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BIETH

BUDDHIST

STORIES

OR,

TALES.

JATAKA

THE

FOLK-LOEE

OF

COLLECTION

OLDEST

EXTANT

BEING

THE

JATAKATTHAVANNANA,
For

the

Edited

first time

By

Y.

Original

Fali

TRANSLATED

W.

T.

the

FAUSBOLL,

AND

By

in

EHYS

DAYIDS,

TRANSLATION

VOLUME

I,

LONDON:

TRtfBNER

"

CO.,

LUDOATE

1880.
']

\_Allrights reserved.

HILL.

HERTFORD

PRINTED

BY

STEPHEN

AUSTIN

AND

SONS.

TO

GEHEIM-RATH

PROFESSOR

DOCTOR

STENZLER

MY

FIRST

GUIDE

IN

ORIENTAL

STUDIES

'

'

CONGRATULATION

IN

AND

IN

ON

DEEP

RESPECT

HIS

FOR

THIS

WORK

HIS

HIS

GRATEFUL

SCHOLARSHIP

BY

PUPIL

AUTHOR.

JUBILAUM

PROFOUND

DEDICATED

IS

THE

DOCTOR

TABLE

Tkakslator's

OF

CONTEIS^TS.

Inteodtjctiok^.
Part

The

Booh

Orthodox

the

Selected

Origin

Stories.

of

'

"

and

and

Greek

and

attached

to

1.

The

Ass

2.

The

Talkative

3.

The

Jackal

4.

The

Wise

5.

Sakka's

6.

'

of

in

Lion's

the

West.

reasons

Skin

the

Crow

xii

xiv

Judge

xvi

Presents
for

viii

Tortoise
and

Kings

xxii
.

xxix
xxxii

xxxvi

Literature

Buddhist

xU

Tales

xliii

Pables

xliv
....

xlviii

I.
.

II.

Paet
The
Jatakas

the

of the

Part

to

i-iv

Literature

Judgment

Summary

Two

it.

Fables

Buddhist

Solomon's

Migration

it

Lesson

Josaphat

Migrations

their

and

concerning

Damnag

JEsop's

Barlaam

Other

belief

value

Kalilag

The

Stories,

Buddhist

for

The

Birth

of

I.

derived
in

the

from

Birth
Pali

the

Cariya

Stories

Pitaka

in

India.
Hi

Pitakas
and

Jataka

Mala

liii

,,

Iv

Buddhavagsa
,,

,,

at

the

Council

Ivii

of Yesali

,,

the

Ancient

!N"ames

of

on

Sculptures

Hx

,,

The

Pali

the

Is:

Jatakas
.

The

Jatakas

Authorship

of the

one

of

our

Navaggani

present

Collection

Ixii
Ixi'ii

Jatakas

included

not

in

of the

Jatakas.

"

Conclusions

The

Abhisambuddha-gatha,

of the

Origin

inculcated

Historical

Ixxiv

Stories

The

Actual

SpecialLessons

Introductory

in the

Conclusion

Ixxvi

Book

Ixxix

Jataka

Ixxxi

of the

Present

Collection

Ixxxii

Stories

Ixxxv

Birth

Birth

of the

Yalue

or

!N'umber

the

by

Ixxv

of the

Divisions

of the

Ixviii

Literature

The

Yerses

Summary

Ixvii

present Collection

our

Sanskrit
post-Buddhistic

in
,,

Form

CONTENTS.

OF

TABLE

Stories

Ixxxvi

Stories

"

SuPPLEMEIfTAIlY
I. Indian

TaBLES.
Ixxxix

"Works
.....

11.

The

Kalilag

III.

The

Barlaam

lY.

The

Cariya Pitaka

Y.

and
and

Alphabetical

Josaphat
and

xciii

Literature

Damnag

the

Literature

xcv

xcviii

Mala

Jataka

Stories

of Jataka

List

in the Maha
xcix

vastu
YI.

Places

YIL

The

at which

the

Tales

Told

were

ci

Bodisats
......

Jatakas

YIII.

Illustrated

in Bas-relief

on

Ancient

the

cii

Monuments

The

Story

Inteodtjction,

called

the

KatJid.

Nidana

The

Compilee's

Ceylon"

of Sumedha,

Successive

the

First

Bodisat

2
....

Bodisats

in the

Times

of the

Previous

Buddhas
Life
His

of the

31

Last

Descent

Bodisat

from

(who

Heaven

became

Buddha)

58
.

69
......

His

Song

Birth

67

of the

Prophecy

of

Angels
Kaja

69
.......

70

Devala
......

TABLE

of the

Prophecy
The

Ploughing

The

Young

The

Pour

The

Bodisat's

CONTENTS,

OF

Brahman

XI

Priests

72

Festival

Bodisat's

75
76

"Wisdom

Skill and

Visions

77

Son

is Born

79
.

Kisa
The

Gotami's

Great

80

Song

82

Renunciation
.

The

Great

Struggle against

The

Great

Yictory

The

Bliss

of Nirvana

The

Hesitation

whether

The

Poundation

of the

89
96

Satan

over

105

to Publish

Triumphal

Entrance

Foundation

into

of the

News

Good

the

of

Kingdom

Kassapa's Conversion

Uruvela

Return

Sin

Righteousness

111
113
114

....

Rajagaha

116
.

Order

119

Home

121
.......

Presentation
The
1.
2.
3.

Birth

of the

The

Truth

to the

Road

Sandy

The

Buddha

131

of Seri

Merchant

Story

Jataka

Apannaka

Yannupatha

4.

to the

Monastery

Stories.

Holding
The

First

147

Jataka
.

Seri-vanijaJataka

153

CuUaka

the Treasurer

of ChuUaka

134

158

setthi Jataka
......

5.

The

6.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

On
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

True

Story

of Makha

Happy

Life

Story

Dart

The

of

186

Jataka

190

Jataka

Lakkhana

Beauty

Jataka

Mgrodha-miga

of Love

Kandina
.

would

194
.

Deer

who

Jataka

Makha-deva
.

Sukhavihari
.

178

Jataka

Deva

172

Deva-dhamma
.

Greedy Antelope
Deer

Banyan

not

Jataka

Yata-miga
Learn
.

199
211

Jataka.

Jataka
16.

Divinity

Jataka

Tandula-nali

of Rice

Measure

214.

Kharadiya
219

.......

Cunning

Deer
.

Tipallatha-migaJataka

221

TABLE

XII

17.

Wind

The

Maluta
.

18.

Jataka

224

Eood

OnOfferin^

CONTENTS.

OF

Mataka-bhatta

Dead

the

to

Jataka

226
.....

19.

On

Offerings
bhatta

under

given

Yow

Ayacita-

Jataka

230
.......

20.
21.
22.

The

and

Monkeys

The

232

Jataka

Kurunga-miga

237

Kukkura

Preacher

turned

who

Dog

Jataka

Nalapana

Demon
.

Antelope

Wily

The

the

Jataka

240
........

23.
24.
25.

The

Thoroughbred

Ehoja

The

Horse

Pord

Evil

Bhojajaniya

Jataka

245

Ajafina

Jataka

249

communications

Jataka

251
.

good

corrupt

Mahila-mukha

Tittha
.

26.

the

at

Horse

War

Thoroughbred

The

manners
.

257

Jataka
....

27.
28.

The

and

Elephant

The

Bull

the
Won

who

Abhinha

Dog

Bet

the

Jataka

263

:N'andi-Yisala
.

Jataka

266
.......

29.

The

Old

Woman's

30.
31.
32.
33.

The
On

Ox

to

Mercy

The

Envied

who

The

Jataka

270

Munika

Jataka

275

Jataka

Kulavaka

Peacock

Nacca
.

of

Jataka

291

Sammodamana

Quails

the

278

Quarrel

sad

Pig

the

Animals

Dancing

Kanha

Bull

Black

Jataka

295
.......

34.

The

Eish

and

his

Wife

35.
36.

The
The

Holy

Quail

Wise

Bird

and

Jataka

The

302
.

Eools

the

307

Elephant

and

Partridge, Monkey,

Jataka

Sakuna
.

37.

299

Yattaka
.

Jataka

Maccha
.

Tittira
.

310

Jataka
.......

38.

The

Cruel

Crane

Outwitted

Baka

Jataka

315

Nanda

Jataka

322

Khadirangara

Jataka

326

39.

Nanda

on

the

Buried

Gold
.

40.

Index

The

Eiery

Eumace
.

339

INTRODUCTION.

It

is well

there

is

known
book

one

fables,

and

is

not

at

of

his

and

are

said

to

to

have

disciples

them

of

which

account

it

was

or

been

and

the

gives
of

the

lives,

many
this

adorn

550

for

event

together

each

in

The

learnt

after

or

in

Gotama's

so

of

often

stories

his

in

one

to

present

used

told

so

repeated
550

death

collection,

Births

Jataka,

around

not

and

one

career

occurred

he

tale.

reverently

Jatakas

had

always

was

sion
occa-

as

happening

experience
a

orthodox

long

experience,

immediately

gathered

were

Book

of

moral,

point

The

about

of

his

that

study

came

Buddha,

events

events

births.

but

only,

the

similar

previous

The

this.

the

for

belief

throughout
on

of

The

stories,

edifying

an

this

How

certain.

is

in

preserved

times.

comment

telling

mind;

been

old

of

enshrined

accustomed

and

to

his

later

subject

was

own

lifetime
his

the

on

by

lie

Scriptures

number

large

thus

quite

present

explain

him,

which

have

amusement

arose,

the

and

Buddhists

to

in

Buddhist

the

amongst

fairy tales,

commentary
and

that

the

by
of

called

commentary

or

Birth

Story,

life

which

led

to

an

his

BUDDHIST

ii

first

telling that

in

language
the

Council

and

they

of Patna

in

Ceylon

in

the

But

in

and

Pali

the

in

language
of the

text

in

this

history of

the

\ sacred

books

be

to

the

the

show

give it,it

should

roundabout

it

is

Buddhist

the

be

methods,

to

Birth

what

the

originalPali text,

shall
and

the
have

the

been

value

the

to

of

most

their

after

the

is

tradicted
con-

themselves.

belief

to

an

until

has

is, in order
attach

we

to

ourselves

by critical,and

endeavour
Such

era.

foundation

Buddhists

the

necessary

completed
Stories

on

books

that

which

conclusion.

true, be

those

to estimate

will

reliable

more

state

in order

rests

supported, but

of

our

as

only

importance

; but

book

to

belief

belief,that

not

form

form.

immediately

not

necessary

of

existence

evidence

the

by
It may

in

were

death, is

Buddha's

Buddhist

spoken

present

themselves

Stories

Ceylon

commentary

its

Buddhist

b.c.);

dialect

originalPali

orthodox

The

quicksand.

its

of

time

to

century

stories

of Birth

Book

into

Pali

250

year

the

mentary
com-

the

the

year

Aryan

fifth

the

Jataka

the

There

in

to

following

the

re-translated

was

Unfortunately

of

about

or

Sinhalese,the

into

throughout preserved
/

in

and

text

composed,

were

(held

carried

translated

was

they

great missionary Mahinda.

the

by

Both

intact, and

down

handed

which

were

STORIES

particularstory.

then

were

BIRTH

arrive

more

at

some

investigationcannot,
whole
become

history of

series

of

accessible
those

the
in

stories

IN

KNOWN

shall have

information

inadequate

arrive

to

to

consists, have

resemblance

striking
Now

"West.

in

due

simply
borrowed

Birth

Buddhist

As, therefore, the


do

volume
those

afibrd

some

judge

how

amusement,
far

the

results.

which

Jataka

the

Book

bear

in

instances

this

resemblance

that

Western

the

"

instances, to

many

current

the
is

stones

tvere

ones.

stories

of

the

interest

is, very
in

contain

among

in

England,

which

also

and

alleged

the

at

may

excited

naturally,due.

translated

to

specimens

two

the

similar

generally known

most

or

in

Stories

happen

not

lead

stories, of

much

resemblance

will

inquiry

ones

Buddhist

the

from

the

fact

the

the

as

to

many

the

to

this

To

moral

found,

been

sible
pos-

it is therefore

instructive

known

"

only

fairy tales, parables, fables,

and

Collection

Buddhist

one

of

course

the present

it is

command,

our

place, the

comic

and

riddles,

by

the

that

first

the

In

With

sources.

highly interestingand

some

at

Ill

probabilities.But

at

fortunate

more

in other

traced

been

EUROPE.

enable

resemblances

of this

body
them
I

any

insert

the

here
time

same

the

reader

do

of

to

actually

exist.
It

is

absolutely essential

judgment
as

and

they

the

that

stand

in

stories

the

literal translation

the

for

should

original.
involves

correctness

be
am

the

of

such

presented exactly
aware

that

disadvantage

of

close

pre-

FOLK-LORE.

IV

stories in

senting the
and

strange,
it cannot

wooden,

even

in

substantial

And

every-day life,

and

complete and

be

lost,if

in

of

impressions
of

modes

intend

sight

version,
but

The

the
as

far

first

half-comic

that

risk

of

of

of

people

the

this

importance
as

spiritof
I

story, which

would

respect
in

places,

some

conveying

here

erroneous

habits,

by word,
of

have

retaining

the

only

as

give

follows.

never

the

the

Buddhist
to

in

and
the
I

stories

translating sentence

propose
runs

the

reading

possible,not

specimen

extant.

important, therefore, that

word

the

oldest,most

beliefs, and

while

than

style and

the

in

understand, before

rather

of

record

it is the

been

slight modifications

Buddhist

It is

quite

its tales have

contains

told

were

the

early

give,

to

sentence,

It

its evidence

run

thought.

should

reader

of

many

others, and

there, should

stories

value

translator,by slightadditions

slight omissions
and

has

every-day thought,

of

value

whole

parison,
com-

combining

at

important Collection of Folk-lore

most

The

that

tales

the

aim

Stories

West.

the

transplanted to

whom

fact

the

of

independent

of

pleasing dress.

Birth

of

Book

the

among

with

accuracy

But

the

reproduce

to

seem

reader.

purposes

should

which

form

modern

probably

modern
even

sufficient

be

it would

the

to

that, for

admitted

be

will

style whicL.

by
lost

English

phraseology,
story-teller.

is

half-moral

Ass

The

the

in

Lion's

JATAKA.

SIHA-CAMMA

in

and

family;

peasant

when

living by tilling the


At

time

that

place

he

to, when

ass's

back,

watchmen

the

So
he

was

in

ass

field.

getting

the

The

fields

hawker

his

field

the

ass

in

when

he

cry

and

"

Nor

is not
a

Dressed
'Tis

him

dared

then

with

wretched

an

and

when
not

be

to

lion's

lion's
ass

they
fear

the

barleyto

up
Then

went

of

hands

an

ass,

skin,
roars

!"

the

near

death,

panther's

that

go

their

roaring.
a

news.

in

whilst

dressed

not

the

ass

Stanza

tiger's,nor
in

skin,

dared

in

the

weapons

of

he

loose

field

cry

First

the

and

village ;

cooked,

Terrified

the

This

in

beating drums,

the

from

And

they

ass,

each

at

lion.

with

him

pronounced

lion's

they published

"

knew

the

saw

the

out

down

barley-fields.

turned

shouted.

uttered

in

breakfast

own

chanks,

and

his

place,

to

ISfow

pack

him

stopped

villagers came

the

gained

place

ass.

the

and

for

going home,

blowing

Buddha

the

watchmen

and

And

in

skin, and

lion's

but

him;
all

rice

him

an

took

the

from

go

by

in

the

day

one

to

clothe

to

him, taking

near

go

he

used

loose

him

turn

of

one

he

up,

grew

used

carried

goods

he

born

ground.

trafficking in
came

reigning

was

was

he

hawker

Brahma-datta

Buddha

future

the

Benares,

while

time,

upon

189.)

No.

(FausboU,
Once

Skin.

future

vi

THE

But

they

when
beat

lion's

tlie

him

Second

went

Stanza

in

Have

lion's

fed

he

And

that

whilst

he

; for

ears

of

collections

Benfey

have

barley green.

brayed

he

ruin."

to

came

yet speaking

was

fable

the

died

ass

tale

so-called

it

Indian

older

than

possibly gave

rise

on

Plato.^

Lucian

in

in

to

Age,

vol. i. p. 360;
it is found

India

Sarit

Sagara, by
Kratylos,411

and

p. 333
the

also in

Soraadeva

the

fable

in

; and

in

'

Tuti-namah

Northern

as

for

we

time

full, localizingit

Fables

Ill
;

on

; La

Fontaine^
Coriae,113);

ed.

which,

inedites

(Rosen, vol.

Buddhist

Hitopadesa

(ed.Tauchnitz, ii. 275).

early

as

Robert, in the

Turkish
the

books
which

Halm,

it may

proverb of

(London, Murray, 1852),p.


*^sop's Fables'
Book
No. 21 ; ^sop
V.
(in Greek text, ed. Furia, 141, 262
Babrius
(Lewis, vol. ii. p. 43).
2
Benfey's Pancha
Tantra, Book iv. No. 7, in the note
to

French,

But

these

James's

p. 462, he refers

Professor

mediaeval

of

to

modern

our

Fables.'^

any

gives the

enough

literature.^

Greeks

the

among

is found

*^sop's

traced

and

familiar

sound

similar

much

traces

of

doubtless

Turkish,

been

find

the

plight,pronounced

moment

further

has

German,

the

will

story

English

In

and

came;

spot !

This

hawker

skin.

the

on

But

the

ass,

the ass.

Long might
Clad

even

an

and, carrying off the

the

bad

so

be

to

creature
;

Then

away.

SKIN.

"

And

the

broke

bones

fallen into

ass

LION'S

THE

villagersknew

till his

skin,

seeing the

ASS

Collection

2, Max
(iii.

du
ii.

at vol.

i.

Moyen
p. 149).

called

Katha

Miiller,p. 110).

THE

Kume,

at

in

ASS

THE

IN

South.

version

work

proverbs,^alludes

our

mention

Persian

in

ass

in

of

trying

sing

to

thus
has

Benfey
rolling into

also

for

hereafter

which

shown
of

himself,

fable

the

the

story.

could
lions

which

story gives

to

himseK

in

it, as

The

Lucian, Piscator,

Act

De

Adagia,'under
ii.

scene

Sacy,

Loc.

Pancha

Phcedrus

Lyrura,'

'

1 ;

Notes

But

would

here

explanation
of

in

that

notice

the

Asinus

fessor
Pro-

another,
to

sing
shall

from
out

the

the

the
that

country

any

that

Jataka

being

ass

he

dressed

Fables.*
of

moral'

YqI. ij. No.

32.

of

*^sop's

our

of the

that

saying

is

simply

of

point

and

common;

the

tale

91.

Cumanos.'

and

apud
again,Act

et

Extraits,'x.

'

is

not

is said

version

originatedin

will

reader

But

conclusions

some

skin, instead

the

grief.^

blowsJ

but

disguisebeing

by trying

ass

thanks,

reasonable

in

this

in

there

vanity

scarcelyhave
were

dressed

"

present tale and

draw

worthy

story-books

bis

him

an

is

"

to

his

in

Hitopadesa

leads

us

also does

so

It

it is the

that

the

not
to

attempt

history of

Aulus

which,

brings

one

later

is, of the

in

and

John.'*

the

widely prevalent, where

earns

in

of

given

Erasmus,

fable

King

one

fable

our

discovered, and

the

in

translation,that

version

that

to the

Vll

has

'Avadanas.'^

his

Shakespeare

own

of

in

SKIN.

Julien

and

Italy/

Chinese
on

LION'S

iii. scene

1.

1, 247.

cit. p. 463.

Tantra, v, 7. Prof.
(Dressier,App. vi. 2)
See

"Weber
and

(IndischeStudien, iii. 352)

Erasmus''

; and

'

Adagia

'

under

(Rosen ii. 218) ; and I would


Jerome, Ep. 27, Ad Marcellam.'

also Tuti-namah

Gellius,iii. 16

'

add

'

compares

Asinus

Varro,

ad
in

s/

THE

Vlll

is

contained

the

mouth

be

found

that

in
of

the

be
with
the

the

the

of

so

only part

of

it

these

the

will

they
also

should

peasant's son

little

importance
is

which

will

This

essentially

of

be

to

importance

on.

The

introduction

story, perhaps,
exact

points

into

that

It

of

put

Stories, save

Bodisat.

the

is

Both

Birth

differs,and

identification

the

Buddha.

the

stanzas

spoken by

the

all

is

which

future

in

case

SKIN.

of

one

or

Bodisat, which

Buddhistic.

of

sense

of
of

out

that

fable

like

the

that

story, is

further

stanzas,

of

all

LION'S

THE

Bodisat

the

number

noticed

IN

two

be

to

usually

are

ASS

the
the

fables

therefore

takes

this

the

in

add

animals

where

proper,

of

class

word.

element

human

most

story

taining
con-

and

speak

act

men.

V
The

Talkative

Tortoise.

KACCHAPA

JATAKA.

(FausboU, No.
Once

upon

Benares, the

in

and

family ;
adviser
Now

in

the

future

his,was

when

Buddha

he

grew

up,

king

others

Buddha,

was

had

in

became

opportunity for

wanting

to

constantlyseeking for

minister's

the

king's

spiritual.
talkative

very
no

he

reigning

was

born

was

things temporal and

this

speaking,

Brahma-datta

time, when
future

215.)

cure

some

this
means

while
a

he

word.

was

And

talkativeness
of

doing

so.

of

KACCHAPA

The

king,taking the

surrounded
he

the

fallen here
The

Bodisat,

Buddha

wishing

with

bite

air

hold

hold

his

have

wanted

called

to

"

By

The
"

beyond
And
a

man

You

see

be

wise

made
the

he, being unable

to

words
these

up

else

talk, must

the

stick ; and
lost

thus
those
have

Verses

his

who

are

end

no

"

himself

voice

slew.

he

words,

fell into
he

that
are

you

not

by strength!
of

out

thou,

was

or

be
with

meets

the

henceforth

words.

himself

speaking of

measure

king

this wretched

season.

it
some

plight!

referred
?

us

spake openly,

Bodisat

of few

have

how, by his talking overmuch,

saw

it

must

into

king

uttered

for

made

sky, and

whose

sought
have

let go

then, 0 excellent

tortoise

holding tight the stick.

was

him

speak

the
!

Truly,

himself

And

Teacher

king

"

tortoise killed

word

king

And

be

must

one

any

the

people

"

he

Behold

But

from

down

utteringhis

The

to

Long expecting,

"

flown

have

hears

grieflike this," he

Though

"

he

saying,

Yerily the

they

something, and

say

fallen

Whilst

and

hills.

when

tongue

tortoise

stick, and

the

to

chatter-boxes
to

come

he

comes

have

king,

This

ducks

the

him

And

life."

how

place,

tortoise,

the

at

himself,

to

the

so.

wild

of

have

must

so

to the

went

looking

Teacher

"

thought

doing

the

take

to

; and

admonish

to

of

means

friends

Buddha,

"

future

some

future

his courtiers

by

asked

him

JATAKA.

"

to, and

'*

and

said, "0

other, whoever

any

mishap

refrained

said,

great
talks

like this."

himself, and

became

TALKATIVE

THE

This

Persian,

and

in

Fables.

included
him

of

worthy
Pafica
who

notice

Tantra

doubt

that

Another
stated

the

ridicule of

the

each

the

to

said to have

asked

very

opponents

familiar
to

the

other

can,

to

have

the

virtues

ducks
I

teach

!^

two

It
of

or

think,

modern
been

Buddha.

foolish way

about

went

usually

recension

Admiration

of

is

of

is
the

swans,

be

little

historicallyconnected.

are

of Mutual

kind

there

and

'

eagle to

an

wild

not

books

our

Fables

Southern

the

which

readers, is
first related

neither

in

Societyexisting
the

Hearing

in which
the

among

Devadatta

people ascribing
possessed,he

is

told this tale.

Tantra^ vol. i. p. 13, where

Fanca

in

^sop's

who

commentary

Xokalika

and

in

fables

talking about

monks

languages,^ though,

occur

eagles,and

two

fable,

in

among

that

tortoise

the

the

tortoise

it is

the

carry

in

not

Latin, Arabic,

being dropped, splitinto

and

fly;

to

does

But

story of

it

XI

Greek,

European

most

strangely enough,
^sop's

also in

is found

too

story

TORTOISE.

Professor

Benfey (i.239-241)

traces

languages. He mentions
Wolff's German
of the Kalilah
and
translation
English
Dimnah, vol. i. p. 91 ; KnatchbuWs
Seth's Greek
version, p. 146 ; Simeon
version,p. 28 ; John of Capua's Directranslation
of this last (Ulm,
Humanse
torium
Yitse, D. 5 b. ; the German
93 ;
x
ix
a. ; Firenzuola, 65 ; Doni,
1483), F. viii. 6 ; the Spanish translation,
Le
124
Cabinet
des Lumieres
i Suhaili, p. 159 ; Le Livre
Anvar
;
(1664, 8vo.),
de Bidpai et de
Indiennes
See also Contes
et Fables
des Fees, xvii. 309.
(!); and
Lokman, ii. 112 ; La Fontaine, x. 3, where the ducks flyto America
in
found
India
it
is
In
und
24.
Somadeva,
Bickell's
Kalilag
Dimnag,' p.
also the later versions

in different

'

and
2

in the
This

vii. 14

61) and
3

version

is found

(Orelli,55, 128) ;
in

(Max Miiller, p. 125). See also Julien, i. 71.


in Babrius
(Lewis, i. 122) ; Phcedrus, ii. 7 and
and in the -S^soptean collections
(Fur. 193; Corise,

Hitopadesa, iv.

Abstemius, 108.

Dubois, p.

109.

Xll

The

Jackal

the

and

Crow.

JAMBU-KHADAKA

JATAKA.

(FausboU, No. 294.)


Long, long

wlien

ago,

Bralima-datta

Benares, the

Bodisat

had

dwelling in

certain

grove

Now
of

crow

Jambu-tree, eating the

coming by, looked


Ha

"

"

thought

of those

some

this

"

Who

Proclaim

Then

the

Tis
To

Sir !

Good

"

The
And
till he
But
of

of

to

verse

whose

the

fruit

when

the

god

the Jambus

jackal

fellow, and
he

get

uttered

they

pleasantnotes

singing-birds?

sits firm

back

branch,
and

his

grand

"

compliments,

gentleman, who

gentlemen

made

now

when

branch

plied
re-

in terms

shape
"

them,

he

young

saying,he

and

the Jambu-

him

pay

tiger'soffspring
so

the

on

thereupon

rich

of all the

peacock

crow,

speak

And

sweetly on

well-bred

I'll flatter that

be, whose

in this second
"

god,

him.

saw
"

best

so

like

tree-

praise:

him

Warbling

day

one

Jambu-fruits,

to eat."

this

may

Where

he.

Jambus

in his

verse

and

np

as

in

of Jambu-trees.

sittingthere

was

life

to

come

reigning

was

shook

and

understands

polite!

glossy coat

eat

of

the

branch

reveal

these, I pray
of

the

''

Jambu-tree

to fall.

who

had

dwelt

done

together,he

in

that

one
flattering

uttered

third

tree

saw

the

two

another, eating
verse

THE

Too

"

FOX

long,forsooth,I've

Of

these

The

poor

Belauding each
And

himself

making

them

from

away

It is easy
carried

and

point ;

into

the

of

have
the

been
tale

The

of

has
Pali
the
any

yet

text;

fourteenth
other

as

it

yet known.^

lose

its

been

Crow

the

and

latter

it would

is

scarcely

original,into

showing

one

am

that

sorry

from

is

wise

FausboU

Mr.

the

Sighalese version

of

nearer

is

how

of

in

Jataka

It

the

Crow.^

is

century, which

the

the

been

the

quoted

it

would

hand,

story,that

and

give

been

and

crow

and

Fox

if it had

this

story had

the

other

the

difficulty.I

but

where

of the

On

Jackal

reached

this

when

well, therefore, have

very

excellent

tale to be

next

not

cheese.

the

shape,he frightened

scavengers,

fable

the

expanded,

solves

man

may

and

complete

so

that

countries

common

it

shortened

piece

!"

