelines
are monitored, how weather systems
are observed and how sports events
are filmed. From drones the size of
a fingertip to drones that can carry
soldiers, Drones expertly examines
these complex vehicles that are the
latest in military and civilian aviation
technology.

DRONES

INTRODUCTION

Introduction
Not very many years ago, few people had even heard of drones. Most of those that
had would probably have an idea from science-fiction or technothrillers about what
a drone was and what it might be capable of, but no real knowledge. Yet in just a few
years, drones have gone from obscurity to near-constant media attention. We hear of
drone strikes and drone surveillance in the worlds trouble zones and drones delivering
packages even pizza in the commercial world.

surprising number and range of


users have been operating drones
for some time, although the rest of the
world knew little about it. Outside the
military, drones have been used for
research purposes or to monitor the
environment. Commercially available
drones can now be bought at quite
a cheap price by private users for
recreational purposes.
Yet in truth there is nothing really new
about the idea of a remotely operated
vehicle. The word drone has entered
the popular vocabulary but long before
this happened users were flying remotecontrolled aircraft and helicopters, or
racing radio-controlled cars. Remotely
controlled weapons have been in use for
several years although not always with
a great deal of success. It is, however,
debatable whether these were, strictly
speaking, drones.

What is a Drone?

One useful definition of a drone is


a pilotless aircraft that can operate
autonomously, i.e. one that does not
require constant user control. This means
that traditional radio-controlled aircraft

501 Unarmed Self-Defence Skills


Were keeping it simple: no tricky
instructions, no exhaustive steps
to follow. Just brief descriptions of
moves to use to protect yourself. 501
Unarmed Self-Defence Skills takes the
reader from defusing a confrontation
through body language to putting
someone in a lock hold, from grappling
and striking to defeating someone
holding a gun. With 100 black-&-white
line artworks, the book is a pocketsized guide to ducking, throwing and
kicking your way out of trouble.

Drones
264 x 208mm (10 x 8)
224pp
220 colour photographs and
illustrations
54,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-255-5
19.99 Hardback

DRONES

501 Unarmed
Self-Defence Skills
210 x 128mm (8 x 5)
208pp
20,000 words
100 b/w a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-507-5
14.99 Paperback

INTRODUCTION

weapons, but has the drawback that


radar signals can be intercepted at a
great distance. The effect is somewhat
like driving along a country road at night.
Without headlights, the driver may be
all but blind and has little chance of
spotting hazards or even staying on the
road, but his lights can be spotted at
greater distances than they are useful to
him, which is a drawback if he wishes to
remain unobserved.

and the like are not, in the strictest


sense, drones. Nor are many underwater
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), and
not only because they are not aircraft.
In fact, many recreational drones are
not really drones as they are semiautonomous. However, it is useful to
widen the definition of a drone somewhat
in order to cover a range of similar
vehicles that undertake the same role
using broadly the same principles.

the sensor device. Cameras might use


sophisticated electronics to enhance
low-light images or to translate thermal
radiation into visible displays, but they
only make use of what is there. Passive
sensor systems are relatively covert and
do not require much energy, but the use
of active systems takes up power and can
be detected by other sensor systems.
Active radar is used for applications
from mapping and navigation to targeting

Right: Operating a UAV is a complex


business, which has been described as
similar to flying a plane whilst looking
through a straw. In addition to piloting the
vehicle, operators must control cameras,
radar and other instruments and hand-off
data to other users, making the operation of
a large military UAV a multi-person task.

Below: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) units can be fitted to a great variety of aircraft. In
addition to military applications SAR systems can be used for terrain mapping, oceanography,
meteorology and to assist in rescue or disaster relief operations. SAR systems have even
been used to look for water on the Moon.

For civilian drones carrying radar for


mapping or navigation purposes, this
is not a problem. Military drones risk
detection when they emit radar signals,
just as with any other emission such as
radio. However, the ability to put a radarequipped drone up is very useful. It can
be used to widen a search when seeking
survivors of a disaster, or to increase
radar coverage to protect a naval task
force from attack. The drone might be
attacked by anti-radar weapons, but this
in turn provides protection to the main
platforms it is better that a drone is shot
down than a ship sunk, in terms of cost
and also loss of life.

SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR)


Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) relies on
physicalmovement of the antenna rather than
beam-scanning to build up a highly detailed
picture of the target area over time. Essentially
the SAR unit acts like a much bigger antenna by
combining images taken from many positions.

Drone flight path

RQ-4 GLOBAL HAWK

Global hawks wings, tail


and control surfaces are
constructed of a graphite
composite. An enhanced
wing structure is being
developed, which will
increase the UAVs
payload capacity.

The AE3700 turbofan engine


is mounted atop the fuselage
to reduce thermal signature
when viewed from below.
The engine drives a generator
supplying electrical power as
well as propelling the UAV.

The angled tail section


reduces radar return and
conceals the jet exhaust
from most directions,
greatly reducing the
range at which Global
Hawk can be detected.

SPECIFICATIONS: RQ-4 GLOBAL HAWK


B

Length: 14.5m (47.6ft)


Wingspan: 39.8m (130.9ft)
Height: 4.7m (15.3ft)
Powerplant: Rolls Royce-North American
F137-RR-100 turbofan engine
Maximum takeoff weight: 14,628 kg (32,250lb)
Maximum speed: 310 knots (357 mph)
Range: 12,300 nautical miles
Ceiling: 18,288m (60,000ft)
Endurance: More than 34 hours

A
ath

Rather than a
conventional rudder
and elevators on a fin
and tailplane, Global
Hawk uses a combined
ruddervator to provide
the functions of both.

The distinctive dome houses Global Hawks


satellite communications antenna, which
allows the UAV to be operated from the other
side of the world. Line-of-sight communications
are also possible using UHF radio transmissions.

Sw

1 As the drone makes its flyby, the SAR


radar system sends out a pulse which
is returned with varying strength by all
objects in the target area.
2 Each pulse is a snapshot of what the
radar can see, which is a swath limited
by the characteristics of the radar
emitter.
3 Successive swaths overlap and,
since the angle of the radar beam has
changed, may reveal objects that were
occluded in a previous swath.
4 By combining the data from multiple
pulses, a detailed 3D model of the target
area is built up to a very high resolution.

Global hawks forward-looking


sensor package uses a 10-inch
reflecting telescope to enable
its visible-light and infrared
cameras to zoom in on a point
of interest.

A SAR is particularly useful for


mapping terrain features such
as steep ravines and valleys.
Successive images of the
feature may reveal details that
were hidden from one or more
of the pulses.
B Combination of the data creates
a highly accurate map which
can be used to determine the
steepness of a slope, depth of a
ravine, and other useful data.

32

33

Technical Guide:
Japanese Aircraft in World War II

Special Forces in Action


From Iraq to Afghanistan to Libya in
2014, over the last 25 years military
elites have played an increasingly
important role in the policing of the
worlds trouble spots. Special Forces
in Action is a detailed account of the
operations of the worlds elite forces
from 1991 to the present day. From the
search for war criminals in the Balkans,
drug gang hunting in South America,
hostage rescues in Africa, and counterterrorism since 9/11, the book brings
the reader full details of the varied roles
played by the worlds elite soldiers.

Special Forces in Action


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
224pp
70,000 words
180 col & b/w photos & a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-254-8
19.99 Hardback

AFGHANISTAN

confirmation of this); from Denmark; from


Norway; from the Czech Republic; from
Lithuania; from Poland (Grupa Reagowania
Operacyjno-Manewrowego GROM); and from
Portugal (commandos).
Their task was to liaise with the members of the
Northern Alliance and to successfully coordinate
those forces with US and Allied ground forces.
This would involve a high level of task
coordination with the US Air Force as well as
considerable leadership skills, as the use of air
power and ground forces needed to be coordinated
to achieve the maximum effect. Special forces
would be required to identify al-Qaeda camps and
hideouts, destroy them and choose the most
favourable approaches for any attack.
The commanders of the Northern Alliance were
General Abdur Rashid Dostum, General Mullah
Daoud and General Fahim Khan, and to add to
the challenge for the special forces, although these
leaders were in a temporary alliance, they had also
in the past been rivals.

COUNTERTERRORISM
A

Facing page: Soldiers of the Australian SASR face a


sandstorm during the opening phase of Operation
Bastille, the deployment of Australian forces to Iraq
in March 2003.

the security status of both Afghanistan and Iraq


was far from stable. In both theatres the constant
insurgency and terrorist threat was wearing the
regular forces down, and there were serious
questions being asked about how long large
numbers of conventional and special forces could
be kept in the theatres.
If British troops were to come home they
would return to a country where the home
intelligence service, MI5, had doubled in size
since 2001 in order to deal with a wide variety of
terrorist threats, each potentially on a cataclysmic
scale. One example was made public in late 2006
when British intelligence services thwarted a plot
to blow up several airliners in mid air after leaving
British airports.
At the same time, the British government had a
policy of primary immigration into Britain that
added to the supply of potentially disenchanted
Muslim extremists who were being recruited and
radicalized by various offshoot organizations of
al-Qaeda.
These disenchanted extremists were going to
war, as they saw it, both against American, British
or other national troops as well as against the
civilian populations of the countries in which they
lived. Their indoctrination told them that, since
western governments were democratically elected,
the people who elected them were also directly
responsible for their policies.

JOI N T T ASK FORCE T WO (JT F 2)


This unit has its roots in the US/Canadian 1st Special
Service Force of Second World War fame, otherwise
known as the Devils Brigade.
JTF 2 was activated on 1 April 1993 when the force
took over counter-terrorist responsibilities from the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).
JTF 2 takes recruits from across the spectrum of the
Canadian armed forces, the only stipulation being a

minimum of two years service. At the Dwyer Hill


Training Center, recruits are assessed for physical
stamina as well as for mental aptitude and overall

psychological profile. Only about two out of 10


candidates pass the selection process.
Like many special operations teams, the JTF 2 are
trained in a range of specialisms, including scuba, fastroping, HALO/HAHO parachuting, amphibious assault
and mountain, arctic, jungle and desert environments.
JTF 2 was deployed to Afghanistan in December
2001 and completed its mission in November 2002.

132

Technical Guide:
Japanese Aircraft in World War II
216 x 170mm (812 x 6)
128 pages
25,000 words
120 artworks and 15 photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-474-0
16.99 Hardback

AFGHANISTAN

Operation Bastille (Deployment of Australian forces


in Iraq, 2003)

s can be seen in the previous chapters of this


book, military victory was achieved in both
Afghanistan in 200102 and in Iraq in 2003. In
both cases, the major concentrations of enemy
armed forces were defeated and key cities were
won. The capital cities of both countries were
cleared of all traces of enemy administration and
arrangements for new governments were put in
place. Despite all this, however, both wars refused
to go away.
There were 1740 casualties in Afghanistan
between the months of July and September 2006,
making it the most violent period since the
victory of 2001. The numbers of troops in
NATOs International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) had to be increased during the same
period. In November 2006, the United Kingdom
alone had 5600 members of its armed forces
deployed in Afghanistan, and about 7100 serving
in Iraq. The Iraq figure rose to 8500 when taking
into account offshore personnel such as those on
board ships of the Royal Navy.
The United States was by far the largest force
contributor, but despite these sizeable
contributions and those from other nations,

From the Second Sino-Japanese War


to the surrender in the Pacific in August
1945, Japanese Aircraft of World War
II includes 120 superb colour profile
artworks, three-quarter views and
cutaways. Organised alphabetically
by manufacturer, the book features
fighters and seaplanes, bombers and
reconnaissance aircraft. With entries
accompanied by short histories and
detailed specifications, this is an
excellent reference work for modellers
and military history enthusiasts.

INSERTION
The 12-man special forces units were inserted by
160th SOAR flying CH-47 Chinook helicopters at
night in the Afghan winter. The terrain was
extremely hazardous and the insertions were at high
altitude. The severe Afghan winter was setting in,
with unpredictable wind gusts through the high
mountain passes. The enemy was ever present and
impossible to spot. The whole operation would be
carried out in extreme darkness, aided only by the
use of night-vision goggles (NVGs).
After the insertion, each team faced a daunting
march with heavy equipment loads. This would
have included not only their personal kit such as
cold weather gear and other essentials but also the
communications equipment and target illuminators
that would magnify their potential power a
thousandfold.
Soldiers of B Company, 2nd Battalion 504th
Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR) are inserted by
CH-47 Chinook into the Baghran valley.

Soldiers of 20th Special Forces Group (SFG)


Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA) 342 patrol
with members of the Afghanistan Military Forces.

depended almost entirely on the performance of


the special forces in theatre.
Apart from US special forces, a detachment of
British SAS was also thought to have been
deployed in theatre from the outset, and over the
course of Operation Enduring Freedom a number
of other countries would also deploy special forces
assets. These included contributions from Canada
(Joint Task Force Two [JTF 2], in addition to its
large conventional forces contribution); from
Australia (the Australian SAS were deployed under
US command); from New Zealand (the New
Zealand SAS worked in conjunction with the
Australian SAS); from France (1er Rgiment de
Parachutistes dInfanterie de Marine and
Detachement Alat des Oprations Spciales); from
Germany (the German Kommando Spezialkrfte
[KSK] is said to have been deployed in theatre,
though, like the British SAS, there is no official
133

167

Technical Guide:
Russian Tanks of World War II
Organised chronologically by type,
Russian Tanks of World War II is a
comprehensive survey of the main
armoured fighting vehicles used by the
Red Army from 1939 to 1945. From the
pre-war T-18 light tank to the heavy
Joseph Stalin tanks and self-propelled
guns of the final months of the war, all
the major and many minor tanks are
featured, including significant variants.
Packed with 120 colour artworks with
specifications and service histories,
this is a key reference work for
modellers and WWII enthusiasts.

The Wars of the Roses


Ive drawn on many parts of history,
says Game of Thrones author George
R.R. Martin, but the Wars of the Roses
is probably the one A Song Of Ice
and Fire is closest to. Indeed, insane
monarchs, feuding families, fierce
battles, enemies uniting against a
common foe the Wars of the Roses is
so filled with drama it feels like fiction.
Illustrated with 180 photographs,
artworks and maps, The Wars of the
Roses reveals the skullduggery and
murder behind the struggle to gain
power in fifteenth century England
and then to hold on to it.

Technical Guide:
Russian Tanks of World War II
216 x 170mm (812 x 6)
128 pages
25,000 words
120 artworks and 15 photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-475-7
16.99 Hardback

38 FOUNDATIONS OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

relieved by 23 September. No French army


had arrived during the month-long siege, other
than some local reinforcements rushed in as
soon as the English arrived, so Harfleur duly
surrendered. Although he had captured his first
objective, Henry was not in a good position.
An outbreak of dysentery among his troops,
added to casualties from the siege, reduced his
army to the point where he could not effectively
continue the campaign. A withdrawal to
England was not acceptable as it would make
the campaign look like a failure, so Henry
resolved to march to Calais.
Henrys plan was to undertake
a variant on the well-established
tactic of the chevauche. As the
name suggests, this was normally
a fast-moving mounted raid, but
Henry intended to accomplish
much the same level of
destruction

FOUNDATIONS OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES 39

Opposite: A dramatic but fanciful representation of the battle of


Agincourt. Good choice of terrain on Henry Vs part channelled
the superior French force into a killing ground where the
longbows of Henrys army were devastatingly effective.

A withdrawal to England
was not acceptable as it would
make the campaign look like a
failure, so Henry resolved
to march to Calais.
by marching an army mostly composed of
footsoldiers through enemy territory. His
army would destroy whatever his men
could not carry off, weakening the
French economically as well as
politically by demonstrating the
inability of the French king to
defend his territory.
The raid would allow Henrys
depleted army to accomplish
enough for the campaign to be
considered a success, but reaching
Calais required crossing the River
Somme, which in turn meant pushing
south until a viable
crossing was found. The
French, meanwhile, had
been gathering an army and
now moved to engage the
Left: The longbow was crucial to English
tactics, enabling English forces
to strike at a distance. Enemies
who managed to get close
enough were met with rows of
emplaced stakes and a force of
dismounted men-at-arms who
protected the archers.

The Encyclopedia of Warfare


From brief skirmishes to long sieges,
trench battles to aerial dogfights, wars
of religion to wars of independence,
from spears to drones wars have
been fought in all kinds of ways and
for all kinds of reasons. From the
ancient world to the Arab Spring, The
Encyclopedia of Warfare includes
more than 5000 entries arranged
chronologically. Featuring 600 full
colour maps across 1000 pages, this is
an authoritative compendium of almost
five millennia of conflict suitable for the
student or general enthusiast.

54

Ancient Wars c.2500 BCE 500 CE

308

Roman territory, 298 BCE


Samian League, 298 BCE

Acquired by Rome to 263 BCE


Roman colonies, 272 BCE

U R I A
I G
N

Roman controlled by 270 BCE

Carthaginian possessions, 260 BCE

Ariminum

Pisae
Ancona

Sentinum

Arretium

Volaterrae

Asculum

Volsinii

Hadria

Nepet
Falerii

Alba Fucens

Tibur

ROME
Ostia

Caere

Volci

Aurinia

Praeneste
Latium
Interamna
Arpino
Lucera
Tarracina
Camusium
Saticula
Suessa
Capua
Beneventum Venusia
Cumae
Neapolis

Sardinia

Tarentum

Metapontum

Tyrrhenian
Sea

Brundisium

s
es
M

in
a

Utica
Carthage

CITIES

Syracuse

Cossyra
0
0

The Rise Of Rome, 300 BCE

50 km
50 miles

Slovenian Peasant Revolt 1515


SLOVENIAN PEASANT REVOLT, FEBRUARY 1515
Smouldering Slovenian peasant resentment
against harsh landlords flared into open revolt
in February 1515 and, within weeks, had spread
throughout Slovenia. By the spring of that
year, rebel forces numbered 80,000 men, who
had taken effective control of the countryside.
Many poorly defended castles were stormed
and the alarmed local aristocracy raised an army,
including a large contingent of mercenaries,
which defeated the rebels near Celje, inflicting at
least 2000 casualties.

Branxton
English
forces

Scottish forces
1 km
1 mile

Flodden Hill

Sentinum, 295 BCE

been driven eastwards into the Danube region;


others settled in northern Italy and accepted
Roman rule.
g POPULONIA, 282 BCE
Despite earlier defeats, the Etruscans continued
their campaign against Rome. The battle of
Populonia was a decisive Roman victory, finally
ending the Etruscan threat to Rome.

Polish and Allies

Carthaginian & Sicilian Wars


650300 BCE
CARTHAGINIAN CONQUESTS, 650500 BCE
Carthage was a Phoenician colony which became
independent in 650 BCE. Its location on the North
African coast close to Sicily was ideal for sea
trade, allowing a rapid increase in power. Many
small campaigns were fought to protect the trade
routes or against potential rivals, until in 509 BCE
a treaty was agreed with Rome that divided the
Mediterranean into Roman and Carthaginian

Spanish Conquest of Latin America


15201680

Orsha, 1514

ver

Polish and Lithuanian reserves. The Muscovite


Army was shattered Chelyadin and at least
3,000 of his men were captured, together with
140 guns.

er Till

Crookham

er Ri

t of

Strai

Locri

Rhegium
GREEK

Riv

Gauls

iep

Panormus
Lilybaeum

N
1 mile

Dn

Thurii

Caralis

1 km

Romans

from a nearby church tower. She fled when it became obvious


that the day was lost.

to prevent a junction of Yorkist forces and he was


doing so. He could reasonably expect to stand in
his defensive position and await the attack that
Salisbury would inevitably have to deliver.
As was typical of the era, the battle opened
with an exchange of heralds, who carried to
words of the commanders back and forth in an
extended parlay. When this broke down, archers
on both sides began a long-range skirmish
that proved equally inconclusive. Salisbury
then ordered part of his force to retire as if he

THE PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS 95

fighting force for the time being. Salisbury was


able to push on to Ludlow and join up with his
allies. From there, the combined force began a
march towards Worcester.
Below: Ludlow castle was taken by Lancastrian forces in 1459,
but remained a possession of the Duke of Yorks family. Edward
IV sent his son, Edward, to Ludlow to be raised, and it was from
here that he set out for London to be crowned.

Yorkist Disaster at Ludford Bridge


By October 1459, Richard of York had
concentrated with his allies at Ludlow. He
marched towards London but became aware
of a greatly superior royal force moving to
intercept him. After a brief stop at Worcester,
York retired towards the town of Ludford,
which was associated with his castle at Ludlow.
He sent the usual messages of loyalty and

Audley was killed in the


fighting, and when a third
attack was also repelled, some
elements of the Lancastrian
forces switched sides.
planned to break contact. This prompted the
Lancastrian force to attack, which under other
circumstances might have been a decisive blow.
However, as the Lancastrian cavalry struggled
to cross the steep-sided stream, Salisburys men
advanced to meet them and drove them back
with heavy losses. A second assault succeeded
in forcing a crossing, but could not break the
Yorkist force. Audley was killed in the fighting,
and when a third attack was also repelled,
some elements of the Lancastrian forces
switched sides. Salisbury took advantage of
the confusion to launch his own attack, which
routed the Lancastrians. The Lancastrian army
reportedly suffered around 2000 casualties, but
more importantly was rendered ineffective as a

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons


of World War I
276 x 220mm (10 x 8)
272pp
1000 col and b/w photos & col a/ws
150,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-141-1
24.99 Hardback

Orsha

Russians

0
0

1 km
1 mile

309

Early Modern Wars 15001775

0
0

has it that Margaret of Anjou observed the battle of Blore Heath

Which tanks were first used at


Cambrai? What was the range of
the Paris Gun? What was a bloody
paralyser? From the first tanks to early
submarines to the repeating rifle to
the biplane, The Illustrated
Encyclopedia of Weapons of World
War I includes more than 300 pieces
of equipment. Packed with 1000
artworks, photographs and detailed
information on each featured weapon,
this is a fantastic book for any general
reader or military enthusiast.

The Encyclopedia of Warfare

Early Modern Wars 15001775

Flodden, 1513

u m
i n
n t
S e

Aleria

Cosa

94 THE PARLIAMENT OF DEVILS

Right: Although not present with the Lancastrian army, legend

The Illustrated Encyclopedia


of Weapons of World War I

240 x 189mm (912 x 712)


1024pp
600 col maps
350,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-023-0
49.99 Hardback

o f

Corsica

P l a i n

Ligurian
Sea

War and inflicted a decisive defeat at Bovanium.


It is possible that the concept of the manipular
legion came from the Samnites military system.
g CAMERINUM, 298 BCE
The Third Samnite War began with the Samnites
invading Roman territory. Their allies, including
Etruscans and Gauls, also made war on Rome
at the same time. Despite this, the first clash at
Camerinum was a Roman victory.
g TIFERNIUM, 297 BCE
After failing to draw the Romans into an ambush,
the Samnite army advanced for a set-piece field
battle. A Roman flanking force was mistaken for a
large contingent of reinforcements by both sides,
causing a Samnite defeat that the Romans were
too exhausted to exploit.
g SENTINUM, 295 BCE
Outnumbered by the Samnites and their Etruscan
and Gallic allies, the Romans sent off a small
diversionary force that succeeded in pulling away
the Etruscan contingent. After a hard-fought
battle, the Romans broke the Samnites then fell
on the Gauls from the flank.
g AQUILONIA, 293 BCE
Scraping together a new army, the Samnites
mustered at Aquilonia.They were able to withstand
Roman attack for some time, but began to waver
in the mistaken belief that Roman reinforcements
were approaching. Rout soon followed, ending
the Third Samnite war with a Roman victory.
g ARRETIUM, 284 BCE
Various Celtic tribes lived in Italy, notably the
Boii and the Senones. The latter had clashed with
Rome previously, suffering a defeat alongside the
Samnites at Sentium.The Celts attacked Arretium,
causing a Roman army to march to its relief. The
army was defeated and its commander and seven
military tribunes were killed. Encouraged by this,
the Celts reforged old alliances with the Etruscans
and began an invasion of Roman territory.
g VADIMO, 283 BCE
A joint force of Etruscan troops and Boii
tribesmen met a Roman army near Lake Vadimo
and was defeated. Some of the Boii may have

244 x 186mm (934 x 712)


224pp
180 col and b/w photos & a/ws
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-239-5
19.99 Hardback

55

Ancient Wars c.2500 BCE 500 CE

The Wars of the Roses

g TENOCHTITLN, 1520
The Spanish conquistador Hernn Corts arrived
in Tenochtitln on 8 November 1519. Within
a few months, the Spaniards became unpopular
guests and a revolt began. During an Aztec
festival, Pedro de Alavarado a lieutenant of
Corts armed with a small force slaughtered a
large number of Aztec priests and nobles, fearing
an uprising was about to occur. Corts was at the
time subduing a rival Spanish force, under Panfilo
de Narvaez, sent out to arrest him by order of the
Spanish governor in Havana. Corts immediately
returned to Tenochtitln upon word from
Alvarado. The Aztec Emperor Moctezuma tried
to quell the anger of his subjects, but was stoned
to death by the mob. Corts decided to leave
the capital before his force was overwhelmed by
the Aztecs.
On 1 July 1520, the conquistadors exited the
palace with their Indian allies close behind.
They had muffled the horses hooves and

carried wooden boards to cross the canals. The


conquistadors were able to pass through the
first three canals, the Tecpantzinco, Tzapotlan
and Atenchicalco before, being detected by
the Aztecs. The Aztecs attacked the fleeing
conquistadors on the Tlacopan causeway from
canoes, shooting arrows at them. The Spaniards
returned fire with their crossbows and arquebuses.
Many died as the conquistadors leaped into the
water and drowned, weighed down by their
armour and booty. A third of Corts men
succeeded in reaching the mainland, while the
remaining ones died in battle or were captured
and later sacrificed on Aztec altars. The surviving
conquistadors had little reprieve after reaching
the mainland before the Aztecs appeared for an
attack and chased them towards Tlacopan. The
Spaniards finally found refuge in Otancalpolco,
where they were aided by the Teocalhueyacans.
This major Aztec victory is remembered as La
Noche Triste, or The Night of Sorrows.
0

10 km
10 miles

Fighting
retreat

Lake Xaltocan
N

Lake
Te x c o c o
Tereyacac
Tlacopan

Tenochtitlan

Texcoco

Return with
large force
late 1520

Ixtlapalapan
Coyohuacan
Lake
Xochimilco

Tenochtitln, 151921

Return in
1520 to
relieve
seige

Ships launched
to take city, 1521

Lake Chalco

Chalco

Arrival in Nov. 1519

Surviving Extreme Weather

High Winds

High Winds

Scale
Number
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5

Wind Speed
(kph [mph])
64117 (4073)
118180 (74112)
181251 (113157)
252330 (158206)

331417 (207260)
Greater than 418 (> 261)

Amount
of Damage
Light
Moderate
Considerable
Severe

Type of
Damage
Chimney damage, tree branches broken
Mobile homes pushed off foundation or overturned
Mobile homes demolished, trees uprooted
Roofs and walls torn down, trains overturned,
cars thrown
Well constructed walls levelled
Homes lifted off foundations and carried
considerable distances

Devastating
Incredible

6. Motorway flyovers (highway overpasses)


are a safe place to seek shelter under
if you are driving when you spot a
tornado.
People have been killed when seeking
shelter under flyovers (overpasses). If the
tornado strikes the flyover (overpass), you
will not be protected.

nonetheless be in contact with the


ground.

