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## Let us now put the

whole story together with examples of block diagram
reduction.

H3(s)
(a)

Example 5.1

SREEKANTHA REDDY
C(s)
R(s)
+
BLOCK
REDUCTION
WORK
Block
Diagram
Reduction
Familiar
Forms
G3(s)G2(s) viaTECHNIQUES-CLASS
GDIAGRAM
1(s)

PROBLEM:
Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure 5.9 to a single transfer
1. Find the transfer
function
FIGURE 5.10 Steps in solving

Apago PDFExample
Enhancer
5.1: a. Collapse sum-

function.

R(s)

G1(s)

## H1(s) H2(s) + H3(s)

+

(b)

11/03/2010

G2(s)

G3(s)G2(s)G1(s)

R(s)
E1C05

12:17:46

C(s)
H1(s)
1 + G3(s)G2(s)[H1(s) H2(s) + H3(s)]
Page 245
(c)

## ming junctions; b. form equiC(s)

system in the
3(s)
forward path and equivalent
parallel system in the feedback
path; c. form equivalent feedback system and multiply by

H2(s)

## FIGURE 5.9 Block diagram

for Example 5.1

H (s)

3
5.3 Analysis
and Design of Feedback Systems

Example 5.2

Third, collapse the summing junctions, add the two feedback elements
Block Diagram Reduction by Moving Blocks
together, and combine the last two cascaded blocks. Figure 5.12(c) shows these results.
2. Find the transfer function
Fourth,Reduce
use thethe
feedback
formulainto
obtain
Figure
5.12(d).
PROBLEM:
system shown
Figure
5.11
to a single
transfer function.
Finally, multiply the two cascaded blocks and obtain the final result, shown in
+
Figure
C(s)
R(s) + 5.12(e).
V (s)
V (s) +
V (s)
V (s) +
V (s)
1

G1(s)

G2(s)

G3(s)

V8(s)in Appendix B to
V7(s)
Students who are using MATLAB
should now run ch5p1
H3(s)
H2(s)
perform block diagram reduction.
V6(s)

H1(s)

## Skill-Assessment Exercise 5.1

PROBLEM: Find the equivalent transfer function, Ts Cs=Rs, for the system

3. Findshown
the transfer
function
in Figure 5.13.

R(s) +

+
+

1
s

C(s)

1
s

## FIGURE 5.13 Block diagram for Skill-Assessment Exercise 5.1

s3 1
2s4 s2 2s
The complete solution is at www.wiley.com/college/nise.
Ts

## In this section, we examined the equivalence of several block diagram

configurations containing signals, systems, summing junctions, and pickoff points.
These configurations were the cascade, parallel, and feedback forms. During block
diagram reduction, we attempt to produce
1 these easily recognized forms and then
reduce the block diagram to a single transfer function. In the next section, we will
examine some applications of block diagram reduction.

for Example 5.2

TryIt 5.1

## Use the following MA

and Control System T
statements to find the
loop transfer function
system in Example 5.2
Gi s 1=s 1 and
H i s 1=s.

G1=tf(1,[1 1]);
G2=G1;G3=G1;
H1=tf(1,[1 0]);
H2=H1;H3=H1;
System=append...
(G1,G2,G3,H1,H2,
input=1;output=3;
Q= [l -4
0
0
2
1 -5
0
3
2
1 -5
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
3
0
0
T=connect(System,
Q,input,output);
T=tf(T);T=minreal(T

## single transfer function, Ts Cs=Rs Use the

following methods:
21. What is the significance of using eigenvectors as basis vectors for a system
a. Block diagram reduction [Section: 5.2]
transformation?

## Cs=Rs for the system show

block diagram reduction. [S

H1

b. MATLAB
Apago
PDF
Enhancer
4. Find the transfer function
R(s) +
R(s) +

1
s2

Problems

50
s+1

2
s

G1

G2

C(s)

FIGURE P5.2

## 2. Find the closed-loop

transfer function, Ts
diagram shown in Figure P5.1 to a
FIGURE P5.1
Cs=Rs
for
the
system
shown in Figure P5.2, using
ction, Ts Cs=Rs Use the
block diagram reduction. [Section: 5.2]
:
5. Find the transfer function

## 3. Find the equivalent transfe

Ts Cs=Rs, for the sy
in Figure P5.3. [Section: 5.2]