"

place !

those

the

are

other

sight

offal-eater

visible in awful

the

of

out

jackal

the

understand,

to

of lies

and

refuse- eater

the

borne

chatterers

xiii

CROW.

THE

AND

an

his

to

edition

the

Pali

than

episode in

Fontaine, Book i. No. 2, and the current collections of ^sop's


that the Jambube added
Fables
edition, p. 136). It should
[e.g.James's
do
fable.
with
to
has
our
the
in
nothing
Nikaya
Sagyutta
khadaka-sagyutta
lives on Jambus, and is conwho
The
Jarabu-eater
verted
of that story is an ascetic,
discussion
Nirvana.
on
by a
1

See

The

La

Sighalesetext

will be found

in the

'

Sidat

Sai^garawa; p.

clxxvii.

XIV

The

Birth

'Great

as

Physician.'^

MAHOSADHA

tank
she

child,
the

into

and

put

And

asked
*

the mother
this

And

and

when

then

But
cried

And

child

cleverness

magical
Buddhist
Arabian

child, had
a

she

woman,

craving

drew

is

pretty child,

told

it was,

door

asked

to

near,

it

of

one

if she
it

nursed

this, she

saw

are

taking

you

!"

is mine

might
little,

after

ran

child

my

noise,

asked

them

he

born

her, and
"

to ?

and

was

in device

power,
stories

who

Nights

; the

by which,

Compare
products
feed

on

for

sent

'

my
of

The

of that

powerful di'ug in

his
he

grew

up,

abide

time

hand,

by

received
an

"

delivered

his

this

omen

of

people from

Buddhism,'

witchcraft

human

flesh.

position similar to that


female YakshinI, who

of siren.

would

they

into' the

inquired

when

he

the

Hall.

Judgment

them,

Bodisat

get

you

quarrelling,they

so

Buddha's

whether

with

did

"Where

And

of the future

the

Yakshas.

playsthe part

she

being allowed, she

boldly said,
It

misfortunes.
The

the
of

veri/

'

because

form

Literally the great medicine.'

their

descended

herself.

mother

YakshinI

matter, and

the

and

garment

the

of her.

hold

heard

name

first bathed

it oflp.

Where

"

passed the

this

the

from

He

future

"

was

carried

out,

The

she

when

caught

the

to

'*

it.

nurse

is

went

having

upper

taking the

'Friend,

yours

bathe

to

And

her

on

child,

Yakshinl,^ seeing

it.

eat

wash.

to

water

Then

her

carrying

woman,

Buddha's

JATAKA.

p. 187.
and
cannibalism,
The
of
occurs

male
the
more

Yaksha

wicked

are

beings

of

occupies in
genius

in

the

frequently,usually

And

decision.
the

on

child's

said, "The

soon

he

And

lettinghim

mother

the

if

her

who

have

not

they answered,

"

line."

the

would

break.

weeping.

those

and

mother, seeing

heart

Whose

"

the

asked

babes

to

there

the

legs;

over

the

of

hold

of its

hold

him,

line drawn

to take

at

stood

Buddha

tender
those

she

as

had

he

drags him

who

they pulled

go,

xv

to take

shall be hers

future

are

And

the

suffered,grieved

the

or

Yakshini

as

how

hearts

told

child

as

Then

Then

and

arms,

But

they agreed.
; and

ground

JUDGE.

WISE

THE

bystanders,

who

have

dren,
chil-

borne

"

Sire ! the

of

hearts

mothers

tender."

are

Then
who

has

And

he

said,

Whom

"

child

the

think

in her

they answered,

she

or

arms,

who

who

She

"

is the

you

has

she
"

let go ?

let

has

mother

is

go

the

mother."
And
the

was

said, "Then

he

thief ?

do

you

the

all think

that

cannot

tell."

other

"

And

they answered,

And

he

said,

"

Sire !

Yerily this

"

we

is

took

Yakshini, who

the

child to eat it"


And

they asked,

And

he

she

Sire ! how
Because

"

replied,

red, and

were

"

knew

no

did

her

winked

eyes

fear, and

it ?

know

you

had

not, and

pity,I

no

"

knew

it."

And

so

saying,he

of

demanded

the

thief,

"

Who

are

you?"
And

she

And

he

And

she

And

he

your

former

said,
asked,
said,
rebuked

Lord

"

"

"

! I

Why
I

am

did

thought

Yakshini."

take

you
to

eat

her, saying,

sins you

have

been

"

away

this

him, O my

born

foolish
a

woman

child

"

!"

Lord
!

Yakshini, and

For
now

I Vj
|

xvi

THE

do

still sin ! "

you

the

Five

But
and

said,

life

be

of the

Lord

long !
her

claspedto

is

than

more

shall

between
The

in the
an

And

Great

go.

future

the

Buddha,

Physician !

went

keep

to

with

away,

thy

may
her

babe

bosom.

story,

in

which
in

occurs

than

Kings,
of

time

the

be

may

is

judgment

of

Book

what

below

similar

the

century older

consider

the

! 0

her

upon

exalted

child

she

Solomon,

to

It is

^'

Hebrew

ascribed

"We

my

vow

let her

and

mother
"

JUDGE.

lie laid

And

Commandments,

the

The

WISE

which

Gotama.

connexion

the

two.

next

specimen

with

miraculous
of

world

is

powers
kind

that

tale about

perhaps

which

lifeless

has

oldest

the

been

things

dowed
en-

tale

yet published.

episodein

Sakka's

Presents.

DADHI-YAHANA

JATAKA.

(Fausboll,JN'o. 186.)
Once
in

upon

time,

Benares, four

devoted

themselves

was

of

brothers, Brahmans,

themselves
huts

Brahma-datta

when

at

to

an

equal

Himalaya mountains,

took

ascetic

life;

distances

in

up

their

that

and

the

residence

reigning
kingdom,

having
region
there.

of

built
the

xviii

DADHI-VAHAMI

So

he

him

gave

hermit,

and

JATAKA.

the

asked,

drum

E-everend

"

and

went

Sir, what

the

to

are

third

in

you

need

of?"
He
"I

also affected with

was

want

for

him

gave

great river,and
to take

And

Sakka

made

third

his

enjoyed

Now

went

to

foot

Now

in

no

saw

took

of the

hold

into

by
the

he said to

its

his

So

as

; but

the

struck
and

the

he

into

magic

ocean.

seized

the

air, and

And

ing,
think-

descended, and

spot under

took

TJdumbara-tree.

an

before

gem

forsaken

When

live," he

to

land

fell

him, he

of

Kasi

parents, who
he

went

by

the

to

asleep

help

of

boar

asleep;

This

"

sailors.
a

pelled
ex-

fellow

plank

barked
em-

And
he

looking

was

and

been

seaport, and

the

he

had

said,

to

servant

while

the

reached

about

for

going softlyup,

he

gem.

magical

air !

its

And

island.

very

fruits,he

up

by

ship

second
away;

power.

of the

of the

man

wrecked

ship was

Then

midst

ought

us."

to

use

hatchet

tree.

home

in

that

by

rose

convenient

of the

from
is of

he

in the

certain

be

the

boar, straying in

magical

day, placing the

one

at the

of

now

his abode

the

elephants ran

wild

gem

island

"Here

And

time

mouth,

an

the

you."

to

when

become
it will

thenceforward

eldest hermit

wish

you

that

torrent,

give it

If

"

it will

over,

But

said,

his curds.

this in his

and

away.

drum,

that

at

village,saw

up

went

bowl

such

out

pour

fire for the

side of

one

this

turn

kingdom,

and

milk-bowl,

anything, and

able

said,therefore,

milk."

sour

Sakka

jaundice,and

So, taking

himself,

"

he

power

Methinks

seat

straightway
on

the

this boar

rose

right

TJdumbara-tree,

must

have

become

PRESENTS.

SAKKA'S

he

how

That's
I

what

then

ought

he

So

broke

away
a

off the

woke

up,

The

about,

trembling,

seated

the

on

and

him,

boar

this

tree, and

and

his

dashing

gem.

plain enough
him,

eat

dropped

that

The

the

seeing

not

and

way

laughed.

tree

It's

this

and

"

twig

head.

all kill and

to do ; I'll first of

get

can

of

power

living here

be

to

got

magic

the

sky-walker through

xix

his

on

ran

gem,
The

way.

man

boar, looking up,

against the tree,

head

it

died

saw

the

on

spot.
But

the

the

into

rose

summit

there

two

"

I must

full of
But

magic

the

this,and

longing

the

lettingit

and

head,

and

Then
the

bring

he

having

the

the

hermit,

thus

head

The

legends
penance.

too

and

become

So

of
gem

way

the

few

magic

the

drum

ofi",

hermit's
and

cut

gem.

there
the

so.

little way

it went,

him

ascetic,

air,^did

place,and

for
as

the

secret

stayed

aware

same

The

ofi" that

And

the

went

days.
power
;

and

to

And

of
cut

the
off

before.

in Indian
going through the air is usually considered
of
holiness
and
a
great
long-continued
proof,
hermit thought he would get a fine reputation cheaply.

of

power
to be

in the

in

showed

said, "Sir, do

! cut

!"

me

went

; and

hatchet.

he

and

stayed

hermit

of the

flythrough

brought

hatchet

the

hatchet."

hatchet

to

and

drum, he exchanged the


Im

hermit, he

And

hatchet,

gem

head,

put

second

said,

"

and

gem,

your
to

the

hermitage ;

power

his

me

able

to be

go,

hermit's

off the

give

taking

man,

of

the

on

he.

it, and

passing along
saw

waited

magic

power

flesh, ate

eldest

get that," thought

take

you

of the

aware

he

the

days, and

three

or

of

his

was

range,

hut

the

he

as

Himalaya

at

became

hermit

And

air.

of the

descending

thus

descended, cooked

man

the
the

result, and

Then

to the

lie went

caused

head

Jm

he

Milk-bowl,

the

far from

Not
the

to

this

But

the

flew

away

; and

army,

the

sourness

your

up

than

river

and

to

and
no

fourfold
the

poured
the

me

brought

out

tude,
multi-

escape

Then

the

king's

the

king's

had

one

king

"

that

saw

and

said, "Bring
went,

he

arose,

able

not

the

scoundrel

directlyhe

it,were

time

even

goes

(The

on

how

through
1

to

be

the

midst

anointed

of

Lord

of

his

king, under

Milk), and

great
the

governed

righteousness.^

with

mango,

city in

the

himself

caused

story

wonderful

me

Benares

entered

kingdom

The

of

king

in battle array,

hatchet

of Dadhi-vahana

name

sent

drum,

it at his feet ; and

weapon

and

And

mighty

the

side of his

out

in

the

threw

he

Then

stopped,and

air.

message,

catch

us

hatchet, he

the

And

that

Let

drawn

sinking down
letting go

"

him

was

his milk-bowl

to raise

And
and

give

or

it,

Drum,

the

to

for

gem

the

he

battle,

heard

one

around

king's army

and

the

do

he

beat

man

stood

!"

into

letter

magic

manner.

and

Benares

man

the

same

Hatchet,
up

city of

had

the

head,

off in the

cut

forth, saying,

sallied

head

exchanging

the

saw

"

sooner

army

; and

effect, "Either

kingdom
No

hermit, and

and

the
of

hand

by

be

to

Gem,

the

taking

third

milk-bowl

of the

power

to

JATAKA.

DADHI-VAHANI

XX

relate

to

the
the

how

sweetness

too-close

Compare Maha-bharata,

the
of

king planted
its fruit turned

proximity
xii. 1796.

of

bitter

SURVIVAL

herbs, (!) and

how

pointed

out

that

evil

things.

But

it is

the

deserves

notice

those tales in

magical
the

or

; and

glorious.
in

render

There

the

to

result

is

find

this

the

they

use

would

tale

gain

for.

ask
in

its

in

the

god Sakka,
takes

for

tale the

they

could
the

present shape

has

irreverent

Jupiter of

granted, too,
1

of
how

others
a

the

that

FausboU.

not

pleasant
un-

perhaps

the

Buddhist

and

Drum,

fit

part of

the

sorrow,

anything they

chose

quoted, the

have

flavour

hist
Budddistinctively

which

it treats

pre- Buddhistic

the

No.

hero

291.

ruled

the

Hindus.

in

is

It

hermits.

little,save

we

the

more

latter

the

have

in

way

Wishing

is

It

the

the

wants

But, unlike

the

in

satirists

with
if

the

qualitiesmuch

to

put

were

Wishing

amusement.

Hatchet,

with

satisfythe

ground

common

to

to

of

among

away,

of innocent

endowed

are

faded

and

happy

to, and

akin

derful
Won-

the

or

possessors

ridicule.

beliefs

sources

curious

story, than

men

into

with

League Boots,

Collection,^where

turned

of

endowed

tragical story

of,fetish- worship, had

Milk-bowl*
for

fortunate

which

known

example

Yanishing Hat,

very

that

into
story-tellers,
In

the

or

translated

Seven

the

good

corrupt

objects are

in which

Buddhist

Cup, however,

ancient

most

king's minister,

above

portion

their

is

the

communications

inanimate

Wishing Cup,

BELIEFS,

Bodisat, then

the

which

powers

Lamp,

Cup

the

as

OLD

OF

great
It

righteous-

xxii

RAJOVADA

ness

'

lived

this

and

happily

This

is

as

in

common

'

after

ever

last idea

JATAKA.

recurs

of

tlie

Jatakas,

love

modern

stronglyin

more

the

as

stories.

the

Birth

Story

called

Lesson

for

EAJOYADA

JATAKA.

(FausboU,
Once

upon

time,

Benares, the future


of

his

had

chief

been

day

queen

for

He

sixteen

years

accomplished
ascended

in

the

after

with

grew

up

old,

went

in due

after

He

equity.

the

justice,there
these

as

in

and

'^

the

who

none

were

king's

This

is the

famed

in
was

well-known
Buddhist

and

Though
in the

town

legend

as

the

brought
tumult
the

of

without
thus

ministered
ad-

ministers

his
thus

being

with

he

Since

he

died

false

decided

with

cases.

And

ceased
litigation

judges

sat

all

day

in

jab called by the Greeks Taxila,


great universityof ancient India, as
Pan

in later times.

Literally
"

actions

court.

fear.^

justicealso

became

kingdom

judgments

gave

Lawsuits

ceased, the noise

the

Nalanda

law.

the

he

when

father

his

the

Prince

him

; and

course

ruled

and

when

Takkasila,^ and

to

And

justice,with

And
called

they

name,

partiality,hatred, ignorance, or
reigned

conception ceremony

safelyborn.

was

life in the womb

to

the

reigning in

was

returned

and

throne,

151.)

Brahma-datta

all arts.

righteousnessand

No.

Buddha

choosing

Brahma-datta.
was

when

performed, he

came

King^s.

without

forbidden

to

and the rest," that is,the


partiality
judges (and to kings as judges).

rest of the

agaiis^

LESSON

the court,

justice.
have

It

with

the future

; the

bustle has

into

coming

one

Hall

thought,

of

Justice

the

behoves

for

would

that

put

Hall

for

of

ment
judg-

Justice

will

therefore, now

to

if I find

that

and

away,

reigning

my

come

me,

faults ; and
to

me,

From

"

who

none

are

It

own

my

in

wrong

xxiii

any

the

ceased, and

closed.

be

to

examine
is

Buddha

righteousnessthere

have

without

this, that

to

came

leave

to

AVA^GS.

closed !

to be

Then

had

they

FOR

anything

practise only

virtue."
Thenceforth
faults
who

he

but

those

among

would

for

sought

tell him

some

him

around

of any

fault,but

he

his

tell him

to

one

found

heard

no

one

his

only

own

praise.
Then

he

"It

thought,

is from

fear

speak only good things,and

men

he

sought

palace.

And

at the

search

lived

outside

And

there

the

over

mounted

his

left

city

turned

by

the

Now

The

cardinal

up

sought

the

suburbs,
find

finding no

one

praise,he

determined

kingdom

through,

own

there, he

to

country places.

made

the

his

the

outside

city,in

the
too

things," and

lived

fault-finder

no

these

that

me

evil

not

who

people

hearing only
the

he

So

who

gates.^

four

fault, and
to

finding

those

among

those

among

of

chariot
in

and

heard

back

from

high

road

at that

very

only
the

of

his

the

gates opening towards


points ot the compass.

the

own

he

charioteer,

his

searching

boundary,

the

found

virtue

boundary,

outermost

towards

time

And

ministers, and

his

taking only

disguise.
the

to

and

to

and

country
no

and

finder,
faulthe

so

returned

city.

king

of

the

four

Kosala, Mallika
''directions,"that

by

name,

is, the

four

also

was

fault-finder
virtue
that

So

Then

the

charioteer
way

But

he

Yet

make

room

"

the

And

Take

"

Then
about
about

out

he

had
what

three

hundred

army

and

the

about

the

extent

his

and

the

over

charioteer,

the

great
and

way,

! ''

thought,

Benares

What

is

to

now

himself,

to

then

is, and

old

he

got

out

of

the

the

king

ages

in, and

that

both

extent

of

way,

renown,

and

his
his

asked

Kosala

of

of both

his caste

was.

equal.

were

kingdom,
renown,

tribe

and

lords

of

and

that

in

the

countries

were

he

conclusion,

wealth, and

lived

leagues in

wealth

that

at

that

found

way,

elder."

found

he

he

be

younger

of

country
And

how

age

and

of

of

king

out

arrived
the

army,

the

consideration, he said

for the

inquired

his

family.

chariot

Kosala, the

of

king

is

too

of the

inquiry he

the

the

lord

the

king

our

the

I'll find

room

when

he

some

chariot

make

he

no

to

chariot, 0

this

of

of

that

way.

of

out

kingdom

chariot

After
a

on

thy

thy carriage out

charioteer

that charioteer
But

the

over

then

say

I'll let the


so

low

was

said

king

sitteth

In

'*

for the

I know

and

to

Take

*'

in

own

great king Brahma-datta/'

the

replied,

lord

Mallika.

there

chariot

chariot

Benares,

king

done

where

the

Benares,

came

to face

way

Mallika

thy

this

other

the

They

of

Take

*'

In

of

Then

of

too

face

came

of the

out

get

king

said,

the

sitteth

two

his

no

!"

charioteer

kingdom

to

charioteer

of the

of the

these

found

of

heard

only

precipitous sides,

chariot

also

country places,he

in

and

righteousness;

himself, he

in

palace, but

And

with

for

space

fault

seeking

spot.

very

with

kingdom

some

the

in

cart-track

be

his

ruling

seeking for

when

**

JATAKA.

RAyOVADA

xxiv

and
and
and

kingdom

respect of
in which

RAJOVADA

XXVI

his charioteer

and

took

out

way

for the

But

the

saying,

''

horses, and

deeds,

of

Thus

and

and

he

exhorted

is it

made

Mallika

king,

did

ended

was

the

And

do/'

right to

life

his

they

chariot,and

practised charity, and

when

so

their

And

Benares
thus

their chariot.

removed

of Benares

king

Benares,

to

alightedfrom

king

the

JATAKA.

he

returning
other

good

passed

away

to heaven.

And
and

Mallika

having

the

in vain

fault-finder,he

of

his life he

The
humour
earlier

realityon

way

in

false

cases

; the

should

of

itself

by

in which

law

put

it is

brought

tised
pracend

brand-new

questionof precedence

exaggeration

hint

that

end,

about
a

in

method

of

raised

all;

is the

the
in

cases

to

lawsuits;

the
the

mighty kings

lane
out

the

ness
clever-

of his

settlingthe

culties
diffi-

delicate

carried
which, logically

destroy the necessityof


this

in

decide

only

two

getting

dry

depends

to

all

narrow

out, would

all

law

not

to

that

method

"

with

earnestness

even

in

first charioteer

"

for

the

at

so

The

an

courts,' but

the

at

and

suggestionthat

unattended,

the

city,and

own

of

the

meet,

deeds

instructive.

story;

the

his

Jataka

the

justly would
block

this

of

part

country through

to

good

heart;

to

to heaven.

in

is very

the

returned
other

went

mixture

his exhortation

searched

too

charity and

took

king

such

questionsbeing

amusing

side

of

the

LESSON

It

Jataka.

throws,

unrealityover
because

the

it is

humour

of

But

less also

in

earnest

he

really means

to

conquer

evil

by good

is the

goodness

is edification

itseK

is

Second

quite

Dhammapada

and

and

the

or

idea

an

religions;
Maha

would

that

be

has

opposite sentiment,

in

king
one

Maha

Maha

Sanskrit

of MaUika

of the

Bharata,
Bharata,
Writers

"

latest

v.

the

1518.

xii. 4052.

portions of
Another
See

Dr.

by

is in

means,

no

the
the

in

the
the

Epic, the

Hindu

great

Bible

same

in

later

of the

most

attributed

that

and

is

gives expression to

with

on

most

Bible

Buddhist

It

the

223, in the

ideals of virtue

called

further

found

that

of

lines

verse

It

been

It is true

the

as

ethics.

Hindus.^
the

lesson

two

also in the

which

Bharata,

The

of the

consistent

is found

and

only.

Scripture Yerses,' perhaps

however, exclusivelyBuddhistic.

that

and

object

included,

all Buddhist

with

that

The

first four

The

the

the

greatness.

amusement

between

an

repartee.

right thing,

widely-read book

most

only

justiceis noble,

the

of

not

indeed

distinction

harmony

is

clever

of

story-teller
thoroughly

that

Buddhistic.
are

it is

unnoticed, only

of

the

measure

also,and

Moral

sacred

true

is

air

an

less humour

the

none

easily escape

the

none

throw,

inferred, because

be

absurdity and

naive

xxvii

to

it is

and

story ;

might

KINGS.

is meant

and

left to

which

aroma

FOR

our

of

the
is

poem

story

higher teaching
Maha

Bharata,

to

is

and

is very similar.
at iii. 13253
passage
from
Translations
Muii-'s "Metrical

(1879),pp. xxxi, 88, 275,

356.

xxviii

OVERCOMING

of Buddhist

probably
the

Buddhist

received,

well

as

this

that
the

to

It

is to

best

lofty doctrine

regretted that

be

led

teaching

of

reKgious system

the

the

in

the

efficacyof

verse

is

only

one

rites

among

evidence

spiritof justice,and

the

of

between

the

of

faiths.

other

reformation

had

between

the

passed

little difference
was

to

After

the

two

There

the

draw

advocates

in

debasing

most

which

of

glow
there

the

contesta
in-

are

also

after

of

truth.

line

countrymen
the

Buddhist

probably

was

Hindu

and

this

; but

their

and

all,

less
doubt-

hard-and-fast

any

first

the

after

were

seeking

earnest

away,

kings

pugnant
re-

for

prevalence

Buddhist

between

Buddhism

was,

others

Buddhists

Indian

on

ceremonies

and

wide

an

is, in fact, inaccurate

own

of

many

of

means

uncompromising

privilegesof caste,

worst

belief

It

his

result.

Brahmans

poem,

unjust depreciation

an

which

and

was

no

admiration

just

into

of

by

writers

some

Gotama

highest product

among
of

of

by good
Hindu

the

tbat

Brahmans.^

their

by

away

find

we

evil

was

the

among

noble

the

wben

opposite,into

its

been

but

But

origin.

have

the

GOOD.

BY

principleof overcoming

as

it is clear

EVIL

story which

as

has

as

there

just

told.

been

A
^

Similar

will
passages
Pancha

etc., p. 197;
by Muir, p. 356
doctrine

is inculcated

and

by

in

also

be

Tantra,
St.

Confucius

found
i. 247

Matthew,

ism,
Lao
Tse, Douglas's Confucian(277) =iv. 72; in Stobaeus, quoted
in

v.

44-46

(Legge, Chinese

whereas

the

Classics,i. 152).

Mallika

XXIX

KALILAG

THE

Among
and

tlie other

here,

mention
moral-

comic

Birth

of

books

of

That

the

to

interestingto

more

that

have
of

many

the

been

Hindus.
it

as

the

stories

have

of

collections

no

from

the
this

fact
most

is

the

collections

form

been

means

the

Hindu

the

of

Buddhist

by

And

is these

Indian

kind

amongst

nearly preserved

most

of

apparent

have

the

us,

bulk

especial

the

partialitywas
is

tales
of

the

Buddhists

more

for

liking

form

Buddhists

such

deserves

their

this

literature

favourite

LITERATUEE.

which

one

tales which

Stories.

confined

is

that

"

DAMJSTAG

pointsof similaritybetween

there

Hindus,

that

AND

in

which

carried

to

is

the

the

West.

oldest

The

Books,'

Five

era

750

*Kalilag

title

The

Karatak

names

and

and

the

Syriac,

and

into

or

Pen-

is

tunately
unfor-

sixth

it formed

one

is, the

'

work

Ancient

or

into

a.d.,

in

like

much

that

Pentateuch
this

but

Pahlavi,

century
part of

Persian;
under

the

Arabic

under

and
title
the

Dimnah.'^

corruptions
Damanak, who take
are

'

form

Damnag,'

and

'Kalilah

extant

very

into

Tantra,

Hindu

of

extant

now

Pancha

earliest

book

about

thence,
of

its

translated

work

kind

longer

no

our

In

tamerone.'

of

to, the

referred

already
*

the

of
a

the

Indian

names

principalpart

in the

of

the

two

first of the

jackals,
fables.

KALILAG

THE

XXX

favourites

into

them

appended
I

It

refer

to

set

the

and
the

them

sible
imposin

out

to

fuller

the

mation,
infor-

of

summary

full
this

in

student
for

short

be

involved

Introduction
here

find

would

preface

must

only give

can

afterwards

soon

this

this

to

were

Europeans,

literary history

while

and

statement;
Tables

of

intricate

the

with

tongues.

limits

the

within

Arabs

the

as

great

Europe, they brought

we

Western

into

translated

of

and

and

contact

South

the

penetrated into
with

Arabs

the

among

gradually brought

detail

became

tales, though, originallyBuddhist,

These

stories

AND

the

principalfacts.
It is curious

earliest

the

owe

we

pursuits

took

Prophet,

and

led

beliefs

them
the

to

attracted
in

free
It

was

most

Seth,

freer

by

about

European

and

kind

kind

legend

than

in

from

and

hear

made

language, viz.

into

that
the

their

usually
were

such

as

this

Jew,

would

need

named

Greek.

"

dogma.

travellers
we

sible
pos-

rally
natu-

Christian

and

the

perfectly

first translation

modern

of

religious

they

which

whom

mercantile

style,and

acquainted with,

a.d.,

was

literature

of literature

surprisedto
1080

of

Moslems,

of

to

followers

''amongst the

intercourse

Jews

their

comparative]nearness

easily become
be

the

was

Whilst

morality, amusing

also the

therefore

much

Christian

from

it

versions.

Christians

between

Oriental

that

notice

to

not

Symeon
into

Another

DAMNAG

Jew,

about

different

afterwards

The

and

it

venerable

Latin

second

into
five

1278.

Spanish,
versions

and

lations
trans-

Italian,

German,

version

the

"^sop

to the

times

have

and

version, another

into

evidently seemed

stories

in ancient

this

//

it is

"

Baldo,

times

the

striking

new

made

into

English.

title of

is very

Hebrew

these

'

turned

1263

Arabic

from

slightly

Dimnah

Capua,

between
the

of

and

of

the

and

John

as

from

Latin

Kalilah

'

Latin

time

same

were

French,

into

direct

fifth into

the

xxxi

translation

third,

the

made

these

of

version

about

was

and

Hebrew
At

made

1250,

recension

Hebrew

LITERATURE.

just

Old.''

quite in

traditional

as

been

collected

into

Joe

Miller.

