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CHAPTER 2

PART 2 DEFLECTION :
UNIT LOAD METHOD
Expected Outcomes
Able to analyze determinate beam deflection and slope by Unit Load Method.

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students should be able to:
Determine the slope and deflection by using Unit Load
Method

Principle of Virtual Work


The internal work in transversely loaded beams is
taken equal to the strain energy due to bending
moment
The virtual force Fi in the ith mass element in
=F*iei may be taken equal to the bending moment
mij in the ith mass element due to a unit load at
coordinate j

Principle of Virtual Work (Displacement)


Sometimes referred as the Unit-Load Method
Generally provides of obtaining the displacement and slope
at a specific point on structure i.e. beam, frame or truss
In general, the principle states that:
Work of Internal Loads

Work of External Loads

Principle of Virtual Work (Displacement)


Consider the structure (or body) to be of arbitrary
shape
Suppose it is necessary to determine the displacement
of point A on the body caused by the real loads P1,
P2 and P3

Principle of Virtual Work (Displacement)


Since no external load acts on the body at A and in the
direction of the displacement , the displacement can be
determined by first placing on the body a virtual load suc that
this force P acts in the same direction as , (see Figure)

Principle of Virtual Work (Displacement)


We will choose P to have a unit magnitude, P =1
Once the virtual loadings are applied, then the body is subjected
to the real loads P1, P2 and P3, (see Figure)
Point A will be displaced an amount causing the element to
deform an amount dL

Principle of Virtual Work (Displacement)


As a result, the external virtual force P & internal load u ride
along by and dL and therefore, perform external virtual work
of 1. on the body and internal virtual work of u.dL on the
element
Virtual loadings

1. u.dL
Real displacement

By choosing P = 1, it can be seen from the solution for follows


directly since = udL

Principle of Virtual Work (Slope)


A virtual couple moment M having a unit
magnitude is applied at this point
This couple moment causes a virtual load u in one
of the elements of the body
M

Principle of Virtual Work (Slope)


Assuming that the real loads deform the element
an amount dL, the rotation can be found from
the virtual-work equation
1

Principle of Virtual Work (Slope)

Virtual loadings

1. u.dL
Real displacement

PRINCIPLE OF UNIT LOAD METHOD


REAL LOAD

VIRTUAL LOAD

The element deform or rotate d = (M / EI) dx


The external virtual work done by the unit load is 1.
The internal virtual work done by the moment, m
m d = m(M/EI) dx
L

1 .

Similarly

mM
EI

dx
L

1 .

mM
EI

dx

Example 1
Determine the displacement at point B of the steel beam
shown in figure.
Take E = 200GPa, I = 500x 106 mm4

Solution Real Moment, M

LHS

RHS
M

M
V

Real Moment, M
RHS

M
12 kN/m
M
x

0 (clockwise ve)

12 x 2
M
0
2
M 6 x 2

Virtual Moment, m
1 kN

A
B

LHS

RHS
1 kN
M

M
V

Virtual Moment, m

Considered RHS

0<x<10
1 kN

0 (clockwise ve)

m 1.x 0
m 1.x

M
x

Virtual-Work Equation

mM
1 kN .
dx
0 EI
2
10 ( x )( 6 x )

dx
0
EI
15 103 kN .m 3

EI
OR
L

15 103 kN .m 3
B
200(10 6 )kN / m 2 (500(10 6 )mm 4 )(10 12 m 4 / mm 4 )
0.150m 150mm

Example 2
Determine the displacement at D of the steel beam in
figure. Take E = 200GPa, I = 300E6 mm4

Solution
Real
Moment, M

M1

M2

M3

Determine the reaction at


support

VA

VB

0 (clockwise ve)

120 30(3) VB (6) 0


VB 35kN

0 (upward ve)

VA 35 30 0
VA 5kN

Member AB : LHS

0 x3

120 kN.m
M1
5 kN
x

Member BC : RHS

0 (clockwise ve)

M 1 5( x) 120 0
M 1 120 5 x

0 x3

M2
35 kN
x

0 (clockwise ve)

M 2 35( x) 0
M 2 35( x)

Member CD : RHS
M3

0 x 4.5

M
x

0 (clockwise ve)

M3 0

Virtual moment,
m
1 kN

m1

m1

m1

Determine the reaction at support


1 kN

VA

0 (clockwise ve)

VB

0 (upward ve)

1(10.5) VB (6) 0

VA 1.75 1 0

VB 1.75kN

VA 0.75kN

Member AB : LHS

0 x3
m1

0 (clockwise ve)

m1 0.75( x) 0

0.75 kN
x

m1 0.75 x

Member BC : RHS

0 x3
1 kN

m2
1.75 kN
x

0 (clockwise ve)

m2 1.75( x) 1( x 4.5) 0
m2 0.75( x) 4.5

Member CD : RHS
1 kN
m3

0 x 4.5

0 (clockwise ve)

m3 1.x 0
x

m3 x

Virtual-Work Equation

mM
1 kN . d
dx
0 EI
3m M
3m M
4 .5 m M
1
1
2
2
3
3

dx
dx
dx
0
0
0
EI
EI
EI
3 ( 0.75 x )(120 5 x )
3 (0.75 x 4.5)(35 x )

dx
dx
0
0
EI
EI
4.5 ( x )(0)

dx
0
EI
L

371 . 25 472 . 5
0

EI
EI
EI
843 . 75 kN .m 3

EI
843 . 75 kN .m 3
D
200 (10 6 ) kN / m 2 ( 300 (10 6 ) mm 4 )(10 12 m 4 / mm 4 )
0 . 0141 m
14 . 1mm
D