## reduction [Section: 5.2]

H1
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50
s+1

2
s

R(s)
11/03/2010 + 12:18:12

Page
G1 281

G2

C(s)

G3

C(s)

FIGURE P5.2

## Find the equivalent transfer function,

6.2 Find the transfer3.function

Problems

## Ts Cs=Rs, for the system shown

in Figure P5.3. [Section: 5.2]
G1(s)

GURE P5.1
R(s) +

G2(s)

G5(s)

G6(s)

C(s)
R(s) +

G1(s)

+
G3(s)

G3(s)

G4(s)

G2(s)

G4(s)

+
+

G5(s)
G7(s)

FIGURE P5.5

FIGURE P5.3

## 4. Reduce the system shown in Figure P5.4 to a

single transfer function, Ts Cs=Rs. [Section: 5.2]

## 6. Reduce the block diagram sh

single block, Ts Cs=R

G8(s)
R(s) +

G3(s)

R(s) +

G1(s)

G2(s)

G1(s)

G5(s)

G2(s)

C(s)

+
G4(s)

H(s)

G3(s)

FIGURE P5.6

## 7. Find the unity feedback syste

the system shown in Figure

FIGURE P5.4

## m shown in Figure P5.4 to a

nction, Ts Cs=Rs. [Sec-

## 6. Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure P5.6 to a

single block, Ts Cs=Rs. [Section: 5.2]

Problems

R(s) +
G3(s)
G5(s)

G2(s)

C(s)

G6(s)

G1(s)

R(s) +

G1(s)

C(s)

G5(s)

G2(s) G3(s)

G4(s)

G2(s)

G8(s)

G6(s)

## Apago PDF Enhancer +

281
C(s)

G8(s)

G6(s)
+

+
G3(s)
+ G4(s)

G4(s)

+
+

G7(s)

G7(s)
C(s)

FIGURE P5.6
G5(s)

G7(s)

FIGURE P5.5
7. Find the unity feedback
system that is equivalent to
the system shown in Figure P5.7. [Section: 5.2].

H(s)

URE P5.3
GURE P5.4

## m shown in Figure P5.4 to a

nction,
Cs=Rs,
Cs=Rs. for
[Secnction, Ts
Ts
the
Figure P5.5. Use the following

## 6. Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure P5.6 to a

single block, Ts Cs=Rs. [Section: 5.2]
R(s) +

R(s) +

C(s)

s+1

G8(s)

2s

## reduction [Section: 5.2]

C(s)

G1(s)

G (s)

G5(s)

G6(s)

the
1C05following
11/03/2010
12:18:12 Page 282

ctions:
+2 2s 3,
4
G2(s)
G4(s)
G7(s)
7, G 2 s 1=s
C(s)
+
+
G
(s)
4, G 4 s2 1=s,
FIGURE
P5.7

+
+
7, G 6 s 1=s2 5s 10,
G3(s)
+
+
2, G 8 s 1=s 6.
5
Reduction of Multiple Subsystems
282
9. Find the transferChapter
function
G4(s)and connect
the append
8. Given the block
diagram
of
a
system shown in
FIGURE P5.6
MATLABs Control System
Figure P5.8, find the transfer function Gs
u22 s=u11 s. [Section: 5.2]

(s)

7.
Find
the unity feedback system that is equivalent to
+
11
H(s)
G1(s)
G (s)
G (s)
the
system shown2 in Figure P5.7.3 [Section: 5.2].

21(s)

URE P5.4

G7(s)

12(s) +

R(s) +

G4(s)

G5(s)
+

C(s)

G6(s)

s+1

22 (s)

2s

FIGURE P5.8

## eduction [Section: 5.2]

he following
P5.9
9. Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure
11. For the system shown in Figure P5.11, find the
tions:
to a single
transfer
function,
Ts

Cs=Rs.
percent overshoot, settling time, and peak time
4
7, G 2 s 1=s2 2s 3,
[Section: 5.2]
for a step input if the systems response is under4, G 4 s 1=s,
FIGURE P5.7 damped. (Is it? Why?) [Section: 5.3]
7, G 6 s 1=s2 5s 10,
2, G 8 s 1=s G6.
1(s)
he append
and
connect
8. Given
the block diagram of a system
R(s) + shown
E(s) in
C(s)
225