Baldo

To
order

teller of

witty sayings
books

the

lator,
trans-

to

ascribe

similar

of

to

neither

stories
modern

more

ascribed

was

mentioned

just

the

once

sufficiently
.

consider

enlightened to
old

an

giving

his

new

its connexion
Is

so

the

book

with

it true,

then, that

Western

children

invented

long

though

not

ago

of the
a

"

the

spite

East

complete

to

please
?

so-called

hesitate

gain

at

from

and

to

Fables

^sop's

rivals, among

many

I think

answer,

being

name.

merely adaptations

are

to

of

for

worse

it would

advantage

well-known

popular still,in

people

good story the

sufficientlyscrupulous

nor

one,

instruct

to

can

the

give

from
the

an

question.

"

our

tales
like
childanswer,

ii

XXX

ORIGIN

himself

^sop

literature,and
Thus

Plato

his

tales

and

his, which

in

^sop

the

form

another.^

In

the

on

historians

century

and

vagueness

certain

that

he

if he

left

did, they have

Notwithstanding this,
named
other

numerous

of

called

at

Phaedo,

p.

Milan

61.

not

century,
of

collection

printed

'

works, did

fourteenth

the

and

Planudes,

at

Comp.

to

^sop's

the

end

but

and

monk

it may

it is

the

of

quite

write

Fables.
the

Bentley, Dissertation

tinople,
Constan-

author

hesitate,in

of

altogether.

lost.
irretrievably

learned

date

inconsistencyof

works,

been

of

modern

existence

written

no

the

some

is, perhaps, pushing scepticismtoo far;


that

to

accordance

This

his

of

fable

traditions, have

admitted

denied

pied
occu-

refers

fix

;'^but

B.C.

fables.

or

times

the

be

in

quotes

sixth

critics, relying

four

one

references, classical

these

with
of

Lucian

stories

classical

(literally
myths)

quotes in

Aristotle

in

imprisonment

stories

Aristophanes

of

his

in

the

by turning
verse

mentioned

tlie teller

as

Socrates

that

into

-^sop

always

FABLES.

times

is several

says

himself

^SOP'S

OF

also

the

work

first half
which

This

the

he
first

was

fifteenth

on

of

century

Fables

of

-^sop,

p. 136.

Vespse, 566, 1259, 1401, and foil. ; and Aves, 651 and foil.
de part, anim., iii. 2 ; Lucian
Nigr., 32.
*
him
Herodotus
(ii.134) makes
contemporary with King Amasis of Egypt,
the beginning of whose
(Sept. Sap.
reign is placed in 569 b.c. ; Plutarch
with
is reputed to have
him
Solon, who
Conv., 152) makes
contemporary
been
bom
in 638 b.c
Diogenes Laertius (i.72) says that he flourished
; and
the fifty-second
about
B.c.
Compare Clinton^ Fast.
Olympiad, i.e. 572-569
2

Hell.

Arist.

i. 237

(under the

year

b.c.

572) and

i. 239

(underb.c.

534).

xxxiv

ORIGIN

It

is

Latin

But

the

the

f reedman

the

in

have

been

shall

and

those

other
lastly,
been

reached
some

the

back

found

Buddhist

of

first edited

was

'

of the

of

stories

have

his

in

die

JEsop.

'

Essai

also

KaHlah

besides

of

Zusammenhang
de

and
rinde

Griechischen

Fabeln,'

1862.

And

those

the

which

Arabs,

Planudes
traced

back

had
and
to

also.

ini Mittelalter,

'

and

les Fables

sur

'

Griechischen,'

foil.; Adolf Wagener, 'Essai


la Grece,' 1853;
et de
Otto

Babrius

by Orelli, Ziirich, 1831.

en
Europe,' Paris, 1838 ; Professor
Tantra, Leipzig, 1859 ; Professor Max
Review, July, 1870 ; Professor
Fables,' Contemporary

mit

as

Dimnah, Paris, 1816 ;


Indiennes, et sur leur
Benfey, in his edition of the
Miiller, On the Migration of

of

Introd.

Fabeln

of

sources.

been

Fabel

stories

rived
possibly de-

were

channels

1596;

Greek,

Further,

fables

the

time

these

in his edition
in his

of

many

of

tales, had
in

Jatakas,

Pafica

337

end

easily

of Planudes

Buddhist

the

und

indischer

of

versions

this source.^

to

before

by PithoUy

Comp. Oesterley,
2
By Silvestre de Sacy,
Zoiseleur
Deslongchamps,

have

Indian

coming through

as

Phaedrus

till the

that

seen

and

from

through

sources

calls

that

on

therefore

Planudes,

authors

his

the

to Planudes.

MSS.

time

some

in

mentioned

of

work

based

other

Spanish

Europe long
more

It

before

versions

is

may

have

we

presently show,

by

known

rare

Stories, and

and

title of his

which

very

fables

Planudes.

clearlytraced

Phaedrus,

have

of

Europe

Latin, Hebrew,

in

hand,

Birth

appeared

the

century,^and

other

Buddhist

in

^sopean

Augustus, were

only

notice

the

FABLES,

the

Phsedrus,

existed

sixteenth

On

of

of

work

escaped

that

possible,also,

Babrius,

^SOP'S

poet Phjedrus, who

himself

of

OF

sur

Weber,
Indische

les rapports
'Ueber

Keller
,

entre

die

'

Ueber

den

Studien, iii.
apologues

les

Geschichte

der

ORIGIN

is

"What

^sop's

them

really ^sopean

first

of

formed

them

to

of

It

of

stories
have

home,

and

spoken

collection

number

large

was

back, in various

ways,

that

whole

in

almost

one

the

of

bid

few

of

in

the

mention,

so-called

length

been

fair

to

be

For

not

them

that

popular
has

in

even

of

of

the

this

muchlated
trans-

languages

many
but

India,^

from

original

Englishman

an

several

their

to

to

those

indirectly

restored

continent

great

fitting close

borrowed

only

into

as

sop's Fables,

Planudes

which
at

another,

or

way

the

form.

altered

of

none

sources.

history

India

and

derived,

probably

perhaps worthy

is

his

book

Jataka

are

traced

already

the

that

Ages;

that

"

the

to

respect

this

to

all ; that

at

xxxv

with

then,

amounts

Middle

the

been

Indian

from

of

in

have

them

the

fables,

Buddhist

our

FABLES.

present known,

at

so-called
are

^SOP'S

OF

Narayan
.

Balkrishna

Grodpole, B.A.,

Government

published
of the

and

/.

English
of the

old

The

Oriental

Gilchrist,

other

edition

second

common

compilation

'

School

High

Ancient

Fables

Persian, Arabic, Bhakka,


Calcutta, 1803.

of his

version
of

the

Masters

translation
of

into

successful

the

Constantinople

Bongla, Sanscrit, etc.,

in

the

Eoman

the

lately

Sanskrit

spurious

or
Polyglot Translations
into
English Language

Fabulist,
the

of
has

Ahmadnagar,

at

monk

from

of

one

of

^sop's

Hindustani,

Character,'

\/

XXXVl

THE

BAELAAM

AND

the two
his

hundred

successors

But

author.

and

historyof
details

In the

Xalilah

whatever

that

completeanswer

justpointedout

contains

at whose

and

court

is

mentioned

written

was

into

the author

as

in defence

Barlaam

reader
the

under

and

will be
Buddha

an

became

the

another name,

and

Indian

the

book

the learned

of St. John

name

faith.

princewho

hermit.

theological

Among
and

This
taken

these

Joasaph,'
converted

was

Joasaph is merely

the word

that

his court, afterwards became

to learn,is
surprised
;

was

Arabic

in Grreek of many

not, the

Bagdad

called 'Barlaam

romance
religious

strange

Hebrew, Latin,and Greek.

of the orthodox

givingthe historyof
by

of

"

still.
striking

more

Khalif

be

amongst its

Dimnah, afterwards translated by

Damascus,

I mistake

and

original

may

hidden

unexpectedand

more

monk, and is well known, under

works

Book

Jataka

its

to

at least most

are

yet, if

Christian,
high in officeat

of

of

And

back

of

one

fables of Planudes

one
thirty-

eighthcenturythe

I have

Jews

and

the last

each

traced

the

Almansur

which

been

"

fact

with
question

only be given when

can

instructive.

most

LITERATUEE.

shall have

the discoveries

to tlie

completeanswer

started
digression

JOSAPHAT

the
history,

from
the

the life

Buddha

Joasaph,or Josaphat,
being

BARLAAM

Birth

so

Stories.^

Now

contains

have

been

This

traced

"Western

other

and

Dutch.

and

how

it

Now
recite

of

dialect
was

at

has

used

in

the

(in the

also

was

It

so-called

Joasaph

is in Arabic

between

the

written

Arabic

letters

these

the

as

in

into

Latin,

read,

was

of

taste

early

in

their

of the

the

Islands

Christians

among

part of

the

1204

as

published

custom

Canon

it

widely

Philippine

sacred

most

in

English, Swedish,

been

even

ancient

very

exists

translated

the

translated

pleased

tone

of which

published

was

how

show

and

Icelandic,

Spanish

will

It

Ages.

service

Dimnah,

its moral

much

Middle

to

This

also

popular indeed, and,

very

languages.

European

duction
intro-

romance

religiousromance

and

the

source.^

Italian, Spanish, German,

French,

into

Kalilah

Buddhist

stories,most

same

became

language,

like the Arabic


many

first

the

St. John's

and

to the

back

the

book,

fables

title of the

forms

Buddha

and

Book,

of

number

life of the

Jataka

our

in

constantly repeated

Buddha

to

xxxvii

Bodisat, that

tlie word

simply a corruptionof
future

JOSAPHAT,

AND

sacred

most

Mass, immediately

also

Yudasatf

and

j5, is for Bodisat.


See, for the history
sur
I'lnde,' 1849, p. 91 ; quoted with

; and

this,througlia

sion
confu-

changes, Reinaud, Memoire


Indische
approbation by Weber,
Streifen,'iii. 57.
""* The
Buddhist
first
origin was
pointed out by Laboulaye in the Bebats,
and
fiir romanische
Jahrbuch
more
July, 1859 ;
fullyby Liebrecht, in the
und englische Literatur,' 1860.
See also Littre, Journal
des Savans,
1865,
who
being reallythe
fullydiscusses, and decides in favour of the romance
'

'

'

work

of St. John

of

complete analysisof
it and

the

the Greek

Buddhist

Damascus.

St. John's
lives

of

work

hope,
;

Gotama,

adopts,not only the

Buddhist

in

future

volume,

to

publish a

between
pointing
wherever
giving parallelpassages
ideas,but also Buddhist
expressions.
out

and

the

resemblances

xxxviii

MEANING

before

tlie consecration

saints

and

Diptycbs,

for

and

Christendom

whom

and

chapels

For

in

their

the

as

himself.

Pope

the

the

merely
it

on,

began

Tope^Benedict

lists

be

XIV.

'

Curs.

Decret.

TJrban

VIII.

(1669).

i. cap. 46;
Compl. iv. 710.

Greg., Lib.

whose

chosen

be

or

De

as

altars

and

of

be

For

and

more

Dei

to

as

the

various

commemorated

supply

to

Pope

canonization,

Diptychs

to

Diptychs.

Eegnier^

names

concerned,^

so

'De

local ecclesiastics

decretal

of

different

servonim

the

to

were

considered

in

the

Canon,'

inserting such

power

composed

canonisatione,'lib.
Theol.

the

the

were

be

to

revere,

images

1170

about

Catholics

local
to

of

lists of persons

'Canon,'

to

fessors
con-

among

the

may

honour

The

said

now

in

who

custom

From

martyrologies,or
in

the

Roman

throughout

enrolled

permitted

was

confined

III.

lists, called

up.^

*Diptychs,' but

Alexander
far

it

are

Catholic

whose

celebrity

catalogues.

mentioned

of every

set

continue

to

local

local

become

invoked,

be

time

long

have

in

may

all such

saints

be

may

of

in

honoured

so

duty

saints, and

patron

in

Christian

intercession

of deceased

names

men

purpose

is,they

it is the

the

universally honoured

martyrs

of

number

this

names

canonized^ that

Host)

Eeligious

appeared

and

CANONIZATION.

of the

martyrs.

inserted

were

OF

the

as

more

place

time

of

went

improper

beatificatione et beatorum

ecclesia

Chiisti,'in Migne's

xlvi.,confirmed and explainedby decrees of


(13th March, 1625, and 5th July,
1634)' and of Alexander YII.
^
iii. Tit.

MARTYROLOGY.

AUTHORIZED

insert

to

prayers

new

and

Diptychs

the

though
holy

the

number

of

such

confusion,
of

the

and

in

to

throw

authorized

drawn

Cardinal

the

"Western
the

only
who,

having

then

acknowledged by

Rites

to

Among

be

been

saints

such,

under

included

are

of

India,

and

unable,
Petrus

Pius

p.

177

IX.,

or

of

when
in
de

the

p. 803

already

of

the

Saints

borders

of

of the

of

lead

to

power

Fifth

throughout
included

are

but

the

much

Church
27th

were

of

of
and

of

Christ.

November,

Josaphat,
wonderful

described."^
first

canonized,

to
investigation,
was

Bishop

bearing the

Cologne edition

all those

College

Persia, whose

were

not

elsewhere,

Barlaam

has

1873,

the

increasing

the

used

and

of the

date

they

of

exclusive

Rome,

Catholic

Natalibus, who

edition

work
at

holy

spite of

be

to

Pope

the

the

'

Prime

'

to

Sixtus

canonized

of Damascus

John

Where
been

the

on

Saint

acts

The

"

that

canonized

first

the

the

on

Baronius,
In

Canon,

particular Martyrologium,

Church.

saints

when

canonize. Pope

to

(1585-1590)
by

doubt

the

the

threatened

Martyrologies

Popes

up

And

the

Martyr-

still used

was

them.

the

in

called

service

Church

known,

in

inserted

'canonized'

term

mentioned

men

the

the

well

names

longer

no

in

repeated

are

The

of

part

being

names

disuse.

last

at

sacred

so

old

fell into

ologies were
but

in

names

xxxix

of 1610.

official

of

have
tain.
ascer-

Equilium,

approval of Pope

JiaiaMStfigBiiTtTtTTBi^

iMiiWi

xl

THE

tlie modern

Jesolo,near

BUDDHA

Venice,from

Martyrologycalled

it, among

the

Josaphat,giving also
from

the old Latin

It is from
authorized

short

Barlaam
saints,

I have

able to

Church
In

older than
the

that

Greek

the

name

of India.'

of the

recognizedas
is
history
I

and
there

added

do
is

not

no

know

doubt

that

Some
1
2

Cat.

of the

more

Western

in

Abener, king

I have

be

of

No

quoted;

rests.

East, and

of the

fore
there-

not

Church.

Greek

questionshould

Sanct.,Leyden ed. 1542, p.

in

But

probably
Syria,that

sought.^

numerous

writers

cliii.

August of the authorized MTjvatoj/of


bffiov 'Iwdaatp,
1843:
"Tou
Church,publishedat Constantinople,
0a(nKeus ttjs 'Ii'Sms."
Tov
'Afieuijp

p.

160

of the

of

ancient church

learned

far

August 26,

authorityit

it is in the

of the

final solution of this

the

what

so

worship still used

simplestatement
on

names

occur

the

find,under

in

the

Natalibus.

de

of

not

mentioned, and is

saint

to the

the records

among

of Petrus

is not

the

over

of

holy losaph,son

Barlaam

derived

them

ascertain,
they do
saints

in
and

Josaphat. But,

and

Church, however, we
*

and

of Damascus.^

of St. John

manual
corresponding

the

of

account

lists of

or
martyrologies

any

'

Barlaam

both

in use, took

Martyrologynow

been

1400, wrote

to

Baronius,the compilerof

that

of these two
as

1370

inserts

translation

this work

A THAT

CatalogusSanctorum

lie
saints,*

JOS

ST.

AS

part for the month

of

the Greek
vlov
3

For

the information

father,the

Rev.

to
attempted

T. W.

indebted to my
in the last three pages I am
chiefly
whose generous aid I should not have

Davids,without

touch this obscure and difficultquestion.

xlii

MIGRATION

similar

remark

included

in

applies also
Arabian

the

versions

charming

of

Fables

the

versions

Benfey

and

ideas

of

others

drawn

from

and

have

traced

them,

Chaucer, Spenser, and


for

instance, the

in

The

Merchant

which

in

in his

head,2

*As

similar

Like

it has

Slavonic

race

through

translations

have

penetrated in

the

of

And

Europe.^
in

included
been
the

the

brought
Arabs

of

See

Benfey, Pantscha
ii. scene

Mr.

See

1.

Buddhist

for

the

Indian

Damnag

the

who
East

tales, not

literature, have
of

opposite comer

the

of

sources,

Huns,

into

Khan

other

current

peoples

Tantra,

vol.

Europe, by

i.,Introduction,j5"mm.

Professor

this idea far and


Chinese

or

In

Spain.*

Act

givesthe

and

tales

that

wears

tales.

numerous

Genghis

finallyyet

toad

Buddhist

from

flesh

of

precious jewel

venomous

the

by

of

or

Thus,

pound

the

the

derived

made

stories,

same

the

shown

and

been

into

traced

from

Kalilag

has

the

been

time

and

It'

Hungarians

the

Professor

later writers.

other

Yenice,' and

derived

are

way

the

among

You

the

to

and

Dimnah;

caskets

of

indebtedness

Poggio, Boccaccio, Gower,

to

many

three

mired,
deservedly ad-

so

are

his

Kalilah

Fontaine, whose

La

Mghts.^

Tales

well-known

other

to

openly acknowledges
French

TALES,

BUDDHIST

OF

Buddhist

Benfey, in his Pantscha


wide.
Dr.
Dennys, in his

version

Tantra, i. 213-220,
'

Folklore

of

China,*

of it.

Benfey'sIntroduction to Pafica Tantra, "" 36, 39, 71, 92, 166, 186.
further
of Tibetan
s forthcoming translation
stories will throw

Ralston'

light on this,at present, rather


*
See, for example, the Fable

obscure

subiect.

translated below, pp. 275-278.

There

is

should

be

only

Solomon

point

Story

which

FABLES.

also

in

explained?

As

regards the

India

to

they

the

third

East

fro between

the

adjoining parts

popular

the

among

remained

Greeks

region

that

and

Buddhist,

then

the

and

and

which

in

for

time.

long

the

kings takes,

in

Stories,the

place occupied by

the

Pali

in that
remains

text,

district.
still

with
1

The

And

the
among

Birth

Sumedha's

Stories.^

has

Birth

Kasi

the

tales

is

number

is also

(seebelow,
self-abnegation

William

the

of

of

large
It

very

Graeco-Bactrian

innumerable

in

legend.

on

in

laid

Buddhist
are

pp.

discovered

Mr.
Jelolabad
near
Simpson
bas-reliefs representing
the principalincident in the
; and

already

were

country
of

the

were

Indeed, the

the

the

scene

existingthere,

the

legendof

that

so

"

India, which

ISTorthern versions

the

in

Afghanistan,where

of

seat

constant

dominions

Stories

Buddhists

became
all

of

We

still more

was

Greek

the

Birth

the

there, but
back.

them

can

ander
Alex-

with

tales

Christ, there

century before

Fables

Indian

fourth, and

of the

these

Phaedrus, it

the

brought

and

are

travelled

who

have
end

the

at

Babrius
How

and

taken

have

may

that

travellingto
the

Greeks

the

equally well

may

only know
in

of Babrius

cases

that

said

be

only

be

of

Judgment

history of

throws

words

specimens

as

in

Phaedrus.

later

few

the

to

also

found

are

the

light,to

whicli

on

similar

which
similarities,
on
no

xliii

purposely chosen

have

is found

which

one

Birth

two

other

one

said.

Buddhist

one

BUDDHIST

AND

GREEK

this

nected
con-

very

11-13) is
the spot

laid
two

XllV

district,and
that

the

originalof

by

its Arabian

It

is

were

only
far
be

tlie immediate

under

current

heard

the

Buddhist

Greek

and

the

compared,

from

which

more

than

when

between

it

of the
the

them

The

were

identical

with

merely
minds

that

; and

be

historical

two

judgments

isolation; and
may

all

are

judgment

same

Birth

idea

would

thus

connexion.

stands,
the

have

as

far

the

may

have

enable

may

different.
or

should

Phsedrus

suppose

tw;o different

to

similarityof
in

know,

so

curious

but

same

idea.

At

the

Jews

when

told, or

fully

been

necessityto postulate

as

similarities

the

Babrius

the

not

time, it is just possible that

Babylon they

doubtful

is somewhat

no

Now

story is
hit upon

is very

occurred
be

originals
Whether

Story,we

had

present

conclusion.

in

fable

one

so

evidence

the

stories

definite

more

at

shall have

the

not

But

can

published, and

of

they

adapted.
said

classical stories

stories

own.

being

were

by Bidpai.

internal

the

present

contents

there

stories

said

was

that

told their

versions

at

and

that

me

Buddhist

the

but

versions

Solomon's

Greeks

Alexander,

similar

of

number

Buddhist

to

only

any

writers

the

can

reach

there

written

Buddhist

and

of

case

been

ones,

Greek

the
investigated,
to

to have

the

seems

Jatakas

criticism

Dimnah'

among

this

the

and

smaller

also

as

^Kalilah

translators

possible that

is in favour

If

the

of

successor

heard,

the

the

complete
that
the
were

story.

two

same

in

STORY

Had

we

later than

with

the

Exile,

we

; that

some

story there

the

judgment

the

and

be

remembered

earlier
earlier

other

find

to

of

story
in

current

Chinese
most

Sanskrit

the Pali

hope

they

countries
his

the

we

Exile;
in

traditions

people, and

tion
ques-

current

probably

probably
original;
so

of

version
derived
and

much

Hebrew
it

further

is confirmed

in

its

from

holds

evidence

by

the

out

of

occurrence

details

is very
those

hope

decisive
of

no

of

basis

that

character.

Buddhist

Northern

it affords

us

which

judgment,

from

Dr.

Now

given

this version

the

may

especiallyin

China,''has

details

the

Persia.

on

we

story-books

more

similar

tales that

yet

and

though

in

Buddhist

bordering
of

there,

fact

the

the

India,

it

told

of

in

^Folklore

Buddhist

and

of

North

argument,

discover

hand,

preserved

the

in

differs

and

Jewish

But

chronicle

on

thus

usually assigned

during

the

part

evidence

some

as

Buddhist

Dennys,

most

the

among

the

on

the

the

it had

king.

is

was

documents.

expect

for

for

that

heard

ascribed

had

that

that

died

who

they

great wisdom

and

which

Kings,

it should

that

whose

them

Jeremiah,

If,

is

of

unquestionably

repeating it

history of

their

xlv

book

suppose

one

of

much

the

might

time

based

in

story

among

Book

the

was

on

in

JUDGE.

WISE

King Solomon,

to

included

find it in
to

this

tradition

common

been

THE

met

the

OF

similar

we

late,
both
itself

may

This
tale in

xlvi

STORY

the

Gesta

Barlaam
in

the

love

of

his

mother

father.

The

could
all

their

from
be

other

expected

this

tale

from

the

Jews.

therefore

have

p. 167
1879

word

country),

of the

by

p. 477.
2
This
means

the

xlv. p. 80 of Swan

No.

'

by

S.

critical edition
J.

H.

Gest, now

'

; but

as

the
most

of the

in

have

wandered

which

India
in

added

stories

India.
said

The
have

to

are
coasting-vessels

the

and

Ophir

port (and

must

if

more

so,

Indus, afterwards

valuable

worthy
are

the

to

entrepot, further

title is

speltJest, acquiredits

Like

way

Hooper's popular edition, 1877


for the Early English Text
publislied

Latin

They

borrowed

and

has

inquiry.

peacocks

of

an

or

to

Indian

an

'

discovered, may

from

names

mouth

Herrtage, who

adaptation of
Deeds

Indian

to

son

Eomans

was

this

Solomon's

either

been

certainlyat

Buddhist

thence

and

the

Bible.

one

or

record.

probably

was

apes

the

another

out

true

encouraging.

our

this

supposed

Ophir

corruptions of

merely

it from

Buddhists,

of the

brought

almost

of

land

of

is

is not

of

is

sacred

light on

some

the

to

love

Gests

It

story

history,when

possibly be

Jews

that
the

the

taken

its

and

throw

may

names

been

the

perhaps point

The

Hebrew

of

tales, however,

to

should

in

quotes

largelyindebted

difference

very

have

which,

sources.^

but

son,

twisted

so

somewhere;

her

compilers

therefore

not

Buddhist

that

have

not

work

is otherwise

judgment

to

But

orthodox

dared

of the

basis
a

mediaeval

to

way

JUDGE.

WISE

Josaphat,and

indirect

that

THE

Homanorum,
and

an

OF

of

present meaning.

less

xlii.

; No.

Societyin

historical

notice.
or

west,

It

note

of

at

course

humorous,

the

STORY

Indian

for

for

even

and

it

the

time

him

the

the

when
the

is much
at

that

the

is every

of

commercial
from

West

Mesopotamia.

not

continued

ivory, jade,
the

for

an

of

after
and

West;

Assyrian

this

ancient

Psalm

and

or

time

of

it

time,

Hebrew

overland

xiv. 9 ; Isaiah

still

gems

would

be

scholar
in

route

xiii. 12

Job

the

Indian

an

to

other

xxii.

There

great

and

East

and

of

Palmyra

by

gold

sea

of

found

their

the

way
task

evidence

ways.

24, xxviii.

was

Ophir,^

interesting
trace

It

captivity,

intercourse

it

that

the

way

most

tale.

told

was

by

the

the

our

between

times

must,

overland.

there

Solomon's

Eastern

of

of

the

was

Ophir

conclude

or

was

after

intercourse

been

heard

Though

till

of

Jews

that

sailors;

judgment

migration

intercourse

early

very

and

to

believe

impossible

Any

have

communication

to

reason

the

before

and

way

the

unprecedented

the

safely

may

of

likely,if

all,

continual

we

means

more

story

and

account

Hebrews

people

language,

the

Phoenician

the

the

of

been

Kings.

and
of

have

of

of

xlvii

its

of

by

Book

difference

the

not

was

is

sea

account

servants

extent

meagre

gist

aid

the

renewed

not

his

from

very

the

without

in

between

JUDGE.

character; it would

was

recorded

WISE

expedition by

hazardous

and

But

trade.

Solomon's

of

THE

OF

16.

xlviii

SUMMARY.

To

sum

what

up

the

between

Book

"West

the

in

In

1.

Birth

Great,

and

isolated

there

perhaps

Buddhist
2.

in

allusions

and

Phsedrus.

in

to

the

counterparts

other

and

Alexander

by

legendary ^sop,

like

of

some

time

to

tales

found

in

Jews

into

Greek,

these

versions

languages

made

of

the

Babrius
of

the

the

of

Buddhist

Hebrew,

afterwards

tales to
About

book

origin.
of

Latin.
in

the

latter

work

be

time

containing

Translations
all

first

can

translated

was

appeared

Babrius

Europe

the

Persian

and

of

time

found

Greece,

Buddhist

the

to

Indian

pMce.

Arabic

into

translation

of

probably

of

in

current

poeticalversions

are

taken

have

of tales also

number

became

the

migration

no

In

time

They
the

From

Crusade

was

India

stories

to

collection

preserved

are

4.

references

are

also

of

invasion

the

Buddhist

proved

Greek

passages

Alexander's

and

3.

of

in

us

ones.

After

the

their

to

nexion
con-

"

writers, earlier than


the

tales, preserved
Stories, and

tlie

on

few

said

be

present

Indian

Buddhist

of

at

can

the

by
of

principal

Europe.
eleventh

into

Latin

twelfth

or

of

the

century

legend

of

translation

Barlaam

and

SUMMARY

famous

OF

of

story-teller

PART

I.

ancient

the

Greeks

has

become

"

the

the

nations

Fables,

and

tales

cousins

of

as

first

in

Europe

continual

invented

the

feast

to

distant

please
East.

as

for

literature,

under

and,

down,

handed

has

household

the

property,

common

our

and

the

first

moral

children

to

of

name

instruct

of

all

^sop's

lesson-book

in

the

our

West,

far-off

PAET

ON

THE

HISTOEY

II.