Waterspouts look like tornadoes over water,


but they are not associated with thunderstorms. Generally they are much less intense
than tornadoes. When winds rotating near
the waters surface interact with the
updraught (updraft) of a cumulus cloud, the
result is a waterspout.A tornadic waterspout
occurs when a fully developed tornado
moves out over the water, sucking up water
and raining down fish.

of LONDON
Crime, Corruption and Murder

house. He came walking home by himself, a


complete mess of blood from big cuts on his
head and shoulders. He walked like a zombie, one small step at a time.
Then it rained and hailed so we were
soaked.
Dads brother Henry Jones lived one
house away so Dad told us to follow him
and to step only where he did because
of fallen wires. They had three rooms
left upstairs and put the little ones in
bed and the ambulance came and took
two brothers to the hospital. Both Roger

and Winnis survived.


But I saw one of our neighbours, Mr
Hubbard, laying with a table leg through
his body. Mom kept saying, Dont look,
dont look.
Alices brother Winnis Jones gives
his own account of being trapped beneath
the wall:
I and three of my friends were playing
marbles near my home. It got so dark we
had to go inside. It was about eighteen minutes after four. Dad had just entered the
house. That made nine people in our large

196

CHAPTER 7

MODERN LONDON

wearing a bathing suit who fainted when he jerked her under water and required
artificial respiration to recover. Another theory by Smiths barrister was that he
had hypnotized them.
Newspapers headlined the Brides in the Bath murders during his trial, which
was attended by his real wife, Caroline Thornhill. The jury took 22 minutes to find
Smith guilty. The day after he was hanged on 13 August 1915, Caroline married a
Canadian soldier.

Lying flat in a ditch

activity from April to June in tornado alley.


The Gulf states experience most of their
tornadoes in the winter.

Though tornadoes can occur at any time of the


year, they are more likely at certain times in
certain regions. There is an overall peak in

The Blitz

flying debris. Most of the fatalities and


injuries incurred during tornadoes are caused
by flying debris.

If caught outdoors during a tornado, lie flat in


a ditch or other low-lying area. Covering your
head with your hands can help protect against

The Luftwaffe, Germanys air force, began bombing


Britain during World War II on 10 July 1940,
concentrating on military centres such as ports, radar
stations and air bases. By 8 August, nearly 1500 enemy
aircraft were conducting bombing raids, paving the
way for a land invasion. By September, however, RAF
fighters, especially Spitfires and Hurricanes, had won
the Battle of Britain in the air, shooting down 1887
German aircraft while losing 1023. The Germans now shifted to night raids on
industrial centres in 16 cities, targeting London, Coventry, Sheffield, Southampton
and Liverpool, among others.
The Luftwaffes assault on the capital city began on 7 September 1940
when 300 bombers dropped 370 tons of bombs, killing 448 civilians. The

JanuaryMarch

On 18 March 1925, tornadoes killed 689


people in Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. The
event is referred to as the Tri-State Tornado.
This is Alice Jones Schedlers account of
what happened to her family and home.
Dad said, Grab the two little ones and
lets get to a ditch. I just saw a house about

AprilJune

90

92

91

93

The Human Body


Discover how the individual parts of
the human body function and work
together in this jargon-free book. And
as you navigate from head to toe,
you will also learn some incredible
facts, such as that the average person
produces about 0.75-1.1ml of tears
every day, or that marathon runners
achieve 40 percent greater cardiac
output than an untrained person. All
artworks are annotated to make every
element clear. If you want to know
more about how the human body
works, this is the book for you.

HEAD

HEAD

Eyeball
The eyes are the specialized organs of sight, designed
to respond to light.
Conjunctiva
Transparent layer of connective tissue which is
continuous with a layer lining the inside of the eyelids
Scleral venous sinus
Aqueous humour drains into
this canal; also called
Schlemms canal

Sclera
Fibrous outer layer
of the eyeball

Posterior chamber
Chamber behind the iris, filled with
aqueous humour
Anterior chamber
Front chamber between the
cornea and lens; filled with
aqueous humour

Cornea
Transparent layer covering
front of eye

Zonular fibres
Suspensory ligament of lens

Capsule of lens
Membrane enclosing
the lens

Vitreous body
Largest chamber
of the eye

Fovea in macula
Where maximum visual
acuity is achieved

Lens
Focuses light
on to the retina

Optic nerve
Transports information from
the rod and cone cells of
the retina to the brain

Optic disc
Where the optic nerve joins the retina is
the blind spot, so-called because it
does not contain photoreceptor cells

Ciliary
muscle
Circular
fibres

Ciliary process
One of the ridges that attach to the
suspensory ligament of the lens

Scleral venous sinus


Also known as
Schlemms canal

Zonular ciliaris
One of the fibrous suspensory
ligaments of the lens
Cornea
Transparent circular
part of the front
of the eyeball

Dilator muscle of pupil


Helps to pull open the pupil,
in a darkened room, for
example

Sclera
Protective outer layer of the eye

Choroid
Lines the sclera to the front of
the eye to form the ciliary body
and the iris

40

Ciliary body
Connects the choroid
with the iris

allow light to enter, and


smaller openings at the
back, allowing the optic
nerve to pass to the brain,
and blood vessels and
nerves to enter the orbit.
CHAMBERS
The eyeball is divided into
three internal chambers. The
two aqueous chambers at
the front of the eye are the
anterior and posterior

Central retinal
vessels
Transport blood to
and from the eyeball

chambers, and are separated


by the iris. These chambers
are filled with clear, watery
aqueous humour, which is
secreted into the posterior
chamber by a layer of cells
covering the ciliary body.
This fluid passes into
the anterior chamber
through the pupil, then into
the bloodstream via a
number of small channels
found where the base of

the iris meets the margin


of the cornea.
The largest of the chambers
is the vitreous body, which
lies behind the aqueous
chambers, and is separated
from them by the lens and
the suspensory ligaments
(zonular fibres), which
connect the lens to the
ciliary body. The vitreous
body is filled with clear,
jelly-like vitreous humour.

Sphincter muscle
of pupil
Responsible for closing
the pupil in bright light,
for example
Folds of iris
The iris is
made up of
smooth
muscle fibres

The outer layer of the eyeball


is called the sclera, and is a
tough, fibrous, protective
layer. At the front of the eye,
the sclera is visible as the
white of the eye. This is
covered by the conjunctiva, a
transparent layer of
connective tissue. The
transparent cornea covers the
front of the eyeball, allowing
light to enter the eye.

Lens
Transparent structure
behind the pupil

UVEA
The intermediate layer, the
uvea, contains many blood
vessels, nerves and
pigmented cells. The uvea
is divided into three main
regions: the choroid, the
ciliary body and the iris.
The choroid extends from
where the optic nerve
meets the eyeball to the
front of the eye, where it

forms both the ciliary body


and the iris.
RETINA
The innermost layer of the
eye is the retina, a layer of
nerve tissue containing
photosensitive (lightsensitive) cells called
photoreceptors. It lines all
but the most anterior
(frontal) part of the vitreous

body. There are two types


of photoreceptor cells: rods
cells detect light intensity
and are concentrated
towards the periphery of the
retina. Cone cells detect
colour, and are most
concentrated at the fovea at
the most posterior part of
the eyeball.

41

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
256pp
250 col a/ws
90,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-516-7
Paperback 14.99

The blood circulatory system


can be divided into two parts:
Systemic circulation those
vessels that carry blood to
and from all the tissues of
the body
Pulmonary circulation the
vessels that carry blood
through the lungs to take
up oxygen and release
carbon dioxide.
SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL SYSTEM
The systemic arterial system
carries blood away from the
heart to nourish the tissues.
Oxygenated blood from the
lungs is first pumped into the
aorta via the heart. Branches
from the aorta pass to the
upper limbs, head, trunk and
the lower limbs in turn. These
large branches give off
smaller branches, which then
divide again and again. The
tiniest arteries (arterioles) feed
blood into capillaries.
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
With each beat of the heart,
blood is pumped from the
right ventricle into the lungs
through the pulmonary artery
(this carries deoxygenated
blood). After many arterial
divisions, the blood flows
through the capillaries of the
alveoli (air sacs) of the lung
to be reoxygenated. The blood
eventually enters one of the
four pulmonary veins. These
pass to the left atrium, from
where the blood is pumped
through the heart to the
systemic circulation.

238

Major arteries of the body

Subclavian artery
Supplies blood to the
neck and arms

Common carotid
artery
Branches of
pulmonary artery
The only arteries in the
body that transport
deoxygenated blood

Heart
Central pump of the body,
which drives blood around
the blood vessels
Aorta
Oxygenated blood from the
heart is pumped initially into the
large aorta (the main artery of
the body). Arteries divide
increasingly into small arterioles
and feed blood into capillaries
(microscopically small vessels
which run through the tissues)
Radial artery

Renal artery
Supplies blood to the
kidneys
Common iliac artery
Supplies most of the
blood to the lower
limbs and pelvic region

Digital arteries
These supply the fingers
Femoral artery
Main artery of leg

Ulnar artery

Aortic arch

DEATH TAKES A RIDE


Londons population doubled in the first half of the nineteenth century, and the city was running
out of burial sites. The London railway that opened on 13 November 1854 offered trips that
nobody wanted to take. The London Necropolis Company (LNC) began the railway to carry
cadavers and mourners from Waterloo to its newly opened Brookwood Cemetery 40km (25
miles) southwest of the city at Brookwood in Surrey. When it opened that year, the cemeterys
2000 acres comprised the largest ground for burials in the world. Up to 60 coffins were carried on
the one train that ran each day, with three classes of funerals offered.
The last Necropolis train ran in 1941, when its London terminus was
bombed that April by German warplanes, but special
trains continued to make the
trip until after 1945.
The cemetery today,
still the largest in the
UK, has had nearly
235,000 burials.

left: The original private


Necropolis station in London

was located just outside


Waterloo Station. A larger
building replaced it

Necropolis
in 1902.

Hitler
264 x 208mm (10 x 8)
224pp
200 col & b/w photos & a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-494-8
19.99 Hardback

THE WHOLE BODY SYSTEM

There are two blood vessel networks in the body. The


pulmonary circulation transports blood between the heart and lungs;
the systemic circulation supplies blood to all parts except the lungs.

Meridional
fibres

Retina
Contains photoreceptors
that react to light

Iris
Pigmented diaphragm
visible through the cornea
Ciliary body and
ciliary muscle
Secretes aqueous
humour

Our eyes allow us to receive


information from our
surroundings by detecting
patterns of light. This
information is sent to our
brain, which processes it so
that it can be perceived as
different images.
Each eyeball is embedded
in protective fatty tissue
within a bony cavity (the
orbit). The orbit has a large
opening at the front to

Retina
Innermost of the three layers
of the eyeball; contains lightsensitive rods and cones

Conjunctiva
Mucous membrane covering the eyeball

Ciliary process
A series of ridges that attach to the
suspensory ligaments of the lens

He carried their bodies to


Mrs Lovetts pie shop where
the flesh was baked in a pie.

Artist, soldier, politician, madman? We


know the headlines, we know about
the atrocities, but what do we really
know of the man? Hitler looks behind
the image of the dictator and explores
his childhood, his military service, his
artistic aspirations, the formation of
his political views, his love life and
his time in power. Illustrated with 180
colour and black-&-white photographs,
paintings and artworks, this tells the
inside story behind the man whose
actions may appall us, but still continue
to fascinate.

The Human Body

Overview
of blood circulation

The eyeball is covered by three different


layers, each of which has a special function.

above: The original


18-part series of Sweeney
Todd stories was primarily
written by James Rymer and
Thomas Preckett, prolific
writers of penny dreadfuls,
but others later contributed.
An instant hit, it was quickly
expanded into a book.

Sweeney Todd, whose real name


was Benjamin Barker, was first
introduced to readers in 1846 in
The String of Pearls: A Romance,
one of the popular penny
dreadfuls sensational fiction
sold in episodes each week for
one penny. Many Londoners
believed there was a factual basis
for the story of a barber who
murdered his clients and gave
their meat for use in his neighbours pie shop. No criminal records have ever been
found, but the legend has endured.
In this 18-part story, Todds barbershop was supposedly at 186 Fleet Street.
When his customers were seated, he would pull a lever causing them to flip
backwards and down a trap door into the basement. If the fall did not kill them,
Todd would hurry down with his straight razor and slit their throats. He then
carried their bodies via a tunnel to Mrs Lovetts pie shop where the flesh was
baked in a pie for her customers.
Todds story has often been retold, including a play in 1973, a musical in 1979
and a movie in 2007.

175

Mrs Robinsons Diary

One would think a wifes detailed diary account of her extramarital affair was
enough evidence for a divorce, but Isabella Hamilton Robinson outwitted her
husband and a jury to stay married.
The couple had wed in 1844, she being a wealthy widow with a child. Henry
Robinson, a civil engineer, discovered the incriminating diary in 1858 when
they were living in France and his wife was bedridden with diphtheria. Her
journal described her torrid affair with a doctor, Edward Lane. Even though
Henry had produced two children with a mistress, he was infuriated at reading
the revelations, such as Isabellas evening full of passionate excitement, long and
clinging kisses, and nervous sensations. He took
custody of their two children and threw her out,
intending to end their 14-year marriage.
Their case in 1858 in the new Court of Divorce
and Matrimonial Causes in Westminster Hall
was the 11th petition filed under a new law that

Hitler

THE WHOLE BODY SYSTEM

Layers of the eye

The Legend of Sweeney


Todd

right: The street photographer Herbert


Mason captured St Pauls during the Blitz on
29 December 1940, an iconic image of Londons survival.

244 x 186mm (934 x 712)


224pp
180 b/w and colour photos,
diagrams and maps
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-496-2
19.99 Hardback

NINETEENTH CENTURY

morning and by the afternoon


a housekeeper noticed heat
and smoke from the floor that,
turned out to be a smouldering
chimney. The stoves were put
out at 5 p.m., but an hour
later the fire erupted, soon
exploding over the building in
a great fireball that lit up the
London sky. Prime Minister
William Lamb would call this
one of the greatest instances of
stupidity on record. Damage
was estimated at 2 million.
No one died and no one was
prosecuted, but an inquiry
found a few guilty of negligence.
The government found
temporary quarters until
parliaments New Palace of
Westminster, begun in 1840, was
opened in 1860. It was created
by the architect Charles Barry
and the designer A.W.N. Pugin,
who devised the Clock Tower to
hold the giant bell, Big Ben.

One amazing survivor of the Blitz was St


Pauls Cathedral. On 29 December 1940,
enemy aircraft dropped incendiary devices
on the old City of London, causing a massive
conflagration and destroying most of the
buildings. As bombs rained around the
cathedral, Winston Churchill sent word
to do anything to protect the building.
Eventually one incendiary device lodged
on the roof and the dome began to melt.
As firemen watched, the bomb suddenly
came loose and fell to the stone floor
below. They smothered it with a sandbag,
and St Pauls survived to become
a symbol of Londons resolve and
resilience.

Bloody History of London

CHAPTER 6

ST PAULS
ULS ABOVE
THE FIRE

JulySeptember

JulySeptember

174

197

opposite: Despite the fury


of the Blitz, Londoners
stood firm. In 1945,
Winston Churchill recalled,
This Blitz was borne
without a word of complaint
or the slightest sign of
flinching, and it proved
London could take it.

St Pauls survived to become


a symbol of Londons resolve
and resilience.

Spray

Survivors stories

9. A tornado is always accompanied or preceded by a funnel cloud.


Especially in the early stages, a tornado
can be causing damage on the ground
even though a visible funnel cloud is not
present. Likewise, if you see a funnel cloud
but it does not appear to be touching
down, a tornadic circulation may

BLOODY
HISTORY

Funnel

Waterspouts

8. Areas near lakes rivers, and mountains


are safe from tornadoes.
Tornadoes can climb up and down hillsides. One tornado near Yellowstone
National Park left a path of destruction
along the slopes of a 3050-m (10,000-ft)
mountain.

My brother Winnis was on the table with


the whole wall on him mashing the breath
out of him by inches.
My dad screamed for help to different
people in the street. No one came so he told
me to help him get the wall up off Winnis.
He with Gods help did the impossible and
raised the wall 2 to 3 inches [58cm],
enough so I could help Winnis to the floor.
Later they came back and said it couldnt
be lifted by one man, but he did it.
My other older brother, Roger, flew with
the back door two blocks to the school-

When tornadoes are most likely to occur


Distended cloud base

10. Downward-bulging clouds mean tornadoes are on the way.


This may be the case, especially with
those which show evidence of a rotating
motion, but many of these clouds are not
associated with tornadoes and may be
completely harmless.

7. Tornadoes cannot cross water.


A waterspout is a type of tornado that
actually forms on water, and tornadoes
that form on land can cross bodies of
water such as rivers and lakes.

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
120 b/w line drawings
ISBN: 978-1-78274-493-1
Paperback 19.99

From plagues and poverty to


financial scandals, Bloody History
of London digs deeply into the citys
past and ranges widely across the
social, political and cultural life of
the metropolis. Included are tales of
medieval torture in the Tower, burnings
at the stake during the Reformation,
and Cold War assassinations. From
political skullduggery among the
Tudors to the Kray Twins and serial
killers, the book is a lively, highly
illustrated account reaching across
2,000 years of history.

High Winds

a mile away blown up into bits.


Then our swing on the porch came
through the front window and we were all
out for a while.
I came to and started crawling around
a lot of bricks what had been the chimney.Dad hollered at me and asked if I could
get up and walk. He took me by the hand
and led me outside to where Mom and the
two little ones were sitting on the ground.
He said, Ill go find the two older boys as
he said this, he was walking up the side of
a wall leaning on the kitchen table.

cause updrafts. Moist air rotating in the vortex


cools as it rises, and the condensing water
droplets make the whirling wind visible.

Waterspouts are rapidly rotating columns of


air that form over warm oceans and lakes.
Variations in wind near the waters surface

Extreme Weather

High Winds

Waterspouts

Fujita Scale

Bloody History of London


BLOODY HISTORY OF LONDON

Tornadoes can lift vehicles into the air.


Snow and ice storms can imprison
entire communities. Torrential rainfall
can bring metres of flood water racing
through towns and villages. Each
chapter in Surviving Extreme Weather
explains how to cope with a different
element how to drive safely in deep
snowfall; how to survive a lightning
storm; and what to do if caught in an
avalanche. With 120 detailed black-&white artworks, the book is invaluable
reading whether you live in the
countryside or the city.

APRIL 2017 PUBLICATION

Left
pulmonary
artery

Right
pulmonary
artery

The pulmonary circulation involves


the flow of blood between the
heart and lungs. In the lungs, blood
gains oxygen and loses waste
carbon dioxide.

Anterior tibial artery

The vessels of the


systemic arterial system
carry blood from the
heart to the tissues.
Blood carries oxygen
and essential nutrients
around the body.

The venous system


The systemic venous
system carries blood
back to the heart from
the tissues. This blood is
then pumped through the
pulmonary circulation to
be reoxygenated before
entering the systemic
circulation again.
Veins originate in tiny venules
that receive blood from the
capillaries. The veins converge
upon one another, forming
increasingly large vessels until
the two main collecting veins
of the body, the superior and
inferior vena cavae, are
formed. These then drain into
the heart. At any one time,
about 65 per cent of the total
blood volume is contained in
the venous system.
DIFFERENCES
The systemic venous system is
similar in many ways to the
arterial system. But, there are
some important differences:
Vessel walls arteries tend
to have thicker walls than
veins to cope with the
greater pressure exerted by
arterial blood.
Depth most arteries lie
deep within the body to
protect them from injury,
but many veins lie superficially, just under the skin.
Portal venous system the
blood that leaves the gut
in the veins of the stomach
and intestine does not pass
directly back to the heart.
It first passes into the
hepatic portal venous
system, which carries the
blood through the liver
tissues before it can return
to the systemic circulation.
Variations the pattern of
systemic arteries tends to be
the same from person to
person, but there is greater
variability in the layout of
the systemic veins.

T H E FR ON T L I N E

Major veind of the body

T H E FR ON T L I N E

Hitlers military pass of 1914 offers


no hint of the horrors awaiting its
bearer nor those he was later to

Superficial temporal vein

inflict upon the world.


Facial vein
External jugular vein

Internal jugular vein


Subclavian vein

Superior vena cava


One of the two main veins;
carries deoxygenated
blood from the other veins
to the right atrium of the
heart
Brachial vein

Branches of pulmonary
veins
These are the only veins in
the body that transport
oxygenated blood
Cephalic vein
Renal vein

Inferior vena cava

knees and thanked Heaven from an


overflowing heart for granting me
the good fortune of being permitted
to live at this time.
His only worry, he tells us, as he
marched off to meet the enemy, was
that he might yet miss out: would
we not reach the front too late?

Common iliac vein


External iliac vein
Digital veins

Femoral vein
Great saphenous vein
One of the two superficial veins
of the leg; drains blood from
the foot

UNDER FIRE LITERALLY


Hitlers anxiety was to prove
misplaced. As an infantryman

Popliteal vein

in the 1st Company of the 16th


Bavarian Reserve Regiment,
Schtze (Private) Hitler was to
see any amount of action, starting
within weeks of his arrival at
the front, with the First Battle of
Ypres, October 1914. Among
those killed in the first days
fighting was regimental
commander Colonel Julius List: the
16th Bavarian Reserve was to be
known as the List Regiment from
that time on.
Of its 3,600 men, only 611
survived the three days of the
battle an extraordinary attrition,
but no more than a foretaste of
things to come. One of those who
did make it through was Adolf
Hitler, though he was extremely
lucky to, if his letter to his Munich
friend Ernst Hepp is to be believed:
We push forward four times
but each time were forced to
retreat again. Of the group around
me, only ones still standing then
he too falls. A shot rips off my
right sleeve but as though by a

The venous system


transports blood
back to the heart
from the bodily
tissues. The blood
is reoxygenated
and then returns to
the heart via the
pulmonary veins.

239

In Germany, the month-long First


Battle of Ypres quickly came to be
known as the kindermord: this
was how Herods massacre of
the Holy Innocents (Matthew
2, 1618) was referred to in the
German Bible.