## R(s) s+ Control System

C(s)
+
+
+
MATLAB
s(s
15)
Figure
P5.8,
find
the
transfer
function
Gs

G2(s)
G5(s)
G6(s)

+
+
u22 s=u
11 s. [Section: 5.2]
G3(s)

FIGURE P5.11

G4(s)
G7(s)

FIGURE P5.9

## For the system

Apago PDF3 12.Enhancer

## shown in Figure P5.12, find

the output, c(t), if the input, r(t), is a unit step.
[Section: 5.3]

## to a single transfer function, Ts Cs=Rs.

percent overshoot, settling time,
FIGURE P5.8 for a step input if the systems re
[Section: 5.2]
damped. (Is it? Why?) [Section: 5.
9. Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure P5.9 11. For the system shown in Figure
G1(s)
to a single
percent overshoot, settling time,
22 (S) transfer function, Ts Cs=Rs.
R(s) +
E(s)
225

function
5.2]
for a step input if the s(s
systems
re
R(s) [Section:
C(s)
+
+
+
11 (S)
+ 15)
G2(s)
G5(s)
G6(s)

damped.
(Is
it?
Why?)
[Section:
5

+
+
G3(s)
G1(s)
R(s) +

G4(s)
G2(s)

G7(s)

G3(s)

G6(s)

G1(s)

R(s) +

## 12. For the system shown in Fig

R(s) +
E(s)
5
the output, c(t), if thes(sinput,
+ 2) r(t)

[Section: 5.3]
R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

G3(s)

H2(s)

G2(s)

FIGURE P5.12

E(s)

5
s(s + 2)

## 13. For the system shown in Figure P5.1

of the closed-loop
transfer
FIGURE
P5.12functio
Rs. [Section: 5.3]
C(s)

H1(s)

225
s(s + 15)

H1(s)
H3(s)

FIGURE P5.11

E(s)

## 12. For the system shown in Figu

the output, c(t),FIGURE
if theP5.11
input, r(t)
[Section: 5.3]

## 10. Reduce the block diagram shown in

G7(s)
Figure P5.10 to a single block representing the transfer
function,
Ts
FIGURE
P5.9
Cs=Rs. [Section: 5.2]
function
10. Reduce the block diagram shown in
Figure P5.10 to a single block repre3(s)
senting theHtransfer
function, Ts
Cs=Rs. [Section: 5.2]

R(s) +

R(s)

C(s)

FIGURE P5.9

G4(s)

G5(s)

G3(s)

C(s)

## 13. For the system shown in Figure P5.

of the closed-loop transfer functi
Rs. [Section: 5.3]5
R(s)

R(s)

FIGURE P5.10

H4(s)
H2(s)

1
s

2
1
s

FIGURE P5.13
2

FIGURE P5.13

FIGURE P5.10

1.

C(s)
R(s)

G3 G2 G1
1+G3 G2 [H1 H2 +H3 ]

2.

C(S)
R(S)

G1 G3 [1+G2 ]
[1+G2 H2 +G1 G2 H1 ][1+G3 H3 ]

3.

S 3 +1
2S 4 +S 2 +2S

4.

50(S2)
S 3 +S 2 +150S100

5.

(1+G1 G2 )G3
1+G1 H1

6.

## G6 G4 +G6 G3 +G6 G5 G3 +G6 G5 G2

1+G6 +G1 G3 +G1 G2 +G7 G6 G4 +G7 G6 G3 +G7 G6 G5 G3 +G7 G6 G5 G2 +G6 G3 G1 +G6 G2 G1

7.

G7 G1 [G4 +G3 ]
[G7 G6 +1]G2 G1 +[G4 +G3 ][G5 G1 G8 G7 ]+(G7 G6 +1)

8.

5S 2 +2S
6S 2 +9S+6

9.

G1 G2 G4 G5 G6 G7
1G4 G5 +G4 G5 G6 +G1 G2 G3 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 +G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6

10.

## G6 (G4 +G5 G3 +G5 G2 )

G6 (G7 G4 +G7 G5 G3 +G7 G5 G2 +G3 G1 +G2 G1 +1)+G1 (G3 +G2 )+1

11.

G1 G2 G3
1+G1 G2 G3 Heq

where Heq =

H3
G3

H1
G2 G3

H2
G1 G3

H4
G1

+1

H4(s)