STOEIES

BIRTH

THE

OF

IN

INDIA.

In

the

previous

attempted
Western
the

tales

of

history
remains

the

be

with

is

Birth

Stories,
and

to

but

accessible

in

this

complete

the

of

degree

further

print

in

Much

Europe.

and

interesting

already

can

and

certainty,

public

the

the

trace

have

will

research

explain

to

to

results

general

considerable
which

in

literature

have

certain

between

resemblances,

done

in

resemblances

Story

Introduction

this

Buddhist

Birth

literature

made

the

history;

stated

the

out

those

to

yet

instructive

the

and

of

reason

be

point

to

of

part

to

libraries

be

of

Europe.
For

and

that

the

of

one

authorities

of

history

in

India

stories

it

contains,

the

may

for

say

it

further

has

still

research

Jataka

the

so

to

are

little

be

Book

has

been

written;

only

to

itself,

be

done,
and

found

the

in

Hi

BIRTH

manuscripts very
for

the

and

in

rare

most

follows

what

IN

STORIES

PARTS

OTHER

and

Europe,

little known.

but

part

necessarily therefore

is

guages
lan-

in

written

of

Mucli

incomplete

very

provisional.

In

portions of

some

than

the

there

are

as

to

know,

no

On

for

These

taken

of

"

story which

Stories

Maha

Pali

and

have

Tittira

not

in

the

(FausboU,

the

covered.^
dis-

and, except

passages,

Jataka

Kantha

yet

as

been

the

forms

similar

already

character

is, no

that

in

Pitakas

the

Sudassana,

the

included
or

have

isolated

in

is in both

in

Scriptures

also

of

hope

to

reason

identical

in

Mani

far

so

either

traced

been

what
some-

But,

ones.

tales

the

Birth

that

character

Buddhist

the

fragments

occur

of

every

few

Thus, for instance, the


from

is

found

King

Jatakas,

become

of

Buddhism,

than

Collection.

of

portions

the

has

these

hand, there

will be

in

story

Buddhist

Buddhist

the

studied, several

the

of the

number

Book

even

legends

of

one

older

considerable
Jataka

few

other

the

the

in

or

and

myths

similar

Europe

in

found

older

probably

and

Yedas,

literature,later

Brahmanical

the

Chinese

story is

No.

versions

Jataka

yet

as

253)
of

is

the

(Fausboll, No. 37,


word
for word
in the CuUa
almost
Vagga (vi.6, 3-5) ;
translated below) occurs
Jataka
203) is a slightlyenlarged
the
Khandhavatta
(Fausboll, No.
Jataka
version of Culla Vagga, v. 6; the Sukhavihari
(Fausboll, No. 10,
Culla
in
the
founded
is
on
a
translated
Vagga (vii.1, 4-6) ; the
below)
story
is
derived
from
the Sutta
of
No.
Jataka
Maha-sudassana
95)
(Fausboll,
Sacred
Books
of
in
in the Dlgha Nikaya (translated
the same
by me
name
Jataka
Deva
the East,' vol. ix.); the Makha
(Fausboll, No. 9, translated
in the Majjhima Nikaya (No, 83) ;
name
below) from the Sutta of the same
Jataka
and the Sakunagghi
(Fausboll, No. 168), from a parable in the
of
the
Sagyutta Nikaya.
SatipatthanaVagga

Yinaya

Pitaka

(Oldenberg,p. xlvi);

the

'

OF

identified

with

of

Pitakas

which
The

of

in

had

Goodness,

included
Jataka

and

when,

the

Ten

Great

Renunciation,

in

In

which

he

could

the

moral

in

growth

and

labours,

not

generations;

so

of

making
lesser

Perfections

rosity,
(Gene-

series
To

whole
ten

of

of

each

be

this

of the

Buddha

See

on

this

quotations from

belief
the

the

of,

that

is the

life

performed

of

successive

many

characters

one

true

result

for
of

only,

and
but

the

all

the

do

not

are

the

through

long

two

of

these

work

is

devoted, giving in

previous births
had

below,

Ten

Perfections

in which

the

practised Generosity

respectively. The

view,

power
of

Buddha.

lives. ^
first

of

Equanimity),

acquired during,

deeds

many

the

chapter

examples

like

actions

consecutive

future

or

of

result

last

and

Firmness,

become

but

and

qualificationsnecessary

cannot

the

births,

modern

only,

one

the

the

upon

the

intellectual

Buddha,

mortals,

depend

of

in

stories,all

Wisdom,

have

not

with

striking analogy

posed
sup-

what

Patience, Truth, Resolution, Kindness,


without

his

Cariya-pitaka

is

show

acquired

real

of

Collection.

work

to

other

book

one

our

this

constructed

Gotama

But

Hii

or

one

entirely of

found

are

in

births.

consists

title

it is

PITAKAS.

PALI

tlie Buddha

previous
Pali

THE

third

pp.

Cariya Pitaka.

the

verses

verse

Bodisat

and

chapter gives only

54-58, where

ness
Good-

fifteen

259-269

are

L^

liv

BIRTH

of

examples
eight
the

of

the

And,

of

write

the

that
work

Perfections, but
four.^

Now

Mala,

as

several

MSS.

the

died

is

in

of

Ten

the

attempt

comprised

in

the

of

It

the

will

Jataka

are

consisting

of

and

verse,

in

would

be

from

find

in

titles of
and

Ten

there

conclusions

Pitaka

Cariya

called

prose

reader

the

only thirty-

London,

any

view

of

which

Perfections.^

curious

comparative

each

of

mixed

draw

to

the

in

have

Asvagosha began

work

in

to

Perfections.

versified

but

and

Stories

coincidences, but
a

had

been

Buddhists

for

Sanskrit

Paris

thirty-fiveBirth

below

he

if

as

had

Ten

teacher

unpublished,

yet

to

when

the

Northern

Births

ten

much

very

author
of

celebrated

there

illustration

looks

each

tlie other

acquired

unknown

for

giving

PARTS

lie

It

the

Stories

OTHER

whicli

curiously enough,

tradition

to

in

Perfections.

Birth

ten

IN

tlie lives

originalplan

give

STORIES

in

mature
prethese

Table

the

Jiitakas

the

Jataka

Mal5.3
is

There

constantly

Taranatha's

eighteenth
2

See

Lton

work
the

in

the

Jataka

Pali

theory.

Pitakas
The

history of

all the

Buddhas,

life of

Bodisat

in the

Geschichte

century, translated

FausbblVs

given,and
"*

is

to

also of the

account

refers

which

VAijSA,

another

yet

des
into

the

Buddhismus
German

Table, below.

Buddha-

gives

character

'

(a Tibetan
by Schiefner),
p.

work

of

an

he

tlie

92.

the full text of


Jatakas,' pp. 58-68, where
les Jiitakas,'
sur
Feer^ 'Etude
p. 57.

'Five

which

one

Jataka

is

OF

filled

It is

previous Buddhas.
of the
and

Introduction

Pali
of

most

the

to

in

verses

first

the

are

quotationsfrom

From

we

thus

four
of

source

Birth
the

isolated

other

to

the

be

out

of

it would

of the

discussion

age
in

the

very

of

the

text

p. xxxviii

almost

but

the

are

See

of

the

last three

also

be

Buddhas

in

referred

list of these
we

thus

can

upon

any

the

date

taken
all
the
to

so

Birth

no

Jataka

in

other

these

Story.

to

the

Oldenberg
his

edition
at

present

our

to

as

Stories, which

so-called

Birth

of those

highly probable

those

and

summarized

sufficient for

below, p. 62, where

Buddhas
have

as

and

to

be

lengthy

as

Dr.

by

prefixed

Yagga,

portion
pro-

literature

to

reached

work, will be

found

what

state

to

Book

question as

Maha

the

that

the

here

enter

Yinaya

certain, that

only

not

are

of

Perfections, and

Buddhist

introduction

able

twenty-four

first

provisional conclusions

and

It may

purposes.
be

The

Sutta

of the

to

difficult

twenty-

the

Jataka

the

earlier Pali

records.

earlier

in

place

vagsa.

besides

impossible yet

stories

back

the

the

mentioned.

have

it is

of the
traced

ones

this

Beyond

of

of

Buddha-

the

the

to

based,

fiftypages

previous Buddhas,^

illustration

thirty-four in

is

authority for

have

Stories,corresponding
twenty-seven

great part

Book

Jataka

our

present translation
this

that

work

that

on

the

twenty-four of

of

of each

tlie lifetime

during

Iv

PITAKAS.

PALI

THE

Book

parts

it will be

seen

itself,
of

that

the

for

Ivi

THE

Pali

Pitakas,

COUNCIL

least

at

are

OF

VESA

older

LI.

ttian

the

Council

of

YesSli.i
The
after

Council

of Yesali

Gotama's

death,

of

members

the

is uncertain

death

length of
the

'

we

can

the

the bounds
of Yesali

for

of

Buddhism

history of
of

history
advocated

the

that

at

In

view.

the

as

relaxation

of
the

only possess

This

from

will hold
to

should

turn

out

Three

Pali

Pitakas.

only parables,would

than

That

the

seem

of the

very ancient
to the fact that they are

Compare

form.
The

what

other

they

cases

above

(such

older, not

in

to the

at

as

and
in the

'"Ancient

in

stricter

present

party (or.

Cariya

Pitaka

the

stories
fact

Birth

are

still

that

i) may
ideas, but

Coins

in the

alreadybecome

the
; and
locatives
in

matter
verses

side

contained

have

quoted

the

Order

at

the

books

the

One

the

we

and

contain

this conclusion

as

the

stricter

other

for

is for

adopted

the

length in my
Orientalia,'vol. i.

questionis discussed

of Ceylon'

to

forms

is said below

in 'Numismata

of

Council

Mendicants

Nice

of

Buddhavaijsa

the

stories

to lead

rules

of the

most

preservedsome

be due

later

of

matter, which

successors

good though
be

in most

Jutakas, whereas
have

the

within

B.C.

parties.

others

But

keep

of the

of

two

the

Council,

important

Council

of the

accounts

date

as

the

number.

Order

"

among

Gotama's

the

still

of 350

into

"

the

fix the

Council

particularmatters,

ten

and

round

of

to

as

regarding

event

Buddhist

Christianity
the

date

and
possibilities,
we

arisen

tradition

that

thirtyyears
of

divided

were

all

at within

the

years

disputes

had

exact

course

certainty,if

members

The

is of

years

allow

in

between

'

hundred

certain

The

;2 and

hundred

practicewhich

Order.

interval

about

settle

to

points of disciplineand
the

held

was

they
merely
only in

Stories.
and

Measures

Iviii

ILLUSTRATIONS

The

Pariwara

Jdtaka

than

the

of

era,

is but

As

the

it is

important

Stories

having

only by

not

the Pali

There

the

are

to

based

evidence

Buddhistic

and

107-109),

their

of

have

earlier

on

the

Jataka

written

events

we

commencement

seven

it is

existed

Ceylon

to

at

knowledged
ac-

and

sources,

that, according

Buddhists

of

such

we

may

it from

the

from

or

notice

that
at

stories

the

are

Council,

existed

most

several

Chinese
pp.

been

been

the
the

the

time

Works

found

being

from

enumerated

in the India
which

we

before

Meanwhile
of

Book

long

side, either

other

early

interestingand
works

hope

the fact of
very

of those

successors

Chinese.^

the

Pitakas, but also by ancient

Among
*

best

account

Sanskrit

the

from

it is the

Great

the

the

have

to

But

Northern

held

who

in

of Yesali.

Councils

of the

of

called

book

tradition, a

century after
evidence

reliable

least

others

have

cannot

poor

have

to

it is at

which

fourth

before.

centuries

made

and

evident
descriptionis sufficiently

this

Dipavagsa,

earlier
our

the

portion of

....

of

animus
the

and

"

place!"

and

Mddesa,

the

they put aside,

much

The

Abhi-

of

Books

Six

the

Patisambhida,

So

SCULPTURE

abstract, and

dhamma

The

IN

date

is

in

other

Birth

confirmed,
parts of

monuments.

important

discoveries

by Mr. Beal in his Catalogue of


Library (seeespecially
pp. 93-97,

Office

might expect to

derive

this information.

OF

wHcli

we

India

must

to

owe

relic shrines

thought

value

of

of

been

of

would

Jataka

Grotama
be

book,

in

of Jatakas

having
of

the

the

"

are

in

been

doubly

carvings, namely,

the

the
This

carvings
titles

the

number

over

last

been
the

on

in

Stories

by

have

most

births.

sure

inscribed
which

that

is,from

from

cases

many

bas-reliefs

that

would

acquired

Birth

previous

or

found

have

proved

scenes,

it is rendered

but

those

sacred

"

Even

life.

they

of

first

at

were

civilization

been

the

There

tured
clearly sculp-

Indian

it has

last

his

incontestable

themselves,

of

since

; but

shaped

dome-

and

ancient

value

illustrations

are

Buddhist

life

of

incalculable

importance

them

the

records

as

in

scenes

in

dhist
Bud-

tbe

Bharhut.

and

boldly

very

represent merely

to

further

the

deep bas-relief, figures which

their

have

found,

of

tbose

reckoned

be

Sanchi, AmaravatI,

there

been
in

so

of

researches
arcliaeological

railings round

tbe

on

lix

STORIES.

recent

undoubtedly

carvings

have

BIRTH

THE

covered
dis-

railing

at

Bharhut.
It is not
the

to

necessary

details

of

these

discoveries.

present inquiry into


these
that
third
chosen

ancient
the

Birth

century
as

the

the

age

bas-reliefs
Stories
B.C.,

aside

turn

considered

subjectsto

It

of the

afford

were

be

here

examine

is sufiicient

Jataka

sacred

the
that

represented round

into

for

stories

our

that

evidence

indisputable

already, at
so

to

end

of

they
the

the

were

most

Ix

ON

Buddhist

sacred

detailed

will

these

found

be

Introduction
those

of

places

of

it

and

honour

the
be

in

hitherto

the

places,
this

to

of
thus

had

of

fill

to

ago,

years

shrines

covered
dis-

several

volume

this

relic

other

that

thousand

two

Jatakas/

'

appended

noticed

below

round

of

name

Tables

already

were

railings,and

will

than

more

they

Jatakas

the

all

of

one

translated

chosen,

tliat

technical

the

Buddhist

in

tales

been

under

statement

on

NAMES

PALI

buildings,and

popularly known
A

THE

Great

the

Teacher.

be

fact

remarkable

One

Birth

the

that

Stories

the

those

them

given

to

Pitakas.

This

although

the

known

been

would

at the

are

clearlygiven

exist.

But,

Jataka

Book

of

the

sight, to

have

we

by

Thus, No.
(Feer,

story,

in

titles,^ ^but

different

"

both

Losaka

Jataka

and

also

Kumbhila

carved,
names

then

not

find

in

and

Jataka

the

parts

of these

one

the

to

as

different

les Jatakas,' p. 121) ; No.


439
sur
Jataka
also Mitta-vindaka
{Ihid. p.
Jataka

have

did

only

not

called

must

were

uncertainty

being

that,

different

'Etude

and

called Vanarinda

we

great

very

is called

41

each

Pali

the

show

them

bas-reliefs

hand,

stories

same

of

end

other

itself

Book

Jataka
VARA

first

the

when

the

at

the

on

the

Jataka

time

as

in

Book

the
from

different

names

Jataka

at

seem,

in

called

present collection,in which

the

that

"

the

stories

very

yet

names,

in

by

will

Table

that

sometimes

are

bas-reliefs

inscriptionsover

from

apparent

very

Mitta-vindaka
is called

Catud-

No,

57

is

(FausboU,

vol.

i.

120) ;

OF

bas-reliefs

has

The

for

lion

show

the

this

and

choose

to

Lion

Jataka,'

Good

Character

about

follow

called

those

both

if
difficult,

should

at

different

much

the

bas-reliefs

thus

vol. ii. p.
Jataka

Jataka

Bahu-bhani
Guna

Jataka

cat

(Cat

and

Jataka

and

same

Munika
;

might
The

been

taught, and

the

and

changeable.
inter-

to

attach

names

in

Jataka

on

trans-

and

also

469, 470) ; No. 102,


No.
217, there called

story as
Jataka,

is the

215, the

Kacchapa

No.

which

title which

And

Telapatta
vol. i. pp.

was

have

become

of

even

accordingly

taught

Book.

is called

is the

as

be

was

difference

Jataka

96

'

to

to

it

or

fable

therefore

wrong

30, there called


Saluka
Jataka

same

story as
Jataka,

Jataka

Jataka,

Cunningham,

fable of

No.

acts

arise,

the

the

Jataka,

called

is called

206) ;

; No.

is called

be

in

lesson

was

fable

short

to

called

was

always

must

{Ihid. vol. i. p. 393, and

called Pannika

286, there

No.

and

it

results

is referred

the

would

to

and

Jataka

fix upon

whose

importance

p. 278, and
TakkasTla

fable
It

would

157)

JN'o. 215), the

Chatterbox

through

It

Seggu

(as in

evil

the

show

the

JS^o.

it

when

fable

Jataka,'

and

names.

names

too

'

characterize

once

it,

Jackal

Jataka

The

in

(as

title for

impossible,to

not

personages

there

distinct

When

good character,

'The

or

Jataka,' and

Tortoise

the

told

short

talkativeness
be

under

it two

plain.

was

tortoise, to

on

well

as

of

*The

told

Ixi

over

is very

jackal

advantage

necessary

The

STORIES.

inscribed

actually

reason

about

BIRTH

full ! ^

in

names

THE

'The
a

in the Dhammapada
(p.419) ; and No. 157
Jataka.
Jataka, and Sigala
Stupa of Bharhut,' pi. xlvii. The carving illustrates
SIha

cock, and

and

Cock

is labelled both

Jutaka).

Bidala

Jataka

and

Kukkuta

Ixii

JATAKA

THE

latingtlie titles
latitude

early

is

*Jatakas/
division

the

of

of

The

in

^The

the

the

Sacred

Pali

the

sections

follows

that

it

schism

took

place

to

as

It

by

tbe

of

the

is
the

mentioned,

between

of

(one

only

in

in

works

Saddharma

work

of

therefore,

to

before

possibly
case

it is

of Jatakas

the
both

and

Church;

use

any

later

the

Sanskrit

collection

is

seventh

not

the

in

them,
In

divisions,

Sumaggala YilasinI, but

Buddhist

probably

of

the

times
some-

(Jatakai)). This

is common,

the

itself.

existence

the

which

standard

of

was

of Yesali

different

Collection'

in

but

Buddhists).^
two

nine

Pitakas), and

Northern

Council

Scripturesare

Books

(a late,

the

Buddhist

Jataka

Pundarika

of

in

confirmatory

Agguttara Nikaya

in

included

ourselves

evidence

(Ai)gani), of

Dipavagsa itself,and

also

allow

to

indulged

was

consistingof

as

texts

or

ANGANI.

afraid

be

whicli

further

tradition.

of

sorts

THE

themselves.

yet

spoken

OF

not

that

to

Buddhists

Dlpavagsa

or

need

we

similar

There

ONE

the

it

great

before

the

conclusive
at

very

early date.

The

text

the Southern

and

See
Dr.

the

of the

Book,

as

Buddhists, consists, as

authorities

Morris,

Jataka

in the

quoted
Academy

manual,
my
for May, 1880.

in

now

will

received
be

from

seen

Buddhism,'

among

pp.

the

214, 215

JATAKA

translation,

or

which

verses

it is said

the

Story
and

finally,a

and

earlier

stories; and

is,in fact,

the

Jataka

the

Jatakas/

itself

of

the

or

these

date

given

points.

passage,

Buddhaghosa
the

say

We

least, very

the

the

In

Ms

whole
of

hand
it

the

concisely

Commentary

on

Mr.

the

of

author

the

The

composed.

was

of

of the

all

tion
present informa-

our

elsewhere

ascribed

venture

the

think

to

work

translator

is the

Childers, who

work

that

to

this

is,

uncertain.

seventh
thirtyalmost

chapter

and

Dictionary,Preface, p. ix, note.

first

of

distinctly

Atthasalini

the

Maha-

account

it is there

the

DhammasarjginI,

the

of

contemporaneous

stated, that after writing in India

Story;

commencement

Buddhaghosa's literarywork;

on

on

ductory
Intro-

the

to

called

name

it

contains

;i but

perhaps

the

Birth

later

have

when

at

has

have, in the

vagsa,^

the

title is *The

either

(below,pp. 1, 2)

this

to

know

not

account

on

an

work,

meagre

full

in

by

occasion

in

Introduction

though

tbe

stories ;

the

personages

edition

of

Conclusion, explaining

characters

an

its

Book,

do

the

long general

It

this

the

of the

giving

told ;

been

elaborate

an

Explanation

each

them,

between

work.

We

of

to have

connexion

in

occur

each

to

of

stories, but
detailed

Ixiii

BUDDHAGHOSA.

the

containing

Introduction
which

of

only

not

commentary,
verse

AND

BOOK

of

Turnoui",pp.

(a

mentary
com-

the

250-253.

Six

Ixiv

WHO

Books

of

(about

430

tbe

COMPILED

the

Abhidhamma

a.d.) with

tbe

Tbera

the

allowed

wish, and
then

monks

translate

the

to

on

the

was

has

as

that

say

possess.
on

been

author

He
the

of

of the

(Mkayas)

the

mentioned

those

very

general expression of
*

what

say

books

that

expressionas

any

Pali

to

be

and

used

commentary,

Buddhaghosa,

the

being

ambiguous

some

words

render

Chronicle
the

'

it

his

out

carry
The

be

by

whole

no

means

that

Commentaries

he
now

we

on

the four

great divisions

; but

these

works, together

would

above,

were

to

'

granted, the

and

with

Commentary

Purity

be

may

Pitaka

bis

Buddhism),

But

Pali.

Pali

Pitaka

Sutta

did

of

generally supposed,

too

all

all

Ceylon

be

into

translated,it

Yinaya

of

studied

proved

Path

commentaries.

Sinhalese Commentary^
follows,

in

translating
be

having

The

'

of

There

and

compendium

the

by

goes

Pali.

work

great

(Yisuddhi-Magga,
was

into

Ceylon

to

went

intention

express

Saggbapali,

his

efficiencyby

BOOK.

Pitaka), lie

Sinhalesecommentaries

under

JATAKA

THE

amply

chronicler.

the

taries
Commen-

justify the
The

lese
Sinha-

lost, it is impossible to

now

what

in the

included

not

were

Mahavaijsa
than

other

those

further

evidence

of

Ceylon

the

and

under

assign

to

just mentioned,
clear

more

Chronicle

than

should

required.
What

work

little evidence
now

in

we

question seems

have
to

as

me

regards
to

tend

the

very

particular

strongly

Ixvi

JATAKA

certainlyhave
instance
would

been

confirm

work

been

been

ascribed

It

is

that

this

Pali

Jataka

of

The

mentions

be

have

almost

agrees

been

for

word

on

which

usually

The

Jataka

which

has

occur

in

works

Book

Fausboll, vol. i. p.

See

Bengal
and

the

in

anything

the translation
from

Asiatic
contents

the

word,

from

ascribed

is not

62

and

Tumour's

the

p. 488

in

case

one

it.^

Pali

Our

said

be

cannot

'

58

to

124

p.

to

of
the

mentioned

only

of

Pali

Birth

above,

the
in

Commentary
Stories.

different

the

and

exegetical

only commentary

print,

; vol. ii. p.

They

that

the

on

224.

82.

analysisof

passages

part of the

and

p.

ancient

known

Society, 1839, where


of other

previous

Buddhaghosa.^

to

Ceylon,

below, p.

Sinhalese

present Commentary

Buddhavagsa

is

the

Madhura-attha-vilasinT,

passages

composed

judge

And

of the

use

numerous

which

of

the

made

it,but

the

Commentary
is not

of

overrule

to

upon

it.

translation,with

my

only

have

connexion,

possibly formed

based
of

version

mere

this

separate book;^

it says

what

may
a

as

present
not

refers to

times

three

which

Commentary,

Sinhalese work,

work

author

one

all.

at

translation

the

time, it would

his

is not

know

had

notice, perhaps, in

work

Commentary.

and

supposition;
than

We

Maliava;)sa itself,which

the

Buddhaghosa

to

worthy

the

of

later

much

followed.

quickly

least,that

at

OUTSIDE

TALES

some

given in

that

long

work
extracts

abstract.

in

the

have

Journal
been

of

the

translated,

Dhamma-padai)

considerable

has

may

be

of

the

edition
entitled

Burmese

In

connected

with

entirelyof

Jataka

Siam

there

Leon

that

out

The

but
M.

Feer

three

the

'Etude

This

sur

les

is clear

of the

is, ' End

same

from

three

given

collection,

our

no

in

our

of

that

lection
col-

fifties;^

or

either

of those

of

in

fiftytales

be

us

pointed

literature

it contains

any

Birth

Fifty

has

PanndmSy

cannot

Middle

of
i. p. 410
find the words

Fifty.'

corresponding entry,
is no such entry at the

Pathamo

shows

have

that

there

must

62-65.

vol.

tale, we

100th

of the

Jatakas,' pp.

stated.

in

Pali
and

been

scholar

same

that
as

way

has

contained

collection

of

Jatakai) ('The

the

into

end

At

the

of

the

these,

tales

either of

as

ning
beginthese

been,

one

jj,-^

FausboU'

pp_

66-71.

text, where, at the


Majjhima-pannasaho
nitthito, that
of the
'

150th
at

Mr.

end

pannnso,

consists

"

Fifties.'

'

end

in

ascertained

has

in

the

first hundred

Siamese

the

(that is

')

collection

account

an

rival

and

divided

are

'

tales.

Pannasa-

found

bis

from

translation

"

Dbamma-padag

stories,not

be

to

country .2

tbe

to

by Captain Rogers,

work

Dbammapada-yattbu

even

Feer;^

isolated

also

are

is

Commentary,

appendix

an

as

Parables'

of which

Jatakas'), and
M.

tbe

is called

Stories, which

by

and

called

book

Stories

almost

by Buddhagbosa,
text;

this

from

tains
con-

FausboU

Mr.

tbem.

of

extracts

Buddbagbosa^s

'

Scripture Yerses,'

of

number

published copious

"wbich

Collection

'

or

Ixvii

BOOK.

JATAKA

OUR

First

50th

tale

Fifty

'

(p. 261) there is


though there

and

tale, the expression' Middle

time,

such

division

as

Fifty'
is above

PROFESSOR

Ixviii

In

India
of

some

as

itself

included

in

the

Maha

the

of

of

Pancha

the

which

is

is the

tinued
con-

to

referred

already frequently

this

to

Although

the
the

"

important contribution

the

of

date

give

yet published ;

as

his

in

origin of
unable

are

we

either

work,

this

as

receive,

we

Buddhist

chapter

indicated

by

book.

discussed
the

in

the
as

" 225.

considerable

to

present
author
it

number

or

cannot

final

give
to

as

to

seems

followed

This

and

study

me,

that

it

have

been

'

That

is,in

the

course

of Prof.

any
the
no

turned
ginally
ori-

especiallyfrom
it was
already

But
of

the

fables

See, for instance, above, p. xxvii ; and below, p. 185.


Theodor
Pantscha
Tantra,' von
Benfey, Leipzig, 1859, p. xi.

clusions
con-

"

unimportant compensation in the fact,


out,3 with a certainty beyond doubt, to
a

the

popular story-book:^

at
to

to

his

words

own

Benfey

Introduction

learned

and

most

information

certain

Professor

that

elaborate

the

to

book

that

than

better
as

the

the

come

we

the

extremely

of

evidence

tales till

Jataka

of this class of literature

"

further

no

history of

devoted

do

Bharata

of

date

Tantra.

It is to the

has

is

epic

Hindu

losophy,
mythology, phi-

Indian

Maha

the

the

work

great

Unfortunately, the

of

there

existence

the

of

rise, of

the

preserved by being

were

Bharata,

folk-lore.^

uncertain, and

time

of them

fall,

tlie

survived

Stories

storehouse

arrangement

ON

probably preceded

few

and

final

had

Not

became

which

tlie Birth

them

Buddhism.