Example 3

Determine the slope at A and deflection at C in the


beam shown below

9 kN

12 kN/m

B
C

3m

1m

2m

Solution
9 kN

12 kN/m

Real Load (M)

C
3m

1m

Generalized coordinates
1 unit load

Virtual Load (m): Slope


1 unit load

Virtual Load (m): Deflection

D
2m

Real Load M ?
1. Support reaction,

9 kN

12 kN/m

B
A

C
3m

M A 0 (clockwise ),

3
RB (6) 9(4) 12(3) 0
2
RB 15kN

D
1m

2m

Fy 0,

RA 12(3) 9 15 0
R A 30kN

Real Load (M) : 0 x 3 ( segment AC )

12kN/m

Mx
30kN
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

x2
M x 30 x 12
2
M x 30 x 6 x 2 ..........(i )

Real Load (M) : 3 x 4 ( segment CD )

12kN/m

30kN

Mx

3m
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

M x 30 x 12(3)( x 3 )
2
M x 30 x 36 x 54
M x 6 x 54 ..........(ii )

Real Load (M) : 0 x 2 ( segment BD)


15

Mx
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

M x 15 x
M x 15 x..........(iii )

Virtual Load, m for deflection


1

Apply point load P= 1

RA

RB
3m

M A 0 (clockwise ),

1m

2m

Fy 0,

RB (6) 1(3) 0

RA RB 1 0

1
RB
2

1
RA
2

Virtual Load (m) : 0 x 3 ( segment AC )


Mx
1/2
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1
M x x ..........(i )
2

3m

Mx
1/2
x

Virtual Load (m) : 3 x 4 ( segment CD )

M x 0 (clockwise ),

M x 0.5 x 3 ..........(ii )

Virtual Load (m) : 0 x 2 ( segment BD)


1/2

Mx
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1
Mx x
2
1
M x x..........(iii )
2

Deflection at C , D :

Mm
dx
EI

1 3
1
2

(30 x 6 x )(0.5 x)dx

0
EI
EI
1 2
(15 x)(0.5 x)dx

0
EI
135.75

EI

(6 x 54)(0.5 x 3)dx

Virtual Load, m for rotation


Apply m= 1

1
C

RA

RB
3m

M A 0 (clockwise ),

1m

2m

Fy 0,

RB (6) 1 0

RA RB 0

1
RB
6

1
RA
6

Virtual Load (m) : 0 x 3 ( segment AC )

Mx
-1/6
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1
M x 1 x ..........(i )
6

Virtual Load (m) : 3 x 4 ( segment CD)

Mx
-1/6
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1
M x 1 x ..........(ii )
6

Virtual Load (m) : 0 x 2 ( segment BD )


1/6

Mx
x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1
Mx x
6
1
M x x..........(iii )
6

Slope at A, A :

A
1

EI

Mm
dx
EI

1 2
EI 0
76.75

EI

1
x
(30 x 6 x )1 dx
EI
6
x
(15 x) dx
6
2

x
(6 x 54)1 dx
6

Example 4
Determine the slope and deflection at B in the beam shown below. Given E=200 kN/mm2

5 kN/m

IAB = 4x106 mm4

IBC = 8x106 mm4

8 kN
0.5m

0.5m

2m

Moment equation (deflection):

Segment

Condition

I mm4

m (deflection)

AD

0<x<0.5

4 x 106

8x

DB

0.5<x<1

4 x 106

8x 2.5 (x 0.5)2

BC

1<x<3

8 x 106

x1

8x 2.5 (x- 0.5)2

Deflection, B
mM
B
dx
EI
2
3 ( x 1)( 2.5 x 10.5 x 0.625)

dx
6

6
1
(200 10 )(8 10 )
4

1 2.5 x 13 x 11.125 x

0.625 x

1600
4
3
2
1
0.012m
12mm

Moment equation (slope):

Segment

Condition

I mm4

m (slope)

AD

0<x<0.5

4 x 106

8x

DB

0.5<x<1

4 x 106

8x 2.5 (x 0.5)2

BC

1<x<3

8 x 106

8x 2.5 (x- 0.5)2

Slope, B
mM
B
dx
EI
2
3 (1)( 2.5 x 10.5 x 0.625)

dx
6
6
1
(200 10 )(8 10 )
3

1 2.5 x 10.5 x

0.625 x

1600
3
2
1
19.1

1600
0.0119rad