Early accounts claimed that up


to three-quarters of the 8000 or so
casualties killed on the German side
had been young student volunteers.
Subsequent scholarship suggests that
stories of wide-eyed idealists, going
singing to their deaths, were an

Deeply disapproved of, even in


those countries where it isnt
explicitly illegal, the straight-arm
salute is inextricably associated
with Nazism now, despite the fact
that Hitler and his followers had
adopted it from Mussolini and his
fascist followers, for whom it had
been the (fittingly nativist) Roman
salute. There is no archaeological
evidence to support this label, but it

seemed the sort of thing the ancient


Romans might have done.
Hitler made it his own, however
just as he was to make his party
and his country his own. Made
mandatory in 1926, it was known
in Germany as the Hitler Salute,
and had to be accompanied by the
greeting Heil Hitler!It accordingly
gave the Fhrer at least a symbolic
presence at every interaction

whether official or simply


social between party members,
(and ultimately, by the time the
totalitarian state was being built
in the 1930s, at every interaction
between German citizens).
Ready to break ground for the
construction of the Reichsbank,
workers greet their leader with a
straight-armed Nazi-style salute.

UNDER FIRE FIGURATIVELY


Scholarly opinion often,
inevitably, influenced by partisan
hostility or (less often) sympathy
Opposite: Hitler, trying out an
unusual moustache, is seen here

known as the Golden Twenties. As


of 1924, the so-called Dawes Plan
named for Americas Vice-President
Charles G. Dawes (18651951),
who had introduced it had helped
reduce the reparations burden.
In the end, a movement that had
originated in the chaos following
World War I and the Versailles
Treaty was not to find new impetus
until a fresh disaster had come
along.

with his comrades from the 1st


Company, 16th Bavarian Reserve.

exaggeration. That the myth should


have arisen is understandable,
though. A nation entering the War
on a patriotic high was brought
judderingly down to earth at Ypres.
A certain sort of innocence had
assuredly been lost.

PERSONALITY AND CULT


Half Plebeian, half god! Goebbels
reported remark on finishing Mein
128

86

M Y S T R U GGL E , M Y S U C C E S S

PERSONAL GREETING

KINDERMORD

Dorsal venous arch

M Y ST RU GGLE, M Y SU CCESS

miracle Im still safe and sound.


The fifth time we advance we
manage to occupy the forest edge
and adjoining farms.
How scrupulously exact this
account of events is we have no
way of knowing. That Hitler
handled himself more or less
commendably does seem certain,
though. After the battle, he was
awarded an Iron Cross for rescuing
a wounded comrade.
He was also promoted from
the rank of private to that of lance
corporal, and reassigned to duties
as a Meldeganger or regimental
runner. Its harder to be sure
whether this elevation was made
in recognition of his courage and
resourcefulness in the field of battle
or the devastation that had been
wrought in the higher ranks (or
both).

The authorities at Landsberg could hardly have made Hitler much more
comfortable. Here he relaxes with Rudolf Hess (second left) and others.

Kampf in October 1925 reflects


the peculiar mix of adoration
and disdain one follower felt in
relation to his leader Adolf Hitler.
Joseph Goebbels (18971945) was
himself seen half-derisively as the
Little Doctor: short in stature, he
had been left crippled by polio in
childhood, and his humiliation had
been compounded by his rejection
from military service in World War
I. His personal arrogance, virulent
anti-Semitism, corrosive cynicism

and wild suspicion were widely felt


to have been a sort of compensation
for a more profound self-hatred.
Another bohemian manqu, he
made a more convincing intellectual
than his leader. He wrote poetry
and essays, and in 1926 even
published a novel.
At first, attracted more by the
NSDAPs socialist side than by its
nationalism, Goebbels had backed
the partys anti-capitalist wing,
which was led by Gregor Strasser
129

87

Technical Drawings
of Aircraft of World War II

Essential Identification Guide:


Aircraft of World War I

With the aid of 116 extraordinarily


detailed line artworks, Technical
Drawings of Aircraft of World War II
reveals how a wide selection of classic
military aircraft were put together.
From the Messerschmitt Bf109k-4
to the North American B-25 Mitchell,
each line drawing is annotated with an
exhaustive key. The illustrations are
complemented by captioned colour
photographs, plus detailed information
about each aircrafts specifications
making this an invaluable reference
guide.

Packed with more than 200 colour


profiles of every major type of combat
aircraft from the era, The Essential
Aircraft Identification Guide: Aircraft of
WWI is a reference guide for modellers
and aircraft enthusiasts. Arranged
chronologically by theatre of war and
campaign, the book offers a complete
organizational breakdown of the units
on all fronts. A compact history of each
campaign includes the role and impact
of aircraft, as well as orders of battle,
lists of commanders and campaign
aces such as Manfred von Richtofen.

Technical Drawings of Aircraft


of World War II
297 x 227mm (11 x 9)
256pp
200 col photos,
120 line illustrations
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-90570-432-3
19.99 Hardback

Illustrated with detailed artworks of


Wehrmacht vehicles and their markings
with captions and specifications, The
Essential Vehicle Identification Guide:
Panzergrenadier Divisions, 193945 is
the definitive study of the equipment
and organization of Germanys
motorized army divisions during World
War II. Organized chronologically by
division and formation date, the book
describes the various models of tank
and other armoured and soft vehicles
in service with each panzergrenadier
division.

Uniforms of World War II


285 x 213mm (11 x 812)
288pp
270 col a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-329-3
19.99 Hardback

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

Uniforms of World War II

1st Lieutenant
Jagdgeschwader 52
Army Group Centre

A Private of a Luftwaffe field division. In late


1942, in response to army requests for additional manpower, the decision was taken to
transfer surplus personnel from the air force
into the army. However, Gring insisted that
these personnel be organised as Luftwaffe
field divisions under air force control, a move
which ensured they suffered on the battlefield as the officers and other ranks had no
experience of combat.
A standard Luftwaffe field division comprised two
regiments, each, in turn, of three battalions.They had
a strength of around 9800 men.All in all some 20 field
divisions were formed, but they suffered badly
during combat, and the divisions that were most
heavily mauled were subsequently absorbed into the
army.
The uniform worn by the field divisions was the
same as in other Luftwaffe branches, though collar
patches were often omitted from tunics and flying
jackets. The most distinctive item of the uniform was
the camouflage jacket. The smock featured a camouflage pattern of angular segments or splinters in three
colours, and was identical to that used by the army for
camouflaged shelter quarters, helmet covers and
smocks.The original air force camouflage pattern was
rather short-lived. It consisted of rounded splodges
and elongated streaks. Used during the invasion of
Crete in 1941, it was eventually replaced by a slategreen pattern, which, in turn, was replaced by the
segment camouflage design mentioned above.

By the early summer of 1944 the Luftwaffe was


able to deploy 2085 aircraft along the whole of
the Eastern Front. However, the Soviets still
had numerical superiority in the East, and by
early 1945 the German Air Force, being desperately short of fuel, was able to offer only
token resistance. Many German pilots, such as
Lieutenant Erich Hartmann of Jagdgeschwader
52 illustrated here, fought with great skill and
bravery, but were only able to delay the
inevitable.
In particular, the Luftwaffe could not stop the
Soviets deploying ground-support aircraft, which,
during the early battles on the Eastern Front, acted as
mobile air artillery.
The uniform worn by Luftwaffe personnel basically remained the same throughout the course of the
war , and any changes that did occur were small. From
1943, for example, some officers began to wear their
tunic and flying blouse closed at the collar, as opposed
to open with shirt and tie. In addition, the side cap
was swapped for the standard peaked field cap. Lieutenant Hartmann is wearing the peaked cap with
Jagdfliegerknicke (literally, pilots nick), an effect
achieved by removing the wire stiffener from the cap
and squashing it flat. His other items are the Luftwaffe
leather flying jacket with Luftwaffe silver eagle
emblem on the right breast and rank badges on the
shoulder, blue-grey trousers and Luftwaffe black
leather and suede flying boots. Note the altimeter fastened to his brown leather belt.

Date:
Unit:
Rank:
Theatre:
Location:

46

March 1944
Luftwaffe Field Division
Private
Eastern Front
Lvov

Date:
Unit:
Rank:
Theatre:
Location:

The Soviets launched a massive counterattack on 5


December. Unable to dig proper defences in the iron
ground, many undermanned German units were
devastated; the few German tanks still in working
order struggled to operate in the conditions and their
fuel was out of reach hundreds of kilometres behind
the front line.

It seemed as though the Wehrmacht might suffer


the fate of Napoleons Grand Army, melting away in
the Russian winter. Yet Hitlers iron determination
stopped the headlong retreat and destruction of his
hopes. Grossdeutschland fought a bitter series of
defensive battles around Yefremov and Tula, where it
would remain on the defensive until April 1942.

Schtzenpanzerwagen-Kompanie / Kraftrad-Bataillon Grossdeutschland

June 1944
Jagdgeschwader 52
1st Lieutenant
Eastern Front
East Prussia

47

A further reorganization followed that autumn.


On 1 October 1942, the 1st Infantry Regiment was
renamed Grenadier-Regiment Grossdeutschland, while
the 2nd Infantry Regiment became Fsilier-Regiment
Grossdeutschland.
After the massive Soviet offensive (known as
Operation Uranus) led by Generals Vatutin and
Pz.Aufkl.Bn GD / SPW Aufklrungs-Kompanie / 1.Zug

The SdKfz 250/10 was used by platoon commanders in the half-track companies

HQ with two SdKfz 250/3


Crew: 7

(100hp)

Weight: 5.5 tonnes (5 tons)

of armoured reconnaissance battalions. Armed with a 3.7cm (1.5in) Pak 35/36, it

2-cm Flak auf leichter Zugkraftenwagen 1t (SdKfz 10/5)

Specifications
Speed: 65km/h (40mph)

Length: 4.75m (15ft 7in)

Range: 300km (186 miles)

Width: 2.15m (7ft 1in)

Radio: None

Height: 3.20m (10ft 6in)

Armament: Twin 20mm (0.7in) Flak 38 L/112.5

provided fire support for the machine-gun-armed vehicles of the platoon.

The artillery regiments self-propelled light Flak battery controlled 12 2cm (0.7in)

Specifications

guns. There was also a medium self-propelled Flak battery with 9 3.7cm (1.5in)

Crew: 4

weapons, and a heavy battery with 12 towed 8.8cm (3.5in) Flak 18s.

Heavy platoon with four SdKfz 250/7 mortar carriers and three SdKfz 250/1

JANUARYJUNE 1943

In January and February of 1943, Grossdeutschland and XLVIII Panzer Corps, along with II SS
Panzer Corps took part in the Battle of Kharkov, the third fought around that city.
the SS Divisions
TTotenkopf
Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, Das Reich and
during these battles. After the fall of
HE DIVISION FOUGHT ALONGSIDE

Kharkov, in one of the last


successful battles fought by the
Wehrmacht in the East, the
division was pulled back into
reserve and refitted.
During this process, the 1st
Battalion of the GD Divisions

REGIMENTAL HQ

Weight: 6.3 tonnes (5.67 tons)

Speed: 60km/h (37.3mph)

Length: 4.56m (14ft 11.5in)

Range: 320km (199 miles)

Width: 1.95m (6ft 5in)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Height: 1.97m (6ft 6in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Pz.Aufkl.Bn GD / Schtzenpanzerwagen-Aufklrungs-Kompanie

After mopping up operations around Kiev, the Grossdeutschland Regiment was again moved
north, to take part in Army Group Centres final assault on Moscow.

General Winter
Each advance was getting harder. October had seen
the onset of the rasputitza incessant autumn rains
that turned dirt roads into bottomless mud, and

Panzergrenadier-Division
Grossdeutschland

(100hp)

leichter Funkpanzerwagen (SdKfz 250/3)

OCTOBERDECEMBER 1941

to the south. The tanks would link up east of


Moscow, cutting the Soviet capital off from
reinforcements and supplies. Assigned the codename
Taifun (Typhoon), the German drive on Moscow
began on 2 October.
At the beginning of October, Grossdeutschland was
in position near Roslavl. Advancing eastwards, it took
part in the succesful battle to take Bryansk, and by
the end of October was advancing slowly towards
Tula, southwest of Moscow. By 18 November, the
regiment had fought its way through Tula and was
advancing towards Ryazan.

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

Yeremenko trapped General Friedrich Paulus


German Sixth Army in Stalingrad in November, the
Grenadier Regiment was involved in heavy winter
fighting with the rest of the division near Rzhev.
Continued Soviet pressure prevented any respite from
the fighting, and units were being worn to the bone.
Neverthless, the exhausted Grossdeutschland Division
managed to take part in Generalfeldmarschall Erich
von Mansteins abortive Operation Wintergewitter,
the failed attempt to relieve Stalingrad.

HQ
spw mot mot

hv

Grenadier Regiment was re-equipped with SdKfz 251


armoured half-tracks. The Fusilier Regiment did not
receive such vehicles until the spring of 1944. A
further enhancement of the divisions fighting power
came with the addition of a company of PzKpfw VI
Tiger I heavy tanks.
The increased strength brought about a change of
status, in common with other motorized infantry
formations. From June 1943, the division became
the Panzergrenadier-Division Grossdeutschland.

15-cm schwere Panzerhaubitze auf Geschtzwagen III/IV (SdKfz 165)


GD Artillerie-Regiment / II.Bataillon / 3.Batterie

Known as the Hummel (Bumble Bee), this heavy self-propelled artillery piece

Entering large scale service from 1941, the SdKfz 250 was built in more than a

was issued to the Grossdeutschland Panzergrenadier

dozen variants. The Funkpanzerwagen was used primarily to communicate with

Division in the summer of 1943.

and to control Luftwaffe air support units.

Specifications
Crew: 6

Specifications

which brought BATTALION HQ


movement to a
Krds.Btl
near standstill.
HQ
The rasputitza
lasted for four
Aufkl.Skw car krd krd schw.
weeks. Then on
7 November,
the temperature plunged and the liquid mud turned
rock hard.
The German advance began again with
breakthroughs in the south as well as towards
Moscow. However, daytime temperatures around
Moscow varied from -5C (23F) to -12C (10F)
and the Germans found it increasingly hard to go on
fighting in the thin uniforms they had worn all
through the baking heat of summer. Supplies of every
kind were simply failing to arrive at the front, where
battalions were reduced to a fraction of their
authorized strength. Panzer divisions counted
themselves lucky to have 50 tanks still running.

PzGren.Rgt GD

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

Operation Typhoon

N ANOTHER GIANT BATTLE OF ENCIRCLEMENT

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-905704-29-3
19.99 Hardback

Artillerie-Regiment Grossdeutschland / 4.Bataillon / leichte Flak-Batterie

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

, Hoth
Iand Hppners Panzers were to bypass Moscow
to
the north, while Guderians Panzergruppe would pass

Essential Identification Guide:


Panzergrenadier Divisions

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

leichter Schtzenpanzerwagen 3.7-cm Pak (SdKfz 250/10)

By 1942, the key reconnaissance assets of the motorcycle battalion of motorized infantry divisions was provided by armoured cars and half-tracks.

54

10

GROSSDEUTSCHLAND DIVISION

Germany

Private
Luftwaffe Field
Division

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-906626-65-5
19.99 Hardback

Essential Identification Guide:


Panzergrenadier Divisions

Uniforms of World War II


From the fur-lined winter tunics
designed for the Eastern Front to the
cotton shirts worn in the North African
desert, Uniforms of World War II is
an illustrated collection of 260 of the
conflicts most distinctive uniforms
worn by troops on land, sea and in
the air. Grouped by country, a page
is devoted to each entry, complete
with a description and specification
box. From a Captain in the Luftwaffe
to a Lieutenant in the Royal Canadian
Womens Naval Service, this is a
fascinating collection.

Essential Identification Guide:


Aircraft of World War I

Three reconnaissance platoons each with one SdKfz 250/10 and two SdKfz 250/1

Speed: 42km/h (26mph)

Weight: 26.5 tonnes (24 tons)

Range: 215km (133.6 miles)

Length: 7.17m (23ft 6in)

Radio: FuG Spr 1

Length: 4.56m (14ft 11.5in)

Range: 320km (199 miles)

Width: 2.97m (9ft 8in)

Armament: 1 x 150mm (5.9in) sFH

Width: 1.95m (6ft 5in)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Height: 2.81m (9ft 2in)

Height: 1.66m (5ft 5in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM (265hp)

Crew: 4
Weight: 5.35 tonnes (4.87 tons)

(100hp)
Speed: 60km/h (37.3mph)

18/1 L/30; 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

7.5-cm Pak 40/3 auf PzKpfw 38(t) Ausf H (SdKfz 138)

Panzerkampfwagen V Ausf A (SdKfz 171)


Panzer Regiment Grossdeutschland / I Abteilung / Stab

Panzerjger-Bataillon Grossdeutschland / schwere Kompanie (SF)

Grossdeutschland was one of the first formations to be equipped with the

Issued to Panzerjger units from late 1942, this tank-hunter featured a Pak 40

PzKpfw V Panther.

mounted on the hull of a Panzer 38(t) Ausf H. In September, the


divisions heavy tank-hunter company had nine guns on strength.

Specifications
Specifications
Crew: 4

Speed: 35km/h (22mph)

Weight: 10.8 tonnes (9.8 tons)

Range: 240km (150 miles)

Speed: 46km/h (28.6mph)


Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

(45.5 tons)

Radio: FuG5

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Length: 8.86 (29ft 0in)

Armament: 1 x 75mm (3in)

Armament: 1 x 75mm (3in) Pak 40/3 L/46

Width: 3.4m (11ft 2in)

KwK42 L/70; 2 x 7.92mm

Height: 2.51m (8ft 3in)

anti-tank gun; 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Engine: Praga EPA 6-cylinder (140hp)

55

Crew: 5
Weight: 50.2 tonnes

Length: 5.77m (19ft 11in


Width: 2.16m (7ft 1in)

58

Height: 2.98m (9ft 10in)

(0.3in) MG (one hull-mounted,

Engine: Maybach HL230P30

one coaxial)

59

11

The Great Commanders


of the American Civil War
In Great Commanders of the American
Civil War, the best military leaders
of both sides are pitted against
each other and their strengths and
weaknesses at major are battles
examined, such as Robert E. Lee
versus George Meade at Gettysburg,
and Ulysses S. Grant versus Albert
Sidney Johnston at Shiloh. Featuring
full-colour illustrations, paintings and
photographs alongside battle maps,
this is a fascinating comparison of
the greatest Confederate and Union
military leaders.
Page 88

by 11,000 Federals.

Hookers corps began the

attack on the Confederate


left at daybreak on September

UPPER
BRIDGE
PORTER

17. It was a disjointed effort.

VICKSBURG, 1863

BURNSIDE

MIDDLE BRIDGE

of the Tennessee struggled against Lieutenant General John Pemberton, commander


of the Confederate Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, for control of the
Mississippi River.

M
TA

IE

AN

LOWER
BRIDGE

uring the Vicksburg Campaign, Major General Ulysses S. Grant and his Federal Army

SUMNER

RE

HOOKER

EK

While the campaign ended with the siege


of Vicksburg, the true brilliance of
Grants generalship lay in his use of
maneuver to trap Pembertons force
inside the city. The Battle of Champion
Hill was decisive in the campaign
because it was after that defeat that
Pemberton withdrew to Vicksburg and
was subjected to Grants siege. The only
way a besieged force can survive is either
by breaking out itself or by being relieved
by the attack of an outside force. Neither
of these two possibilities was going to
happen at Vicksburg, and the Federals
won control of the strategic Mississippi

D. H. HILL

LONGSTREET
DUNKER
CHURCH

RSON

DE

AN

SHARPSBURG

By the time Burnside


finally got his attack
moving, the hardmarching A. P. Hill had
arrived from Harpers
Ferry to meet the threat.

Lee took advantage of the


Federal delays to reposition
forces. By the time Mansfields
corps entered the battle,
Hookers corps were ineffective.

Contrary to McClellans
assessment, Lee had no
reserves to deploy. Instead he
hung on for dear life, desperately
moving forces from one

KEY

C
U

ONFEDERATE ARMY
NION ARMY

PRELIMINARIES

Kentucky, and Island No. 10 near the


Kentucky-Tennessee border had in fact

The Mississippi River dominated the


western theater of the Civil War. It was

gobbled up control of much of the river.


On May 1, 1862, Admiral David Farragut
had captured New Orleans and began

the main northsouth artery in the


interior of the United States, and farmers

working upstream. By November, the


Confederates controlled only the stretch

in places like Illinois and Wisconsin


had long relied on it to get their goods

of river between Vicksburg, Mississippi,


and Port Hudson, Louisiana. Still, that

to the market. In fact, at the time of


the Civil War, the Mississippi River was

was enough to block Federal commerce


and maintain a tenuous rail connection

the single most important economic


feature of the continent. With the
outbreak of hostilities, Confederate
forces closed the Mississippi to
navigation, which threatened to strangle
Northern commercial interests. For the
Confederacy, the agricultural produce of
the relatively peaceful trans-Mississippi
Confederacy was making a substantial
contribution to the Confederate armies
in Virginia and Tennessee. If the Federals
could gain control of the Mississippi
River, they would not only secure the
free flow of their internal commerce,
they would cut the Confederacy in two
in a way that challenged its very identity
as a nation.
Lieutenant General Winfield Scott
had recognized this importance of the
Mississippi in the opening stages of the
war. His original Anaconda Plan had
envisioned an amphibious attack on
New Orleans from the Gulf of Mexico
that would serve as a springboard for

with the trans-Mississippi Confederacy.


President Lincoln had understood the
situation and put it in perspective. See
what a lot of land these fellows hold, of
which Vicksburg is the key! The war can
never be brought to a close until that key
is in our pocket, he told his civil
and military leaders.

R ANK : L IEUTENANT GENERAL


B ORN : 1814
E DUCATED : U NITED S TATES M ILITARY ACADEMY
M ILITARY C AREER
V ETERAN OF M EXICAN WAR

R ESIGNED FROM THE ARMY IN 1854


C OMMANDED AT F ORT D ONELSON AND S HILOH
F INISHED WAR AS A LIEUTENANT GENERAL AND GENERAL - IN -

C OMMANDED D EPARTMENT OF S OUTH C AROLINA , G EORGIA ,


AND F LORIDA
R ESIGNED M AY 18, 1864, AND FINISHED THE WAR AS A

71

74

VIKING SOCIETY

Norse lands
Danish lands

Confederate: Army of
the Mississippi (33,000)

Trondheim

Norwegian
Sea

Casualties and losses


10,142
1,581 killed
7,554 wounded
1,007 missing

Lands of the Svears and Gtars

Strength
Union: Army of the
Tennessee (77,000)

9,091
1,413 killed
3,878 wounded
3,800 missing
29,000 surrendered

VE

afterlife and continue working


for him there. Those thralls who no
longer served a purpose on earth
could be killed by their owner, in
the same manner as a domesticated
animal. While an owner was legally
within his rights to murder his
thralls, killing another owners
thrall was a crime that required
compensation. The cost of a thrall
differed from country to country,
but in the slave markets of Dublin
a female thrall could be bought for
eight ounces of silver and a male for
12 ounces.

The lot of a Viking thrall


depended entirely on his or her
owner. There is evidence that
some thralls were adopted into the
family life of a particular Viking
longhouse and lived a relatively
comfortable existence. Thralls
were also allowed to marry each
other, although their children
would be born as thralls. Some
earned enough money to buy their
freedom or were granted it by
their owners. However, a slave had
no property or rights, and if they
attempted to escape they would

and genteel. The Karls in the middle


are industrious and capable, and in
Viking Scandinavia the free made
up the largest social group.

Karls

The free were the backbone of


Scandinavian society. Free was
also something of an umbrella
term that included everyone from
landless labourers and tenant
farmers to large landowners who
did not have noble status. Hunters
and servants also fell into the free
category, as did merchants and
professional soldiers. There were
three things that all free men held
in common, regardless of their
social standing or level of wealth:
they were allowed to bear arms,
they were protected by the law
and they had the right to attend

where they farmed, fished


and, at times, fought one another.
Before long, many of these
settlements became fortified local
centres of power as the regions of
Scandinavia became organized
into chiefdoms. One such centre
was Eketorp on the Swedish island
of land; another was at Gamla
Uppsala in Swedens Uppland.
Founded in the third century ce,
Gamla Uppsala was an important
economic, religious and political
centre before, during and after
the Viking Age proper. The great
burial mounds constructed for
members of the Yngling dynasty
at Gamla Uppsala can still be seen
today and are of great archeological
significance: they symbolize
Scandinavias evolution from a
population made up of small tribes
to regions ruled by kings.

and vote at Things assemblies


where lawsuits and disputes were
heard and political decisions made.
However, Viking Scandinavia
was far from an egalitarian culture,
and there were different levels of
status among the free. This was
most apparent when compensation
had to be made to a victims family
in the case of a murder or violent
personal injury. If a murdered or
injured man came from a wealthy
or influential family, the size of the
compensation payment would be
markedly higher than if the man
was poor. The rich were also more
likely to receive compensation, as
it was up to the parties involved
to organize the payments. A
wealthy landowner with warriors
at his disposal had little problem
collecting what was owed to him,

During the final part of the


Scandinavian Iron Age, known as
the Vendel Period (600800 ce),
lavish burials also took place north
of Gamla Uppsala at Valsgrde and
Vendel. Here, kings were buried
aboard their ships along with fine
objects and weapons, a signature
of their wealth, power and warrior
spirit. This tradition of ship burials
continued into the Viking Age.
As we have seen, even the
earliest Scandinavian settlers were
great ship-builders and sea-farers.
Sea voyages were essential to travel
around Scandinavia, and the waters
around its fjords, inlets and islands
served as the major transport
arteries, replacing the need for
longer and more perilous journeys
by land. The Scandinavians early
maritime prowess showed itself in
the daring and dangerous overseas

S TFO

Sigtuna
Birka
Linkping

Sarpsborg
Kaupang
Skara

Kpingsvik

Viborg
Aarhus
Kpenhamn Helsingborg
Lund
Roskilde
Uppkra

Above: Viking longships are pictured


here travelling through the calm waters
of a Norwegian fjord.