BENFEY

Benfey'sresearches.

and

tales contained
in

in

Buddhist

relation

work,

tlie

and

the

that

writings, incline
that

the

within

latter

the

"The
of

the

were

here

in

Buddhism

ways

for

"

is.

We

is of

conclusion

the

which

work,

our

origin is

Buddhist

will

the

work

determination

of

what

we

"

find in it

can

our

firstly on which
the
history of

the

secondly, for

and

in

literature,proceeded

work

insist

further

the

Buddhist

the

to

"

from

source

our

two

us

told

are

in

appear

drive

nay,

"

that

proof

itself ;

us

they

they

traced

also

and

number,

in which

form

circle of Buddhist

importance

not

Their

which

in

also be

work, wliicli could

writings.

between

Ixix

TANTRA.

PANCHA

THE

of

proof

more

one

that

articles
to which, in my
literaryactivityof Buddhism,
on
India,' which
appeared in 1840,^ I had already felt
important place
myself compelled to assign the most
in the enlightenment and
general intellectual development
*

to

of

India.

year,

fresh

since

confirmations,

which

in another

together
that

has

the

view

This

place ;
of

bloom

very

hope

year

bring

to

hope

to

prove

intellectual

life

of

India

and
the

received, from

whereby

Buddhist
or
expressionin Brahmanical
and
is
Buddhism,
works) proceeded substantiallyfrom
Buddhism
the
with
epoch in which
contemporaneous

(whether it

flourished
Christ

"

to

reason,'^ the

is

autonomy

of

man's

realms

the

of the

contraveneth
Intellect

knowable

Christ.

proclaimed by
only that teaching

acknowledged;
fairlysay, effectively
between

after

been

'that

which

true

century before

century

have

its earliest years,

Buddha's

third

the

seventh

or

principle,said
in

the

sixth

the

that

Buddhism

is to say, from

that

to

With

of

found

and

was,

whole

the

sound

not

of the

we

may

relation
able
unknow-

subjected to its control; and notwithstanding


the ultimate
to which
that the actual
reasoning powers,
not
in fact then
thus
altogether
appeal was
given,were
was

"

In

'

Ersch

und

WassilieWf

Griiber's

Der

at
especially
Encyklopsedie,'

Buddhismus,'

etc., p. 68.

pp.

255

and

277.

Ixx

THE

PANCHA

TANTRA

sound, yet tlie way


could, under
more
liberate itself from
to

IS

pointed

was

favourable

BUDDHIST.

value, in the

labours,

indeed

thorougbness

of

Buddhism,

but

quaint,

aiming

at

wortby of tbe bigbest respect, of its


in inquiry. And
earnestness
that, side by side
frivolous
this, the merry
jests of light, and even

severe

with

and

poetry

and

conversation, preserved the

life,is clear

from

still

from

more

other

the

Indian

of

cheerfulness

of

prevailing tone

work,

our

the

probable Buddhist
have
story-books which

so

known

origin of
hitherto

and
those

become

to us."

Professor
Pancha

Benfey

Tantra

then

proceeds

consisted

certainlyeleven, perhaps

of

thirteen

teach

books;

and

of

that

princesright government
had

collection

it

and

design;
from

then

the

Pancha

sake, the
occurred

it is

older

Tantra,

and

Damnag'
*

Compare

'

See

that

part

Tantra,

called, for
Five

impossible to

say.

the

travelled
whole

into
of

the

whole

The

distinction's

Books.

But
the

this

When

it

this

detached

part became

to

was

descriptiveof

title

was

or

just possibly

conduct.^

larger collection, not

which
of

source

after

the

five, but

originaldesign

and

different

only

was

that

rest

of

twelve, and
its

that

show

to

originally,not

of

the

begin to
alreadylearning

its

sometimes

Eeason

circumstances,

are
failings. We
pbilosopbicalendeavours

the

wMcli

by

out

certainly

was

present Pancha

Persia, and
extensive

became

the

*Kalilag

and

literature.^

the

above,

title of the

p. xxix.

Birth

Story above, p. xxii,

'

Lesson

for

Kings.*

THE

The
the

Arabian

ancient

certain

to

be

in

the

the

Kalilag

and

upon

the

sixth

century

such

they

could

have

difficult to

avoid

as

suppositionthat
been

our

own

Buddha
afford

in
a

which

derived

all

that

connecting

these

the

If

an

of

the

last

the

that

birth.

facts

Arabic

exact

our

Such

Kalilah

modern

translation

of

Knatchbull,

sense

p. 29.

it is

in

may,

stories

of

the

in

which

together by

life, and

the

fact,

bearing

preceded,
life of

the

supposition would
facts

curious

some

and

of

them

precisely

from

Bidpai

of

explanation

the

they borrowed;

sketch

of

it is

Jataka

conduct

its

Bagdad

to

Stories

to

those

took

both

that

quite inexplicable

been

translation,in
of

ascribed

work

collection,by

reasonable

have

theory.
exact

Birth

consider

place, as

same

and

era;

of

selection

his

the

Book

the

especiallyon

more

like

in

well

may

we

originalstaken

our

in his

literature

literature ;

Buddhist
of

'

Josaphat

'

Damnag

There
when

And

time, and

based

book

and

same

are

have

tradition.

Barlaam

origin at
*

this

of Alexander

wisdom.^

to

it in order

composed

successor

in worldly
possessions,

(through

assign it

collection

this older

Dabschelim, the

truth

translated

is said to have

who

Ixxi

BIDPAI.

of tlie work

authors

Bidpai ;

some

that

OF

Persian) from

instruct

Indian

WORK

on

Dimnah

of the
Buddhist

the

existing
'

was

word

an

lation,
trans-

work,

how

Ixxii

OTHER

it

comes

tliat

Dimnah'

differ

from

but

there

translation
in

are

other

the

and

had

the

basis

of

such

used

different

might

have

discarded

contradiction

The

portions of

with

first three
to

Bidpai

also found

in

the
essentially

the

If

Somadeva

form

before

the

up

of

in

in

Sanskrit

Hitopadesa,
had

had

him, he

Indian

other

of

(Ocean

the

the

would

them,

and

directly in

by

twelfth
which
Pancha

Tantra,
on

the

the

whole,

Rivers

have

in

of

Buddhist
and

much

Tantra

probably

are

"

Northern

cribed
as-

Story-books,

century,
is

work

the

Pancha

same,

Somadeva

well-known

chapters

slightlydifferent,but,

in

on

have

might

before

form

Stories),composed
named

five

make

Katha-Sarit-Sagara

works

religiousbeliefs.

own

two

works,

suggested, we

expressions too

of those
which

fresh

on

derived

or

writers

material

the

any

their

work

been

no

If,

merely

effect

different

the

how

and

Buddha,

had

has

original as

an

Buddhist

Buddhistic?

in

how

"

Buddhist

were

current

original?

the

writers
a

the

from

to

and

Kalilag

to

same

them

later

what

composed

understand

can

of

subject-matter from

their

the

translations

face

themselves,

among

Syriac

references

the

hand,

of

these

no

expressions on
the

only

and

'Kalilah

the

also, according

was

that

of

copies

greatly, not

which

it

LATER

lately discovered

hypothesis, a
comes

various

so

the

Damnag,'

book

the

AND

in

the

later

work.

its

present

included

the

Ixxiv

THE

reference
of

in

those

Table

of

the

certain

There
in

to

Each
and

itself
and

of

Pitakas

about

the

called

instance,

these
for

and

Stories

from
as

the

No.

as

probably

fact

having

are

that
been

Story
Past,

the

No.

of the

derived

told at the

of

the
tales
of

(such, for
4,

No.

or

little

differ very

12)

or

many

Book

Introductory Stories

the

same

mere

duce,
story they intro-

from

Birth

be

to

seem

entirely devoid
different

and

Poadling,

below)
of

in

book

consists

Jataka

the

principal idea

the

of

another

Buddhists

17

Birth

the

which

Little

Other

explaining where

Paccuppanna-vatthu
is

Kassapa,

Introductory Stories
clear

in

tale about

instance,

are

in

and

presented

are

Story

or

the

early

Apadanas.

repetitionsof

mode

the

on

trace,

Buddha;

Apadanai),

Kumara

the tale about

(such,

the

There

of. the

the

to

the Atita-vatthu

called

as

words

another

by

by

Present.

Introductory

from

attempted

told

lives

few

history in Europe

is introduced

the

Pali

the

add

to

Introductory Story

the

thing
any-

Book.

was

being

Story

only

Jataka

it

why

which

present known.

above

story

important

most

story-books of

stories, whose

have

in the

us

later Indian

is at

the

STORIES.

I., together with, the

remains

which

India

INTRODUCTORY

it.

of

credit

Stories
time

the

That

and

are

is
troduced
in-

place,

and

in

ten

stories

love-sick
the

tlie

to

answer

eacli

are

monk

as

said

Birth

to

at

Story

least four
of

After

the

in

Story ;

in

which

the

the

from

in

the

better

the

refer

to

summarized

as

the

of

of

must

ideas

of

passage
does

course

into

the

the

this

persons
a

*soul'
teach

not

Its

doctrine

(which

fuller

statement

of

of

Manual

my

the

cases

supposed

time

identityof

Souls.
for

the

Buddhism

other.
of

at

ages
person-

two

or

are

Christian

the
to

the

one

reader

importing

owing

in

comes

Introductory

in the

that

earth

on

And

intricate, and

I must

the

Transmigration

somewhat

to

one

stances
in-

other

many

Atlta-vatthu

the

reborn

stories is

two

the

those

with

by supposing that

Conclusion

Introduction

identifies

noticed

be

of

mistake

the

told, there

Buddha

Story

Paccuppanna-vatthu.^
avoid

as

are

been

have

the

mentioned
been

Introduction

there

;2 and

stories

it should

have

the

kind.^

Birth

but

also

certain

as

below

appears

others

two

the

characters
to

30

similar

Conclusion,

not

No.

to

than

against his folly; ^

him

to

less

no

told

been

have

closely-allied
story given

to

in

to

warning

Thus

question.

same

Ixxv

CHARACTER,

OF

TRANSMIGRATION

Buddhism^)

Transmigration

is

which

would

be

of Character;

Nos.

61, 62, 63, 147, 159, 193, 196, 198, 199, 263.
Nos.
106, 145, 191, 286.
Nos.
58, 73, 142, 194, 220, and 277, have the same
And
Nos.
so
60, 104, 116, 161.
And
Nos.
127, 128, 138, 173, 175.
See

the

pp.

99-106.

Pali

note

at the

end

of Jataka

No.

91.

IntroductoryStory.

Ixxvi

THE

ABHISAMBUDDHA-GATHA,
"

for

it is

entirely independent

prevalent
of

body
for

notion

the

but

is

death

to be

of

the

inheritor

intellectual

could
in

not,

the

according

continual

Bodisats.
when

Buddhist

were

the

of

dies

is his

Buddhahood,

acquired

theory, be

successive

of

continues

exist

to

words

of his

result

the

of

result

accumulated

Karma

moral

goodness, the

which

only thing

the

acquired by

generations

many

another;

to

constitute

the

they

The

man

Character

insight and

to

effort

thoughts

and

The

Bodisat,

Soul, which,

transferred

perfectionwhich

lifetime

one

of the

have

human

eacli

spirit. The

to

is

widely-

and

early

within

ghost, or

body,

one

the

existence

supposed

not

previous Bodisats.
and

tlie

distinct soul, or

instance,

on

of

of

(literallyhis

deeds

and

the

curious

theory

some

new

individual

that

this

is

result

due

and
in

concentrated

is

the

to

doing ');

older

theory

of

soul.
In

the

of

case

Conclusion

is

Conclusion

contains

of

wholly

Such

moral.

when

he

had

become

them
and

from

spoken

similar

there

by

only

They

the

in

are

so

inserted
Bodisat.

by

called

the
but

to

way

called

are

occur,

Bodisat,

the

cases

added

spoken by
a

276), the

several

verses

they

Yerses

verses

and

or

when

still

was

verse

or

No.

(FausboU,

verse

verses,

Buddha.

the

in

Ahhisamhuddha-gathdy
not

Jataka

one

Buddha,
when

he

distinguish

in the

Birth

Each

story

Story,
has

its

OR

or

verse

Conclusion,
in

cases

and

small
relatively

published^);

together

occur

indeed

small

Jatakas

Birth

and

Story,

There

the

is

in

which

of

out

Jatakas

the

in

they
is very

Atlta-vatthu

occur

hundred

three

hundred

two

the

and

of the

course

generally spoken

most

are

of

number

of

cases

remaining

verses

or

several

are

verses

The

Ceylon

the

Commentary

upon

tradition

them
and

the

by

Commentary

and

;
^

.2

now

so

far

forms

their

to

as

And

that

say

longer extant,

no

the

the

these

Birth

sisted
con-

Stories

are

IntroductoryStories,

Pada-gata-sannaya,''or
the

of

which

that

that

supposing

goes

now

the

explanation

this

prose

alone

verses

Conclusions

for-word

the

Book,

original Jataka
of

for

reasons

than

older

are

setting.

on

the

in

the

himself.

Bodisat

the

five

ten

the

in

(being only

verse

of

verses

published2);

in

one

number

with

sixty-fivethe

the

the

and

in

or

Ahhisamhuddha-gdthd

are

(being only

Ixxvii

The

both.

in

verses

BUDDHA,

Ailta-vattJm

the

sometimes
all the

which

in

either

verses,

THE

BY

SPOKEN

VERSES

verses,

archaic

are

word-

Commentary

forms

and

forced

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 28, 29, 37, 55, 56, 68, 85, 87, 88, 97, 100, 114, 136
eighteen in the Eka-Nipiita); 156 ( 55, 56), 196, 202, 237 ( 68),
(total,
241
(total,five in the Duka-Mpata) ; 255, 256, 258, 264, 284, 291, 300
1

Nos.

(total,seven
2

Nos.

This

in the

Tika-Nipata,

152, 168, 179, 233,


helief underlies

the

and

thirtyaltogether).

286.

curious

note

forming the

last words

of the Maha-

after the death


of the
held the Council
who
supina Jiitaka, i. 345 : "Those
in
the
rukhha
usabha
lines
the
Blessed
One
Commentary,
heginning
placed
into one
and then, making the other lines heginning labuni
they put
verse,
all
those
Jatakas
the
into
(the Jataka)
Eka-Nipata (the chapter including
which

have

only one

verse)."

Ixxviii

STORIES

in

constructions
tlie

the

are

found,

are

older.
to think

I venture

But

verses

Birth

Stories, the

that the

and

in

through

European
a

also

very

verses

the

had

those

stories

Pali

Pitakas

in the

be

already

current

them

Conclusion

the

the

oldest, in the
trouble

to

it contains

the

that

in

or

proved

the

oldest

to

belong

the

older than
Stories,though probably originally

the

these

they contain,
of the

facts

were

handed

compilation of

Sinhaleselanguage ;
were

seems

not

our

whilst

translated, but

received, in Pali.

their

which, from

that

reconcile

last

the

on

to

down

to

me

in

be

will

the
were

verses

on

Birth
verses

till the

Ceylon

present Jataka

all

at

only hypothesiswhich

The

date.

in

takes

will find

in
cases,

many

become

only in
not

of the

latter,were

note

who

one

collections,can

early

the

verses

oldest,if

any

of

number

found

being

they

found

the
For

that

least in

list in

the

list seriatim

that

of
at

verses,

are

fact,among

considerable

to

verses

collection.

whole
go

the

where

are,

"

in

verses

present form

Stories without

Birth

enumerated

those

page,

the

the

most

stories after

to the

added

were

than

latter,or

first ; that

existence

"

may

the

that,though the present form

be older

of the

of

some

conclusion

the

point to

to

seem

with

parts of tlie

tlie prose

in which

state

corrupt

VERSES.

(in striking contrast

verses

simplicityof

regularityand

book), and

\J

tlie

THE

THAN

OLDER

Book,
the

time

in

other

preservedas they

the

hand
were

OF

ARRANGEMENT

There
older

is

another

than

the Bodisat
and

not

an

actor

in

made

when

addition

an

the

adopted by
translated
the

of

stories

at

where

Bodisat

is

But

the

tree.^

to

of the

been

occurs

was

fable

above
of

most

rukkha-devatd^th.Q

materials

cient
insuffi-

are

otherwise

as

includes

contain.

those

only

stories in

than

one

having

verse

two

First

verses

Second,
Third

the

to

the

the

each

verses

division
exceeds

and

so

on,

hundred

one

and

decreasing rapidly
four ;

fifty Jatakas

and

being

the

after

the

number

of

the

five

whole

in

contained

this division, depending

See, for instance,below, pp.


Jataka, No. 113.

stories

on

so

each

in

hundred

unimportant

212, 228, 230, 317;

and

of

twenty-two

above,

which

stories,

Fourth,

of

number

the

(Nipata)

stories

fiftystories,containing respectivelythree

them

number

division

fiftyof

and

the

not
classified,

are

according

Thus, the

hundred

one

tion
present collec-

our

They

their contents, but

they

verses

it

the

only,

have

may

Skin, and

forward

this

put

is

Lion's

the

unpractical one.

most

according to

Even

arrangement

is

each

the

part

Such

in

moralizer

story in which

the

in which

conjecture.

The

have

play, whose

the

Ass

the

present

mere

of

of chorus,

sort

Buddhists.

genius of

fairy or

as

appears

be

to

seems

namely,

others ; those,

the

Ixxix

BOOK.

stories which

of

group

of

most

JATAKA

THE

of

four
each
verses

and

Nipatas.
a

p.

factor

xii;

and

Ixxx

REPETITION

the

as

and

of

number

tlie round

divisions

to

be

within

mentioned
will

in

given

with

one

again

with

more

in the

of

in

the

the

Nos.
Suruci

that

are

that

say

several

but

given

and

they

Jatakas

I^ipata,are
follow

only

sionally
occa-

little variation,

tales

Jiitaka

stories

woven,

not

fables.

or

(On Mercy
not

of

by
192

very
this

yet published

110, 111, 112, 170,

Jatakas, which

count

in
the

in the

is
the

Thus,
to

for

instance,

closely,into
perhaps
Pali, but

learned

No.

30=No.

286.

the
of

68=No.

The

one.

TJmmagga
which

Batuwan

Uimnagga Jataka,
No.

consists

Animals)*

and

Jataka.
2

only

enumeration, really contain

present

Sir)halesetranslation
1

First

repeated,with

even

striking instance

Jataka,

those

Jatakas

and

the

hand, several

different

seven

most

in

ones

which,

properly

not

to

first four

stories

should

Nipatas

in

only

tbem

several

two

later

the

verses

Kulavaka

the

first

verse

other

story

several

Thus

tbe

out

Nipiita.^

the

one

as

in

story is

same

On

them.

in

stories

tbe

principleadopted,

the

found

be

logicallycarried

by including in

up

the

according
placed

of

numbers

STORIES.

is not

tlie verses,

made

are

OF

237.

the

Tudawa

No.

264

in

SUMMARY

Ixxxii

be

the

probable explanation

most

Book

Jataka
faith

of

century

to

who

B.C.,

ascribed

stories

Buddha

this

step

fables

parables or

distinguish,and
been

known

Tope

Bharhut

at

used

there

already

it is clear

in

made

stories thus

people

the

tradition

of

Book

at

Jataka

by

at

the
of

mention
the

the
the

of

birth.

each

with

From

the

merely

been

invented

of

use

that

then

time.

brought together
probabilityof

difierence

of

Councils

of

Jataka

Scriptures found

Book
in

when
among

the

be

this

confirmed,

early

that

into

is

been

But

would

at

it

which

have

must

is

have

Buddhist

the
in

to

word

popularly accepted

the

gave

stories which

way

word

early date

very

in

word

consequence

; and

but

literaryactivity as

been

kind

some

done

been

have

the

were

to

fourth

or

of fables,

had

considerable

some

natural

should
of

the

religious

number

inscriptionson
from

sacred

the

Buddhists,
Jatakas

the

the

Buddha,

those

earliest

The

accustomed

so

third

character

Jatakas,'

that

for

use

the

taken, what

and

to

previous

only of,

in

is

due

our

ficance
specialreligioussigni-

best

some

became
used

tbe

of

rise

of

the

to

and

was

sanctified.

thus

present

in

himself

when

time

of

only repeated

not

by identifying the
the

was

Buddhists

peculiar sacredness

it

that

suppose

Indian

the

parables,and
them

THE

OF

the
lection
col-

having

firstly,
by

opinion concerning
Yesali
in
the

the

and

secondly

ninefold

sion
divi-

Agguttara Nikaya

HISTORY

in

and

this,

tlie Saddharma
of

or

THE

OF

With

regard

to

well

may

have

to the

as

have

traditions

will have

Stories, in
invented

and

having

Birth

reader.

been

'

Stories
There

is

'

is also
the

with

true

of

life of the

simple
to

stories
their

so

the

be

be

of

of

origin,

sion)
transmis-

in

view

than

to

in the

latter

the

Introduction

compared

^sop's Fables,

forefathers,the

later

every

simplicityabout

that

the

finally
compiler

patent

sadly wanting

long

may

their

down

were

its

by

point

and

so,

whole

Legends
as

is

much

Buddha)

mediaeval

modern

more

that

afterwards

modified

more

were

These

handed

been

Saints
which

'Stories

the

Stories

(and

this

containing

more

accurately

than

with

stiU
of

liable,
re-

Introductory

were

collection

much
a

they

Stories, till they

freshness

'

Present

have

themselves, will

Stories of the Past

of the

Birth

rest

(either through

they represent
the

then

present

our

That

Ceylon.
their

or

the

on

of

part

will

the

less

Buddha.

earliest

rise to the

Pitakas,

or

more

at which

the

by

which

which

Pali

in the

occasion

uttered

of

these

found

tradition,

the

given

imitation

commentary

in

and

been

to

made

cribed
as-

later

are

Jatakas, among

the

those

been

time

supposed

as

be

to

least

at

of

compiler

probably

cases

some

of

some

included

certainlybe

there

in

the

Stories.

the

may

To

early collection, are

some

Ixxxiii

BOOK.

Pnndarlka.

the Yerses, which


than

JATAKA

the

bear

such
a

Past.'

ness
like-

Ixxxiv

HISTORY

The
the

OF

Jatakas

Pali
that

may

be

whole

constituted

so

island
taken

(a

carried

were

translated

about

and

A.D.,

by

the

Book, the translation

B.C.);

which

verses,

fifth

author, of

the

Pali

into

the

in

the

left

were

the

of which

and

preserved

compilation in

unknown

an

200

and

Sinhaleselanguage (except the


untranslated) until

quite certain, but

not

into

in

Ceylon

to

first introduced

was

is

that

date

provisionallyas

there

was

BOOK.

Buddhism

language, when

into

JATAKA

THE

century
Jataka

is commenced

English

in this volume.
When

,1

consider

we

the

which

by

aid

subtle

quite

was

of

sense

good-natured

the

among

contemporaneous

point to
in

oldest
research
into
those

which

in

the
to

the

humour

of

the

out

are

called

called

in
date
*

'Stories

of

draw

the

him

that

his

to

tale

some

moral

in

from

being probably

as

be

detail the
of

of

the

of the

that

already possible

each

Stories

the

existingfailures

it must

ampler

or

the

by

led

which

even

Jatakas

collection; but

carry

is

are

that

much

fable

to

or

It

events.

comparative

which
are

some

monks,

doubt

attributingto

some

arose,

Suttas

improbable

not

previous birth, to explain away

conduct

to

Pali

teach

to

is

correct

occasion

inventing, as
of

the

similes

elaborate

reasonable

no

it

parables, and

compiler

in

really accustomed

was

of

be

can

of

number

arguments

enforced, there
Buddha

the

the

left

future

investigation
stories,both

Past'

Present.'

to

the

and

those

SPECIAL

Besides
has

in

TEACHING

tiie

OF

with

common

and

secondly,

other

animals.

both

the

all the

The

Buddhas,

the

himself.

in

these

stress

the

to

tales, and
the

upon

of

records

after, such

duty

of

strange and

to

be

value

to

In

the

us

now

this

East

and

"

earlier

Tylor

they

which

they

is, of the

stages of
Waitz

frequency

their
and

with

to

is

curious
faith

here

point

value
of the

out

blind

feeKng

only

West
the

these

now

; but

paramount

consist

only

and

and

the

habits
The

Lubbock

study
of

in

between

perhaps chiefly,in
to

it

is historical.

not

development.
Peschel

in

intercommunion

render

beliefs

that

stories

also, and
will

the

courtesy,

find

beliefs

in

does

they lay

of

such

of

by

underlies

which

It

held

conspicuous

so

even

the

among

two

kindness, and

Jataka

afibrd

but

that

and

the

West,

assistance

of

to

the

animals

ancient

respect their

evidence

with

put forward

scarcely necessary

and

probably

of

foreshadowing

vague

beginning
is

the

creation.

brute

latter

sympathy

underlies

Karma

therefore

"

and

man

certainly common

and
the

itself

ideas

two

and

character;

between

of

Jatakas

to

inherited

doctrine

views

And

explains the

of

of these

Buddhist

the

peculiar

likeness

former

early Buddhists,

Gotama
and

essential

the

central

of

theory

influence

powerful

Ixxxv

moralists

European

lessons

two

of

teaching

of

that

satirists,it inculcates

firstly,the

the

points which

JATAKAS.

THE

men

of

lore
folkin

researches
and

the

the
of

Spencer

Ixxxvi

VALUE

have

shown

it is

that

us

the

But

habits

studies

is the

of

literature

point

of

traveller

reaches

only

us

in the

Jatakas

social

intercourse, of the
beliefs

of

related

to

the

first

pass

the

away.

of the

ourselves, just

as

very
such

that

to

through
it

be

to

the

information

native

misleading ;

and

it

European

rightly.

nearly complete picture,

life and

people

common

of

they

by European

customs

and

Aryan

tribes

were

popular
closely

passing through

stages of civilization.

popularity of

The

Such

unadulterated

and

quite uncorrupted

and

/l

have

best

at

holds

informant

comprehend

to

we

often

are

filtration

able

travellers

modern

impression conveyed

the

us

tribe.

after

less

or

more

But

of

or

from

important

most

inaccurate, incomplete, or

be

mind

usually ignores

his

the

ancient

the

constantly happens

which
of

custom

or

may

that

rities
autho-

of the

advanced

tribes

tell

such

in

While

accounts

It

opinion

inaccuracy

many

ourselves.

among
of

details

savage

only

can

of

mind

belief

the

view,

estimate

depend.

very

evidence.

secondary

his

more

the

so-called

the

among

peoples

and

consensus

facts

the

lightly over

passes

to

it is most

that

means

still current

and
insufficiency

which

on

this

obstacle

chief

the

FOR

understand

beliefs

and

this

by

easilypossiblerightlyto
of

JATAKAS

THE

OF

How

fairy tales

can

of

the
it

Jatakas
stand

science, and

as

amusing

against the
the

stories may
rival

claims

entrancing, many-

THE

sided

shall

man's

our

to

the

children,

indebtedness

my
been

opportunity

of

without

the

first

thirty-threepages

are

the

last

memento

who

takes

has

been

and

And

as

owe

my

deep

to

his

varied

FausboU,

without

result of

with,

meet

whose

this

the

and
are

editio

would

not

have

the

Jatakas,

all due

been
T.

subjects,

the

proofs,

useful

hints.

over

readers

any
to

princeps of the

spread

stand

Carpenter,

all

of

They

they

cognate

thanks

above

grateful

Estlin

scholarshipmany

Professor
Pali

many

text,
years,

undertaken.
W.

