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method of virtual work..unit dummy load method

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PART 2 DEFLECTION :

UNIT LOAD METHOD

Expected Outcomes

Able to analyze determinate beam deflection and slope by Unit Load Method.

Objectives

At the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

Determine the slope and deflection by using Unit Load

Method

The internal work in transversely loaded beams is

taken equal to the strain energy due to bending

moment

The virtual force Fi in the ith mass element in

=F*iei may be taken equal to the bending moment

mij in the ith mass element due to a unit load at

coordinate j

Sometimes referred as the Unit-Load Method

Generally provides of obtaining the displacement and slope

at a specific point on structure i.e. beam, frame or truss

In general, the principle states that:

Work of Internal Loads

Consider the structure (or body) to be of arbitrary

shape

Suppose it is necessary to determine the displacement

of point A on the body caused by the real loads P1,

P2 and P3

Since no external load acts on the body at A and in the

direction of the displacement , the displacement can be

determined by first placing on the body a virtual load suc that

this force P acts in the same direction as , (see Figure)

We will choose P to have a unit magnitude, P =1

Once the virtual loadings are applied, then the body is subjected

to the real loads P1, P2 and P3, (see Figure)

Point A will be displaced an amount causing the element to

deform an amount dL

As a result, the external virtual force P & internal load u ride

along by and dL and therefore, perform external virtual work

of 1. on the body and internal virtual work of u.dL on the

element

Virtual loadings

1. u.dL

Real displacement

directly since = udL

A virtual couple moment M having a unit

magnitude is applied at this point

This couple moment causes a virtual load u in one

of the elements of the body

M

Assuming that the real loads deform the element

an amount dL, the rotation can be found from

the virtual-work equation

1

Virtual loadings

1. u.dL

Real displacement

REAL LOAD

VIRTUAL LOAD

The external virtual work done by the unit load is 1.

The internal virtual work done by the moment, m

m d = m(M/EI) dx

L

1 .

Similarly

mM

EI

dx

L

1 .

mM

EI

dx

Example 1

Determine the displacement at point B of the steel beam

shown in figure.

Take E = 200GPa, I = 500x 106 mm4

LHS

RHS

M

M

V

Real Moment, M

RHS

M

12 kN/m

M

x

0 (clockwise ve)

12 x 2

M

0

2

M 6 x 2

Virtual Moment, m

1 kN

A

B

LHS

RHS

1 kN

M

M

V

Virtual Moment, m

Considered RHS

0<x<10

1 kN

0 (clockwise ve)

m 1.x 0

m 1.x

M

x

Virtual-Work Equation

mM

1 kN .

dx

0 EI

2

10 ( x )( 6 x )

dx

0

EI

15 103 kN .m 3

EI

OR

L

15 103 kN .m 3

B

200(10 6 )kN / m 2 (500(10 6 )mm 4 )(10 12 m 4 / mm 4 )

0.150m 150mm

Example 2

Determine the displacement at D of the steel beam in

figure. Take E = 200GPa, I = 300E6 mm4

Solution

Real

Moment, M

M1

M2

M3

support

VA

VB

0 (clockwise ve)

VB 35kN

0 (upward ve)

VA 35 30 0

VA 5kN

Member AB : LHS

0 x3

120 kN.m

M1

5 kN

x

Member BC : RHS

0 (clockwise ve)

M 1 5( x) 120 0

M 1 120 5 x

0 x3

M2

35 kN

x

0 (clockwise ve)

M 2 35( x) 0

M 2 35( x)

Member CD : RHS

M3

0 x 4.5

M

x

0 (clockwise ve)

M3 0

Virtual moment,

m

1 kN

m1

m1

m1

1 kN

VA

0 (clockwise ve)

VB

0 (upward ve)

1(10.5) VB (6) 0

VA 1.75 1 0

VB 1.75kN

VA 0.75kN

Member AB : LHS

0 x3

m1

0 (clockwise ve)

m1 0.75( x) 0

0.75 kN

x

m1 0.75 x

Member BC : RHS

0 x3

1 kN

m2

1.75 kN

x

0 (clockwise ve)

m2 1.75( x) 1( x 4.5) 0

m2 0.75( x) 4.5

Member CD : RHS

1 kN

m3

0 x 4.5

0 (clockwise ve)

m3 1.x 0

x

m3 x

Virtual-Work Equation

mM

1 kN . d

dx

0 EI

3m M

3m M

4 .5 m M

1

1

2

2

3

3

dx

dx

dx

0

0

0

EI

EI

EI

3 ( 0.75 x )(120 5 x )