F I N N S

Uppsala

Visby
Paaviken

North
Sea

E
S

Oslo

be hunted down and killed like a


dangerous animal.
Thralls were on the bottom
rung of the Viking social ladder
that included free men above them
and rulers at the top. The Vikings
believed this three-tier class system
had been divinely ordained, as
described in the mythological
tenth-century poem Rgsula.
According to Rgsula, the god Rgr
another name for Heimdall was
responsible for creating the classes,
and the first offspring from each
one was given a name to distinguish
them: Thrall (slave), Karl (free
men) and Jarl (nobility). In the
story, the thralls are described as
disagreeably ugly and unrefined,
and literally born to a life of
servitude. By comparison, the Jarls
at the top are beautiful, cultivated

75

VIKING SOCIETY

L A P P S

Viking homelands, 845 CE

Ribe

Hedeby

raids that gave the Vikings their


fearsome reputation. But while the
history of the early Scandinavian
people was dominated by the sea,
it was the land, with its vast and
varied geography, that would shape
the people of each of its countries.

FR

AN
SI

FRANKS

THE HOMELAND
COUNTRIES

500 kms

the proto-Vikings and the present


day, such as reclaimed land and
deforestation, but it is largely the
vast and varied region it was for
the first Bronze Age inhabitants.
Scandinavia is impressively
long it stretches for over 1931km
(1200 miles) from the northern tip
of Norway to Denmarks southern
border along the Eider River and
it encompasses a wide range of
landscapes and climates, from the
freezing, forbidding north to the
mild, fertile south.
At their northernmost reaches

The countries of Scandinavia


Denmark, Norway and Sweden
were not clearly defined territories
with strictly controlled borders
during the Viking Age, but they
did make up the three basic
areas of the Viking homeland.
Scandinavia has experienced some
small changes between the time of

WENDS

the countries of Sweden and


Norway lie across the same latitude
as Greenland and experience the
seasonal extremes of the Arctic
Circle. This means an average of only
around one hour of daylight in midwinter, but constant daylight during
the middle of summer. Southern
Sweden and Denmark, by contrast,
lie on the same latitude as England,
Scotland and northern Poland; the
winters here are relatively mild and
the summers warm. The Vikings
and their ancestors had many
cultural elements in common, but

300 miles

Above: The Viking homelands as they


looked after the Viking Age had begun.
Although the territories are clearly
marked here, borders between the three
countries were often vague and volatile.

their ambitions and destinies were


formed by the different regions they
inhabited.

Norway

Norway is largely defined by its


rugged coastline, one of the longest
in the world at 18,000km
(11,185 miles). Its coastal seaboard

LIEUTENANT COLONEL OF ARTILLERY

D IED : 1881

137

136

89

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:88

US Text (AB)

US Text (AB)

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:89

US Text (AB)

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:136

Camouflage at War

I NFANTRY CAMOUFLAGE I N THE WORLD WARS

I NFA NT RY CA MO U F L AG E I N T H E WO R L D WA R S

Infantry Camouflage in World War II

(1943)

Few nations began World War II with much camouflage

The US Marine Corps

equipment on issue to their forces. Specialist and elite


units generally received camouflage, or forces operating in

German Infantryman (1940)

experimented with

The early-war feldgrau uniform

camouflage equipment

of the Wehrmacht reflects a

during the island-hopping

move towards mechanised

warfare in the Pacific

Belgian Infantryman (1940)

warfare. A short jacket is less

theatre. The difference in

The Belgian Army began

encumbering when moving in

terrain between assault

the war wearing uniforms

and out of vehicles.

theatres where it seemed most beneficial.

beaches and inland

somewhat French in style

German Infantryman (1943)

combat zones proved to

and had little chance to

The rapid change in

be a problem.

develop new equipment

colouration between
autumn, winter and spring

during the conflict.

caused many nations


including Germany to
issue reversible coveralls.

US 1st Infantry Division

thereby to reduce the chances of an attack


from the air. In the event of such an attack,
the difficulty of determining the most effective
point at which to aim weapons might permit the
installation to survive.

The US military became interested in


camouflage for its vehicles during the 1960s,
but it was not until 197475 that camouflage
was officially adopted. Up until that point,
olive drab was the standard colour for military
vehicles, although the exact specification for
olive drab varied over time. Some vehicles were
camouflaged before 1975, although usually on
a local and ad-hoc basis.
The four-colour patterns adopted in 1975
are sometimes referred to as MERDC, for the
Mobility Equipment Research and Development
Centre operated by the army. These were
standard on US army vehicles until the mid1980s, when NATO countries standardized a
three-colour camouflage system. The adoption
of a single system was for a very good reason
to deny information to the enemy. Up until that
point, it was possible to determine which NATO
countries were operating in an area by their
camouflage patterns, even if they were using

Parachute troops, seen as


elite forces in all nations,
British Commando (1942)

were often the first to

A simple khaki battledress

receive camouflage as

offered good concealment

standard issue. Italy, like

Europe. The practice of camouflaging combat vehicles has


been in place in France since well before World War II.

in some cases equipped

After the surrender of

with camouflage gear. This


caused some to be mistaken

received equipment

for SS troops, the main

produced for the Italian

users of camouflage in the

army. The Hitlerjgend

European theatre.

many nations, provided a

the commando forces

camouflage smock worn

division was one such

fielded by Britain excelled.

over conventional combat

recipient of Italian pattern

dress.

camouflage smocks.

48

Normandy landings were

Italy, many German units

during night raids at which

49

268 x 205mm (10 x 8)


224pp
60,000 words
200 col & b/w photos and a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-498-6
19.99 Hardback

tone colour scheme well suited to conditions in Northern

US troops taking part in the


German Hitlerjgend
Division (1944)

Camouflage at War

Below: A French Leclerc main battle tank, wearing a three-

(1944)
Italian 184th Parachute
Division (1942)

128

How the Brain Works


What happens in the brain when
we laugh? Whats the checklist for
assessing the severity of a brain injury?
And how is Alzheimers different from
other dementias? In this accessible
and fascinating book, readers will learn
the answers to these questions and
many more. With more than 600 colour
photographs, medical imaging and
anatomically accurate artworks, How
The Brain Works is a highly detailed but
simply written wide-ranging guide that
will appeal to both general readers and
students.

Where in the brain would you find the


hippocampus and what is its function? What
happens in the brain when we laugh? Whats
the checklist for assessing the severity of a
brain injury? And how is Alzheimers different
from other dementias? In this accessible and
fascinating book, readers will learn the answers
to these questions and many more.

FRONT: MRI scan of a normal, healthy brain (BSIP SA/Alamy)


BACK: X-ray image of the brain produced by computed
tomography (Merznatalia/Depositphotos)

the same vehicles and taking pains to conceal


their nationality. A common camouflage system
deprived the opposition of this capability.
NATO camouflage of this era was sometimes
referred to as CARC (Chemical Agent Resistant
Coating), and made use of three colours. Black
and green were combined with red-brown to
create standardized patterns, which could be
adapted for winter use by overpainting part or
all of the black areas in white. The greens used
by various nations varied; Germany favoured
bronzgrun (bronze-green), while the US
military preferred a darker shade.
For desert operations, a single-shade tan
colouring was standardized within NATO.
Vehicles intended for units operating in
temperate areas left the factory painted solid
green, but since 1991 the vast majority of
operations have been in desert areas, resulting
in vehicles supplied painted tan instead.
However, at the time of writing, emphasis is
shifting back to operations in Europe, with
temperate camouflage becoming the default.

Modern Vehicle Camouflage

JOB:E12-08742 TITLE:GREAT COMMANDERS HEAD TO HEAD


175# DTP:44 PAGE:137

Professor Peter Abrahams has practiced


medicine for more than 30 years and has
taught medicine and anatomy in various
international institutions, including the
University of London, the University of
Cambridge, and the University of Iowa. He has
also lectured in countries such as Egypt, Israel,
and Ghana and worked for the World Health
Organization. He has written and edited many
books, including Clinical Anatomy of Practical
Procedures, An Atlas of Normal Radiological
Anatomy, Essentials of Clinical Anatomy, and
An Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy.

CA MO U FL AG E I N LA ND WA R FA R E

US 2nd Marine Division

US Text (AB)

Understanding Brain Function,


Thought, and Personality

An expert and comprehensive medical reference work on the


physiology of the brain, brain disorders, and psycholgical illnesses
Includes more than 75 topics, ranging from the structure of the
brain to depression, from brain damage to the effects of caffeine
on the brain to what happens in our heads when we laugh
Features more than 600 color photographs, medical imaging,
and detailed graphics to help the reader quickly understand the
workings of the human mind

With more than 600 color photographs, medical


imaging, and anatomically accurate artworks,
How the Brain Works is a highly detailed but
simply written, wide-ranging guide that will
appeal to both general readers and students.

General Editor:
Professor Peter Abrahams

Printed in China

PHYSIOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGY

The brain

The brain comprises three major


parts: forebrain, midbrain and
hindbrain. The forebrain is
divided into two halves, forming
the left and right cerebral
hemispheres.

HEMISPHERES

probably based on long experience in the field.


On the other hand, the Chinese military has
recently begun using pixellated designs, some in
bold colours such as blues and greys.
It is possible that these patterns are intended
to provide concealment in snowy environments
or when conducting amphibious operations.
However, many observers have suggested that
this colouration is not camouflage at all but
ostentation. Tanks and other vehicles wearing
these patterns have appeared in military parades,
which fits with this theory. It seems likely that
a different version of these pixellated patterns,
perhaps in a less obvious colour scheme, might
be used for combat operations. Such colour
schemes do exist and have been observed on
Chinese armoured vehicles.

a pixellated maritime colour scheme. It has also been


suggested that the colours could be rapidly replaced in the
same pattern by a computer-controlled process, tailoring
the camouflage scheme to various environments.

This does not mean that operations in desert


areas will cease in the immediate future. Indeed,
another recent development in the British army
is the implementation of a new colour scheme
for this region. After decades of using a light
stone or dark yellow colouring for vehicles
intended for desert operations, the British army
has moved to a shade called army brown.
The paint used for this new colour scheme
is designed to react to certain compounds,
acting as a warning against chemical weapons
contamination.
Russian armoured vehicles are typically given
camouflage suited to their expected operating
environment, usually with greens and browns on
a tan base colour, although this can vary. These
schemes are conventional in nature and are

Advances in Vehicle Camouflage


In the modern environment, optical detection is
not the only threat faced by armoured vehicles;
indeed, it may not be the main threat. Thermal
imaging is available at all levels, down to
129

The cerebral hemispheres form


the largest part of the forebrain.
Their outer surface is folded
into a series of gyri (ridges)
and sulci (furrows) that greatly
increases its surface area.
Most of the surface of each
hemisphere is hidden in the
depths of the sulci.
Each hemisphere is divided
into frontal, parietal, occipital
and temporal lobes, named
after the closely related bones
of the skull. Connecting the
two hemispheres is the corpus
callosum, a large bundle of
fibres deep in the longitudinal
fissure.

GREY AND WHITE MATTER

The hemispheres consist of an


outer cortex of grey matter and
an inner mass of white matter.
n Grey matter contains nerve
cell bodies, and is found in
the cortex of the cerebral and
cerebellar hemispheres and in
groups of sub-cortical nuclei.
n White matter comprises nerve
fibres found below the cortex.
They form the communication
network of the brain, and can
project to other areas of the
cortex and spinal cord.

Left cerebral hemisphere

Right cerebral hemisphere

Frontal pole
The most anterior
part of the forebrain
Superior frontal gyrus

Longitudinal fissure
The division between the
two cerebral hemispheres

Precentral gyrus
Contains the
motor area of
the cortex that
controls the
skeletal muscles.
As well as
moving the
limbs, this
part of the
cortex controls
movement of
the fingers,
thumbs
and lips

Precentral
sulcus

Central
sulcus
Separates the
frontal and
parietal lobes

Postcentral
gyrus
Contains the
sensory area
of the cortex

Parieto-occipital
sulcus
Forms a boundary
between the
parietal and
occipital lobes

Sulcus
An infolding of
the cerebral cortex

Calcarine sulcus
Contains the visual
part of the cortex

Gyrus
A raised ridge
of cerebral cortex

Ridges and furrows


Primary motor
cortex
Frontal lobe
Part of the
forebrain that
deals with
emotions

Primary somatosensory
cortex
Receptive
speech area
(Wernickes
area)
Parietal
lobe
An area
involved
with
orientation
in space

Motor
speech
(Brocas area)
Temporal lobe
The area concerned
with sound and spoken
language

The four lobes of the cerebral


hemispheres are highlighted
on this left hemisphere.

Primary
auditory
cortex

Occipital lobe
Part of the
hindbrain
and the main
area for visual
interpretation

The central sulcus runs from the


longitudinal fissure to the lateral
fissure, and marks the boundary
between the frontal and parietal
lobes. The precentral gyrus runs
parallel to and in front of the
central sulcus and contains the
primary motor cortex, where
voluntary movement is initiated.
The postcentral gyrus contains
the primary somatosensory
cortex that perceives bodily
sensations. The parieto-occipital
sulcus (on the medial surface
of both hemispheres) marks the
border between the parietal and
occipital lobes.
The calcarine sulcus marks the
position of the primary visual
cortex, where visual images are
perceived. The primary auditory

PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Inside the brain

The brain is the part of the central nervous system that lies inside the skull.
It controls many body functions including our heart rate, the ability to walk
and run, and the creation of our thoughts and emotions.

Above: These Chinese ZTD-05 amphibious tanks feature

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


176pp
430 col photos & a/ws
90,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-517-4
16.99 Hardback

Whether looking to identify a medical complaint,


seeking further information about a diagnosis,
or just keen to understand the processes of
the human mind, How the Brain Works is an
excellent, accessible reference work written by
medical professionals.

BG - Reference

CA M O U FL AG E I N LA ND WA R FA R E

How the Brain Works

How the Brain Works takes the reader from


the physiology of the brain through to its
processessuch as what happens in the brain
while we sleepand on to traumas, diseases,
and psychological conditions. From learning
about the blood vessels in the head to what
goes wrong when someone has a stroke, from
how the brain processes language to diagnosing
meningitis, from anorexia nervosa to post natal
depression, How the Brain Works expertly
explains the processes of the brain in a way that
we can all understand.

General Editor: Professor Peter Abrahams

Packed with 200 colour and black


and white photographs and colour
artworks, Camouflage at War explores
uniforms, military vehicles and
buildings from World War I to the
present day. From dummy tanks and
the uniforms of Waffen-SS in World
War II to zebra-striped dazzle ships
and todays pixelated pattern uniforms
used by US soldiers in Iraq, the book
is a fascinating exploration of how
warfare has changed over the last
hundred years.

12

VIKING SOCIETY

May 18July 4, 1863


Warren County, Mississippi
Union victory

Facing page: The remains of a


Viking longhouse in the Shetlands,
an archipelago 170km (105 miles)
northeast of the British mainland.

J OHN C. PEMBERTON

R ANK : M AJOR GENERAL


B ORN : 1822
E DUCATED : U NITED S TATES M ILITARY ACADEMY
M ILITARY C AREER
V ETERAN OF M EXICAN WAR

D IED : 1885

88

VIKING SOCIETY

V I C K S BU RG

Above: Here, re-enactors play the part


of Karls, or free men, who represented
the majority of men in Viking-Age
Scandinavia.

U LYSSES S. G RANT

CHIEF OF THE ARMIES

threatened area to the next.

these results were shaped by experiences


they had had earlier in their careers.

70

. PEMBERTON: VICKSBURG, 1863

Bridge, where about 550


Georgians stalled an attack

VS

Date
Location
Result

ni

GRANT VS.
PEMBERTON

Perhaps the greatest

Federal debacle of the


battle occurred at Burnsides

time wisely.

had been rejected, various Federal


operations at places like Columbus,

th

members of McClellans army


sat idle. Lee again used the

securing the Mississippi and splitting


the South in two. Although Scotts plan

Gulf of B
o

away at the Bloody Lane


for nearly four hours, other

River. The campaign clearly showed both


Grants genius as a modern general and
Pembertons limitations. In both men,

GRANT

While Sumner bludgeoned

Se

. MCCLELLAN: ANTIETAM, 1862

ic

A NTIETAM , 1862

VS

LEE

. MCCLELLAN: ANTIETAM, 1862

12:23

285 x 213mm (11 x 8)


224pp
160 col & b/w photos
50 line drawings & 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-515-0
19.99 Hardback

lt

VS

264 x 202mm (10 x 8)


224pp
160 col & b/w photos
50 line drawings & 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-513-6
19.99 Hardback

The Viking Warrior

3/10/16

Great Commanders
of the American Civil War

LEE

Beginning in 789 CE, the Vikings raided


monasteries, sacked settlements
and invaded the Atlantic coast of
Europe. But that is only part of their
story. Sailing their longboats, they
discovered Iceland and North America,
colonised Greenland, founded Dublin,
and also sailed up the River Seine and
besieged Paris. Illustrated with more
than 200 maps, photographs and
artworks, The Viking Warrior examines
these fearsome warriors through their
origins, social structure, raiding culture,
weapons, trading networks and
settlements.

88-89.qxp

The Viking Warrior

cortex is located towards the


posterior (back) end of the
lateral fissure.
On the medial surface of
the temporal lobe, at the
rostral (front) end of the most
superior gyrus, lies the primary
olfactory cortex, which is
involved with smell. Internal to
the parahippocampal gyrus lies
the hippocampus, which is part
of the limbic system and is
involved in memory formation.
The areas responsible for
speech are located in the
dominant hemisphere (usually
the left) in each individual.
The motor speech area (Brocas
area) lies in the inferior frontal
gyrus and is essential for the
production of speech.

A midline section
between the two cerebral
hemispheres reveals the
main structures that
control a vast number
of activities in the body.
While particular areas
monitor sensory and
motor information, others
control speech and sleep.
SPEECH, THOUGHT
AND MOVEMENT

The receptive speech area


(Wernickes area) lies behind
the primary auditory cortex and
is essential for understanding
speech. The prefrontal cortex has
high-order cognitive functions,
including abstract thinking,
social behaviour and decisionmaking ability.
Within the white matter of
the cerebral hemispheres are
several masses of grey matter,
known as the basal ganglia.
This group of structures is
involved in aspects of motor
function, including movement
programming, planning and
motor programme selection and
motor memory retrieval.

DIENCEPHALON

The medial part of the forebrain


comprises the structures
surrounding the third ventricle.
These form the diencephalon
which includes the thalamus,
hypothalamus, epithalamus
and subthalamus of either side.
The thalamus is the last relay
station for information from the
brainstem and spinal cord before
it reaches the cortex.
The hypothalamus lies below
the thalamus in the floor of the
diencephalon. It is involved in

Corpus callosum
A thick band of nerve fibres, found
in the depths of the longitudinal
fissure that connects the cerebral
hemispheres

Precentral
gyrus

Central sulcus

Postcentral
gyrus

Pineal gland
Part of the
epithalamus
that synthesizes
melatonin

Right cerebral
hemisphere
One of two
hemispheres
that form the
largest part of
the forebrain

Parietooccipital
sulcus
Divides the
occipital and
parietal lobes

Ventricle
Fluid-filled
cavity
Thalamus
Directs sensory
information from
the sense organs
to the correct part
of the cerebral cortex

Calcarine sulcus
Where most of
the primary visual
cortex lies

Optic nerve
Carries visual information
from the eye to the brain

Cerebellum
Controls body
movement and
maintains balance;
consists of grey
matter on the outside
and white matter on
the inside

Pituitary stalk
The pituitary gland is not included when
the brain is removed from the skull
Hypothalamus
Concerned with emotions and
drives, such as hunger and
thirst; it also helps to control
body temperature and the
water-salt balance in the blood

Midbrain
Important in
vision; links the
forebrain to the
hindbrain

a variety of homeostatic
mechanisms, and controls
the pituitary gland that
descends from its base. The
anterior (front) lobe of the
pituitary secretes substances
that influence the thyroid
and adrenal glands, and the
gonads and produces growth
factors. The posterior lobe

Pons
Part of the
brainstem
that contains
numerous
nerve tracts

Spinal cord

produces hormones that increase


blood pressure, decrease urine
production and cause uterine
contraction. The hypothalamus
also influences the sympathetic
and parasympathetic nervous
systems and controls body
temperature, appetite and
wakefulness. The epithalamus
is a relatively small part of the

Medulla oblongata
Contains vital centres that
control breathing, heart-beat
and blood supply

dorso-caudal diencephalon that


includes the pineal gland, which
synthesizes melatonin and is
involved in the control of the
sleep/wake cycle.
The subthalamus lies beneath
the thalamus and next to the
hypothalamus. It contains
the subthalamic nucleus that
controls movement.

Brainstem and cerebellum


Parietal lobe
Frontal lobe

Primary visual
cortex

Primary
olfactory cortex
Parahippocampal gyrus

Temporal lobe
Brainstem

Occipital
lobe

The posterior part of the


diencephalon is connected to
the midbrain, which is followed
by the pons and medulla
oblongata of the hindbrain.
The midbrain and hindbrain
contain the nerve fibres
connecting the cerebral
hemispheres to the cranial
nerve nuclei, to lower centres
within the brainstem and to the
spinal cord. They also contain
the cranial nerve nuclei.
Most of the reticular
formation, a network of
A view of the medial surface of
the right hemisphere, with the
brainstem removed, allowing the
lower hemisphere to be seen.

nerve pathways, lies in the


midbrain and hindbrain. This
system contains the important
respiratory, cardiac and
vasomotor centres.
The cerebellum lies posterior
to the hindbrain and is attached
to it by three pairs of narrow
stalk-like structures that are
called peduncles. Connections
with the rest of the brain and
spinal cord are established via
these peduncles. The cerebellum
functions at an unconscious
level to co-ordinate movements
initiated in other parts of the
brain. The cerebellum also
controls the maintenance of
balance and influences posture
and muscle tone.

PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Depression

Depression is a mental state that involves mood disorder, leaving the


person feeling low. There are a variety of symptoms, both physical
and mental, which can be mild or severe.
An episode of depression may
occur singly or recurrently
(with intervening periods of
normal mood). In both cases,
the condition is referred to as
unipolar depression, because
there is only one direction of
mood change.
Some people, however,
develop depression in the
context of a manic-depressive
illness, called bipolar affective
disorder. In this case, there are
manic (high) episodes as well
as low mood swings.
Although the vast majority of
features of unipolar depression
would apply equally to bipolar
depression, it is thought that
there may be some subtle
differences between the two.

CLASSIFYING DEPRESSION

As well as the distinction that is


currently made by psychiatrists
between unipolar and bipolar
disorders, classification is based
on its severity, recurrence and
the presence or absence of
psychotic symptoms.
Only rarely, however, does
a depressive illness become so
severe that the individual loses
touch with reality and becomes
psychotic (whereby delusions or
hallucinations are experienced).

Frontal lobe
The part of the brain
concerned with
controlling voluntary
movement and
other functions; it is
also the centre for
conscious emotion

Area of abnormal activity


It is thought that in depressed people,
part of the cortex of the frontal lobe
is overactive, leading to an abnormal
fixation on emotional state

Research has attempted to


identify the specific areas in the
brain that are affected when
an individual is depressed. This
cross-section through the brain
shows one such area.

elderly, the degree of impairment


can be such that it is difficult to
distinguish between depression
and dementia.
Other symptoms that occur
as part of a depressive illness
include anxiety and phobias,

obsessions, irritability, agitation


and restlessness.
n Behavioural symptoms
The ability to function from
day to day, both socially and
at work, is decreased at least
to some extent. People may
avoid leaving home and isolate
or neglect themselves, and facial
expressions and body language
of the severely depressed may
be easily recognizable.

MILD DEPRESSION

Depression is primarily a
disorder of the mood. This is
in contrast to mania, in which
there is elation and elevation
of mood.

Who is affected?

What causes depression?


Attempts have been made
to distinguish between
depressive episodes, which are
understandable in terms of
traumatic life events (reactive
or neurotic depression), and
those that occur spontaneously,
depending on factors within
the individual (endogenous
depression). Although it is
tempting to classify further on
this basis, the initial observation
that reactive depression is less
severe, and forms a separate
entity, need not necessarily be
true. In every case, there must be
a mixture of causes that are both
internal and external.
Genetic factors appear to be
important (more so in bipolar
depression), as are hormonal
changes, such as increased
cortisol levels and abnormal
control of thyroid hormones.
Adverse events, especially
those associated with losses

Among the many factors that


can increase vulnerability to
depression are a lack of social
support and a difficulty in
forming close relationships.