RHYS

name

and

work:

and

was

his pen.

through

read

self-denyinglabours

this translation

from

earnest

in

to

whose

of

has

particular
death

reverent

Professor

interest

especialthanks,
may

his

them.

enough

kind

this work

the

of

left

he

assistance

premature

are

as

acknowledging

any

translation

and

exactly

of

studies, and

the

Tales

race.

whose

feelingof

our

specifiedon

Pali

to

undertaken

regret, had

friends

be

to

blow

think

never

this

Childers, whose

Professor

great

of

and

appreciation

Jataka

childhood

several

to

Buddhist

the

stories

ourselves

with

the

continuous

too

page.
so

of

myself

attractive
of

But

progress

more

still turn

of

of

pricelessrecord

and

attention

the

may

we

Book

ancient

I avail

and

Ixxxvii

TIMES.

rise

gradual

increasinglyengage

of

EARLY

less fabulous

these

though

of

story

OF

HISTORY

DAYIDS.

WORKS.

INDIAN

XC

Tantea.

5. Pancha

Text

? Mediaeval.

edited

See

Translations:

6.

1848.

by Kosegarten, Bonn,

'byBenfey, Leipzig, 1859.

German,

"

Dubois, Paris, 1826.

French

7.

,,

Lancer

8.

Greek

Paris, 1871.

au,

,,

,,

9.

Typaldos, Athens,

and

Galanos
,,

10.

additions

from

from
Compiled principally

Mediaeval.

HiTOPADESA.
another

1851.

2, with

No.

work.

unknown

edited

Text

1868.

Biihler, Bombay,

and

Kielhorn

Ixviii-lxxii.

above, pp.

Colehrooke, Serampur, 1804.

and

by Carey

London,

1810.

Bernstein, Breslau,

1823.

Samilton,

SchUgel and Lassen, Bonn, 1829-1831.

Nyalankar, Calcutta,

and

1830

1864, with

and

Johnson, Hertford, 1847

1844.

English

version.

Yates, Calcutta,

Arnold, Bombay, 1859

E.

Translations:

"

"

,,

,,

U.

12a.

German

13.

13".

,,

,,

,,

L.
,,

Lancerau, Paris, 1855.

16.
,,

,,

Greek

17.

19.
*

VigsATi.

Sanskrit
Greek

text

version

Vethala

in No.
of No.

No.

Translations
21.

No.

22.

Bytal

Krishna
22".

Edited

Typaldos, Athens, 1851.

19, translated
Oriental

from

18, translated
Pachisi.

Bahadur,
Baital

Twenty-five stories

32, vol. ii. pp.


18

added

Tamil

Kathei.

Compilationof Papers
20.

and

Galanos
,,

demon.
18a.

Fritze, Breslau, 1874.

LangUs, Paris, 1790.

French

15.

Tiibingen, 1853.

Dursch,

14.

into

Tamil

of No.

Edited

18.

Language,' Madras,

Hindustani

by Barker, Hertford, 1855.

from
See

No.
No.

Vetala, or

17.

in

by

Bobcrtson

in

1839.
*

Miscellaneous

1831.

Brajbakha,by Surat,

Translated

by

288-293.

Languages,'London,
into

told

English by Babington,

Calcutta,1834.

Pachisi.

to No.

version

in the

1861.

Muller, Leipzig, 1844.

Max

,,

Jones, Calcutta,1816.

Arnold, London,

,,

Panca

reprintedby

of the text.

his edition

W.

Sir

12.

Vetala

"

English,by Wilkins, Bath, 1787;

"

Nyalankar in

18.

,,

Muller, London, 1864-1868

Max
11.

1841.

1740.

into

21

English by Baja

Kali

41".

version

of

No.

21, Calcutta, 1805.

INDIAN

223.

versions
Englisli

22c.

ViKRAM

from

225

by

AND

talischer

F. Burton,

version

Marchen

by

of 22a,

und

XCl

T. Platts, Soilings, and

/.

Vampire,

THE

Richard

German

22d.

of 22a,

WORKS.

of

Tales

or

Hindu

BarTcer.

Adopted

DevUry.

London, 1870.

by

Oesterley, in the

H.

with

Erzablungen,'1873,

Bibliothek

Orienand

introduction

valuable

notes.
23.

SsiDDi

24.

German

Kirn.

versions

im
Streifereien

and

1866

Lande

German

26.

SuKA

der

version

Psittahou

version

The

version

285.

English version

Kahani.

SiNHASANA

SiNGHASAN

31.

Arji

32.

Vrihat-katha.

in the Paisac!

35.

32.

36.

Edited
and

The

but

G.

K.

Typaldos,

of Nos.

and

10

18.

Nachshebi

reproducedby

of 26.
G.

Includes

and

Edited
of 29.

Forbes.

of the

Madras,

of

throne

1861.

Syed Abdoolah.
'Eda.iQdi'h'^
29, Serampur, 1818.

of No.

29.

probably about

the

sixth

century;

p. Ixxiii.
of the

Ocean

18, and

part

i. with

Originalby

Sri

version

independently of

Elvers

of No.

German

of

of

Tales.
The

5.

It is

Sanskrit

translation,1839

Somadeva

See

century a.d.

Sanskrit

in

of No.

version

Leipzig,vol.
1866.

by

thirty-twostories

version

The
No.

Edited

Small.

Caritra.

above,

Sagara.

Written

Bhatta, of Kashmir,

above, pp. Ixxii,Ixxiii.


No.

34, by Kshemendra,

Somadeva's

No.

work.

of
See

32.

Ixxiii.

Panca

Danda

Chattra

umbrella.

Stories

Prabandha.
Jain

Sanskrit.

Text

and

about
German

Vikra-

King

version

by

Berlin, 1877.
Vasavadatta.

by

are

Kadambari.
1850

By

; and

Subandhu.

Possiblyas

Hall, in the Bibliotheca

Fitz-Edward

the next

37.

See

Vrihat-katha.

maditya's magic
Weber,

in their version

the Rev.

Hindi

begiuningof the twelfth

above, p.

by

By Gunadhya,

only,1862

Kashmir.

and

Galanos

version

Mongolian

by Brockhaus,

vol. ii.text

parrot.

lost;

now

Vikrama

Chan.

Sarit
No.

of

Bengaliversion

Prakrit.

Katha

34.

also

Singhasan.
Borji

edited

of 28a,

Battisi.

Vatbis

on

26,

Dvateinsati.

30.

at the

included

Hindustani

Yikramiiditya
; called

text

by Juelg,

Nameh.

ToTA

founded

; and

foU., 1804

Luber, Gbrz, 1875.

26, by Demetrios

of No.

28a.

33.

in Nomadische

Bergmann

and

seventy stories

of No.

the title Tuti

29a.

i. 247

18, by Dr.

Mythologiai Nukterinai,

Persian

29.

18.

23, by Benjamin

Kalmuchen,

of No.

Saptati.

27. Greek

under

of No.

of No.

1868.

25.

28.

Mongolian version

romances,

By

not
Bana

old

as

the

sixth

century.

Indica, Calcutta,1859.

This

story-books.
Bhatta,

? seventh

again, 1872, by Tarkavacaspati.

century.

Edited

in

cutta,
Cal-

INDIAN

xcii

Calcutta,

edition,

1804

39a.

Hindoo

395.

Fne

By
1846

By

No.

18,

the

of

French

into

by

second

No.

fourteenth

41".

29,

See

1830.

42.

No.

Tenth

Tarkaratna.

No.

By

translation

No.

By

39.

P.

W.

Taxis,

Faucke,

(7"rey,

1873.

Contains

third

In

Tales.

and

fourth

the

first

being

miscellaneous.

of

AdventuTCS

Books

four

King

HammTra.

Probably

Vidyapati.
of

the

by

London,

Jacob,
1861-1863.

No.

by

41,

Raja

Kali

22.

ViRA-CARiTAT),

Edited

century.

39.

of

the

? sixth

1873.

Sippolyte

the

century.

English

on

Stream

the

PuRUSHA-PAKiKSHA,

41.

Shankar

Tara

i)"w^m,

Buhler,

founded

Tetrade.

Katharnava,

40.

and

Tales,

translation

by

37,

1868.

Wilson,

the

No.

Dasa-kumara-camta.

39.

of

version

Bengali

38.

WORKS.

Adventures

of

King

Salivahana.

Krishna,

Serampur,

of

XClll

TABLE
THE

1.

lost

Bidpai.

Khosru

Buddhist

See

Pelvl

2.

KALILAG

above,

Kalilag

3.

531-579

Nushirvan.

German

See

translation

Leipzig,1876.
of No.

2, and

This

by Abd-allah,
edited

and

No.

15

by

Silvestre
Guidi's

length in Ignazio

best

the

with

Published

2.

Professor

by

of

evidence

Benfey^

the

contents

originalor originals.
of

Date

Bidpai).
about

Paris,

Sacy,
'

No.

Introduction

preserve

(Fables

de

of

version

Bickell, and

Gustav

of Almokaffa.

son

to

physician of

Court

the

Barzuye,

Syrian

Dimnah

wa

India, ascribed

Northern

p. xxix.

above,

of its Buddhist

Kalilah

4.

by

By

a.d.

Damnag.

und

of

language

Ixx-lxxii.

pp.

version,

in

LITERATURE.

DAMNAG

AND
work

II.

Studii

750

Arabo

of

version
Text

a.d.

Other

1816.

sul testo

Arabic

of

No.

one

3,

sion
recen-

noticed

recensions

del libro di Calila

at
'

Dimna

(Rome, 1873).
Kalila

5.

Oxford,

English

of

version

No.

4, by

Knatchbull,

1819.

Buch

Das

6.

Dimna.

and

Weisen.

des

German

of

version

No.

4, by

Wolffs

Stuttgart,1839.
7. Stephanites

Seth,

about
in

1080

version

of

Pachymeres, Rome,
Persian

9.

Exists, in

by

MS.

No.

Anvar

11.

Seb.

Another

version

of

No.

4, by Simeon

Gottfried Starke, Berlin, 1697

printed
(re-

by Aurivillius,Upsala, 1786.

7, by Father

Fossin,

at

the

end

of

his

edition

of

1866.

of

No.

SuHAiLi,

4, by Abdul

el

Persian

Maali

or

translation,through

Eastwich,

end

of the

Lights

of

Hertford,

1854.

the

English version

JSfasr

Allah,

1118-1153.

Vienna.

Tfl-KashifJ;

Vaiz

Suhaili,

10, by Fdward
11".

by

Greek

only,in Paris,Berlin, and

ben All

Husam

and

No.

translation

Anvar

10.

Edited

a.d.

Athens, 1851),

Latin

8.

IcHviiLATES.

kai

fifteenth

Canopus.

of No.

10, hj Arthur

Freuch

version

the

last,of

No.

century.

English version

N.

4,

Wollaston

of

(London,

Allen).
12.

d'

LiVRE

DES

LuMiERES.

Ispahan, Paris, 1644,


13.

by

Del

Giulio

Governo
Nuti.

No.

version

of

10, by Bavid

Sahid,

8vo.

de'

Edited

of

Regni,

Italian

by Tcza, Bologna,

1872.

No.

7, Ferrara,

1583

xciv

Hebrew

14.

MS.

single

Next

place.

of

of

Paris,

4, by Joel

wbich

the

No.

is

part

version

about

of

of

No.

without

1480,

evidence

best

Exists

1250.

in

only

missing.

Latin

Printed

it is the

first

before

(?),

ViT^.

1263-1278.

to

and

No.

HuMAKJE

"Written

Capua.

16.

in

of

DiRECTORiuM

15.

Nos.

version

AG.

DAMN

AND

KALILAG

the

14, by John
date
of

contents

of

name

or

the

of

books

lost

2.

German

of

version

15, also

No.

about

but

1480,

without

date

or

name

place.
17.

Version

18.

Baldo's

Ulm

in
*

(? thirteenth

moyen

age,' Paris,

19.

Latin

Calila

Calila

in

from

direct

MeriVs

du

version

of

Published

1251.

vol.

1860,

Arabic

into

inedites

Poesies

du

No.

in

(? through

de

Biblioteca

'

unknown

an

Autores

Es-

51.

the

of

version

Latin

Dimna.

et

translation

Edited

Spanish

About

pafioles,'Madrid,

1483.

1854.

Dymna.

Ulm,

16.

century.)

version).

20.

No.

^sopus.'

Alter

Latin

of

dialect

last, by

de

Raimond

"eziers,

1313.
21.

St.

CoNDE

of

Ferdinand
22.

By

LucANOR.

SiNBAR

THE

Sailor,

ot

intorno

al

'Ricerche

Comparetti,
23.

CoNTES

24.

ExEMPLARio

Spanish

Spain.

Libro

By

NouvELLES.

ET

di

the

Seven

Sindibad,'
des

Bonaventure

Enganos.

LOS

CONTRA

of

Book

of

certain.

not

source

grandson

(died 1347),

Manuel

Juan

Don

Wise

Masters.

Milano,

1869.

Feriers,

Lyons,

1587.

version

Spanish

1493.

See

of

the

Directorium.
25.

DiscoRSE

Italian

Animali.

DEGLi

of

last, by

1552.

Italian

Ange

Firenznola,

1648.
Morale.

26.

La

27.

North''s

English

28.

Fables

by

Filosofia

First
from

version

edition

classical

Third

in

vi.

last,

books,
and

authors

edition

23, Paris,

of

of

last

but

one.

1570.

Fontaine.

La

Second

By Foni,

in

xi.

the

from

books,

subjects
Planudes's
the

five

later

1678.

edition

in

xii.

of

books, Paris,

1694.

which

^sop,
taken

are

mostly

Paris,
from

taken

1668.

Nos.

12

and

xcv

TABLE
BARLAAM

THE
St.

1.

edited

John

by BoissoNADE,
Migne's

in

Boissonade's

of

of No.

1 exists

version

of No.

the

eleventh

Latin

toriale'

cap.

From

this

iv.

printed
Re-

xcvi,

parallel columns.
Schubart

Jahrbiicher,'vol.

Ixiii.

MS.

only in MS.,

Latin

of

date

MS.

one

being

It

Jacobus

is

least

at

; and

Damascus, published

in

all the

fuU

later

Basel

at

black-letter

his

as

mediaeval

his

editions

this

on

His-

'Legenda

sixteenth

works

edition

Speculum

in the

in the

MSS.

abbreviations

in

Voragine,

reprinted in

was

which

adopted,with

was

of

author,

Bellovicensis,

1-63); by

version

and

There

Museum.

Vincentius

places,by

of St. John

vol.

Graeca,' torn,
in

'Wiener

First

a.d.

imperfectionspointed out, by

still extant.

are

British

the

in

works

Billy^

by

only in

exists

Series

Completus,

in the

MSS.)

century

Grseca,' Paris, 1832,

1, of unknown

No.

(ed. Grdsse, 1846)

Aurfea'

of

the

century.^

subject are

derived.
or
directly
indirectly

either

abbreviated

An

4".

British

und

from
the title
and

MS.

poem,

Pfeiffer,

7. Barlaam
and

Latin

of

the

330, fol. 51-57.

fourteenth

century

See

No.

Koch,

in

the

9, p. xiv.

Josaphat.
in the

of

poem

Solms-Laubach
eine

the

thirteenth

Library by

noch

L.

lished
century, pub-

Diefenbach,

ungedruckte m.h.d.

under

bearbeitimg des

Giessen, 1836.

Another

Latest

MS.

Mittheilimgen iiber

J.'

Franz

in

"

Barlaam

'

version

Arundel

Museum.

German

6.

of

century

(Hb. xv.

Seventh

century.

version

twelfth

several

B.

its

SERIES.

Text.

translation

reviewed, and

of six Vienna

(? Spiers,1470)

5.

Latin

version

the

in

Anecdota

Syriac

as

4.

use

3. Arabic
old

Greek

makes

(who
2.

the

is

text

in his*

PatrologiaCursus

'

with

836-1250,

pp.

JOSAPHAT

AND

Damascus'

of

III.

und

best

partlypublishedfrom
in

Ilaupt's 'Zeitsch.

Josaphat.

edition

by

By

Franz

imperfect MS.

an

f. d.

Rudolf

Alterthum,'

Pfeiffer,

in

i. 127-135.

"Written

Ems.

von

Ziirich, by

at

Dichtungen

about
des

1230.

deutschen

Another
in Brittany.
edition
Abbot
of St. Michael's,
of his
Billy (1535-1577) was
Series
is also reprinted in Mityne,
version, by Rofweyd,
Latina,' torn. Ixxiii ; and
several
editions
have
1602; Cologne, 162i, etc.).
(Antwerp,
separate
aijpeared besides
1

Latin

'

The

British

Museum

copy

of the

first, undated,

4
ink, on the title-page, llosweyd, in Note
edition
an
bearing the dale
p. 606), mentions
third, dated
1575 (on the last page).

to

has

edition

his

edition

1548,

In

of
the

the

Pillius
British

date

1539

(Migne,
Museum

written,
vol.

in

Ixxiii.

there

is

xcvi

BARLAAM

vol. iii.,
Mittelalters,'
Leipzig,1843.
exists in

Hystori Josaphat

Black-letter.

und

und

"Woodcuts.

Sistoria

von

Josaphat

des

Title

Counts

the

40

long chapters,
pp. 602,
9.

Leven

French:

Gui

British

Museum.

Beichtiger Barlaam
Translated

etc.

La

Paul

Vie

French

den

vertaalt

JEremiten,

from

the

Miinchen,

Meyer

the

Latin
In

1684.

de Seint

Poem

Josaphaz.
confirms

the editors

adduces

an

unknown

author.

11.

prose

work

by

an

unknown

author

in MS.

poem

in French

of No.
A

of the

4, by Jacob

12mo.

tedious

14.

15.

Another

Italian

miracle

di

followingold

\\a.

being of

the

13th

cent.

Museum.

century, based

on

the

abstract

in

Josafat

and

the moralizations.

play of

about

Giosafat

san

edition

second

of

in 1768, with

17. Storia

8vo., of which

1460.

che

SS.

second

Barlaam

without

edition
di

vita

from

124-152

da

By

Barlaam.

at Venezia

1600,

this, also

ei nacque

Bini
pp.

about

convertito

and

date;

Geo.

Bassano,

and

Antonio
There

16mo.

third, publishedin

illustrations.

de'

santissima

Telesforo

Eossi,in

without
1400.

Published

Eemondini.

da

Koch,

"

Vita

La

John

by
the

to

as

:"

containing only the story of

about

play of

miracle

all three

British

fifteenth

in prose,

by Barlaam,

Edited

Zoten-

Vereins,'in

(pp.318-325)

No.

"

Hermann

Voragine.

de

Provencal tale

the tales told

India,

Egerton,745,

Another
A

18.

Koning

long and

Literarischen

of No.

by

Modena

is

by

CnAaDRY.

third poem

16.

This

des
also

by

further

and

mention

They

13.

Josaphat

en

H., Antwerp, 1593,

v.

1672.

'Bibliothek

10.

12.

F.

(1200-1250). Edited

in

versions,10-15

11a.

Heremit,

door

appearedin

Cambray

de

Heilbronn, 1879, who

in the

chapters.

holy legend.

vol. Ixxv., 1864.


Stuttgart,

is

Fifty-sixshort

Hohenzollern,

Barlaam

van

in Nederduits

of the

by

and

Latin

named.

not

"

8. Poem

9.

H.

author

12mo.

Bedryf

en

Noo

version

BERG

and

edition of this version

new

prose

subject

:"

Het

foHo

Sohn,

Indien

and

page.

small

zweien

of Helffenstein

Indien.

van

der

Kdnig''sin

Date

last

on

Leben

dem

by

Dutch

of the

populartreatment

Barlaam.

Quaint and forcible old German.


8.

This

MSS.

numerous

7. Die

T.

JOSAPHA

AND

of

MS.
a

appeared in

Santo

Bottari,

Josafat,figluolodel

belongingto

collection

Rime

Home,

1734,

1816.

infino ch'ei morl.

per
a

Giosafatte. By

the
e

prose

Be

Avenero, Re

edited

romance,

Commendatore

delV

Francesco

Prose,'Lucca, 1852,

8vo.

by
de

XCVlll

the

For
Journal

FaiisboU,
seen

that

Five

there

required.

former,
Dewa

the

lists

with

the

Aranolis.

Feer^

see

Ceyloin

Branch

Jatakas,'
are

titles,in the

similar
much

above

of

The

seven

two

'Etude
of

59

p.
tales

and

with

collections.

sur

the

les

Royal
also

Jatakas,'
Asiatic

above,

pp.

identical, and
Editions

of

one

these

p.

Society,
liii, liv.
or

two

Gogerly,

58;

two

works

1853

It

be

with

more
are

MS.
a
Cambridge University Library possesses
of
several
various
other
MSS.
noted, for
readings

and

will

of
me,

very
the

by

XCIX

TABLE

LIST

ALPHABETICAL

OF

V.

JATAKA

STORIES

IN

of

Sanskrit

THE

MAHAVASTU.

from

Arranged
in

the

of

Possession

Eggeling's

and

Cowell

the

karmarakadhitaye

Amaraye

'

Catalogue

Asiatic

Royal

jatakai).

Buddhist

Society (Hodgson

Risliabasya-j".

Asthisenasya-j''.

Sakuntaka-j".
-

Campaka-nagaraja-j".

Saratag-j".

Godha-j".

Hastinl-j".

Sirl.j".

Kaka-j''.

SirT-prabhasya

Uruvilva-kasyapadi-kasyapanai)-]'

Syama-j".i

Ajnata- Kaundinya-

Syaniaka-j".

Kinnari-j

j".

".^

arthavahasy

with

(Two

Sarakshepanai)

j".

Collection).'

| Raksluto-nama-rislii-j".

Arindania-j".

Bhadravargikanag

"

mriga-rajasya
(Car.

Pit.

j".

33.)

j".

nama

TJpali gariga palanai)-j".

Kusa-j".

Vanaradhipa-j".

Mafijeri-j".

Vara-j".

Markata-j"^.

Vijitavasya

Naliniye

title.)

Trinakuniyag

surupasya-j".

this

j''.

Kricchapa-3".

Mrigarajfio

MSS.

Vaideha-rajfio-j".

Yasoda-j".

rajakumarlye-j".

Yosodharaye

Punyavanta-j".

harapradana-j".
vyaghrTbhutaya-j".

,,

Purnasya
1

These

Society's

MaitrayanT-putrasya
two

Jatakas

Library

also

(Catalogue,

form
p

j".
the

14).

contents

of

separate

MS.

in

the

Royal

Asiatic

TABLE

PLACES

M.

the

Leon

AT

Peer

following

taken

has

is

places

Jetavana

WHICH

VI.

the

mentioned

trouble

at

to

the

count

TOLD.

WEEE

TALES

THE

the

of

number

of

commencement

monastery

the

times

each

Commentary.

410"
.416

Savatthi
.

Velmana
.

Rajagaha

55
"

Latthivanuyyuna
Vesali

Kosambi

5
.

Alavi

Kundaladaha

Kusa

Magadha

2
.

Dakkhinagiri

Migadaya

1
.

Mithila

1
.

By

the

Ganges

494

To

which

we

may

add

from

pp.

124-128

below-

Kapilavatthu

498

of

CI

TABLE
THE

At

his

request

number

of times

in each

of the

the

Rev.

in which

BODISATS.

Spence
the

VII.

Handy'

Bodisat

following characters

'

appears

pandit
in

'

the

made

an

Buddhist

analysis of
Birth

the

Stories

"

630

Cll

JATAKAS

TABLE

VIII.

IN

BAS-RELIEF

ILLUSTRATED

ON

THE

ANCIENT

MONUMENTS.

Arranged

from

Cunningham'' 8

General

Stupa

of Bharhut.'

of those
General
which
below, pp. 205, and foil. This is one
ham
Cunningto identify.
2
former
General
Cunning-ham
(p. 52): "The
[Naga
Jataka, i.e. Elephant
says
in the
Buddha
is the
as
legend here
represented
Jataka] is the correct
King of
name,
therefore
the Jataka, or
of necessity have
and
been
named
the Elephants,
Birth, must
I have
above
As
after him."
pointed out
(p. xli), the title of each
Jataka, or Birth
from
the
character
which
the
Bodisat
fills in it,
means
Story, is chosen, not by any
of other
General
himself
but
reasons.
a variety
indifferently from
Cunningham
gives
after
called
the
ascetic
the story
(No. 7 in the above
list),in which
Isl-singga Jataka
1

Translated

unable

was

whom
8

the
Not

as

is named

Jataka

yet

found

in

is not

Bodisat.

the

Jataka

the

Book

Antiquary,' vol. i. p. 305, that it is the


in the
'Katha
34), and
(Table I. No.
and

therefore

was

No.

probably

; but
first tale
Sarit
in

included

Dr.
in

Biihler
the

Sagara'

the

'

of

'Vrihat

has

Vrihat

shown
Katha

Somadeva

Katha'

of

'

in

the

of

Kshemendra

(Table
Gunadhya

'

Indian

I. No.

33),

(Table

I.

32).

contained
the inscription is lost.
part of the stone supposed to have
below, pp. 292, 293.
6
is included
in the
Mahavastu
It is mentioned
(Table V.), and
below, p. 128, and
of the
rails at Buddha
forms
Lai
the
one
(Rajendra
subject of the carving on
Gaya
Mitra, pi. xxxiv.
fig. 2).
*

The

Translated

Not

as

in the

yet found

Translated

There

are

below,
four

pp.

distinct

Jataka
186-188.

Book.
See

bas-reliefs

also

above, p. ixiv.

illustrative

of this

Jataka.

There

the

Jutaka

and

Book.

86

p.

Fas

has

and

in

One),^

Ivii.

Plate

(below,

of

heaven

of

Glory,

'

the

Dream

is

identifications

of

Nos.

Jetavana

and

xxviii.

Blessed

the

62,

pp.

12

of

Plate

of

the

heaven

Vejayanto

287.

Descent

of

of

below,

inscribed

(below,

Presentation

in

Katha

described

is

p.

(The

Stories

Nidana

worship

below,

Ohhanti

of

the

is

into

explained

Devi's

the

Jataka

in

and

63)

Monastery
in

13

the

above

doubtful.

Mr.

above,

(PI.

and

the

xxxvi.

there

Sanchi

his

and

and

Serpent

illustration

the

of

Jataka

Tree

in

Tope

181)

p.

other

are

in

Fergusson,

on

Jatakas

125)

fig.

Palace

is

Maya

The

bas-reliefs

Asadisa

the

Bhagavato

130-133).

the

identified

p.

'

xvi.

identified

yet
of

in

passages

reception

name

representation

very

Besides

which

illustration

is

PI.

mansion,

entitled

pp.

are

of

of

not

illustrative

certainly

instance,
whose

heavenly

origin

scene

list

the

the

do,

for

and

titles,

illustrative

Head-dress,

Buddha's

almost

are

titles

So,

without

scenes

which

with

scenes

Jataka

the

but

Book,

several

the

other

numerous

are

of

Vessantara

scenes

the

Sanchi

and

Sama

Jataka

the

on

has

Worship,'

xxiv.

(PI.
Tope

not

yet

identified.