3 (0.75 x 4.5)(35 x )

dx

dx

0

0

EI

EI

4.5 ( x )(0)

dx

0

EI

L

371 . 25 472 . 5

0

EI

EI

EI

843 . 75 kN .m 3

EI

843 . 75 kN .m 3

D

200 (10 6 ) kN / m 2 ( 300 (10 6 ) mm 4 )(10 12 m 4 / mm 4 )

0 . 0141 m

14 . 1mm

D

Example 3

beam shown below

9 kN

12 kN/m

B

C

3m

1m

2m

Solution

9 kN

12 kN/m

C

3m

1m

Generalized coordinates

1 unit load

1 unit load

D

2m

Real Load M ?

1. Support reaction,

9 kN

12 kN/m

B

A

C

3m

M A 0 (clockwise ),

3

RB (6) 9(4) 12(3) 0

2

RB 15kN

D

1m

2m

Fy 0,

RA 12(3) 9 15 0

R A 30kN

12kN/m

Mx

30kN

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

x2

M x 30 x 12

2

M x 30 x 6 x 2 ..........(i )

12kN/m

30kN

Mx

3m

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

M x 30 x 12(3)( x 3 )

2

M x 30 x 36 x 54

M x 6 x 54 ..........(ii )

15

Mx

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

M x 15 x

M x 15 x..........(iii )

1

RA

RB

3m

M A 0 (clockwise ),

1m

2m

Fy 0,

RB (6) 1(3) 0

RA RB 1 0

1

RB

2

1

RA

2

Mx

1/2

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1

M x x ..........(i )

2

3m

Mx

1/2

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

M x 0.5 x 3 ..........(ii )

1/2

Mx

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1

Mx x

2

1

M x x..........(iii )

2

Deflection at C , D :

Mm

dx

EI

1 3

1

2

0

EI

EI

1 2

(15 x)(0.5 x)dx

0

EI

135.75

EI

(6 x 54)(0.5 x 3)dx

Apply m= 1

1

C

RA

RB

3m

M A 0 (clockwise ),

1m

2m

Fy 0,

RB (6) 1 0

RA RB 0

1

RB

6

1

RA

6

Mx

-1/6

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1

M x 1 x ..........(i )

6

Mx

-1/6

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1

M x 1 x ..........(ii )

6

1/6

Mx

x

M x 0 (clockwise ),

1

Mx x

6

1

M x x..........(iii )

6

Slope at A, A :

A

1

EI

Mm

dx

EI

1 2

EI 0

76.75

EI

1

x

(30 x 6 x )1 dx

EI

6

x

(15 x) dx

6

2

x

(6 x 54)1 dx

6

Example 4

Determine the slope and deflection at B in the beam shown below. Given E=200 kN/mm2

5 kN/m

8 kN

0.5m

0.5m

2m

Segment

Condition

I mm4

m (deflection)

AD

0<x<0.5

4 x 106

8x

DB

0.5<x<1

4 x 106

8x 2.5 (x 0.5)2

BC

1<x<3

8 x 106

x1

Deflection, B

mM

B

dx

EI

2

3 ( x 1)( 2.5 x 10.5 x 0.625)

dx

6

6

1

(200 10 )(8 10 )

4

1 2.5 x 13 x 11.125 x

0.625 x

1600

4

3

2

1

0.012m

12mm

Segment

Condition

I mm4

m (slope)

AD

0<x<0.5

4 x 106

8x

DB

0.5<x<1

4 x 106

8x 2.5 (x 0.5)2

BC

1<x<3

8 x 106

Slope, B

mM

B

dx

EI

2

3 (1)( 2.5 x 10.5 x 0.625)

dx

6

6

1

(200 10 )(8 10 )

3

1 2.5 x 10.5 x

0.625 x

1600

3

2

1

19.1

1600

0.0119rad

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