Anxiety and obsessive symptoms


in particular appear to occur
more frequently in mild episodes;
indeed, rather than differing
merely in terms of severity,
mild depression may represent
a separate syndrome. Other
important differences of mild

Some people are reluctant


to visit their GP to discuss
feelings of depression,
but this is often the first
step towards receiving treatment.

At any given time,


approximately 1015 per cent
of people in this country will
be suffering from moderately
severe depression and 23 per
cent from severe depression.
Every year, about 10 per
cent of the population develop
a depressive illness, although
many more cases may remain
undetected. Typically, onset
is in the late 20s and, overall,
women are twice as likely as
men to get depressed. Innercity housing, low social class,
unemployment, poor education
and being single are other
important associations that
have been recognized.
New mothers are also at risk
of becoming depressed in the
six weeks following childbirth,
1015 per cent become
depressed enough to warrant
some kind of help.

134

The key features of depression


are a persistent lowering of
mood and loss of enjoyment,
interest and motivation. There
are also important changes in
biological function, thinking
and behaviour.
n Biological symptoms
These are most prominent in
severe depression and include:
sleep disturbance, typically
with early morning wakening;
decreased appetite; weight loss;
reduced sex-drive; fatigue;
aches and pains; psychomotor
disturbance slowing of
movements, thought and speech
or, in rare cases, agitation.
The mood is often worse in
the morning and lifts as the day
goes on. In very severe, lifethreatening cases, an individual
will refuse to eat or even drink.
n Mental symptoms
Thought content is extremely
negative, with ideas of guilt,
worthlessness and hopelessness.
People can find it hard to
imagine any sort of future, and
ideas of self-harm or suicide
may be common. Concentration
and memory can be severely
impaired; in some cases in the

such as bereavement and


physical illness, can trigger
depressive episodes. It seems
that underlying vulnerability to
such events can be increased by
circumstances for example,
abuse or parental separation in
childhood, unemployment, low
social class and poor self-esteem.

CHANGES IN THE BRAIN

There is known to be a change


in the function of several
neurotransmitters and their
receptors in the brain during
periods of depression. Most
research has concentrated on
serotonin and noradrenaline, the
hypothesis being that depression
is associated with decreased
activity of both of these
chemicals. It is now accepted
that this represents a huge
oversimplification and that many
other neurotransmitters are likely
to be implicated.

A common feature of mild and


severe depression is insomnia. A
chronic lack of sleep can serve to
exacerbate symptoms of fatigue.

depression include a tendency


to initial insomnia (difficulty
falling asleep with subsequent
oversleeping in the morning),
an increase in appetite and
the presence of few biological
symptoms. The pattern of
variability throughout the day
can vary, with a worsening of
mood in the evening.

PSYCHOTIC DEPRESSION

It is important to identify
psychotic symptoms, as they
represent a severe illness, where
the individual has begun to lose
touch with reality. Symptoms
are usually in keeping with
the patients mood: delusions
often concern illness, death,
punishment, guilt or persecution;
hallucinations (which occur
less frequently and are usually
auditory) are distressing for
example, a voice that accuses,
urges suicide or confirms the
patients low self-esteem.

Depression in older people


Although the prevalence of
depression is almost identical in
elderly and middle-aged people,
the diagnosis of the condition
can often be missed in the older
group. This is probably because
the features of low mood can be
less obvious; elderly people may
not complain of feeling depressed
or suicidal at all, perhaps going
to see their doctor with physical
problems or simply sleep
disturbance, a degree of which
is normal in old age.
It is always important for the
doctor to bear the condition
in mind, however, because of
the relatively poor prognosis in

this group. Elderly depressed


patients (especially men) are at a
high risk of suicide and, for this
reason alone, early detection
and treatment is of paramount
importance. It is also very
important in preventing relapse
and depressive episodes of long
duration, which are more likely in
people of this age group than in
younger people.
It is easy to overlook depression
in older people, but the problem
is significant. It is often difficult
to diagnose, as it can be hard to
distinguish between depression
and dementia.

135

13

Ukulele for Beginners

Ukulele
How to play and master
the uke in no time!

TOM FLEMING

h as

These days the ukulele is becoming


the most popular classroom choice as
a childs first instrument. Its cheap,
light, suitable for childrens small hands
and can be used to play a wide variety
of songs. Aimed at children, Ukulele
for Beginners is a perfect introduction.
From choosing which kind of ukulele
to learn on to playing your first chords
and first songs, the book guides the
new learner through the necessary
steps. With clear diagrams and
photographs, a large variety of musical
styles is covered.

for Beginners

ludes
erns,

Essential Identification Guide:


Waffen-SS Divisions

Ukulele for Beginners

Illustrated with detailed artworks,


captions and specifications, The
Essential Vehicle Identification Guide:
Waffen-SS Divisions 193945 is the
definitive study of the equipment and
organization of Himmlers armoured
divisions. Organized chronologically
by division, the book describes the
various models of tank and other
vehicles in service, with listings of unit
commanders, vehicle types, numbers
and unit structure. Each section
includes orders of battle, a brief
divisional history of the campaign and
specific unit markings.

Ukuele for Beginners


285 x 220mm (11 x 8)
144pp
150 col artworks and photos
20,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-518-1
14.99 paperback

TOM FLEMING

CHOOSING
A UKULELE

YOUR FIRST CHORD


Concert
The concert ukulele is
usually tuned the same
way as the soprano, but
offers a bigger, fuller
tone. A concert uke may
be easier to play if you
have large hands.

from the smallest (sopranino) to the largest (bass). By far the


most common is the soprano or standard ukulele, which is
the second smallest instrument in the family.
PRICE VARIATIONS
Ukuleles vary in price and quality, from extremely cheap
instruments to much more serious and expensive ones. You
can get started with any of them, but it is worth spending
a little more than the bare minimum, as the very cheapest
ukes can be difficult to keep in tune.
Soprano
The soprano ukulele is
the most popular. The
very cheapest ukes are
sopranos, but higherquality instruments
are also available.
The cheapest instruments tend to have simple wooden
or plastic tuning pegs that can easily slip, causing tuning
errors. If possible, try to find an instrument with guitar-style
tuning pegs, also known as machine heads.
The most basic ukes are made of plywood or even
plastic. More expensive instruments are usually made of
genuine wood, giving them a fuller tone and greater volume.

Tenor
The tenor uke is normally
tuned re-entrant (see
re-entrant Tuning, p. 21),
but it can be retuned
with a low G string for an
alternative chord shape.

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION
STRUMMING

Two Guitar Style


Headstocks
Above: Acoustic guitar
style. This offers stable
tuning and ease of use.

Chord boxes provide the simplest way to show how to


play a chord. The box is really a grid, with four vertical
lines representing the strings, and a number of horizontal
lines representing frets. A thick horizontal line at the top
represents the nut.

Finger Numbers
Pay attention to the
finger numbers shown
for all of the chords in
this book.

2
1

CHORD

F chord

Left: Classical guitar


style. This type also
offers stable tuning.
Some players prefer the
look, but re-stringing
may take a little longer.

ORGANIZATION, SS POLIZEI DIVISION, 1942

Almost all music has a time


signature: this is the number
of beats that you would
have to keep counting if you
were counting along to the
music. In most pop and rock
music, this number is four,
so we keep counting 1 2 3
4, 1 2 3 4, 1 2 3 4. Each
group of four beats is known
as a bar. In written music,
bars are separated using
vertical lines called barlines.
The symbol / at the
beginning shows that there
are four beats per bar.

CHORD BOXES

There is a whole family of ukuleles available in various sizes,

Sizes
Ukuleles from left to
right: Baritone, tenor,
concert and soprano.

THE C CHORD

A chord is a group of notes that sound good together. On the ukulele, a chord can contain
up to four notes one on each string that may be either fretted notes or open strings.

SS-Totenkopf-Div
St
SS-Pol-Inf 1

Finger
positions

If you have a little more money to spend, you may want


to consider a concert ukulele. This is slightly larger than
the soprano, and usually of a higher build quality than the
cheapest sopranos. As well as being easier to play if you
have large hands, a concert uke will generally give a fuller
sound and more reliable tuning.

12

13

II

II

II

St
III

II

SS-Pol-Flk

III
SS-Pol-Pzjr

St
III

II

II

SS-Pol-Nch

St
III

II

II

SS-Pol-Pio

St

III

SS-Pol-Vrg

St
III

St
III

III

across swamp and forest land. After a number of


bloody assaults, the Polizei Division was one of the
formations that managed to fight into the northern

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION

Infanterie regiments. Early in 1943, they became grenadier regiments.

Engine: Volkswagen 998cc petrol (24hp). Later

Weight: 0.64 tonnes (0.58 tons)

In 1943, the Polizei Divisions Flak battalion was fully motorized. The earlier Krupp

Protz used to tow light anti-aircraft weapons had been supplanted by variants of
the Wehrmachts standard heavy car.

Specifications

EXERCISE 1

44 Y
1
1.

| Y1

Engine: Horch 6-cylinder petrol (90hp)


Speed: 88km/h (55mph)

Length: 4.44m (14 ft 7in)

Range: 400km (250 miles)

Width: 1.68m (5ft 6in)

Radio: None usually fitted

Height: 1.73m (5ft 8in)

Speed: 100km/h (62mph)

Width: 1.60m (5ft 3in)

Range: 600km (375 miles)

Height: 1.35m (4ft 5in)

Radio: None

OTH REGIMENTS WERE SENT

arrived in Thessaloniki in December 1943.


After the conquest of Greece in 1941, the country
was divided between Germany, Italy and Bulgaria.
German forces occupied the strategically important
areas, including Athens, Thessaloniki, central

Siege of Leningrad

19411943

By early December 1941, the German armies that had steamrollered into the Soviet Union in
June of that year had all but run out of momentum.

in the main, were still equipped with little more than


the summer-weight clothing with which they had
begun the campaign. However, on the northern
front, it seemed only a matter of time before
Leningrad was taken.
Stalins failure to relieve besieged Leningrad
appeared to have doomed the city. Since Hitler had
ordered that the cradle of the Bolshevik revolution be
levelled, it seemed only a matter of time before it fell.

Its population swollen to over three million by


refugees flooding into the city, Leningrad was cut off
by Germans to the south and to the north by the
Finns, eager to avenge the Winter War.
Communist Party chiefs anxiously calculated their
food reserves: on 1 November, they realized there was
only enough food for another week. And with winter
approaching, there was so little fuel that buildings
could not be heated electricity was rationed to an
hour a day.
What followed was the most appalling siege in
history, a long-drawn-out agony in which nearly a

Leichte Schtzenpanzerwagen (SdKfz 250/1)

Crew: 1
Weight: 2.4 tonnes (2.2 tons)

to the Balkans in
B
mid-July 1943, where they were attached to Army
Group E. The complete SS-Polizei-Division finally

Volkswagen 1131cc petrol (25hp)

Length: 3.73m (12ft 3in)

| Y1

| Y1

22

Y Y

Crew: 2

Engine: BMW 750cc petrol (26hp)

Weight: 0.67 tonnes (0.61 tons)

Speed: 92km/h (57mph)

Length: 2.4m (7ft 10in)

Range: 340km (211 miles)

Width: 1.73m (5ft 8in)

Radio: None

Height: 1m (3ft 3in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG (if fitted)

1.Zug

2.Zug

3.Zug

Mittlere Zugkraftwagen 8t (SdKfz 7)

4.SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division / Stab / Flak-Zug (Sf)

In the summer of 1944, the 4th Divisions headquarters was protected by a Flak

4.SS-Polizei-Flak-Abteilung (mot)

platoon with four self-propelled 2cm (0.7in) guns. These were just as likely to be

The standard tractor for the 8.8cm (3.5in) Flak 18 anti-aircraft gun and the 15cm

used against partisans on the ground as against attacking aircraft.

(5.9in) sFH18 howitzer, the SdKfz 7 was designed by Krauss-Maffei.


It was also manufactured by Mercedes, Bssing-NAG and Borgward.

Specifications

Crew: 2 plus 4 troops

23

(100hp)

8.8cm Fliegerabwehrkanone (Flak 18)

Specifications

Crew: 7

Speed: 60km/h (37mph)

Crew: 2

Engine: Maybach HL62 6-cylinder (140hp)

SS-Polizei-Flak-Abteilung / 8.8cm Flak-Batterie (mot)

Length: 4.61m (15ft 1in)

Range: 300km (186 miles)

Weight: 1.16 tonnes (1.06 tons)

Speed: 50km/h (31mph)

Flak battalions attached to German divisions had one light (2cm/0.7in) battery,

Width: 1.95m (6ft 5in)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger f

Length: 6.85m (20ft 3in)

Range: 250km (156 miles)

Height: 1.66m (5ft 5in)

Armament: 1 x 7.92mm (0.3in) MG

Width: 2.40m (7ft 10.5in)

Radio: None

Height: 2.62m (8ft 7.1in)

6-cylinder (100hp)

Weight: 5.5 tonnes (5 tons)

Weight: 5.9 tonnes (5.38 tons)

one medium (3.7cm/1.5in) battery, and one heavy battery equipped with four
8.8cm (3.5in) Flak guns towed by SdKfz 7 half-tracks.

Specifications

Speed: 65km/h (40mph)

Crew: 2
Weight: 1.16 tonnes (1.06 tons)

Engine: Maybach HL62

Length: 4.75m (15ft 7in)

Range: 300km (186 miles)

Width: 2.15m (7ft 1in)

Radio: None

Length: 6.85m (20ft 3in)

Speed: 50km/h (31mph)

Height: 3.20m (10ft 6in)

Armament: Twin 20mm (0.7in)

Width: 2.40m (7ft 10.5in)

Range: 250km (156 miles)

Height: 2.62m (8ft 7.1in)

Radio: None

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM

63

Flak 38 L/112.5

6-cylinder (140hp)

66

67

Essential Identification Guide:


Wehrmacht Panzer Divisions

Paris has been sacked by the


Vikings, besieged by the Prussians
and occupied by the Nazis. It has been
the site of religious massacres, the
execution of a king and of thousands
of people in religious and political
conflicts. Romantic it can be, but
the story of Paris is also one of riots,
revolution and plague. Illustrated with
180 colour and black-&-white artworks
and photographs, Bloody History of
Paris takes a broad sweep over the
citys story, ranging from the Romans
to Joan of Arc, from Princess Diana to
the Islamic State attacks in 2015.

Including colour artworks, captions


and full technical specifications, The
Essential Tank Identification Guide:
Wehrmacht Panzer Divisions 193945
is the definitive study of the equipment
and organisation of the Wehrmachts
armoured divisions. Organised by
division, the book describes the
various models of tank in German
service during the war. Each section
is further broken down by campaign,
accompanied by orders of battle, a
brief divisional history of the campaign
and any specific unit markings.

Bloody History of Paris


244 x 186mm (934 x 712)
224pp
180 b/w and colour photos,
diagrams and maps
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-495-5
19.99 Hardback

4TH PANZER DIVISION

NAPOLEONS CORONATION

M O D E R N PA R I S

121

There would be further violence. In February 1962, nine were killed during
an FLN demonstration against the Organisation de lArme Secrete (OAS), a
far-right paramilitary terror group trying to keep Algeria French. Once again,
the deaths came at the hands of the police who charged the FLN and caused a
crush at the Charonne metro station as thousands tried to take refuge inside.
Then, in 1962, the Algerian War came to an end: the country was granted its
independence by de Gaulle.

203

4TH PANZER DIVISION

opposite: Thousands
attend the 1962 funeral
of the nine killed at the
Charonne metro station.
A crush had occurred
when the police charged
protesters down.

4th Panzer Division, 1940

Pz. Rgt 31 / I Battalion / 4th Company / 5th Zug / tank number 1

In June 1944, the Division was reinforced with a Panther Abteilung of 79 tanks. The

The Ausf D variant of the Pz.Kpfw IV was introduced in October 1939. The main improvements over

The rapid German attack in the Balkans eventually forced the Greeks to

old 1st Battalion, equipped with Pz.Kpfw IVs, was renamed the 2nd Battalion while the

earlier variants were the provision of thicker armour and the fitting of an external mantlet or gun shield

surrender, while the British fought a series of stubborn rearguard actions.

Panther unit became

for the 7.5cm (3in) KwK. Some 229 examples of this model were produced between

gun on a modified Panzer II chassis. Six kill rings are painted on the barrel of this example.

Specifications
Crew: 3

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)


Range: 190km (118 miles)

Width: 2.28m (7.5ft)

Radio: FuG Spr d

Height: 2.2m (7.2ft)

Crew: 5

Specifications

Specifications

Specifications
Crew: 5

Height: 2.98m (9.8ft)

Crew: 5

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM

Weight: 49.4 tonnes

Engine: Maybach HL230P30

Weight: 22 tonnes (20 tons)

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)

(44.8 tons)

Speed: 46km/hr (28.6mph)

Length: 5.92m (19.4ft)

Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

Length: 8.86m (29ft)

Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

Width: 2.84m (9.3ft)

Radio: FuG5

Width: 3.42m (11.2ft)

Radio: FuG5

Height: 2.68m (8.8ft)

above: Napoleon rewards himself with the


ultimate accolade: the crown of the Emperor
of France.

called the crown of Charlemagne, from the


altar, Napoleon seized it and placed it on
his own head! At that moment he was really
handsome, and his countenance was lighted
up with an expression of which no words
can convey an idea. He had removed the
wreath of laurel which he wore on entering
the church, and which encircles his brow in
the fine picture of Gerard. The crown was,
perhaps, in itself, less becoming to him; but
the expression excited by the act of putting
it on, rendered him perfectly handsome.
(Duchess of Abrantes, Memoirs, translated by
Gerard Shelley)

Radio: FuG5

Height: 2.68m (8.8ft)

Schwere Panzersphwagen (Fu) 8-rad (Sd Kfz 232)


Unknown unit

The SdKfz 232 had driving controls at both front and rear, allowing for

Length: 7.17m (23.5ft)

War in the Balkans

Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf H (Sd Kfz 161/2)

Width: 2.97m (9.7ft)

Pz. Rgt 35 / II Battalion / 5th Company / Company HQ tank

Height: 2.81m (9.2ft)


Engine: HL120TRM

In July 1944, 4th Panzer was sent to the Warsaw area

Speed: 42km/hr (26mph)

where it clashed with the Soviet 2nd Tank Army.

6 APRIL 1941

Early in 1941, 5th Panzer Division was transferred to Field Marshal Lists 12th Army in Romania
and Bulgaria. The Division played a key part in Germanys conquest of the Balkans.

Specifications

103rd Panzer Artillery Regiment / 3rd (mot) Battalion

The SdKfz 165 first saw action at Kursk in 1943. This example belongs to one of the two heavy batteries assigned to the 4th Panzer Divisions Artillery Regiment.

Mittlerer Kommandopanzerwagen Ausf B (Sd Kfz 251/6)

Crew: 5

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM

Weight: 27.6 tonnes (25 tons)

Speed: 38km/hr (23.6mph)

Length: 7.02m (23ft)

Range: 210km (130.5 miles)

Width: 2.88m (9.4ft)

Radio: FuG5

YUGOSLAV BORDER on 6 April, the


5th Panzer Division drove towards Skopje as part
of Panzergruppe Kleist before turning northwards to
seize Nis in company with the 11th Panzer Division.
By 17 April, the Germans had captured Belgrade, and
the Yugoslav government was forced to surrender.
Turning southwards, 5th Panzer drove through the
centre of Greece. After passing through Lamia, the
Division encountered a stubborn British rearguard on
the ancient battlefield of Thermopylae. Forced to
ROSSING THE

Height: 2.68m (8.8ft)

Schtzenpanzerwagen I Ausf D (Sd Kfz 251/3)

4th Panzer Division / Division Staff / command vehicle of Gen Lt Deitrich von Saucken

33rd Panzergrenadier / Regimental Staff Company

The SdKfz 251/6 was a command and control vehicle for senior officers. It carried the same radios as

By the end of 4 July, Panzer Division had been divided into two kampfgruppen.

Black and green are the


colours of the
Panzergrenadiers.

the similar 251/3, but its equipment fit also included the Enigma cryptographic machine.

Specifications

Specifications

Crew: 8

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

Crew: 8

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

Weight: 9.4 tonnes (8.5 tons)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

Weight: 9.4 tonnes (8.5 tons)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

Panzer Unit

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Radio: FuG11 plus FuG Tr 100W;

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Radio: Various, depending upon

31st Pz. Rgt.

Height: 1.75m (5.7ft)

later FuG19 plus FuG12

Height: 1.75m (5.7ft)

Pz. I

Pz. II

Pz. III

Pz. IV

Pz. Bef.

40

51

16

mission

Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf E (Sd Kfz 141)

found on the pavement around the crime


scene. The episode was later fictionalized in
Frederick Forsyths 1971 book The Day of
the Jackal.

Speed: 42km/hr (26mph)


Range: 200km (124.3 miles)

Width: 2.84m (9.3ft)

Crew: 6

15cm Schwere Panzerhaubitze auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen III/IV (Sf) (Sd Kfz 165)

above: Protesters march against the far-right OAS,


the group responsible for the assassination attempt
on de Gaulle.

Engine: Maybach HL120TRM

Weight: 24.6 tonnes (22.3 tons)


Length: 5.92m (19.4ft)

Weight: 26.5 tonnes (24 tons)

Range: 215km (133.6 miles)

The OAS were responsible for


around 2000 deaths during its wave
of terror between 1954 and 1962.
Among its high-profile targets were
Jean-Paul Sartre, a supporter of the
FLN, and Charles de Gaulle. The
most prominent would-be assassin
of de Gaulle was Jean BastienThiry, a former lieutenant-colonel
of the air force. On 22 August
1962, Bastien-Thiry and a group
of gunmen sprayed de Gaulles
car with machine-gun bullets
as he drove through the suburb
of Petit-Clamart. Miraculously,
de Gaulle, his wife, and a chicken in the boot
all survived the ordeal: although 14 bullets
penetrated the Citron DS and two of its tyres
were shot out, it was still able to speed away.
The trial of Bastien-Thiry, the last man to be
executed by firing squad in France, concluded
that the assassination attempt had failed
because the terrorists had been bad shots:
more than 200 spent shell casings had been

Specifications

October 1939 and May 1941.

the 1st Battalion.


Engine: Maybach HL62TRM

Weight: 11.9 tonnes (10.8 tons)


Length: 6.36m (20.9ft)

Radio: FuG Spr 1

KILL DE GAULLE

5TH PANZER DIVISION

Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf F (Sd Kfz 161)

Pz. Rgt 35 / I Battalion / 1st Company / 1st Zug / tank number 3

The Marder II was a tank hunter that mounted a powerful antitank

Immigrant Influx

The 1962 vian Accords gave Algeria its independence and led to decolonization
agreements across the French Empire. Under new repatriation laws, many
immigrants were encouraged to move to France to fill the positions created by a
booming economy.
There had been a general wave of immigration into Paris after World War
II that included Italians, Germans, Russians and Portuguese, followed by excolonials from Indo-China, Tunisia, Morocco and West and North Africa. By
the end of the twentieth century, foreigners made up around 13 per cent of Paris

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-904687-46-7
19.99 Hardback

5TH PANZER DIVISION

Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf D (Sd Kfz 161)

Panzerkampfwagen V Ausf A (Sd Kfz 171)

Essential Identification Guide:


Wehrmacht Divisions 193945

49th Panzerjger Battalion

Mittlerer Schtzenpanzerwagen Ausf C (Sd Kfz 251/1)


12th Panzergrenadier Regiment

Kurland, 1944. The Sd Kfz 251/1 crew consisted of a driver, co-driver and a 10-man grenadier squad.

Leichter
Panzersphwagen (2cm)
(Sd Kfz 222)
Kampfgruppe Christen / 4th

Specifications

Reconnaissance Battalion

Crew: 2 plus 10 infantrymen

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

The 4th Panzer Division fought back

Weight: 8.8 tonnes (8 tons)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

through the Baltic states in the last

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Radio: FuG Spr Ger 1

Height: 1.75m (5.7ft)

50

14

Specifications

Partisan war
The increasing frequency of attacks by partisans in
the Balkans resulted in executions and the slaughter
of civilians in reprisal. The 4th SS Polizei
Panzergrenadier Division saw action in Greece on
anti-partisan duties between January and September
1944, before Soviet advances on the Eastern Front
threatened to cut off Army Group E in the Balkans.
In September and October 1944, the division
retreated through Yugoslavia and southern Romania,
seeing combat around Belgrade. It continued its antipartisan duties in the Banat, the region straddling the
borders of Serbia, Romania and Hungary.