Mr.

discovered

he

of

of

General
to

be

grammatically

the

has

described

scene

impossible.

his

enough
of

two

which

translation

of

on

this
of

pp.

inscription
it

show

to

(below,

below

reading
and

kind

Jataka

Sumedha

the

Cunningham's
incorrect,

been

Afghanistan,

in

illustrations

me

also

Simpson

('

Buddha

p.

been

have

able

and

11-13),

125,

of

drawings

me

to

another

bas-reliefs

identify

as

trative
illus-

as

126.

as

as

Bhagavato
the

sounding

rukdanta

elephant

to

seems

')

to

be

THE

dwells

ever

with

his

fraternity,and

of this chronicle

perpetuation
Buddhamitta
of

NIDANAKATHA.

the

Mahi/"isasaka, skilled

and

of

moreover

May

all

while

as

after

poimded

the

in

Buddhadeva

lend

this

comment

from

the

race

interpretation;

of

clear

Jataka,

three

Epochs,

will

of

of

the

on

the

intellect.

favourable

their

me

settingforth

middle, and

canons

the

likewise

; and

wise, sprung

the

monk

good men
speak !^

Inasmuch

of Buddha

tranquil and

desires

who

attention

if it be
the

ex-

distant,

be

clearlyunderstood
by
hear it by being understood
from
those who
the beginning,
I will expound it after settingforth
the three
therefore
Epochs. Accordingly from the very outset it will be well
the limits of these Epochs.
Now
the narrato determine
tive

the

the

existence, from

of the

Bodhisatta's

feet of

Dipankara

Buddha

proximate,

leaving
Epoch.

to

the

rebirth

his

his

in

the

resolution
Tusita

omniscience

Tusita

the

leaving

that

time

after

heaven

Distant

the

heaven

at

become

to

existence, is called

Yessantara

From

formed

he

the

his

to

tainment
at-

of

throne

Knowledge,
the narrative is called the Intermediate
Epoch. And the
Proximate
Epoch is to be found in the various placesin
he sojourned (during his ministry on
which
earth). The
of

the

on

followingis

Tradition
thousand
this

In

tells

good family
1

The

follow

to

the
2

above
the

both

lines in the

arrangement

style.
kxi asankheyya is

asankheyyas'^and
was
a
city called

there
dwelt

there
on

four

that

us

cycles ago
city

EPOCH.

DISTANT

THE

brahmin

sides,

originalare
of the

periodof

in

on

verse.

named

hundred

Amaravatl.

Sumedha,

father's

the

I have

stanzas, owing to the


vast

duration,lit. an

found

extreme

and

it

the

impossible

involution

incalculable.

of

of

THE

mother*

back,

side, of pure

birth

by

and

He

beauty.
engaging

still young.

was

of

steward

for

endowed

pursuit.

His

minister

of

seven

with

brahminical

his

other

any

generations
respected,a man
comely,

and

amiable, and

followed

in

SUMEDHA.

conception

unreproacbed

well-favoured

he

OF

STORY

studies

his estate, threw

the

open

state, who
the

filled with

stores

without

parents died

property, bringing forth

his

remarkable

while

acted

as

roll-book

gold and

of

silver,

pearls,and other valuables, and said, So much,


to your
belonged to your mother, so much
man,
young
to your
father, so much
parents,"
grandparents and great-grandand pointing out
the property inherited
to him
he bade him
through seven
guard it carefully.
generations,
and

gems

The

"

Sumedha

wise

all this wealth


another

to

be

thought

parents and

my

world

right

that

took

with

of

his

intention, he

in

the

city, gave

the
To
here

when

make

easy

there
with

proclamation

clear

This

they

be

to

people, and

the

the

Story

of

its

being
I

in

will

metrical

relate

asankheyyas and

citythere

was

Resounding

'Lit.

Here

with

caused

"

called

Amara,

the

ten

the

drums

glossin the

beautiful

Amara,

it is

which

cyclesago
and

cries,abounding

text

to be

pleasant,

in food

and

drink.-

whole

ten

cries.

beat."

enumerates

the

it with

cyclesago
resounding

thousand

thousand

hundred

not

construction.

metrical

explaining the

must

form, is

therefore

asankheyyas and a hundred


was
a
or
city called Amaravati
the ten
city cries, concerning

Four

made^

full in the

in

Buddhavawsa,
12.

went

embraced

Sumedha

story, though given

understand.

to

when

hermit.

at intervals

sentences

Four

from

Buddhavamsa,
very

caused

this matter

related.

be

"

go ?

amassing

it
farthing with them, can
it an
object to take my
And
informing the king

make
I

After

"

ancestors

largess to

life of

ascetic

not

should

wealth

me

himself,

to

said

in

THE

Tlieii

follows

of

some

these

The

13.

NIDANAKATHA.

of

stanza

Buddliava"?sa

enumerating

cries,

trumpeting

of

elephants, the

neighing of horses, (the sound

of)

drums, trumpets, and chariots,


And

viands

and

drinks

cried, with

were

the

invitation,

Eat

*'

and

drink."

It
14.

to

on

goes

say,

citysuppliedwith

Possessing the
races

The
In

15.

of devout

cityof

the

hoard
store

'II

16.

like the

men,

dwelt

Amaravati
was

tens

many

of

industry,

dwellers

of many

hrahmin

of

cityof

prosperous

named

millions,hlest

the

angels.

Sumedha,

with

much

wealth

and

Studious, knowing
Master

with

precious things,thronged

seven

sort

every

ahode

Whose

requisite,
engaged in

every

the

of the science

Mantras,

versed

of divination

in the

three

Vedas,

of the traditions

and

and

ohservances

of his caste.

Now

the

day

one

wise

Sumedha,

having

retired

the

to

of his house, seated


himself
splendid upper
apartment
Oh ! wise
man,^
cross-legged,and fell a thinking.
existence, and the dissolution
grievousis rebirth in a new
successive
of the body in each
place where we are reborn.
I am
subject to birth, to decay, to disease, to death, it
I should
strive to attain the
is right, being such, that
is tranquil,
and
free from
great deathless Nirva??a, which
birth, and decay, and sickness, and grief and joy ; surely
"

"

there

from

man

be

must

Seated

18.

in

Grievous

is rehirth

subjectto
leave

then

and

will I seek
this

me

And

departwithout

Nirva/^a

to

Accordingly
thought

the

birth,to

Let

leads

that

seclusion,I

Therefore
19.

road

existence."

17.

am

decay,to

follows

as

breaking

it is

up

and

releases

said,

of the

body.

disease.

Nirva^m, free from

perishablebody,

decay and death, and secure.


pestilentcongregation

this

of

vapours,

20.

There

is,there

I will seek

The

Bodhisatta

52), Ramapandlto

this

is

must

desires and
be

road, that

without

wants.

road,

it cannot

but

I may

obtain

be

release

from

existence.

frequentlycalled pandita,e.g. sasapandito (Five Jat.


Jat. 1).

(Dasaratha

THE

Further
is

h.e reasoned
the

pleasure as

existence

there

existence
which

as

is

there

puts
21.

22.

As

where

there

is

So

where

there

is existence

And

as

So

where

cold

that

lust

be

is also

is heat

is the

threefold

fire

with

evil there

is also

it is

y^

said,

hliss,
for non-existence.

look

is also

there

there

Birthless, because

the

Therefore

we

passions;

is evil Birth

there

where

must

other

evil condition

and

so

Nirvana

the

and

bad

there
suffering

there

there

is also

Nirvana, called

be

where

there

must

one,

of

cessation

there

is

there

the

it, so

of)

where

so

opposite
is heat

to all rebirth."

end

an

pain,

there

this world

in

as

there

blameless

also

must

where

opposition to

and

good

it

in

of

its

be

fires

extinguishes (the
as

For

"

correlative

neutralizes

and

thus,

must

; and

SUMEDHA.

OF

STORY

cold,

passion extinction

of

be

must

sought.
And

23.

where

so

Again
into

coexistent

as

Even

he

reasoned

heap

covered

with

is birth

thus,

"

there

of

filth,if he
of

lotuses

Just

even

where

so

man

is

way

the

of

but

way

blessed

road

encompassed
is not
a

escape

the

Lit.
Mr.

Vedic

"

the

man;

is

of

fast

the

heal

there
of

of

of

the

even

so

for

with

of

the

its not
the

pond

deathless

And

just
there
fault

there

is

who

man

is

being sought
And

person.

sickness, there

disease, if he

but

sin, if it

lake.

when

'

the

great

that

by robbers, if when
not
fly it is not the

but

his

the

fallen

seek

to

defilement

by sin,

road

oppressed
can

the

Nirvana

to

held

and

physician who

does

leading

fault

who

man

of

he

that

sought.

great pond

arrive

of

fault

the

is not

lake

of

washing

is surrounded

who

is the

it is not

sought

as

of

the

fault

it the

there

IN^irvawa for
is not

seek

not

ought

be

\^

ofi" a

afar

shall

way

should

who

man

beholds

does

as

of birth

five colours,

pond, saying, By what


if he

good,

cessation

the

as

being

does

not

get

Extinction."
Fausboll

abbreviations.

points out

to

me

that

in

tividhaggi

and

jati

we

have

NIDANAKATHA,

THE

cured

by going
physician; even
disease
and

of

sin

knows

tlie

to

if

so

seeks

the

not

lies with

him

and

Therefore

it is

said,

As

24.

fallen

man

If he seek
25.

there

If

seek

man

As

26.

beset

man

So

27.

when

Seek
And

28.

So

29.

as

one

the

is

the
way

lake

fault

sin, the

to

fault
of

in the

not

is sick and

the

fault is not

iti the

lake

bliss,if

road

the

sin

of bliss.

in the way

disease,the

sin,

of Nirvana.

with

beset

man

stains of

of escape,

way

with

is not

physicianat hand.

fault is not

oppressedwith

teacher,the
spiritual

And

washes

fault is not

the

lake

that

of Nirvana

diseased,there being
heal

not

end

sin-destroyingteacher."

foes, there being

road, the

who

man

not

is

who

bid him

if

Seek

that

not

If he

away,

is

an

the

that lake, the

with

there

puts

lake, the fault is

not

of tlie

filth,
beholdinga brimming lake,

among

exists

If he flee not

fault

no

oppressed by the
spiritualguide who is at hand
who

man

with

not

that

not

So when

which

road

is

physician tliat

in the

healer

of sin

disease

the

fault is not

in the

teacher.

fond of gay clothing,


again he argued, As a man
to his shoulders, goes
throwing off a corpse bound
away
I, throwing off this perishablebody,
rejoicing,so must
and

"

freed

And

heap

as

do

from

all
and

men

not

desires,

city

depositing filth

women

gather

the

enter

it

in

the

fold

or

of
on

skirt

Nirva/ia.
a

of

dungtheir

feeling no
desire for it ; so shall I also cast off this perishablebody
without
city of Nirvawa.
regret, and enter the deathless
without
And
abandon
seamen
as
regret an unseaworthy
ship and escape, so will I also, leaving this body, which
its nine
distils corruption from
festeringapertures, enter
And
without
man
as
a
regret the city of Nirvana.
carrying various sorts of jewels,and going on the same
of robbers, out
road
band
with
of fear of losing his
a
from
them
and
jewels withdraws
gains a safe road ; even
this impure body is like a jewel-plundering robber,
so
if I set my
affections
thereon
the precious spiritual
jewel
garments,

of the

but

sublime

loathing it,

throw

path of holiness will

it

be

away,

lost to

me,

there-

STORY

THE

fore

ouglit

this robber-like

As

30.

of

city

Therefore

body."

Mrva?^a,

it is

said,

off

corpse

loathing shake

with

might

man

the

enter

to

SUMEDHA.

OF

forsaking

bound

his

upon

shoulders,

independent,master of himself ;
Even
let me
so
depart, regrettingnothing,wanting nothing,
this
Leaving
perishablebody, this collection of many foul vapours.
and women
And
deposit filth upon a dungheap.
men
as
And

31.

32.

depart secure,

And
So

33.

departregrettingnothing, wanting nothing,


depart, leavingthis body filled with foul vapours,
there.
leaves a cesspoolafter depositingordure
one

will I

As
And

34.

the

as

the

forsake

owners

bark

rotten

is shattered

that

and

leaking,
35.

So

shall I go,

leaving this body

As

its

desert

And

36.

owners
a

as

of

and
Even

gets him

Sumedha

gave

the
he

made

himself
and

Dhammaka,
from

the

And

with

retirement

away

at

view

which
to

are

obtain

near

world
the

Bvam

samdhite

kammaniye

citte

parisuddhe

aforesaid,

as

and

farers
way-

renouncing

hindrances
the

in

Himavanta

mountain

called
free

(tomeditation).

residing in the
characterized
by the
the words
beginning

power

pariyodate

embraced

anangam

in

that

vigatupakkilese

anejjappatte nanadassanaya cittain abhiniharati


Lotus, p. 476, line 14).

thite

Sutta, see
(Siimafifiaphala

world, the

perambulation hall

''

mudubhute

And

vantages
ad-

sensual, departing from


the

and

hut

the

indigent

house.

and

hermitage

built

the

open

from

the

house,

are
supernatural faculties, which
in
eight causal qualitiesdescribed
^ he
thus tranquillised,"
mind
With
a

robbers

the

upon

from

own

to

kept

away
a

his

treasure

material

five defects
a

with

company

pondered

with

of

hoard

pleasures,both
city of Amara,

all

parts

wares,

similes

nine

sufferers,and

and

his

robbers,

"

in

thus

immense

an

with

gone.

connected
wise

running.

body like a mighty robber,


wiU departthrough fear of losinggood.

it I

Leaving

apertures ever

ship.
walking

is this

so

Having

losing

its nine

with

broken

the

carryingwares,

man

Seeing danger
37.

regret or longing,

departwithout

And

THE

hermitagethe
with

its nine

bark

with

NIDANAKATHA.

ascetic life of

off the cloak


jRishi,
casting

and wearing the garment


disadvantages,

its twelve

when
advantages. And
world, forsakingthis hut,

thus

of

had

he

crowded
given up the
with eightdrawbacks, he repaired
to the foot of a tree
with its ten advantages,
all sorts of grain
and rejecting
And
lived constantly
wild fruits.
strenuously
upon
and in standingand in
exertinghimself both in sitting
walking,within a week he became the possessor of the
Faculties ;
eightAttainments, and of the five Supernatural
"

and

in accordance

so,

with

his prayer,

might of supernatural
knowledge.

he

attained

the

Therefore it is said,

I gave many thousand millions of wealth


rich and poor, and made my way to Himavanta.
called Dhamraaka,
Not far from Himavanta
is the mountain

38.

Having ponderedthus
To

39.

Here

I made

There

40.

I built

Possessed

an
me

of the

hermitage,and built with care a leafyhut.


free from five defects,
a cloister,
and attained the strengthof
eightgood qualities,

excellent

Faculties.
supernatural
of the nine faults,
I threw off the cloak possessed
raiment
of
bark
of the twelve advantages.
the
on
possessed
put
the

Then

41.

And

I leftthe hut, crowded

42.

And

with the

to the tree-foot

eightdrawbacks,

of
possessed

ten advantages.^
and planted,
the grainthat is sown
"Whollydid I reject
of
And partookof the constant fruits of the earth,possessed

43.

went

many

advantages.
Then

44.

And

Now
the
the

kara

in standing,
and in walking,
strove,in sitting,
strenuously
seven
daysattained the might of the Faculties.^

within

while the hermit

Sumedha, having thus attained

knowledge,was
strengthof supernatural
livingin
bliss of the (eight)
Attainments, the Teacher Dlpanappeared

in

the

world.

At

the

of his birth,of his attainment


conception,
of his preachinghis first discourse,the

of

moment

of

his

Buddhahood,

whole

universe

^
Mr. Fausbbll writes to me that gune for gunehimust be viewed
Pali form originating
in the Sanskrit gunaih.
2
Here
follow four pages of later commentary or gloss,
which
untranslated.

as

an

old

I leave

THE

10

arches

and

Sumedha,

of

rows

the

questioned

the

from

his

till he

and

hermitage,

proceeding

those

above

was

hermit

the

and

men,

"

it is

Therefore

region of the border


joyful hearts they

With

Then

jars.

can
joyous multitude, exclaimed, "What
and
and
side
alighting stood on one
people, Tell me, why are you adorning

the
"

In

47.

air

reason?"

this road

brimming

ascending

through the
beholding the
be

NIDANAKATHA.

said,

districts,
having

road

clearingthe

are

invited

the

by

Buddha,

which

should

he

come.

And

48.

I at that

time

leavingmy hermitage,
tunic, departedthrough the air.
And
seeingan excited multitude
joyous and delighted.
from
the
air
I
Descending
straightwayasked the men,
The people is excited, joyous and happy.
For whom
is the road being cleared,the path, the way of

Rustlingmy
49.

50.

And

the

barken

his

coming

replied, Lord Sumedha, dost thou not


know?
having attained
Dipankara Buddha,
supreme
Knowledge, and set on foot the reign of the glorious
Law, travellingfrom
our
place to place, has reached
have

for

invited

the

And
of

the

world, much
it behoves
He

said

the

at

Buddha
the

more

to

me

therefore

the

hermit

word

join
to

One, and

these

appearance

making ready

road

actual

the

are

he
by which
Sumedha
thought, ''The
is rarely met
with

Buddha
the

Sudassana

monastery

great

Blessed

the

blessed

come.''
sound

dwells

and

town,
we

"

men

of

is

to

very
in

the

Buddha

in

men
"

men,

If

clearing the road.'*


are
clearingthis
you

a
piece of ground,
assign to me
with
I will clear the
ground in company
you." They
is well ;
and
consented, saying, "It
perceiving the
hermit
Sumedha
to be possessed of supernaturalpower,
piece of ground, and assigned
they fixed upon a swampy

for

road

the

Buddha,

"

it to
his

him, saying, "Do


heart

cause,

filled with

thought

within

thou

joy

prepare

of which

himself,

"I

this

spot." Sumedha,

the

Buddha

am

able

was

to

the

prepare

DIPANKARA.

AND

SUMEDHA

II

if so
but
piece of ground by supernatural power,
satisfaction ; this day it
no
prepared it will give me
and
duties ;
behoves
to
fetching
me
perform menial
this

"

earth
But

of

train

the

ere

the

it upon

threw

he

could

ground

by him,

cleared

be

with

"

saints

miracle-working

thousand

hundred

spot.

supernatural faculties,while angels


and
wreaths
offered celestial
perfumes, while celestial
with
men
forth, and
paid their homage
hymns
rang
earthly perfumes and with flowers and other offerings,

on

Sumedha

"

Yermilion

with

perfectionof beauty, adorned

the

and
thirty-twocharacteristics of a great man,
with
the eighty minor
beauties, attended
by a
fathom's
a
depth, and sending forth in streams
in pairs of different
Buddha
hued
-rays, linked
varied
like
the
and
wreathed
lightnings that

it

studded

gembehoves

Buddha
let

let not

him

with

trampling on my
jewelled planks,
and

my

in

spreading
of

51.

like

the

hair

matted

mire

body
So

inky
and

as

if

in

mire

long

loosed

bridge of jewelledplanks.

Questioned by
the

rae

An
they replied,

his

This

Conqueror

For

him

named

the road

is

Dipankara,
cleared, the

Therefore

way,

of the

the

of his

nay,
saints

bridge

of

good

my

hair, and

in the

it is

is born

universe,

path

the

"

lay down

incomparable Buddha
lord

day

for

world,

The

in

mantle, roll

skin

bark, he

of

for

be

his hermit's

garment

flash

mire

upon

six-

colours,

"

the

of

the

thousand

walking

saying, he

halo

life

my

hundred

will

deed

happiness."

of

walk

one

four

his

this

exclaimed,

"

sacrifice

Blessed

the

advance

heaven

make

to

me

of

vault

with

marked

the

the

seek

to

into the road


down
plain,came
the hermit
Then
and
made
ready for him.
with
Buddha
the
as
unblenching eyes
proached
apalong the road prepared for him, beholding that
the

endowed

form

Buddha's

rousing himself

lion

all

Forces, with

the ten

majesty, like

transcendant

all decked

with

endowed

Dipankara
his prey

six

the

with

endowed

coming.

said.
into

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

12

When

52.

I heard

Eepeating,
53.

I will

If you

54.

of Buddha

name

Buddha,

Then

they

Then

repeatingwithin

But

b^.

ere

The

Possessed

of the

every side

On

Buddha,

joy.

pass

coming.
pathway

the road.

! I cleared

the

great sage,
saints

thousand

hundred

four

away.

place,

Buddha

with

road

rise to receive

men

their

forth

send

drums

him, many

all taint of sin.

from

supernaturalattributes,
pure

six

angelsoverjoyed,shout

and

Men

me,

himself,

like

57.

the

not

of his

path

cleared,Dlpankara

entered

Conqueror,

me,

portion was

my

to my

to clear the

piece of ground

me

gave

the

road, the way,

I also will clear the


hh.

utterance

happy moment
Buddha, assign to me

for the

path

within

forthwith

up

the

seed, may

the

sow

clear

! I gave

Buddha

joy sprang

pondered,joyfuland excited,

there

Standing
Here

the

forth

their

music.

applause.

angels,
upraisedapproach the great Being.
with earthlymusic.
Angels with celestial music, men
Both
sending forth their strains approach the great Being.
look

Angels

58.

both

And
59.

men,

upon

Men

standing on

I loosed
robe

Bark
63.

Let

the

Let

him

ground

flowers.

coral

in all directions

upwards
and fragrantMesua, Punnaga,

Ketaka.

and
Then

and

throw

flowers,Cadamba

Salala

and

Champac
62.

the

in all directions

sprinkledown

the air

Erythrina flowers,lotuses

Celestial
61.

upon

clasped hands

with

in
Angels floating

60.

men

hair, and spreadingin

my

and

lay prone upon my face.


with his disciples,
treading upon me
it
be
will
for
mire,
my blessing.

advance

tread

not

mire

of skin,

mantle

Buddha

the

in the

lay in the mire, again beholding the Buddhawith his unblenching gaze,
majesty of Dlpankara Buddha
follows :
Were
I willing,I could
enter
he thought as
novice
in the priesthood,after
the
a
as
city of Ramma
passions; but why should I
having destroyed all human
And

lie

as

"

disguisemyself^
'

followingis

The

I could

chose

ecstatic
Arhat

this would

But

into Nirva,?m

monk

and

by

so

endure
enabled

others

save

which

the

ages
to
to

be

then
a

should

myself only. "Why


a

to

as

selfish
I thus
let

Nay,

well

at

the

as

of heroic
a

death

"

at

myself." This

trials in the

Buddha,

and

human

passion,and

attain

once

Nirvawa

to

rather

is the

great Act

within

was

exercise

of the Paramitas,

Kachchilyana'sGrammar,

redeem
p. vi.

mankind.

his

of

I should
humble
a

cease

an

to

benefit

garb of
Buddha,

Eenunciation

grasp,
that

See

become

and

become

qualifymyself to

Nirvana

so

destruction

If I
meaning of this passage :
and
the
practiceof
priesthood,
by

pursue, for thus


and
in the
slip unobserved
course

me

Bodhisattva,when

become

be

Buddhist

the

enter

after the

Nirva/^a

(Jhuna) free myself from


I should

saint.

I take

what

once

meditation

or

exist.

at

attain

to

preferred to
he might be

D'Alwis's

duction
Intro-

SUMEDHA

of human
risen

the

mankind

the

should

the
of

attain

Nirvawa

the

made

himself

down.

Therefore

the

As

lay upon

If I wished
But

65.

omniscience

attain

this

it is
the

of

is done

right that
ditions
eight con-

Buddhahood),
Buddha,

and

he

laid

said,
the

was

and

them

carry

of my

thought

heart,

might this day destroywithin me all human


I in disguisearrive at the knowledge of the

should

why

I will

it I

this

so

when

become

to

it is

ground

and

indeed

attainment

resolution

having

Truth, enable

enumerated

having

(necessary to

64.

this

the

and

Existence,

Then

the

'3

rather, like Dipankara, having

me

Ocean

do."

DIPANKARA.

knowledge of
Ship of the Truth

supreme

to enter

afterwards
I

Let

passion?

to

across

AND

hecome

resolute

hut

and

Buddha,

passions.
Truth

(save)men

and

angels.
should

"Why

66.

I will attain

67.

Will

attain

Cutting ofE

68.

of

ocean

omniscience, and
of

this resolution

By

the

cross

mine, I

omniscience, and
the

of

stream

angels to

cross.

of resolution

man

and

men

save

and

men

angels,

the
transmigration,
annihilating

three

forms

existence.

Embarking in the ship of


and
angels.^
And

enable

alone

blessed

the

the

Truth,

I will carry

Dipankara having

across

with

reached

me

the

men

spot

head.
And
by the hermit Sumedha's
opening
of
kinds
of
his eyes
the
five
as
one
possessed
grace
opens
and
the
hermit
Sumedha
window,
a
jewelled
beholding
lying in the mire, thought to himself, This hermit who

close

stood

"

lies here
his

formed

has

fulfilled

be

prayer

his

that

And

Gotama.

delivered

he

hermit

resume

lying

What
the

follows

the

would

he

standing there in
this
prophecy,
in the

from

translation

?"

mire

yasma

with

p.

to

15,

and

"

Behold

"Yes,

11.

midst

will

thousand

Buddha

named

of the

assembly

ye

this

austere

Lord," they answered.

nipajjibelongs to
line

hundred

become
the

Buddha

casting forward \
considering,he

future, and

asankheyyas

time

be

to

And

not?"

or

into

prescient gaze
perceived that four
cycles from

resolution

the

later

commentary.

THE

"

This

he

lies here

man

Buddha,

four

his

will

become

made

having
will

prayer
and

asankheyyas

birth

NIDANAKATHA.

hundred

the

at

of

end

cycles hence

thousand

Gotama,

named

to become

resolution

answered;

be

Buddha

the

and

in

that

cityKapilavatthu will be his residence, Queen


his father,
Maya will be his mother. King Suddhodana
his chief disciplewill be the thera
Upatissa, his second
the

disciple the

chief

his

Ananda,

Kolita, the

thera

female

Buddha's

servitor

disciple the

will

Khema,

nun

be
the

he attains
to years
Uppalavawwa. When
of ripe knowledge, having retired
from
world
the
and
foot of
made
the great exertion, having received
at the
of rice milk, and
a
partaken of it
banyan- tree a meal
the
of the Neranjara, having ascended
by the banks
Indian
throne
of Knowledge, he will, at the foot of an
it is
Therefore
fig-tree,attain Supreme Buddhahood.
second

the

nun

said,
70.

71.

DTpankara, knower
Standing by that
See

ye

ages

worlds, receiver
with

his matted

will be

he

of

offerings,
words

head, spoke these

pillowedmy

hermit

hence

hair,

Buddha

in this world.

Lo, the great Being departing from

Having fought
73.

wMcli

this austere

Countless

72.

of all

Having

pleasantKapila,
of austerities,
great fight,performed all manner
received
rice
there
foot of the Ajapala tree, and

the

at the

sat

pottage,
Shall

74.

approach

Having
Conqueror
Shall

by

come

Neranjara river.

the

received

rice

the

fair

pottage
road

on

the

prepared

banks

for

of the

him

to

Neranjara, the
the

of

the

throne

of

foot

Bodhi-tree.
75.

and

unrivalled

Then,

salutingthe
glorious,reverentially

Bodhi,
At

76.

77.

the

79.

Indian

an

The

mother

that

His

father

will be

His
Void

78.

of

foot

The

chief

him

shall be

Suddhodana,

will be
disciples
passion,freed

of human

Ananda

servitor
and

Void

of human
sacred

he

shall

himself

of this Buddha

Buddhahood.

Maya,
will be

Gotama.

Kolita,

desire,calm-minded

and

tranquil.
Conqueror,
upon
be his chief female
disciples,
from desire, calm-minded
and tranquil.

will attend

Uppalavawwa will
passion,freed

tree

from

attain

called

Upatissaand

Khema

The

bears

fig-treehe

the

is called

Assattha.