Stab

Bloody History of Paris

EMPIRE AND INSURRECTION

The Duchess of Abrantes was a Parisian


socialite and guest at Napoleons imperial
coronation. She was a lover of the writer
Honor de Balzac, who helped her compile
her memoirs, which included this extract:
Napoleon, as he passed along, was greeted
by heartfelt expressions of enthusiastic love
and attachment. On his arrival at Notre
Dame, he ascended the throne, which was
erected in front of the grand altar. Josephine
took her place beside him, surrounded by the
assembled sovereigns of Europe. Napoleon
appeared singularly calm The length of the
ceremony, however, seemed to weary him,
and I saw him several times check a yawn
During the ceremony of anointing, the Holy
Father delivered that impressive prayer But
just as the Pope was about to take the crown,

unit was upgraded to become a full reconnaissance battalion.

Specifications

7.5cm PaK40/2 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf) (Sd Kfz 131)

below: Napoleon leads


the bitter retreat from
Moscow in 1812. Over
500,000 of Napoleons
600,000 soldiers were lost
during the campaign.

In February 1944, the Polizei Division was ordered to form a motorcycle battalion
in place of its bicycle reconnaissance battalion. While it was being formed, the

the battalion was established the third company was one gun short with only 13 vehicles.

Originally a bicycle reconnaissance battalion, the Polizeis recce force was

MAY 2017 PUBLICATION

had been dominated by political assassinations, poverty, food shortages, and


occasional street riots. The memory of the revolution hung over the city like a
shroud and Parisians wanted no more violence; the smell of blood lingering in
the Place de la Concorde was allegedly so strong that horses refused to cross it. At
the simplest level, Napoleon had brought stability, bread and peace to a grateful
Parisian population.
But in 1812, everything changed. Napoleon, spurred on by hubris, invaded
Russia at the head of a massive 600,000-man army. It was a disaster: Napoleons
own scorched earth policy meant his men had nothing to eat as they made their
bitter retreat through a Russian winter. More than half a million lives were lost.
Napoleons failure in Russia would be exacerbated by a decisive battlefield defeat
in Leipzig. This time, he retreated into France with the armies of Russia, Prussia
and Austria in pursuit.
Paris had received news of Leipzig, but few suspected the city would be
subject to a foreign invasion until refugees of the Grande Armee began streaming
through its gates. A rag-tag procession of deserters, refugees and wounded filled
the streets, where they begged, died, and terrified onlookers with news of violent
reprisals by Russia. The city quickly reached fever pitch: the hospitals cleared
out their insane and elderly to make way for the wounded, as morgues reached
capacity and bodies were hoisted into the Seine. Parisians cut down trees to make
barricades across streets and shops were boarded up against looting. Then, in late
March, a cry went up from the city walls: The Cossacks are coming!
The allied armies bombed the city and then invaded. The battle was short,
lasting only a few hours before an armistice was signed and the clatter of the

4.SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division / Kraftrad-Aufklrungs-Abteilung

The 4.SS-Polizei-Sturmgeschtz-Abteilung had a staff company, which was equipped with two self-propelled Flakvierling anti-tank guns, and three Sturmgeschtz
companies. The standard table of equipment was for each company to have a staff platoon with two guns and three platoons with four guns each. However, at the time

had one company equipped with half-tracks.

62

CHAPTER 5

In May 1944, after re-equipping to bring the formation up to Panzergrenadier strength in fact as well as name, the Polizei Division had been assigned an armoured
detachment for the first time. The 4.SS-Polizei-Panzer-Abteilung was a three-battalion unit equipped with Sturmgeschtz assault guns rather than tanks. By August

converted into a motorcycle unit while in the Balkans in 1944, and by May 1944 it

Engine: Maybach HL42TRKM 6-cylinder

120

Schwere Kraftrad mit Seitenwagen BMW R75 750-cc

Macedonia, and some ORGANIZATION


key Aegean islands.
SS-Pol.Inf.Rgt 7
Responsibility for
St
internal security was
initially in the hands
I
II
III sIG Flk Pnr
of the Wehrmacht,
which was primarily
interested in keeping open lines ORGANIZATION
1/SS-Pol.Pz.Ab
of communication to Greek
ports to supply German troops
St
fighting the British in North
SG SG SG
Africa. After the fall of Tunisia,
German troops were mainly
used in anti-partisan operations.

2cm Flak 38 auf Fahrgestell Zugkraftwagen 1t (SdKfz 10/5)

4.SS-Aufklrungs-Abteilung / 1.Aufklrungs-Kompanie (Spw)

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION

4.SS-Sturmgeschtz-Abteilung, 1.Kompanie
1944, the unit had been redesignated as 4.SS-Polizei-Sturmgeschtz-Abteilung.

In April 1943, the division began to upgrade to an armoured infantry formation with the
establishment of Polizei Panzergrenadier Regiments 1 and 2 at Cracow in Poland.

Specifications

UPPLY LINES WERE OVERSTRETCHED

SS-Polizei-Flak-Abteilung

19431944

regiments until October 1942, when they were redesignated as SS-Polizei-

, the troops
S
were exhausted and the full horrors of the Russian
winter were being visited upon German soldiers who,

Protz Kraftwagen (Kfz 69)

2nd fret

Greece and the Balkans

1.Polizei-Schtzen-Regiment

The three infantry regiments of the Polizei Division were designated Schtzen

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-905704-55-2
19.99 Hardback

4TH SS-POLIZEI-PANZERGRENADIER-DIVISION

Leichte Personenkraftwagen VW (Kfz 1)

Crew: 1

Officially part of the SS


Even though the division was definitely under
Himmlers control, it was still known as the Police
Division. Its members continued to use police
insignia and rank badges until the division came fully
under SS administration early in 1941. It was not
until January 1942, while its troops were heavily
engaged in the fighting around Leningrad, that the
division was finally given official Waffen-SS status. Its
title was changed to the SS-Polizei-Division as the
formation was absorbed into the Waffen-SS, and all of
the divisions subordinate units received SS rather
than police designations.

Nut
1st fret

CHORD

Almost everything in this book can be applied to


any model of ukulele, although some ideas will
sound slightly different on a tenor or baritone
without re-entrant tuning (see p. 21).

A number of dots are used to show where to place the


fingers. For beginners, these are usually numbered, so you
know exactly which fingers to use.
All we need to show how to play a basic chord is a box
with these finger dots, and often just a few other symbols.
If there is no fingering dot on a string, it is either because
the open string is part of the chord (shown with an O)
or because the string should not be played in this chord
(shown with an X).
The name of the chord is shown above the box.

UKE VARIETIES

SS-Pol-Art

St
III

St

Open strings

CONCERT UKULELE

II

SS-Pol-Rad

44

SS-Pol-Inf 2

St
I

edge of Luga, where the Germans encircled and


destroyed the Soviet defenders. After the battles for
Luga, the division was moved to the fighting around
Leningrad. From January to March 1942, the
division saw action along the Wolchow River and
helped in the encirclement and destruction of the
Second Soviet Assault Army.

Essential Identification Guide:


Waffen-SS Divisions 193945

Pz. Rgt 31 / I Battalion / 1st Company / 2nd Zug / tank number 3

Specifications

attack in single file, the division lost 20 Panzers in


quick succession, and the delay allowed the British to
withdraw safely.
Chasing the retreating British southwards, 5th
Panzer crossed the
Corinth canal on 28 ORGANIZATION
April. The panzers
Pz. Rgt. 31
headed for the beaches
l
at Kalamata where an
II.
I.
evacuation was taking
place, and after a
St
St
vicious fight captured
m
l
l
m
l
l
the last 7000 British
soldiers on the beach.

rapid manoeuvring of the vehicle in reverse.

Specifications
Crew: 4

Engine: Bssing-NAG L8V

Weight: 9.1 tonnes (8.3 tons)

Speed: 85km/hr (52.8mph)

Length: 5.85m (19.2ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Width: 2.2m (7.2ft)

Radio: FuG12 plus

Height (no aerial): 2.35m (7.7ft)

fuG Spr Ger a

The 704th was the last of the six Infanteriegeschtz


Abteilung to still be listed in service in 1943.

Specifications
Crew: 4

Engine: Maybach NL38TR

Weight: 9.4 tonnes (8.5 tons)

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)

Length: 4.67m (15.3ft)

Range: 140km (87 miles)

Width: 2.06m (6.8ft)

Armament: One 15cm (6in) sIG33 L/11

Height: 2.8m (9.2ft)

15cm sIG33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B


Mittlerer Schtzenpanzerwagen I Ausf B (Sd Kfz 251/1)
5th Schtzen Regiment / II Battalion / 9th Company

704th Schwere Infanteriegeschtz Abteilung

The 15cm (6in) sIG howitzer could be dismounted and used as towed artillery.

The Sd Kfz 251/1 Ausf B eliminated the vision ports in the side of the vehicle.

Crew: 3

Nineteen Pz.Kpfw III armed with the 3.7cm (1.5in) cannon were listed

Early vehicles like this had unprotected machine gun mounts; armoured shields

Weight: 5.3 tonnes (4.8 tons)

operational at the time of 5th Panzers attack through the centre of Greece.

would become standard in new models, and were retrofitted to earlier variants.

Length: 4.8m (15.7ft)


Width: 1.95m (6.4ft)

Specifications

Height: 2m (6.6ft)

Crew: 5

Engine: Horch 3.5 or 3.8


Speed: 85km/hr (52.8mph)

months of the war. The division

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

surrendered to the Soviets in West

Radio: FuG Spr Ger a

Specifications
Engine: Maybach HL120TR

Crew: 2 plus 12 troops

2.16m (7ft) with MG shield

Weight: 21.5 tonnes (19.5 tons)

Speed: 40km/hr (24.9mph)

Weight: 9.9 tonnes (9 tons)

Engine: Maybach HL42TUKRM

Length: 5.38m (17.7ft)

Range: 165km (102.5 miles)

Length: 5.98m (19.6ft)

Speed: 53km/hr (32.9mph)

Width: 2.91m (9.5ft)

Radio: FuG5

Height: 2.44m (8ft)

Width: 2.1m (6.9ft)

Range: 300km (186.4 miles)

Height : 1.75m (5.7ft) or

Radio: FuG Spr Ger f

Prussia in April 1945.

51

54

55

15

THE HISTORY OF PIRATES

TORTURE

s ad quas nos quiatia volore si quam,


con et quis alit vid ut laut dendanit
moditiam velessum que nimaxim
ilibus volupti tendi repedio rument del id
quid maionese nonectur sam ad et am fugit
voloreium fugia volupta speria doluptat
porepel iunt hilligendel mi, comnit etum
ipis rem in corecabore sam nonsequo cus,
inum landi si rationse labor alis reprovit re
sit a doluptatem eos mintent, qui omnist,
sam reperia et lia suntibus et accus simincto
que dollam que in rendam non nulloria ea
consed mo dolorem adias maio maximin
ciendant omni vides seniminis es et ommolo
berenitiant, sin re Catis eum andanditat
quiaspe dictem doluptatio. Lendandam,
sam et atincim quia vollo etur aliquibus aut
fuga. Nem. Nam aut inciduc ieniae illatur?
Tium niae moleniendit ommolup tatur? Qui
dolorerro tet et voluptatis sundent autesti
ores Us ad quas nos quiatia volore si quam,
con et quis alit vid ut laut dendanit moditiam
velessum que nimaxim ilibus volupti tendi
repedio rument del id quid maionese
nonectur sam ad et am fugit voloreium
fugia volupta speria doluptat porepel iunt
hilligendel mi, comnit etum ipis rem in
corecabore sam nonsequo cus, inum landi si
rationse labor alis reprovit re sit a doluptatem
eos mintent, qui omnist, sam reperia et
lia suntibus et accus simincto que dollam
que in rendam non nulloria ea consed mo
dolorem adias maio maximin ciendant omni
vides seniminis es et ommolo berenitiant,
sin re Catis eum andanditat quiaspe dictem
doluptatio. Lendandam.

BRENDA RALPH LEWIS

However repugnant, torture has been


practised for thousands of years. From
the rack to electrodes, from witchhunts to the Inquisition to a postcolonial world, it is something that
we have always lived with. Ranging
from the ancient world to Abu Ghraib,
Guantanamo and Islamic State today,
from the Algerian War to the Troubles in
Northern Ireland to Cambodias Killing
Fields, The History of Torture tells the
story of physical cruelty and mental
torment used by governments and
terrorist organizations across millennia.

The History of Torture


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
110 b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-519-8
19.99 Paperback

Dr. David C. Cook & Dr. Wendy L. Kirk

The History of Torture

82

The Spanish
Inquisition
F

ew legal institutions have earned a worse reputation, or inspired


more fear, than the Inquisition in Spain. Yet, compared with such
events in most of southern Europe, it had a relatively late development.
While the fight against heresy went on in other parts of Europe during
the thirteenth century, the inhabitants of Christian Spain had a more
pressing concern. The struggle against Moorish occupation was long
and hard, and served to strengthen their faith. It was only as the
reconquest of the peninsula was gradually completed that the question
of the need for religious unity within the kingdom was raised.
At first, the Jews were regarded as the principal obstruction to this
aim. They had been tolerated under Moorish rule: scholars and
merchants, they had grown in numbers and influence for seven
centuries. And so, in the late fourteenth century, Henry III of Castile and
Leon began to exert pressure on the Jewish community: they were given
the alternatives of baptism into the Christian faith, or death.
Those who openly converted from Judaism, but frequently continued
to practise their religion in secret, were known as marranos an
unfortunate name that more commonly meant filthy swine. It has been
calculated that there were more than 100,000 of them, and when Castile
and Aragon were united in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and
Isabella (the Catholic kings), these marranos were declared a danger to
the faith in Spain, and so to the safety of the kingdom.
In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV was persuaded to issue a bull that authorized
the Catholic kings to name the inquisitors they wished to be appointed.
This was intended to be an alliance of Church and State, but in reality
it resulted in a strengthening of the absolute power of the throne. The
earliest Spanish inquisitors, who set themselves up in Seville, showed
such zeal in the pursuit of heresy that the pope attempted to restrain
them; but the Spanish Government now realized what a powerful
weapon they had in their hands, and Sixtus found that he was unable to
influence them. In 1483 he was compelled to agree to the appointment
of Inquisitors General for Castile and Leon; Aragon, Valencia, and
Catalonia came under the control of the Inquisition during the same year.

Some prisoners at an
auto-da-f were
sentenced to be flogged,
or committed to the
galleys, but the more
obdurate heretics were
burned at the conclusion
of the ceremony.

Then were severally called the number of 53 one after another, and
every man had his several judgment, some to have 200 stripes on
horseback, and some 100, and condemned for slaves to the galleys, some
for 6 years, some for 8, and some for 10. And then was I, Miles Philips,
called, and was adjudged to serve in a monastery for 5 years, without
any stripes, and to wear a fools coat or san benito during all that time.
Then were called John Story, Richard Williams, David Alexander,
Robert Cooke, Paul Horsewell, and Thomas Hull: the six were
condemned to serve in monasteries, without stripes, some for three years
and some for four Which being done, and it now drawing toward
night, George Rively, Peter Momfry, and Cornelius the Irishman were
called and had their judgment to be burnt to ashes, and so were presently
sent away to the place of execution in the market-place ... [and] quickly
burnt and consumed. And as for us that had received our judgment,
being 68 in number, we were carried back that night to prison
Now after that the time was expired for which we were condemned
to serve in those religious houses, we were then brought again before the

The Spanish Inquisition

Altogether, it has been calculated, in 277 years of the Inquisition in


Mexico, 41 were burned as relapsed heretics, and 99 burned in effigy.
The auto-da-f of 1659 was one of the largest: out of 23 men and six
women, seven were burned, five for heresy and two for Judaism; the
others were convicted of such varied crimes as blasphemy, bigamy,
forgery, perjury, and witchcraft.
In Peru, the Inquisition held 29 autos-da-f, the first in 1581, and the
last in 1776. In all, 59 heretics were committed to the stake. In the
Portuguese territories of Brazil, the Inquisition was not established, but
visiting commissioners were sent there regularly from 1591 onward.
Those who were arrested were sent to Lisbon for trial, and no autos-daf were ever held in Brazil. It has been calculated that between 1591 and
1763 some 400 Jews were shipped to Portugal: 18 were condemned to
death, but only one of these, Isaac de Castro, was burned alive (in
1647), the others being garrotted and burned in effigy.
The Inquisition was much more severe in Goa, where more Hindus
than Jews were imprisoned. The Portuguese Torres de Castilla described
their confinement as:

others were
convicted of such
varied crimes as
blasphemy,
bigamy, forgery,
perjury, and
witchcraft

the dirtiest, darkest and most horrible that can possibly be, into which
the rays of the sun never penetrate. The kind of noxious air that must
be breathed may be imagined when it is known that a dry well in the
middle of the space where the prisoners were confined, and which is
always uncovered, is used as a privy, the emanations from which have
no other outlet for escape than a small opening. The prisoners live in a
common privy.

(Opposite) An 18thcentury impression of


tortures employed by the
Spanish Inquisition,
including the strappado,
the use of fire on the
soles of the feet, and the
water torture. The chief
inquisitor sits at the back
of the room, and a clerk
in front of him takes
down the answers to
his interrogation.

For more than three centuries the Inquisition was active in Spain and
Portugal, and their overseas territories. It was suppressed in Spain by
Joseph Bonaparte in 1808, restored in 1814, suppressed again in 1820,
restored in 1823, and finally suppressed in 1834. Public autos-da-f
were banned in Portugal in 1771, and the Inquisition suppressed in
1820. An era of terror, it was hoped, was at an end.

Ted Fuller &


Julian Hayman

Features 150 of the worst


cars to roll off the production
line, from the poorly built
AMC Gremlin to the financially
disastrous Bricklin SV-1
Includes a brief history of each
car, outlining the reasons for the
vehicles failure
Each car is illustrated with
annotated photography,
highlighting key faults

Guitar Chords
163 x 123mm (6 x 4)
320pp
60,000 words
300 col a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-378-1
9.99 Flexibound

Worlds Worst Cars

Worlds Worst Cars

Including 300 chord diagrams, this


book features all of the most popular
major and minor guitar chords from
AG which are used in a wide range
of music styles, including rock,
pop, folk and classical music. Each
chord entry has a detailed colour
diagram with colour-coded dots for
finger positioning, accompanied by
explanatory text and a full colour
picture showing the chord being played
on the guitar.

300 essential chords

Worlds Worst Cars takes a detailed


look at motoring mistakes old
and new and asks the pertinent
questions: why did they ever reach
the showrooms? What went wrong?
And what kind of person actually
bought them? From East Germanys
Trabant to the DeLorean, each of the
150 cars featured is illustrated with
full-colour studio photography and
archive images from the cars heyday.
Informed and (mostly) affectionate text
brings each cars troubled story to life.

PICTURE CREDITS
FRONT: Amphicar Art-Tech/Midsummer Books
BACK: Dodge Dart The Culture Archive
Printed in China

From Design Disasters to Financial Failures

T H E C C H O R D FA M I LY
C

C
E
NUT

E b MAJOR7

T H E E b C H O R D FA M I LY
E flat major 7

NUT

E b MAJOR7

acceleration and
heavy bodywork

in-line four

DISPLACEMENT:

82ci (1340cc)

WEIGHT:

1995lb (898kg)

MILEAGE:

28mpg

The first 109Es had an engine with


just three main bearings. As the cars
were heavy, the engines had to be
worked hard, and premature wear
to the front end was common.

The fluted wings, incorporating the


indicator lights, were touted as a
styling feature of the 109E. But while
they looked good, they provided a
convenient rust trap, from which
the rest of the front structure would
rot out.

ou cant improve on perfection, and the Mini Clubman is all the evidence
youll ever need. It was launched in 1969 as a supposed update to the
then 10-year-old Mini, and, in creating the Clubman, British Leylands

It might have looked sporty, but the


109E wasnt a particularly dynamic
car to drive. The weight made the
handling difficult, and performance
was never great.

designers took the original Alec Issigonis shape and modified it to wear the
companys new corporate nose, shared with the unspectacular Maxi. In essence,
it wasnt such a bad ideaafter all,
the original Minis engine bay was
cramped, which made it difficult
to work on. But whoever was
responsible for the redesign was

(10.0l/100km)

Left: We havent got a clue why theres a


woman sitting on a deckchair in the trunk of

unsympathetic toward the original


Minis gorgeous looks, and the
Clubman appeared too long,

this Capri 109E. Perhaps the driver ran out of


seats inside?

while the squared-off nose sat


awkwardly with the curvaceous
tail inherited from the standard
Mini. After twelve years of
production, where it sold
alongside the original car,
the Clubman was shelved
and the original continued.
29

36

The front of the Clubman resembled


that of the Austin Maxi. A fact that
really isnt much to shout about
when you consider the larger cars
many faults.

SPECIFICATIONS
TOP SPEED:

90mph (145km/h)

060MPH (096KM/H): 13.3secs


ENGINE TYPE:

in-line four

DISPLACEMENT:

78ci (1275cc)

WEIGHT:

1555lb (699kg)

MILEAGE:

40mpg (7.0l/100km)

Left: While Britain may indeed be small,


driving from one end to the other in a Mini
Clubman remains a deeply uncomfortable
experience.

BL tried to make the Clubman more


elegant than the standard Mini, so the
dials were moved from the center to
behind the steering wheel. Unfortunately,
that meant you couldnt see them.

Power came from standard Mini


engines, but with more room to
work on them. The 1275GT version
is as quick as a Mini Cooper, but
much cheaper to buy.

37

FRET 3

FRET 4

X = DO NOT PLAY
THIS STRING

This is a very useful moveable major seventh shape.


Adding the middle finger at the 3rd fret on the A string
changes it to an equally jazzy Cm9 chord.

= OPTIONAL
NOTE

Your index finger should play the 1st fret of the B string, while your
middle finger plays the 2nd fret of the D string and your ring finger
the 3rd fret of the A string.

16

95mph (153km/h)

before the Cortina


appeared, with far
more success.
28

FRET 4

92

ENGINE TYPE:

120 x 161mm (4 x 6)
320pp
35,000 words
300 col a/ws & b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-365-1
9.99 Flexibound

FRET 2

FRET 3

STRING

TOP SPEED:

060MPH (096KM/H): 13.7secs

Production lasted
just three years

2
3

O = OPEN

SPECIFICATIONS

that caused the


skinny tires to lose
grip prematurely.

FRET 1

FRET 2

This shape is relatively easy to learn for many three-chord


songs in C, F and G. Try adding the little finger on the B
string, 3rd fret, for a great-sounding and easy alternative
shape for C(add9).

slow sellers in a marketplace where buyers favored more traditional designs.


There were also problems with the original three-bearing engine, which was
prone to premature big-end failure. And despite those alluring looks, neither
was great to drive,
with sluggish

FRET 1

here was certainly nothing wrong with the styling of Fords new family

contender for 1961. The Classic bore several U.S. design influences and
looked fantastic, with its distinctive grille, quad headlights and reverse-raked
rear window. The two-door Capri coup looked even prettier, but the 109E
series was a definite case of beauty being only skin deep. In Ford terms, the
Classic and Capri were disastersexpensive to develop, difficult to build and

Worlds Worst Cars

MINI CLUBMAN (196981)

FORD CLASSIC/CAPRI 109E (196164)

163 x 123mm (6 x 4)
320pp
60,000 words
300 col a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-259-3
9.99 Flexibound

83

Craig Cheetham

Guitar

Chords

Chords

Minerals and Gemstones

chief Inquisitor and had all our fools coats pulled off and hanged up in
the head church and every mans name and judgment written thereon
with this addition, A heretic Lutheran reconciled. And there were also
all their coats hanged up which were condemned to the galleys, and
underneath his coat Heretic Lutheran reconciled: and also the coats and
names of the three that were burned, whereupon was written an
obstinate heretic Lutheran burnt.

Guitar Chords

Guitar

From simple sandstones through to


jade and diamond, this is an accessible
and informative reference guide to
300 different gemstones and minerals.
Learn what the Earth is made of,
how its rocks were formed and how
minerals and gems are used today.
Divided into sections covering the
internationally recognized classification
groups, each entry includes a colour
photograph, background information,
chemical formula and an information
table with specifications such as
colour, hardness and crystal system.

300 of the Earths Natural Treasures

BRIAN INNES

Chapter Five

Minerals and Gemstones

Minerals
and Gemstones

Minerals
and Gemstones

The
History of Torture
U

THE HISTOR Y OF

O = OPEN

STRING

X = DO NOT PLAY
THIS STRING

= OPTIONAL
NOTE

Using your index finger play the 1st fret of the D string, then let your ring
finger cover the 3rd fret of the top E, B and G strings.
93

174

175

17

Small size makes the


Makarov easy to carry and
handle in close confines,
such as aboard a vehicle.

MAKAROV PISTOL 1957


he 1950s-vintage Makarov is typical of Russian handguns, which have
never been considered to be serious combat weapons. Although small
and easy to carry, and fairly well made from good materials, the Makarov is
hampered by two main problems.
Firstly, the 9x18mm round used by the Makarov is weak and offers little
stopping power, and there are not even very many of them as the Makarov
has only an eight-round magazine. Secondly, while accurate shooting is
difficult with any handgun, the Makarovs universally bad trigger action
makes any sort of marksmanship an exercise in blind luck.

he M16 assault rifle suffered from some serious flaws when it was first
introduced. M16s failed quickly in the filthy Vietnam jungle. As the
weapon was designed not to need cleaning, no cleaning kits were available.
Another problem with early M16s was the tendency of the plastic butt and
furniture to become brittle in very cold conditions. This could lead to a
broken rifle, as soldiers are not renowned for their gentleness when moving
around or taking cover under fire. Later versions corrected these problems,
but the early M16 was not a good weapon at all.

SPECIFICATIONS
TYPE:

Handgun

LENGTH:

16cm (6in)

CALIBRE:

9x18mm Soviet

AMMUNITION
CAPACITY:

8 rounds

EFFECTIVE
RANGE:

40m (131ft)

COMPLEXITY:

Moderate

USERS:

Military

120 x 161mm (4 x 6)
320pp
35,000 words
300 col a/ws & b/w photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-364-4
9.99 Flexibound

A N

TANKS

I L L U S T R A T E D

H I S T O R Y

The M16 is still intolerant


of dirt and grit in its
mechanism, and needs to
be looked after carefully.
Troops in Iraq discovered
this to their cost.

SPECIFICATIONS
TYPE:

Longarm

LENGTH:

1m (3ft)

CALIBRE:

5.56x45mm

The M16 is sighted out to long


ranges and is very accurate; few
soldiers can effectively use the
weapons long accurate range.

Mk III Valentine
Infantry Tank (1939)

AMMUNITION
CAPACITY:

Derived from a previous Vickers design, the A10, the Mk III Valentine Infantry

30 rounds

EFFECTIVE
RANGE:

1000m (3280ft)

COMPLEXITY:

Moderate

USERS:

Military, worldwide

the Commonwealth nations as a potential Nazi invasion of Britain loomed.


Initial discussions with Vickers to join the production
effort for the new Matilda II tank ended due to the fact that

the Mk III Valentine entered production with little testing.


It was a calculated risk, but the experience with the A10

Although some observers were sceptical of early Vickers


designs, particularly due to small turrets that might not

never considered pistols to be

the new tank, which, in fact, turned out to be quite reliable.

Dimensions

US troops deployed to Vietnam had high

or emergency weapons. The

hopes for these new wonder rifles that did

Makarov is reliable and makes a

not need cleaning. The M16 fell far short

decent-enough threat, but is not a

of expectations, although it did mature into

71

72

a decent weapon.

The first of the new Vickers tanks, the Valentine I, rolled off

Weight

Quantity rather than quality was the order of the day and

assembly lines in late 1940. From there, great quantities

Engine

Turret
The two-man turret of the Mk III
Valentine Infantry Tank required the
commander to serve as a loader for
the 2pdr gun.

THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE

PICTURE CREDITS:
Front Cover: UH-1B helicopters and troops in a Green LZ in
1965 William James Warren/Getty Images.
Back Cover: A detachment of the MRF disembarks rapidly during
an amphibious landing along the My Tho River US Navy.

Bloody History of America

A thorough and well-illustrated history of the decades-long conflict


in Southeast Asia, from Frances involvement in the First Indochina
War to the participation of the United States and its allies, including
Australia and South Korea, in the Vietnam War.

Fourteen chronological and thematic chapters trace the evolution


of a tragic and costly conflict; also includes more than 40 highly
informative feature boxes.

Provides authoritative text by two historians, complemented


by some 300 photographs, display extracts
and nearly 30 maps and diagrams.

WAR

ANDREW WIEST AND CHRIS McNAB

A NEW WORLD

21

left: Ren-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle,


claims possession of the Mississippi region,
naming it Louisiana after his king, Louis XIV.

A skilled bowman could fire


six well-aimed arrows
a minute.

18

Tobacco

Although the English had not found gold in Virginia, they had come across a
palatable strain of tobacco smoked by the Indians, which, when business took
off, sold in England for up to ten times what it cost to produce in the colony.
The problem was securing sufficient manpower to farm it. While in New France
the difficulty was attracting migrants, in Virginia the trouble was keeping them
alive. Between 1607 and 1624, about 7600 people had emigrated from England
to Virginia, but, after almost 20 years, Virginias English population was still
only about 1200 with disease killing off many of the settlers. The local Indian
population, too, was being depleted through disease, as well as being driven away
in the land grab.
Indentured servants were introduced to work on the farms. Given a free
passage to Virginia from England, the workers contracted themselves to a master
for seven years. After that, they were free to work as wage earners, and, if they
saved enough money, to buy their own land something easier to achieve in
Virginia than in Europe. Not that life was easy: in the early years the chance of
survival for indentured servants was 50 per cent.
Nor were things getting any easier. With the end of the English Civil War

above: Despite having


guns, the Europeans could
still be overrun by the
Native Americans. Unlike
a bow and arrow, a musket
could, at best, be fired
three times a minute, while
its aim was uncertain at
distance.

Main: Initially 1 x 37mm (1.45in)

Facebook: www.facebook.com/amberbooks

ANDREW WIEST AND CHRIS McNAB

Printed in China

With Japanese expansion across the Pacific


and attacks on US merchant shipping, fears
grew of an invasion of the American West
Coast. No attempt at invasion happened,
but there were some isolated assaults. In
February 1942, a Japanese submarine
fired shells at the Ellwood Oil Field near
Santa Barbara, southern California. That
June, another Japanese submarine fired
shells at Fort Stevens on the Columbia
River, Oregon though without causing
significant damage. Three months later,
the continental US saw its only air raid
of the war when a floatplane launched
from a submarine dropped two
incendiary bombs on the mountains of
Oregon. Due to poor weather and the
actions of fire patrols, the fires were
put out with minimal damage.
above:
Between November 1944 and
These young
April 1945, the Japanese Navy
evacuees of Japanese ancestry are awaiting
launched more than 9000 fire
their turn for baggage inspection upon arrival at this Assembly
balloons towards North America.
Most were ineffective, but five
children and a woman were killed in Oregon when one of the children tampered with a bomb
that one of the balloons had been carrying they would be the wars only deaths in mainland
America due to enemy action.
Worries about traitors in the nations midst after the attack on the Ellwood Oil Field had led to
the justification of the internment of almost 120,000 Japanese-Americans in mainland America
nearly two-thirds of whom were US citizens. Of course, Germany and Italy were also at war with
the US, but there was no internment of the many Americans from German or Italian families. As
the proportion of Japanese-Americans in Hawaii was too large for mass internment, martial law
was imposed on the islands instead.
However, a number of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii, some of whom had been in the
Hawaii National Guard, successfully petitioned to be allowed to serve in the US armed forces,
and in 1943 the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team of Japanese-American soldiers was
formed. Generally forbidden from front-line action in the Pacific War, some used their language
skills in intelligence work, while others fought in Europe. In total, about 14,000 men served with
the 442nd. With 9486 Purple Heart military honours awarded, it became, considering its size, the
most decorated unit in the war.

W O R L D WA R I I

127

Pearl Harbor

Beginning at 7.48am, the attack at Pearl Harbor on 8 December 1941 consisted


of two waves of 353 Japanese aircraft fighters, bombers and torpedo planes
launched from six aircraft carriers, which the U.S. had failed to spot manoeuvring
into range. All eight US battleships in port were damaged, with four of them sunk,
while three destroyers and three cruisers were also damaged or sunk.

Although the US
Marines fought with
distinction in Vietnam,
the ambiguous nature

All eight battleships in port


were damaged, with four of
them sunk.
below: USS SHAW
exploding during the
Japanese raid on Pearl
Harbor.mediocrem, eu
graece putent inimicus
sed. Ad mel mandamus
honestatis, ne vel nullam
eloquentiam.

1550mm (0.591.97in)

Range

155km (96 miles)

Crew

carried aboard the Ausf N, which was later also assigned to


independent Panzer battalions as an escort for PzKpfw VI
Tiger heavy tanks.

German soldiers and tank crewmen sit atop at PzKpfw III as


it fords a stream early in World War II. Note the distinctive
headwear of the Panzerwaffe on the crewman at far right. The
PzKpfw III Ausf M, produced in 194243, included a deep-wading
exhaust system.

Champion Chassis
The PzKpfw III chassis proved to be quite versatile during
World War II. Particularly with the improved torsion bar
suspension of the Ausf F, the chassis gained a reputation
as a steady gun platform, both in the tank and assault
gun roles. The Sturmgeschtz self-propelled assault gun

Long Road Eastward

mounted a 75mm (2.95in) main weapon and was highly

Even as the German Army rolled across the Russian frontier

successful. Armoured recovery and observation vehicles

that weapon ineffective, 100 Ausf F tanks followed with

on 22 June 1941, the main battle tank capability of the

also utilized the chassis, which were produced throughout

the heavier KwK 38 L/42 50mm (1.97in) cannon.

PzKpfw III, the most prominent tank in its panzer divisions,

the war.

two or three 7.92mm (0.31in) MG 34 machine guns,


mounted in the hull and in the turret adjacent to the main
gun. By the time of the German invasion of France and
the Low Countries on 10 May 1940, large numbers of the
The imposing frame of the PzKpfw III was compact and
efficient, actually incorporating turret armour with a slight slope
to improve protection while the hull armour remained more
square. As the main weapon was upgunned, the firepower was
comparable to early Allied tanks.

of the war resulted


in the breakdown of
discipline and
organisation in some
units which had not
been witnessed in
previous conflicts.

RIGHT: AN F-8 CRUSADER


LAUNCHES A MISSILE ATTACK
AGAINST A
IN

Ausf F had been deployed.

VIETCONG

SITE

SOUTH VIETNAM.

BELOW: US MARINES
ENGAGE

VIETCONG

TROOPS

IN A FIREFIGHT NEAR

CHU

LAI, JANUARY 1966.

VIETNAM

Proof 1

Buildings blaze in the background as German soldiers,


supported by a PzKpfw III, clear a war-torn street
somewhere on the Eastern Front. The PzKpfw III was

The G variant added armour to the gun mantlet, while

continually modified during World War II and evolved


from a main battle tank to an infantry support vehicle

was increased with 30mm (1.18in) of additional bolted-

as its firepower and armour protection were eclipsed by

on plating. Engine performance was increased with the

subsequent generations of Allied tanks.

Ausf H and wider tracks were added for greater stability in

Producing Panzer Power

such conditions as the North African desert or the muddy

When the Ausf E entered production in 1939, it was armed

terrain of the Eastern Front.

with a 37mm (1.45in) KwK 36 L/46.5 main weapon. In

Evolving Combat Role

armour protection for the front and rear hull of the Ausf H

The PzKpfw III was the frontline German tank during the
early months of World War II. It was available in relatively
large numbers and held its own for a time against the

Following the shocking debut of the superb Soviet

1940, the Ausf F, virtually identical to the Ausf E, was

T-34 medium tank, the PzKpfw III Ausf J was introduced

introduced. The improvements with the Ausf F included

with a longer-barrelled 50mm (1.97in) gun to generate

a different engine ignition system, modified air intakes

higher muzzle velocity. Subsequently, the L and M variants

and improved torsion bar suspension. Approximately

provided armour upgrades, nearly doubling the weight of

300 Ausf F variants were produced with the 37mm main

the original PzKpfw III to more than 22.7 tonnes (22.3 tons).

gun; however, as improving Allied tank designs rendered

The Ausf M also included a chassis with greater stability.

Soviets until the T-34 arrived in sufficient numbers to


complement the older Red Army BT and T-26 models.
In North Africa, the PzKpfw III was more than a match
for British armour and dominated the battlefield until the
arrival of the American M3 Grant/Lee and M4 Sherman
medium tanks with their 75mm (2.95in) main guns.

49

48

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 43

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 48

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 49

The
Illustrated History
VIETNAM
WAR
of
the Vietnam War
THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE

Break the will of the enemy to fight, and


you accomplish the true objective of war.
Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Forty years after it ended, the Vietnam


War remains a controversial conflict
internationally, while the scars of
defoliation are still in evidence in parts
of the country. Before pulling out,
the US dropped eight million tons of
bombs and suffered 46,370 fatalities
against a technologically inferior force,
while 900,000 Vietnamese people
were killed. From Indochina to the
fall of Saigon, this illustrated history
is a timely account of the 6,000-day
conflict.

In the aftermath of World War II the decolonization


process gained pace, but the transition to self-rule
was often violent. With US material and financial
aid, France fought a campaign in Indochina to
regain colonial control over those territories it had
held before the Japanese occupation, but by 1954 it
was forced to admit defeat and accept partition. The
revolutionaries in Southeast Asia had demonstrated
how to achieve political objectives in the face of
overwhelming odds, but they continued their
struggle to reunify Vietnam.

The repercussions of this bitter, tragic and costly


conflict were far-reaching, for it has affected US
foreign policy ever since. As The Illustrated History
of the Vietnam War reveals, the war remains a
fascinating military study, embracing such diverse
topics as guerrilla and conventional warfare,
urban and jungle fighting and political and
ideological struggle.

ISBN: 978-1-78274-288-3

reintroduced. Vicariously at least, writes historian Philip Jenkins, the United


States was in all essential ways a combatant power for most of 1941.
The mass raid on Pearl Harbor may have come out of the blue, but an attack
of some kind had been expected, although Malaya
or the Philippines had been thought more likely
targets. Back in 1937, Japanese aircraft had sunk
the US gunboat Panay while it was anchored on the
Yangtze River, China, and, concerned about Japans
imperialistic expansion in China and southeast
Asia, America was already offering covert aid to the
Chinese war effort, including the use of American
pilots. Following the sinking, commercial treaties with Japan had been annulled
and economic restrictions imposed including, crucially, access to American oil.

Armour

Fearing an aggressive expansion of communism,


the USA took the fateful step of intervening
in Southeast Asia. Initially only political and
monetary support was given to the new South
Vietnamese government, but as the situation grew
ever more complex, direct US military participation
escalated. In the late 1960s there were as many as
500,000 American troops in Vietnam. By the time
the US forces finally withdrew in 1973, the war had
destabilized the entire region, spilling over into
Laos and Cambodia.

Twitter: @amberbooks

W O R L D WA R I I

ATTACKS ON
AMERICA

A major change in Frances fortunes came with Ren-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, a lapsed
Jesuit turned explorer. With a troop of Frenchmen and Indians, he established forts in the
Great Lakes, before, in 1682, canoeing down the Mississippi
River to the Gulf of Mexico although
this was not the destination he was
seeking. Hed been hoping to find a
route to the Pacific and so on to Asia
but he claimed the new territory for
France, anyway, naming it Louisiana
after his king, Louis XIV.
La Salles next expedition from
France approached America from the
Gulf of Mexico. After a troubled voyage
that saw three of his four ships lost, he
landed too far west; his men then spent
three years trying to find the mouth of the
Mississippi. In 1687, with no end in sight,
his troops mutinied and shot him. A sorry
end, but today La Salles achievements
as an explorer are commemorated across
France, Canada and the US.

wife, powdered her [with salt], and had eaten part of her before it was knowne.
Once discovered, he was executed.
Like the Spanish in Florida, the English had arrived in Virginia with the hope
of finding gold, and also of navigating a passage through the continent to Asia.
Instead, there was no gold and they soon proved
that they werent capable of feeding themselves. Help
came from the local Powhatan Indians, but the tribes
good will was soon tested. By 1620, the colonists were
taking land from the Powhatans without any attempt
at payment. This led, in 1622, to the Powhatans killing
347 settlers more than a quarter of the colony.
Following further disputes, in 1644 the Powhatans
butchered a further 400 colonists in a single day.
It might seem surprising that the Native Americans, who had no guns unless
they had obtained them from Europeans, could inflict such losses on the English.
However, a skilled bowman could fire six well-aimed arrows a minute, whereas
someone wielding a musket could, at best, fire it three times a minute. Even then,
the aim was uncertain at distance, and the musket often liable to malfunction.

126

Armament

MG 34 machine guns

VIETNAM

THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE

Dr Chris McNab is a freelance writer, editor


and researcher based in South Wales, UK, who
specializes in twentieth-century military history.
Following a degree in Classical History and English
at the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, he
completed a PhD in social and political theory at
the same university, before focusing his attentions
on his primary interest, military affairs.
He is the author of Military Uniforms Visual
Encyclopedia, Battles that Changed Warfare,
Germanys Secret Masterplan and Sporting Guns.

Website: www.amberbooks.co.uk

(2.95in) gun, which had originally been installed on the


PzKpfw IV. A total of 64 rounds of 75mm ammunition were

KwK L/46.5; later 50mm (1.97in)

43

VIETNAM WAR

Andrew Wiest is Professor of History at the


University of Southern Mississippi and serves as
Director of the Vietnam Studies Program. He is
author of The Boys of 67.

Appstore: itunes.com/apps/amberbooksltd

The PzKpfw III Ausf N was modified as an infantry


support tank and armed with a short-barrelled 75mm

KwK 38 L/42 gun

Job: 06828 Title: Worlds Greatest Tanks (Amber Book)


Page: 42

Encyclopedia of Warfare
Foreword by Dennis Showalter
978-1-78274-023-0

in 1943.

Throughout production, secondary armament included

82

A NEW WORLD

Road: 40km/h (25mph)

Secondary: 2 x 7.92mm (0.31in)

Main Armament
The 2pdr (40mm) QF main gun of the
Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank lost its
effectiveness with the advent of heavier
Axis tanks and was replaced in later
variants with the 6pdr (57mm) gun.

JUNE 2017 PUBLICATION

CANOEING DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI

Speed

Cross-country: 20km/h (12mph)

42

Other titles of interest:


Illustrated History of World War I
Andrew Wiest
978-1-78274-137-4

versus tank fighting until the arrival of the PzKpfw V Panther

1 x 12-cylinder inline water-cooled


engine developing 224kW (300hp)

Secondary Armament
The BESA machine gun was a
British version of the Czech-made
ZB-53 air-cooled machine gun
and was utilized extensively by the
British military during World War II.

Engine
The AEC A190 six-cylinder
diesel engine of the Mk III
Valentine Infantry Tank
generated 103kW (131hp).
It was replaced in later
variants with an American
GMC diesel engine.

244 x 186mm (934 x 712)


224pp
180 b/w and colour photos,
diagrams and maps
58,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-497-9
19.99 Hardback

support role, then shouldered the great weight of the tank

17.41 tonnes (17.1 tons)


Maybach HL 120 TRM petrol

Armour Protection
The armour protection of the
Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank
varied from 865mm (0.31
2.55in), heavier than the A10
Cruiser Tank from which the
Valentine was derived.

Bloody History of America traces the


narrative of this still young nation
from the adventurers of the sixteenth
century to the soldiers fighting the
Islamic State (ISIS) today, from
Revolutionary War to Civil War, from
slavery to Civil Rights, from the Salem
Witch Trials to the McCarthy era witchhunts, from Prohibition to Hollywood
excess, and from religious cults to
political corruption. Illustrated with 180
captivating paintings, photographs,
and artworks, this is a vivid account of
the darker side of the United States.

Length: 5.38m (17ft 8in)


Height: 2.44m (8ft)

Valentines with Vickers Vigour

by the Nazis a real possibility, tank production was critical.

73

Bloody History of America

Gradually, the PzKpfw III evolved into an infantry support


tank while the PzKpfw IV, intended originally for the infantry

Width: 2.91m (9ft 7in)

accept heavier armament easily, tanks were in short supply


and World War II was going badly for Britain. With invasion

The Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank was rushed into production


in 1940 without extensive field testing but proved reliable
largely due to Vickers experience with its forerunner, the
A10 Cruiser Tank.

20

Panzer III Ausf F


was waning. The Soviet T-34 soon eclipsed other designs.

Specification

to develop an infantry tank based on the A10 and the

much more than status symbols

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
65,000 words
200col a/ws & photos
ISBN: 978-1-78274-108-4
19.99 Hardback

The Worlds Greatest Tanks

the company already had facilities dedicated to its own

Soviet and Russian forces have

The Worlds Greatest Tanks

assuaged some of the concern about the performance of

cruiser tank, the A10. Instead, Vickers was asked


The distinctive plastic barrel
shroud has become a trademark of
the M16 and its offspring, which
include the Colt Commando.

weapon on which to trust your life.

design was eventually approved for production in the


summer of 1939.

Tank was available in large numbers at a critical time for Great Britain and

The weapon lacks stopping


power but has low recoil and
controllability.

70

From World War I to the present day,


The Worlds Greatest Tanks features 52
of the best armoured fighting vehicles.
From the Mark V Male to the Soviet
T-34 to todays M1A2 Abrams, each
entry is examined over two spreads
and includes a brief description of
the tanks history, a colour profile
artwork, photographs, key features
and specifications. Packed with 200
artworks and photographs, this is a
colourful guide for the military historian
and general enthusiast.

Mk III Valentine Infantry Tank

M16 EARLY VERSIONS 1960

The Makarovs basic configuration


is based on a Walther design.

Worlds Worst Weapons

The Worlds Greatest Tanks

T H E W O R L D S G R E AT E S T

Proof 1

Exploding Tanks, Uncontrollable Ships, and Unflyable Aircraft

From Soviet dog mines to the


supersonic aircraft that couldnt
break the sound barrier, Worlds Worst
Weapons features 150 land vehicles,
small arms, naval vessels and aircraft
that many soldiers, sailors or pilots
would prefer to forget. With thoroughly
researched text complemented by
photographs, full-colour artworks,
first hand accounts and full technical
specifications, the book is an excellent
guide to the weapons that went badly
wrong.

THE WORLDS GREATEST TANKS: AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY

Worlds Worst Weapons

Martin J. Dougherty

Worlds Worst Weapons

Illustrated throughout with both colour


and black-and-white photographs that bring
the 10,000-day conflict to life, and including eye
witness accounts of the battles and incidents of
Americas undeclared war, The Illustrated History of
the Vietnam War provides a graphic and compelling
account of one of the most brutal conflicts of
modern history.

FROM THE SEA

186

83

The Illustrated History


of the Vietnam War
244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
60,000 words
250 col photos, 30 col a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-288-3
19.99 Hardback

VIETNAM

THE HOME FRONT

187

THE TURBULENT 1960S

engaged in the Search and


Destroy (S & D) missions
which characterized US
ground force operations
between 1965 and 1968. As
discussed earlier, Operation
Starlite was the first such
US Marine operation,
attacking from land, sea and
helicopter on 18 August
1965 against the VCs 1st
Regiment in the Van Truong
peninsula. One of the first
S & D operations of the war,
Operation Starlite gained a
significant amphibious presence when three US Marine battalions and a Special Landing
Force (SLF) battalion were beach-landed near An Cuong before attacking the enemy.
Other US Marine units closed the trap on VC forces via three major helicopter landings to
the west and an overland assault from the north. The operation was a resounding success
with 614 VC killed to only 45 Americans, and it inspired over 70 smaller-scale amphibious
operations along the South Vietnamese coast between 1965 and 1969, coordinated
between the SLF of the 7th Fleet and the MACV. None were as heavily contested as
Operation Starlite, yet the amphibious units remained a useful tool for tactical deployment
and reinforcement.

RIGHT: A

DEFIANT

REVERSAL OF HIPPIE
PHILOSOPHY IS SCRAWLED
ON THE HELMET OF THIS
SOLDIER IN

US

VIETNAM. THE

PSYCHOLOGICAL GULF
BETWEEN

VIETNAM
US

VETERANS AND

CIVILIANS COULD
BE PROFOUND.

BELOW: DR MARTIN
LUTHER KING, JR.,

LEADS A

CROWD OF AROUND

10,000

PEOPLE DURING A

50-MILE (80KM)
MARCH IN

PROTEST

ALABAMA

ON

MARCH 1965.

The US Marines were involved


in many other S & D operations,
but they also executed their own
distinctive pacification programmes. General Lewis W.
Walt, the commander of 1
Corps, and Lieutenant General
Victor Krulak, commander of
Fleet Marine Force Pacific,
both favoured a military
approach which involved the
active protection of Vietnamese
communities from VC infiltration. Subsequently, Vietnamese villages in the 1 Corps area became the beneficiaries of extensive US
Marine welfare and medical programmes, with each battalion of III MAF being given its
own tactical area of operation (TAOR). Pacification units were expanded in August 1965
with the Combined Action Company (CAC) programme. This programme was based on

ABOVE: US MARINES
DEPLOY ASHORE IN LANDING
CRAFT IN ONE OF THE MANY
AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS
CARRIED OUT IN

SOUTH

VIETNAM.
LEFT: DECEMBER 1967.
A US MARINE

ADVANCES

ACROSS A STREAM DURING A


SEARCH AND DESTROY MISSION SOUTH OF

VIETCONG

DANANG.

BOOBY TRAPS

WERE OFTEN SUBMERGED


BELOW THE WATERLINE OF

25

LEFT: AS US

oiling beneath the surface calm, however, were currents that would threaten
the countrys unity of purpose during the
coming decade. Most importantly, the landmark US Supreme Court decision in Brown
vs Board of Education ruled out segregated
schools, shining a glaring light on American
race relations and fuelling the Civil Rights
Movement. Advocates of civil rights would
find their leader in the person of Rev. Martin
Luther King, Jr. The nation, and the world,
watched in wonder as Dr King led peaceful
marches protesting against the inequities of
the segregated South. White southerners did
not want change, however peaceful or otherwise. King was arrested several times, his
marchers were beaten, leaders were assassinated and the racist Ku Klux Klan terrorized the
night. Advocates of civil rights persevered, and perfected the tactics of civil disobedience,
such as sit-ins, that would later be adopted by anti-war elements. Kennedy, who was
beginning the American involvement in Vietnam, had to intervene in what was a worsening situation. But before he could make a substantive difference he was assassinated, leaving the war and the problems of the home front to his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson.

IN

INVOLVEMENT

VIETNAM

GREW,

PROTESTS AT HOME
ESCALATED.

HERE

MARCHERS PASS DOWN

PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE
FRONT OF THE

HOUSE,

IN

WHITE

ADVERTISING THEIR

MESSAGE ON BANNERS AND


THROUGH CHANTS.

Although the political

THE BEGINNING OF PROTEST

s American involvement in the Vietnam War began in 1965, Johnsons social and foreign policy enjoyed widespread support. Most Americans believed in the Cold War
theory of containment and agreed that defence of South Vietnam was critical to the security of their own nation. However, the manner in which the United States became involved
in the conflict aroused suspicion among many and added to the problems. Several inconsistencies, from campaign promises that American boys would not be sent to Vietnam to
fight a war to the seeming falsehoods surrounding the Gulf of Tonkin incident and the
dictatorial nature of the regime in South Vietnam, caused doubt concerning the US role in
Southeast Asia. Many Americans were critical of Johnson and called on him to launch
more devastating attacks upon North Vietnam and end the war quickly. Most noticeable,
though, were protesters who believed that the country should exit the conflict. Anti-war
sentiment was concentrated in the universities, where protest groups were formed, the
most important of which was the Students for a Democratic Society.
Anti-war elements were an amorphous group. Due to their disorganization protesters
never wielded any true political power, though they were adept at causing trouble and
grabbing headlines. Most protesters were students or members of the counter-culture who
vaguely believed that American involvement in Vietnam was wrong and participated in
protests as part of the in thing to do. There were, however, some minor groups of people
who were true radicals and sought to bring down the existing system. The most infamous
group was the Weathermen, anarchists who bombed Reserve Officer Training Corps
(ROTC) buildings. Most popular protest, then, had as its goal the ending of a conflict that
was wasting American lives not a fundamental restructuring of power within the United
States. Thus, as painful as the protests became, they never portended revolution.

power of protesters
was in many senses
limited, the anti-war
mood caught on
with many in the
wider electorate
and left government
leaders looking
politically indecisive.

POPULAR CROSSING POINTS.

19

Classic titles
Welcome to Ambers list of both new titles and works available from the backlist. These
books combine engaging text with full-colour photographs, illustrations and, where
appropriate, detailed maps and annotated artworks to provide an irresistible package
at affordable prices. From the worlds most fascinating abandoned places to medieval
warfare, and from haiku to the human body to humour books, there will be something in
our list of published titles for everyone.

The Worlds Greatest Cars

Kings and Queens of Europe

The Guitar Book

285 x 213mm (11 x 8)


512pp
400 col photos
140,000 words
ISBN: 9781782744719
24.99 Hardback

295 x 234mm (11 x 9)


496pp
1,500 col photos & 1,000 diagrams
100,000 words
ISBN: 9781782744726
24.99 Paperback

The Illustrated Encyclopedia


of Space & Space Exploration

The Encyclopedia
of Ancient Egypt

How the Body Works

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


512pp
225,000 words
5,000 photographs and illustrations
ISBN: 9781782741640
24.99 Paperback

285 x 255mm (11 x 9)


512pp
245,000 words
2,000 colour photos & a/ws
ISBN: 978-1-78274-436-8
24.99 Paperback

Illustrated Encyclopedia
Weapons of World War II

American Battles
& Campaigns

Battles that Changed History

276 x 220mm (10 x 8)


608pp, 1,600 col and b/w a/ws and
photographs
220,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-388-0
24.99 Paperback

264 x 208mm (9 x 7)
240pp
70,000 words
100 maps, 25 colour photos
ISBN: 9781782743767
19.99 Hardback

The Encyclopedia
of Aircraft of World War II
297 x 228mm (11 x 9)
512pp
1,200 col & b/w photos & a/ws
190,000 words
ISBN: 9781782744733
24.99 Paperback

285 x 220mm (11 x 8 )


512pp
1,750 col photos
110,000 words
ISBN: 9781782744702
24.99 Paperback

Encyclopedias

Illustrated Encyclopedia
Weapons of World War I

The Encyclopedia of Warfare

Ultimate Survival Guide

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
1,024pp
600 col maps
350,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-023-0
49.99 Hardback

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


448pp
750 b/w a/ws
150,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-142-8
24.99 Paperback

Military Aircraft
Visual Encyclopedia

Ships
Visual Encyclopedia

Military Uniforms
Visual Encyclopedia

Small Arms
Visual Encyclopedia

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


448pp
1000 col a/ws
130,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-906626-71-6
24.99 Paperback

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


448pp
1000 col a/ws
90,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-907446-24-5
24.99 Paperback

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


448pp
600 col a/ws
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-907446-99-3
24.99 Paperback

285 x 225mm (11 x 9)


448pp
800 col a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-907446-98-6
24.99 Paperback

276 x 220mm (10 x 8)


272pp
600 col a/ws and photographs
65,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-141-1
24.99 Hardback

20

Animals Visual
Encyclopedia
285 x 225mm (11 x 9)
448pp
750 col a/ws
90,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273017
24.99 Paperback

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


448pp
600 col & b/w photos & a/ws
160,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-906626-80-8
24.99 Paperback

285 x 227mm (11 x 9)


512pp
1,250 col photos & a/ws
260,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-435-1
24.99 Paperback

Encyclopedia
of Classic Warfare
297 x 227mm (11 x 9)
320pp
400pp b/w & col photos and a/ws
100,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446917
24.99 Hardback

21

Mini Encyclopedias

Humour

FAT CATS

Mammals

Dinosaurs

Bugs

163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-385-9
9.99 Flexibound

163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-384-2
9.99 Flexibound

163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-324-8
9.99 Flexibound

FAT

CATS

Marine Life
163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-445-0
9.99 Flexibound

Pugs on Rugs

Cats in Hats

Fat Cats

153 x 153mm (6 x 6)
96pp
45 colour photomontages
3,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-431-3
6.99 Hardback

153 x 153mm (6 x 6)
96pp
45 colour photomontages
3,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-430-6
6.99 Hardback

153 x 153mm (6 x 6)
96pp
45 colour photomontages
3,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-429-0
6.99 Hardback

The Instruments of Torture

Best-Selling Albums

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-426-9
19.99 Paperback

266 x 266mm (10 x 10)


256pp
220 col photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-298-2
19.99 Hardback

General Reference

Human Body

The World of Birds

Stars and Planets

163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-377-4
9.99 Flexibound

163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-323-1
9.99 Flexibound

163 x 123mm (6 x 4 )
320pp
300 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-260-9
9.99 Flexibound

Young Readers

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
10,000 words
150 colour photographs
ISBN: 978-1-78274-394-1
19.99 Hardback

Myths and Legends

Warriors of the
Ancient World

Warriors of the
Medieval World

254 x 197mm (10 x 7)


128pp
110 col a/ws and photos
16,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-446-7
9.99 Hardback

254 x 197mm (10 x 7)


128pp
110 col a/ws and photos
16,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-447-4
9.99 Hardback

22

Abandoned Places

Chinese Bound Series

Norse Myths

Celtic Legends

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
58,000 words
180 b/w and col photographs,
artworks and maps
ISBN: 9781782743323
19.99 Hardback

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
58,000 words
180 b/w and col photographs,
artworks and maps
ISBN: 9781782743166
19.99 Hardback

The Art of War


(New Translation)
265 x 195mm (10 x 7)
96pp
12,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446788
14.99 Chinese bound hardback

The Prince

Bushido

264 x 195mm (7 x 6)
96pp
33,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-908696-51-9
14.99 Chinese bound hardback

264 x 195mm (10 x 7)


96pp
34,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-484-9
14.99 Chinese bound hardback

Haiku
264 x 195mm (10 x 7)
96pp
88 haiku in Japanese script
2,500 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-387-3
14.99 Chinese bound hardback

23

Combat,and
Survival
and Fitness
Combat
Survival

Worlds Greatest

SAS and Elite Forces Guide: SAS and Elite Forces Guide: SAS and Elite Forces Guide:
Extreme Fitness
Unarmed Combat
Extreme Unarmed Combat
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w artworks
45,000 words
ISBN: 9781782741060
14.99 Paperback

178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w a/ws
59,500 words
ISBN: 9781906626815
14.99 Paperback

178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w artworks
45,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273161
14.99 Paperback

SAS and Elite Forces


Guide:
Armed Combat
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w a/ws
45,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-024-7
14.99 Paperback

SAS and Elite Forces


Guide: Ropes and Knots
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w a/ws
35,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446948
14.99 Paperback

SAS and Special Forces


Fitness Training
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
180 b/w photographs and artworks
ISBN: 978-1-78274-451-1
14.99 Flexibound

SAS and Special Forces Self


Defence Handbook
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
160pp
60,000 words
180 b/w photographs and artworks
ISBN: 978-1-78274-432-0
14.99 Flexibound

SAS and Special Forces


Mental Toughnesss Training
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
180 b/w photographs and artworks
ISBN: 978-1-78274-449-8
14.99 Flexibound

Worlds Greatest Small Arms


297 x 227mm (11 x 9)
224pp
200 col a/ws and photographs
65,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-262-3
19.99 Hardback

Combat and Survival

SAS and Elite Forces Guide: SAS and Elite Forces Guide: World War II Secret
Prisioner of War Escape
Manhunt
Operations Handbook
& Evasion
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w artworks
45,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273154
14.99 Paperback

320pp
150 b/w artworks
40,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273185
14.99 Paperback

320pp
150 artworks
40,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273147
14.99 Paperback

SAS and Elite Forces


Guide:
Preparing to Survive
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
160 b/w artworks
45,000 words
ISBN: 9781908696618
14.99 Paperback

SAS and Elite Forces


Guide:
Sniper
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
160 b/w artworks
45,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-908696-63-2
14.99 Paperback

Worlds Greatest Civil Aircraft

Worlds Greatest Military Aircraft

297 x 227mm (1134 x 9)


224pp
100 col a/ws & 100 col & b/w photos
65,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-245-6
19.99 Hardback

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
200 col a/ws and photographs
65,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-263-0
19.99 Hardback

The Worlds Greatest


Submarines
297 x 227mm (11 x 9)
224pp
65,000 words
200 colour artworks and photographs
ISBN: 978-1-78274-421-4
19.99 Hardback

Worlds Greatest Tanks


297 x 227mm (11 x 9)
224pp
200 col a/ws and photographs
65,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-108-4
19.99 Hardback

Military Technology

SAS and Elite Forces


Guide: Special Forces in
Action
178 x 127mm (7 x 5)
320pp
150 b/w photos & artworks
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-908696-62-5
14.99 Paperback

24

Self-Defence:
How to Punch

Self-Defence:
How to Defend Yourself

240 x 160mm (9 x 6)
48pp
50 line drawings
10,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-088-9
4.99 Paperback

240 x 160mm (9 x 6)
48pp
50 line drawings
10,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-089-6
4.99 Paperback

How to Fight Like


a Special Forces Soldier
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
180 b/w photographs
and artworks
ISBN: 978-1-78274-448-1
14.99 Flexibound

How to Pass the SAS


and Special Forces
Selection Course
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
60,000 words
180 b/w photographs
and artworks
ISBN: 978-1-78274-450-4
14.99 Flexibound

Small Arms:
Compared and Contrasted
Drones

Atlas of Tank Warfare

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
200 col a/ws and photographs
55,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-255-5
19.99 Hardback

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


120 col maps, 150 col & b/w
photos & artworks
100,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273796
19.99 Hardback

Germanys Secret Weapons


of World War II
264 x 208mm (10 x 8)
224pp
160 photographs and illustrations
54,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-909160-56-9
19.99 Hardback

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


224pp
300 col photos and illustrations
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-206-7
19.99 Hardback

25

Worlds Great Weapons

German Panzers
of World War II

Modern Tanks
and Artillery

Allied Aircraft
of World War II

Allied Tanks
of World War II

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
384pp
400 col & b/w a/ws & photos
100,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-065-0
29.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
384pp
400 col & b/w a/ws & photos
100,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-205-0
29.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
384pp
400 col & b/w a/ws & photos
100,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-207-4
29.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
384pp
400 col & b/w a/ws & photos
100,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-208-1
29.99 Hardback

Essential Aircraft
Identification Guide:
Civil Aircraft 1907Present

The Essential Tank


Identification Guide:
Wehrmacht Panzer Divisions
193945

The Essential Vehicle


Identification Guide:
Waffen-SS Divisions
193945

The Essential Vehicle


Identification Guide:
Western Allied Tanks
193945

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
500 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781904687467
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
300 col a/ws and 50 b/w & col photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781905704552
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626228
19.99 Hardback

The Essential Vehicle


Identification Guide:
Panzergrenadier Divisions
193945

The Essential Vehicle


Identification Guide: Postwar
Armoured Fighting Vehicles
1945Present

The Essential Weapons


Identification Guide:
Small Arms 1914-1945

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781905704293
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446221
19.99 Hardback

The Essential Weapons


Identification Guide:
Postwar Air Weapons
1945Present

The Essential Weapons


Identification Guide:
Postwar Artillery
1945Present

Essential Submarine
Identification Guide:
Kriegsmarine U-Boats
193945

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446597
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446603
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
50,000 words
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
ISBN: 9781904687962
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
50,000 words
250 col & b/w a/ws & photos
ISBN: 978-1-908696-64-9
19.99 Hardback

Essential Identification Guides

Modern Military Aircraft

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide: Aircraft
of WWI 19141918

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide:
Allied Fighters 193945

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide:
Allied Bombers 193945

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626655
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781905704699
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781905704705
19.99 Hardback

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide: Luftwaffe
Squadrons 193945

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide: Aircraft
of the Cold War 19451991

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide: Modern
Military Airpower 1990Present

The Essential Aircraft


Identification Guide:
Carrier Aircraft 1917Present

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-904687-62-7
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626631
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446276
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col a/ws & 50 photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446979
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
384pp
400 col & b/w a/ws & photos
100,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-066-7
29.99 Hardback

26

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273758
19.99 Hardback

The Essential Weapons


Identification Guide:
Small Arms 1945-present
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
200 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273178
19.99 Hardback

Essential Naval
Identification Guide:
Submarines, 1914Present
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
50,000 words
250 col & b/w a/ws & photos
ISBN: 978-1-908696-66-3
19.99 Hardback

27

Naval History

Aviation

The Wars of the Roses


Aviation Fact File:
Modern Military Aircraft

Aviation Fact File:


Helicopters

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


256pp
145,000 words
2000 col & b/w photos & artworks
ISBN: 978-1-782740-86-5
19.99 Hardback

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


256pp
145,000 words
2000 col & b/w photos & artworks
ISBN: 978-1-782740-87-2
19.99 Hardback

The Golden Age of Sail


213 x 290mm (8 x 11)
224pp
110 col a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-069-8
19.99 Hardback

Warships From The


Golden Age of Steam
213 x 290mm (8 x 11)
224pp
110 col a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-153-4
19.99 Hardback

264 x 208mm (10 x 8)


224pp
200 b/w and colour photographs, artworks and maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-239-5
19.99 Hardback

The Illustrated History


of the Vietnam War
244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
256pp
250 colour photos and 30 colour a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-288-3
19.99 Hardback

Great
GreatBattles
Battles

Military
Atlases
Great
Battles

Battles of the Bible

Military Atlas
of Tank Warfare

The Illustrated History


of World War I
244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
256pp
270 b/w photos & 60 col a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-137-4
19.99 Hardback

Military History

The Viking Warrior

Gladiator

In The Footsteps of Alexander

The Samurai Warrior

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


224pp
200 colour illustrations, photographs
and maps
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-291-3
19.99 Hardback

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


224pp
200 colour illustrations, photographs
and maps
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-252-4
19.99 Hardback

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


224pp
200 colour illustrations, photographs
and maps
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-165-7
19.99 Hardback

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


224pp
200 colour illustrations, photographs
and maps
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-168-8
19.99 Hardback

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
20 col maps, 50 line drawings
160 col & b/w photos,
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781905704668
19.99 Hardback

360 x 280mm (14 x 11)


176pp
110 col maps and 65 photographs
32,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-139-8
24.99 Hardback

Military Atlas
of Air Warfare
360 x 280mm (14 x 11)
176pp
120 col maps and 100 photographs
37,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-138-1
24.99 Hardback

Fighting Techniques

28

Fighting Techniques
of Naval Warfare

Fighting Techniques
of the Medieval World

Fighting Techniques
of the Oriental World

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
256pp, 20 col maps, 25 col & b/w
photos, 100 b/w a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626235
19.99 Hardback

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
256pp, 20 col maps, 25 col & b/w
photos, 100 b/w a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626624
19.99 Hardback

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
256pp, 20 col maps, 25 col & b/w
photos, 100 b/w a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 9781905704965
19.99 Hardback

29

Collectors Guides

The History of World War I


Fighting Techniques

Collectors Guides:
Glock

Collectors Guides:
Colt

Collectors Guides:
Pistols & Revolvers

Collectors Guides:
Rifles & Muskets

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
200 colour and b/w photographs and
artworks, 50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-256-2
19.99 Hardback

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
200 colour and b/w photographs and
artworks, 50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-257-9
19.99 Hardback

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
200 colour and b/w photographs and
artworks, 50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-150-3
19.99 Hardback

244 x 186mm (9 x 7)
224pp
200 colour and b/w photographs and
artworks, 50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-151-0
19.99 Hardback

Compared & Contrasted

The Western Front


19171918

The Western Front


19141916

The Eastern Front


19141920

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
224pp
150 b/w photos, 100 a/ws
75,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626136
19.99 Hardback

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
224pp
150 b/w photos, 100 a/ws
75,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626129
19.99 Hardback

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
224pp
150 b/w photos, 100 a/ws
75,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626112
19.99 Hardback

Seven View Series

Gallipoli & the Middle East


19141818
246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
224pp
150 b/w photos, 100 a/ws
75,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626150
19.99 Hardback

The History of World War II

Small Arms
Compared and Contrasted
Weapons of World War II

Compared and Contrasted


Modern Weapons

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
100 colour photos and a/ws
40,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-908696-69-4
19.99 Hardback

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


224pp
100 colour photos and a/ws
40,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-908696-68-7
19.99 Hardback

213 x 290mm (8 x 11)


224pp
250 col a/ws, 35 col & b/w photos
15,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446801
19.99 Hardback

The Balkans, Italy & Africa


19141918
246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
224pp
150 b/w photos, 100 a/ws
75,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626143
19.99 Hardback

Kursk: The Greatest Tank Battle


246 x 183mm (9 x 7)
192pp
170 b/w photos and 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-022-3
19.99 Hardback

30

Naval Warfare
19141918

Germanys Secret Masterplan

Stalingrad: The Infernal Cauldron

246 x 195mm (9 x 7)
224pp
150 b/w photos, 100 a/ws
75,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626167
19.99 Hardback

264 x 208mm (10 x 8)


224pp
200 col & b/w photos & a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-244-9
19.99 Hardback

246 x 183mm (9 x 7)
192pp
170 b/w photos and 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-909160-58-3
19.99 Hardback

The Battle of the Bulge:


Hitlers Last Hope

Berlin: The Final Reckoning

246 x 183mm (9 x 7)
192pp,170 b/w photos and 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-136-7
19.99 Hardback

246 x 183mm (9 x 7)
192pp
170 b/w photos and 10 col maps
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-135-0
19.99 Hardback

31

World War II Data Books

World War II Data Book:


Hitlers Masterplan
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp, 150 b/w a/ws
50,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-907446-96-2
19.99 Hardback

World War II Data Book:


The Luftwaffe
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp, 150 b/w and col photos,
diagrams and maps
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446115
19.99 Hardback

Plans that Never Happened

World War II Data Book:


The Third Reich
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp,150 b/w and col photos,
diagrams and maps
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626501
19.99 Hardback

Visual Battle Guides

World War II Plans


That Never Happened

Cold War Plans


That Never Happened

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
220 b/w & col photos and documents
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446641
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189 (9 x 7)
192pp
50 b/w & col illus, 180 photos,
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273789
19.99 Hardback

Strategy & Tactics

Timelines

Chronology of Aviation

Chronology of World War II

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


160pp
300 col & b/w photos & a/ws
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-067-4
14.99

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


160pp
300 col & b/w photos & a/ws
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-068-1
14.99

Submarines

Technical Drawings
of Aircraft of World War II

Military Reference

FLYING THE

WORLDS GREATEST

COMBAT
AIRCRAFT

FIRST-HAND ACCOUNTS
FROM THE PILOTS WHO FLEW
THEM IN ACTION

7th Armoured Division


at Villers-Bocage

1st SS Panzer Corps


at Villers-Bocage

Visual Battle Guide:


FIfth Guards Tank Army at Kursk

Visual Battle Guide:


Das Reich at Kursk

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 col a/ws & b/w photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273772
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 col a/ws & b/w photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781908273765
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
100 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446610
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
100 col & b/w a/ws & photos
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781907446627
19.99 Hardback

Order of Battle: German


Kriegsmarine in WWII

Order of Battle: German


Luftwaffe in WWII

Order of Battle: The Red


Army in WWII

Order of Battle: Western Allied


Forces of WWII

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 col & b/w photos & a/ws
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626198
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 col & b/w photos & a/ws
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626204
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 col & b/w photos & a/ws
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626525
19.99 Hardback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 col & b/w photos & a/ws
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781906626549
19.99 Hardback

Amphibious Warfare
245 x 183mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 b/w photographs, 25 b/w line
drawings
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-140-4
19.99 Hardback

Flying the Worlds Greatest


Combat Aircraft
297 x 224mm (11 x 9)
224pp
375 col & b/w photos
90,000 words
ISBN: 9781782744696
19.99 Hardback

270 x 215mm (10 x 8)


384 pages
120,000 words
500 artworks and 80 photographs
ISBN: 978-1-78274-433-7
29.99 Hardback

297 x 228mm (11 x 9)


256pp
50,000 words
385 col photos and 116 line artworks
ISBN: 978-1905704323
19.99 Hardback

Order of Battle

32

Uniforms of World War II


285 x 213mm (11 x 8)
288pp
270 col a/ws
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-329-3
19.99 Hardback

Air Combat

Land Combat

Sea Combat

285 x 211mm (11 x 8)


320pp
300 col a/ws and photographs
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-333-0
19.99 Hardback

285 x 211mm (11 x 8)


320pp
300 col a/ws and photographs
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-334-7
19.99 Hardback

285 x 211mm (11 x 8)


320pp
300 col a/ws and photographs
80,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-335-4
19.99 Hardback

33

Special Forces

Germanys History in World War II

The Gestapo

SS: Roll of Infamy


Special Forces in Action
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
224pp
180 photographs and artworks
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-254-8
19.99 Hardback

The SS: Hitlers Instrument


of Terror

The Downfall
of the Third Reich

295 x 234mm (11 x 9)


304pp
50 col & 190 b/w photos
110,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-028-5
19.99 Hardback

297 x 227mm (11 x 9)


256pp
275 photos, artworks and maps
70,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-908696-53-3
14.99

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
150 b/w photographs
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743132
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photographs
50,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743156
19.99 Paperback

Rommel
In His Own Words
240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photographs
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743163
19.99 Paperback

Stalins Secret Police


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
100 b/w photographs
65,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743170
19.99 Paperback

SS Divisional Histories

NEW
SS: Hell on the Eastern Front
SS: Totenkopf

SS: Wiking

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-251-7
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-248-7
19.99 Paperback

SS: Leibstandarte

SS: Das Reich

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-249-4
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-250-0
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743675
19.99 Paperback

The German Soldier


in World War II

Personal Accounts of the


Waffen SS at War

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photos; 60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743712
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photos; 60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743699
19.99 Paperback

Battles of the Waffen-SS


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743705
19.99 Paperback

Plans that Never HapHitler Youth


SS: Hitlerjugend

SS: Hitlers Foreign Divisions

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-247-0
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
110 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 978-1-78274-246-3
19.99 Paperback

34

SS: Hell on the Western Front


240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photographs
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743149
19.99 Paperback

Weapons and Fighting Tactics

of the Waffen SS
pened

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
70 b/w photographs & 50 b/w a/ws
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743125
19.99 Paperback

240 x 189mm (9 x 7)
192pp
120 b/w photos
60,000 words
ISBN: 9781782743682
19.99 Paperback

35

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