SUMEDHA

The
will

hermit

be

AND

Sumedha,

DIPANKARA.

exclaiming, My

it

"

prayer,

seems,

filled with

happiness. The
of Dipankara Buddha,
multitudes, hearing the words
hermit
were
joyous and delighted, exclaiming, The
is an
the
tender
Sumedha, it seems,
embryo Buddha,
accomplished,"

was

"

shoot

that

will

ford

to

lower

to

cross

down

into

up

"As

they thought,
unable

grow

the

ford

stream,

dispensationof Dipankara
Paths

paths

so

even

Buddha

their

fruition, yet when

we

shall

be

and

their

their

way.

in

enabled

fruition

we,

thus

thou

thy

own,"

is

to

attain

shalt

the
the

become

to make

presence
and

he

if under

fail to

we

and

Buddha

For

fording a river, if
opposite him, crosses

man

the

Buddha."

the

they recorded
their prayer
And
(for future sanctification).
Dipankara
also having praised the
Buddha
made
Bodhisatta, and
of flowers, reverenan
tially
ofieringto him of eight handfuls
saluted
him
and
the Arhats
also,
departed. And
four hundred
thousand
in number, having made
ofierings
of perfumes and
to the Bodhisatta
garlands,reverentially
saluted him
and
the
angels and men
departed. And
and
bowed
down
to him,
having made the same
offerings,
went

And

the

his

seat

And

as

thousand

hermit
have

all had

Bodhisatta, when

so

retired, rising from

tions,"
exclaiming, I will investigatethe Perfecdown
sat himself
cross-leggedon a heap of flowers.
the Bodhisatta
sat thus, the
angels in all the ten
worlds
assembling shouted applause. Venerable
all the
Sumedha,"
auguries which
they said,
and

"

"

themselves

whom
thou

cross-legged,saying,

Perfections,'
"

assuredlythou
these
make
words

shalt

omens

former

when

themselves

manifested

the

these

"

"

seated

do

our

strenuous

praises. Therefore

lauded

this

he

the

it is said.

will

have

This

surelywill

effort and

'We

day

Buddha.

become

appear,

they

all these

Bodhisattas

exert

Bodhisatta

appeared
know,

we

become

tigate
inves-

to

Buddha

thyself." "With
with

varied

THE

these

Hearing

80.

and

Angels
81.

Clap

83.

As

Yet

84.

and

to

come

the

river,if

Even

we

so

time

ford

lower

all,if

to

make

lose this

we

All

disciplesof

the

the

the

oppositeford.

Buddha,

before

him."
receiver

the

ray meritorious

celebrated

him.

great river,

world-knowing Dipankara,

Having

clasped hands,

with

dispensation,

fail to reach

the

cross

before

Buddha.
worlds

thousand

ten

obeisance

of this Buddha's

"

they

shall stand

come

angels in

and

shall stand

we

crossing a

and

laugh,

fail," they say,

Gaining

The

86.

arises,men

hands,
we

men

of the

incomparahleSage,
delighted,exclaimed. This is an emhryo

men

in time

In
85.

their

Should

82.

"

words

clamour

great

NIDANAKATIIA.

of

Buddha

that

offerings,

his

act, went

way.^
saluted

present

were

me

with

reverence,

Men,

Nagas,
the

When

87.

glad, with
I

Joyful

88.

Flooded
And

89.

Lord

bowed

of

with

world

the

down
his

gladsome heart, I
a great joy,glad

with

am

with

even

to

and

me

following had

departed.
passedbeyond

from

up

with

seat.

my

great gladness ;

myself cross-legged.
thought
myself,
I
have
mastered
the supernatural
meditation,

I sat

thus

as

rose

I seated

rapture then

within

ecstatic

subjectto

am

Gandhabbas

sight.

my
Then

and

Faculties.
In

90.

91.

worlds

thousand

When

there

in miraculous

Unrivalled
thus

no

that

sages
I have

powers

beheld

they

are

the
sitting,^

me

rival me.

reached

this bliss.

dwellers

of

ten

thousand

worlds
Eaised
The

omens

The

same

92.

So
The

All

worlds

this

are

All

Gems
This

when

day they

all have

and

day they

Lit.

"

raised

Lit.

"

at my

Mr.

FausboU

trees

all bear

sparkle in

day

on

all gems

earth
do

cross-legged,

ceases.

verilythou

seen,"

stilled and

land

and

bloomed,
are

!
sat

day.

laden

shalt be

Buddha.

silent.

"

blossom

Buddha

Bodhisatta

"

creepers

This

ages

shalt be

they seen to-day, verilythou shalt


mighty winds blow not, the rivers cease
things are seen to-day, verilythou

flowers

This

98.

beheld

are

These

97.

in former

beheld

are

thousand

95.

is

This
94.

mighty shout. Surely thou

dispelledand heat
day these things are

Cold

93.

96.

be

Buddha.

to

shalt

flow,
be

Buddha.

sea,
"

verilythou
with

shalt be

Buddha.

fruit,

fruit, verilythou
"

shalt be

Buddha.

and

sky,
glitter,verilythou
"

shalt be

Buddha.

rightfoot (to depart)."


sittingcross-legged."
his

writes

that

yam

is

mistake

of the

copyistfor yd=:ydni.

THE

And

tlie

kara

Bodhisatta, having

Buddha,

filled with

himself,
fail;
For
death

of

and

The

"

is

the
of

fall

of

roaring

when

he

woman

with

certain,

even

"

the

sunrise

his

the

worlds,
within

of

word

in

into

the

the

become

air,
as

are

Buddhas
a

speech.
the

as

lion's

delivery

things

the

cannot

their

dawn,

at

these

word

whose

lair, as

all

as

fail,verilyI shall

cannot

Dlpan-

thousand

truth

thrown

leaves

so

from

clod

as

child,

of

words

ten

beings

are

mortal,

the

resolution, thought thus

deviation

no

heard

angels in

Buddhas

it is

the

immeasurable

there

as

NIDANAKATHA.

of
and

sure

is

Buddha."

and

sure

Therefore

said,
Having

118.

heard

the

words

of Buddha

and

of

the

angelsof

ten

thousand

worlds,
I then
Glad, joyous,delighted,
The

119.

Buddhas
vain

There

speak

thought

doubtful

not

within

thus

words,

myself :
Conquerors speak

the

not

words,

is

falsehood

no

in

the

Buddhas,

verilyI

"

shall

become

Buddha.
120.

121.

122.

123.

124.

As

So

the word

As

the

death

So

the

word

risingof

clod

into

cast

As

the

So

the word

As

the

So

the word

of the

air doth

of the

of the

of the

As

the

the word

of the

having

thus

deliveryof

is
and

sure

is certain

sun

lion who

has

when

with

child

gloriousBuddhas

made

the
view

sure

ground,
everlasting.

and

is

sure

and

night
sure

is

sure

everlasting.

has

and

left his den

gloriousBuddhas
women

the

to

constant.
is

gloriousBuddhas

with

Buddha,"

is

gloriousBuddhas

the

roaring of

surelyfall

gloriousBuddhas

of all mortals

So

And

the

faded.

everlasting.

"

is certain,
and

everlasting.

is certain,
is

sure

and

everlasting.

resolution,

*'

I shall

surely

tions
investigatingthe condithat constitute a Buddha,
are
exclaiming, Where
the
that make
the conditions
Buddha,
are
they found
directions?"
above
below, in the principalor the minor
or
the principles
of all things,and
investigatingsuccessively
beholding the first Perfection of Almsgiving, practised
become

to

"

and

followed

his

own

soul

former

by
"

Wise

Bodhisattas, he
Sumedha,

from

thus
this

admonished
time

forth

THE

thou
water-

overturned

jar

remains, and
to wealth

and

till

said,

125.

Come,

ask

nought remains,

thou

these

first

perfection of

will

words

the

search

of

tree

for

as

that

none

thou, indifferent

and

the

so

child, and

come

With
the

it is

of

if

so

and

to all who

they require
thyself at the foot
attain

wife

fame, and

that

water

it,even

recover

small, give away

Buddha."

the

discharges

cannot

and

19

perfectionof Almsgiving

fulfil the

must

PARAMITAS.

TEN

Bodhi

goods great
everything
shalt

and

seat

become

strenuously resolved to
Almsgiving. Therefore

he

conditions,this

Buddha-making

way

and

that,
Above

and

below,

far

directions,as

in all the ten

as

the

of
principles

things extend.
Then,

126.

The
Do

127.

Even

129.

Do

But
other

of

search, I beheld

my

followed

former

by

strenuouslytaking

so, when

thou

the

first Gift-perfection,

sages.

give

thou

seest

all in

away

it upon

that

any

alms,

considering further,
conditions

second

that

Perfection

wise

the

high
thou

road

thyselfadvance
To this first perfection
of almsgiving,if thou wilt attain Buddhaship.
As a brimming water-jar,
overturned
by any one.
all
the
and
retains none
within,
Dischargesentirely
water,

128.

"

I made

as

make

of

Sumedha,

Mor^l

from

the

as

There

day

and

for

forth

as

beside

be

must

Practice, he

this

middling,

jar overthrown.

water-

Buddha,"

perfection of Morality ;
his

"

ask, great, small, and

beholding the
thought thus,

mayest

the

Yak

this

ox,

thou

fulfil

regardless

life, guards his

thou
shalt
so
bushy tail, even
become
if from
this day forward
Buddha,
regardless
of thy life thou
he
keepest the moral precepts." And
strenuously resolved to attain the second perfectionof
Moral

130.

131.

Practice.

For

the

Let

me

Then

Therefore

conditions

of

Buddha

investigatethe

other

maturity.
I beheld
investigating

Practised

and

followed

it is

by

the

former

said,

cannot

be

conditions

second
sages.

so

few,

that

Perfection

bring Buddhaship
of

Morality

to

THE

20

1 32.

This

second

And

do thou

one

reach

NIDANAKATHA,

the

strenuouslyundertake,

perfection of

Moral

if

Practice

thou

wilt

attain

Buddhahood.
133.

And
Then

1 34.

the Yak

as

So

and

there

also do

Ever

when

cow,

awaits

Sila

guard

tail has

death, and

the

as

will

got entangledin anything,


not injureher tail,'

fulfilled the moral

thou, having
the

her

Yak

preceptsin

four

the

stages,

guards her tail.

be tlie only
cannot
considering further, "These
conditions," and
Buddha-making
beholding the third
of Self-abnegation,
he thought thus,
Perfection
0 wise
henceforth
fulfil the
Sumedha,
mayest thou
perfection
of Abnegation ; for as a man
long the denizen of a prison
But

"

feels

for

love

no

live there

it, but
even

more,

no

is

discontented, and

so

do

wishes

to

thou, likening all births

with all births, and anxious


discontented
prison-house,
to
abnegation,
get rid of them, set thy face toward
shalt thou
become
Buddha.''
thus
And
he strenuously
resolution
attain
the
third
the
made
to
perfection of
Self-abnegation. Therefore it is said,
to

135.

the conditions

For
I

that

maturity.
then
Investigating

136.

Practised
137.

And
138.

As

Buddha

the third

that

Perfection

few,

so

bring Buddhaship
of

to

Abnegation

former

by
sages.
strenuous^ undertake,
of abnegation,if thou wilt
perfection

long

man

be

cannot

conditions

do thou

one

the

reach

I beheld

followed

and

third

This

make

investigateothers, the

will

denizen

of

the

house

of

attain Buddhahood.

bonds, oppressed with

suffering.
Feels
139.

Even

pleasure therein,but
do

so

Set

But

no

thy

thou

Viz., I

us
appears
of the Yak

the

upon

considering further,

suppose,

wanting
or

as

prison-houses.

"These

he

dignity,is
ox

favourite

"

be

0 wise

This
with

one

[Bos Grunniens) is

royalty.

from

beholding

thought thus,

release

cannot

by dragging it forciblyaway.
in

Tibetan

insigniaof Hindu

longs for release,

conditions," and

of Wisdom,

Perfection

rather

all births

to obtain
self-abnegation,

face toward

Buddha-making

look

the

beautiful

Existence.

the
the

only
fourth

Sumedha,

metaphor, which
Hindus.

object,and

The
one

to

tail
of

thou

do

from

THE

TEN

this

day

PARAMITAS.

fulfil

forth

perfection of
knowledge, great, small,

Wisdom,

avoiding no subjectof
middling,^ do thou approach

or

them

questions; for

rounds, avoiding
that

the

as

all

the

wise

his

on

begging
small,

families, great and

the

ask

and

men

friar

mendicant

of

none

2i

he

frequents,^and wandering for alms from place


to
so
place, speedily gets food to support him, even
shalt thou, approaching all wise
and
asking them
men,
questions, become
to attain

it is

For

140.

fourth

the

the

will

conditions

that

143.

and

This

fourth

And

reach

And

as

Either
Even

144.

perfectionof

And

make

investigatethe

Practised
142.

strenuously

he

I beheld

followed

do
the

thou

by

Buddha

fourth

the
former

be

cannot

conditions

other

that

so

As

of Wisdom

Perfection

sages.

perfectionof wisdom,

if thou

wilt

attain

acts

monk

himself,

shalt

on

his

become

attain

is

said.

'

Lit.

After

"

the

not

kind

Lit. in all

thought thus,

"

wise

the

be

only

fifth Perfection

Sumedha,

do

day forth fulfil the perfectionof Exertion.


king of beasts, in every action^ strenuously
so

if thou
in

strenuous

to

this

lion,the

art

Buddhahood.

begging rounds avoids no families,


small, or great,or middling,and so obtains subsistence,
thou, constantlyquestioningwise men.
so
reaching the perfection of wisdom, shalt attain supreme
Buddhaship.

from

exerts

to

strenuouslyundertake,

Exertion, he

the

few,

bring Buddhaship

cannot
considering further, "These
Buddha-making conditions," and seeing the

thou

fore
There-

Wisdom.

But

of

solved
re-

said,

maturity.
then
Investigating

141.

And

Buddha."

in

exertion, and

Buddha."

fifth

And

perfectionof

avoiding anything
understand

all existences

among

kularh,

as

he

not

and

seen

etc.
postm*es,walking,standing,

from

firm

thy

thou

resolve

Therefore

Exertion.

things great,small,
will be

all

laggard,

made

in

v.

and

143.

middling.

it

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

22

145.

For
I

146.

147.

the

Buddha

be

cannot

few,

so

which
investigatethe other conditions
maturity.
the fifth Perfection
then I beheld
Investigating
Practised
and followed
by former sages.
This fifth do thou strenuously
undertake,
reach

As

the

Is
149.

of

will

And
148.

conditions

no

perfectionof exertion,if

lion,king

of

laggard, but

Even
And

the

do thou

so

reaching

to

of Exertion

wilt

attain

Buddhahood.

beasts,in lying,standingand walking.


of resolute

ever

also in every

the

thou

bring Buddhaship

heart,

existence

of
perfection

strenuouslyexert

exertion,thou

shalt

attain

thyself,
the supreme

Buddhaship.

But

be
tlie only
cannot
considering further, "These
conditions," and
Buddha-making
beholding the sixth
Perfection
of Patience, he thought to himself,
0 wise
this time
forth fulfil the perfecSumedha, do thou from
tion
of Longsuffering; be thou
patient in praiseand in
when
throw
as
reproach. And
men
things pure or foul
"

upon

the

earth, the

earth

does

feel

not

either

desire

or

them
them, but suffers them, endures
repulsion towards
and
thou
art
also, if thou
so
acquiescesin them, even
Buddha."
patient in praise and reproach, shalt become
he strenuouslyresolved
And
to attain the sixth perfection
of Longsuffering. Therefore
it is said,

150.

For

151.

And

the

conditions

I will seek

seeking then

Practised
152.

and

And

conditions

followed

the

as

Even

But

seventh

on

sixth

upon

bring

about

Perfection

of

Buddhaship.
Longsuffering

Buddhas.

former

mind

few,

so

thee

thou

all that

this sixth

shalt attain
is thrown

perfection.
Buddhaship.
supreme

upon

it,

impure, and feels neither anger nor


enduring the praisesand reproachesof all men,
thou shalt attain supreme
to perfectlongsuffering,

further

conditions

endures

things pure

so

Going

earth

the

by

be

cannot

also which

I beheld

unwavering

with

Whether
154.

Buddha

Having strenuouslytaken
Then

153.

other

of

or

Perfection

"

make
of

ship.
Buddha-

the

only
and
Buddha,"
a
beholding the
Truth, he thought thus within

considering,

that

pity,

These

cannot

be

THE

himself,
fulfil

"

wise

TEN

PARAMITAS.

Sumedha,

23

this

from

fortli do

time

the

perfection of Truth ; though the


descend
under
thy head, do thou never
upon
of desire and other
passionsutter a conscious

the

sake

And

of

wealth

or

planet Yenus

at

ever

another

on

goes

if thou

forsake

become

Buddha."

to the

seventh

For

155.

these

Seeking

all

seasons

truth

not

And

and

other

then

Practised

and

utter

conditions

own

of

which

I beheld

the seventh

followed

by

nor

even

own,

so,

lie, thou

no

shalt
mind

his
it is

said,

Buddha,

bring about

Buddhaship.

Perfection

former

the

as

course,

Therefore

Truth.

influence

lie,for the

strenuouslyturned

he

all the conditions

not

are

her

forsaking her

course

thunderbolt

advantage.

pursues

perfectionof

I will seek
156.

other

any

thou

of Truth

Buddhas.

157.

Having strenuouslytaken upon thyselfthis seventh perfection,


Then
free from
shalt
attain
duplicityof speech thou
supreme
Buddhaship.

158.

And

In the
Even

159.

the

as

world
do

so

balanced

planet Venus,
of
thou

Advancing

and

men

the

to

devas, departs not

depart from

not

in all her

the

from

and
her

seasons,

path,

of truth, ^

course

perfectionof truth,

times

thou

attain

shalt

supreme

Buddhaship.
But

further

conditions

wise

of

the
moves

of

do

in

beating
not,

thou

from

but

that
upon

beholding

it in all
in

its

forth

For

the

as

only
eighth

himself,
fulfil the

resolvest

thou

whatsoever

the

within

this time

resolution.

stands

be

cannot

and

Buddha,"

Resolution;

unshaken
wind

These

Resolution, he thought thus

Sumedha,

perfection
thou

"

that make

Perfection
*'

considering,

mountain,

directions, trembles

place, even

be

so

not,

thou, if

Buddha."
unswerving in thy resolution, shalt become
And
he strenuously resolved
the eighth perto attain
fection
of Eesolution.

160.

For

these

I will seek

Lit.

are

out

not

all the

other

departfrom

Therefore

conditions

conditions

thy course

that

it is

of

Buddha,

bring

in the matter

said,

about

Buddhaship.

of truthful

things.

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

24

Seeking then

I beheld

Practised

followed

161.

Do

162.

thou

Then

Is unshaken
Even

164.

former

by

upon

also remain

do thou

so

Buddhas.

thyselfthis eighth perfection,


shalt attain supreme
being immovable
Buddhaship.
rocky mountain, immovable, firmlybased,
place,
by many winds, and stands in its own

the

as

of Resolution

eighth Perfection

the

take
resolutely

thou

And

163.

and

immovable

ever

in resolution,

Advancing to the perfectionof resolution,thou


Buddhaship.

further

But

considering,"These

conditions

that

Perfection

of

*'

will, he
do

thou

thought
from

friends

towards

and

foes.

refreshing coolness
if thou

of

art

it is

Therefore

these

For

165.

Seeking

166.

And

169.

other

out

and

conditions

conditions

the ninth

of

that

Buddha,

bring

Perfection

in kindness, if thou

fillswith

water

as

Good

men

and

Even

so

do thou

about

of Good-

Buddhaship.
will

bad

further

with

carries off all

friendshipalike

considering,

"

conditions

that

Perfection

of

"

'

wise

Lit.

make

made

people,pervadesthem.

Buddha.

impurity,
on

the

These

Buddha,"

and

from

its coldness

this

time

exactly alike

evil and
shalt

the

attain

be

cannot

do

for

within
thou

bad

good.
supreme

the

beholding the

Equanimity, he thought thus

Sumedha,

having

perfection,

wilt become

its coolness

alike, and

look

ninth

Advancing to the perfectionof kindness, thou


Buddhaship.

But

so,

followed

unrivalled

Become
168.

all the

not

by former Buddhas.
thou, taking resolutely
thyselfthis
upon

Do

167.

the

I beheld

Practised

alike,^ even

its

said,

are

I will seek

mind

one

in

become

attain

to

fulfil the

fills with

bad

and

men

of

be

ninth

friendlyfeeling towards all


Buddha."
And
he strenuously
ninth
perfection of Good- will.

mind

one

shalt

mortals, thou
resolved

good

only

himself,

forth

time

water

as

the

within

thus

thou

And

supreme

beholding the

this

perfection of Good-will, mayest

attain

be

cannot

and

Buddha,"

Good-

Sumedha,

wise

make

shalt

only
tenth

himself,
fulfil

people

and

the

good

THE

26

Repeating,
Lesser

the

the

the

Perfections, the

Unlimited

Perfections,
oils into

one,^

of

sacrifice

the sacrifice of

are

like

or

he mastered
life,''

who

one

limbs,

property, the

Perfections

Lesser

like

"

of

sacrifice

the

are

are

Perfections

as

kindred

Perfections

Perfections

Unlimited
them

The

"

NIDANAKATHA.

and

converts

two

who, using Mount

one

the

Meru

for his

ocean.
churning-rod, churns the great Cakkavala
And
he grasped again and
as
again the ten Perfections,
of his piety this earth, four
nahutas
and
by the power
thousand
eight hundred
leagues in breadth, like a bundle
of
reeds
trodden
by an
elephant, or a sugar-mill in
and
motion, uttering a mighty roar, trembled, shook
round
like
quaked, and
a
potter'swheel or the
spun

wheel

of

17o.

These

oil-mill.

an

all the

are

Therefore

conditions

in

it is

the

said,

world

that

bring Buddhaship

to

perfection

Beyond
While

176.

By
177.

these

others,therein

no

do

grasped these conditions


of his pietythe earth

he

earth

Like

the

sways
wheel

while

of

thunders

earth

intrinsic,^

the

worlds

quaked.

earth.

trembling

was

the

of

people

it, like great Sal-trees

endure

to

and

fast.

sugar-mill at work,

shakes

so

stand

thousand

of ten

like

oil-mill

an

the

unable

Pamma,

and

thou

natural

the power

The

And

are

thrown
over-

that
of a cycle,
end
blows
at the
by the wind
fell swooning here
and
there, while waterpots and other
vessels, revolving like a jar on
a
potter'swheel, struck
dashed
and ground to pieces.
against each other and were
multitudes
in fear and
The
trembling approaching the
Teacher

said,

by dragons, or

"

Tell

is it caused

by celestial beings
this
1

whole

multitude

"

by

for
is

one,

is this turmoil

either

this

demons,
know

we

or

caused
ogres,

or

truly

not, but

grievously afilicted. Pray

does

Vijesinha.

Vijesinha writes to me,


gloss says : paramarthavu
ha

Blessed

us.

"Natural
rasasahitavu

sarvadharmasadharanalakshana-^ti.

having

the

qualityof

conformitywith

and

intrinsic

lakshana-ceti

In

the

all laws."

virtues.
nohot

latter

case

The

Sinhalese

svabhavalakshana
it would

mean,

GREAT

THE

this

of it."

The

'

them

and

the

them

ten

thousand

whole

and

thunder."
All

the

fell

Trembling,
179.

worlds

Many

thousands

Were

crushed

that

and

there

waterpots

there

pounded

The

multitudes

Say, will

181.

The

good

world

is

evil to the

or

ward
afflicted,

not

this.

predicted this

named

Gotama,'

while

he
of

power

masters

his

piety
quake

accord

one

the

and

Buddha,

the

on

ground.
jars

hundred

many

dashed
their

world

against each

other.

disordered,

sense

Buddha.

assembling, approached the

it be

whole

Fear

"

said,

upon

and

cause

from

you
I

with

confused,
Excited, trembling, terrified,

180.

to

in attendance

there

was

swooning
of

it is

the

said,

Buddha

about, by the

Therefore

multitude

words

no

be

^tellus

"

Perfections, and

turns

the

178.

will

he

mastering

now

their

danger
concerning whom

Sumedha,

Hereafter

is

27

good

or

hearing

troubled, there

wise

day,

tlie world

Teacher

The

be

nor

is

evil to

portend

RESOLVE.

off this

(danger),thou

Omniscient

One.
Then

182.

Great

in this
The

same

the
investigating

while

of

ten

is

he

groundwork
earth
of

predictedthis day,

will

He

be

Buddha

time-honoured

Conditions

followed

by

Buddhas.

Therefore

The

world.

is

the
184.

Sage Dipankara enjoinedupon them,


afraid at this earthquaking:

concerningwhom

He

183.

the

confident,be not

Be

of

these

investigatingfully

Conditions,

the

of

and

Buddha,

thousand

worlds

in

is shaken

the

world

men

angels.

words, joyfuland
people hearing the Buddha's
them
garlands, perfumes and
delighted, taking with
the
and
to
went
city of Eamma,
unguents, left the
Bodhisatta.
And
having offered their flowers and other
saluted
and
him,
to him
respectfully
presents, and bowed
And

the

they returned
having made
the

185.

seat

on

Having

to the

cityof

strenuous

which

he

sat.

heard

the

Buddha's

and

exertion

Therefore
word,

the

And

Ramma.

resolve, rose

it is

their

Bodhisatta,

said,

minds

were

calmed.
All

of them

approachingme

againpaid me

their

from

homage.

straightway

THE

taken

Having

186.

firm

Having
And

bowed

garlands

words

of

the

fear

Perfections

each

visit

do

so

And
his

to

his

received

other

Sumedha,
feet of

the

it without

let

As

Buddhaship.
forth

bring

flowers

the
and

lettingthe right
knowledge
supreme

also, not
the

having spoken, they


home.

Then
of

the

returned

Bodhisatta,

a
angels, made
exertion
and
strenuous
resolve, saying, Having fulfilled
the ten Perfections, at the end
of four asankheyyas and
hundred
thousand
Buddha.'*
a
a
cycles I shall become
And
fore
Thererisinginto the air he returned to Himavanta.

having

the

and

not
dismayed, may
thy frame, quickly exercise

reach

celestial

offered

and

be

thou

thus

angels in

seat, the

fulfil

supreme

by, quickly

Buddha."
one

nor

attain

season,

pass

made

seat.

my

thou

fruit-bearingtrees

fruit in their
season

from

from

rose

not

and

floweringand

rose

mayest

slightestsickness

the

of

and

Buddha,

hindrance

Buddha, having

having assembled
these
perfumes, uttered
hermit
blessing,"Venerable
made
a
mighty resolve at

hast

thou

day

of

worlds

praise and

Dlpankara
or

Dlpankara, I

to

thousand

ten

Perfections

resolve,

my

him

this

the

me

upon

the Bodhisatta

as

all the

NIDANAKATIIA.

homage

the

"

it is

187.

As

said,

he

from

rose

Sprinkle
188.

Both
A

189.

him

his seat both

with

angels and

great

prayer

angels and

celestial and

men

their

pronounce

thou

hast

thy wish.
May
dangers be averted, may
Mayest thou have no hindrance,
all

of
As
Even

when
so

blessing,

made, mayest

every

obtain

thou

sickness

it

according to

the supreme

knowledge

vanish,

quicklyreach

"

190.

men

earthlyflowers.

Buddha.
the

season

do

thou,

is
0

come

the

floweringtrees

mighty One,

blossom

do

with

blossom,
the

wisdom

of

Buddha.
191.

As
Even

192.

As

Even

all the
so

do thou, 0

all the
so

of

Buddhas

Buddhas

do thou, 0
a

Buddha.

have

fulfilled the ten

mighty One,

Perfections,

fulfil the ten

Perfections.

enlightenedon the throne of knowledge,


mighty One, receive enlightenmentin the wisdom
are

DEATH

Even

moon

Even

the

mid-day
thy mind

thou,

with

released

by

of the

the

Law,
of the Law.

supremacy
in her

shines

full,shine

the

at

29

supremacy

month

of the

the

on

do

so

estahlished

have

thou, 0 mighty One, establish

do

so

the

As

194.

Buddhas

all the

As

193.

BUDDHA.

DIPANKARA

OF

purity,

in

thousand

ten

worlds.
As

195.

the

Even

Even

so

extolled

Bodhisatta

The

197.

to the

way

of

worlds

the

may

do

mankind,

rivers find their

all the

his heat,

glows ferventlyin

Rahu

redeemed

having

so,

As

196.

sun

with

in all

shine

thy majesty.

great ocean,

angelstake refugein thee.


praises,taking on himself the

and

men

thou

these

ten

Conditions,

Commencing

Conditions,entered

fulfil these

to

End

And
the

to

city,kept

Buddha
the

Law

and

from

the

span

of
due

198.

199.

200.

the

which
that

in the

need

in

entertained

Took

refuge in

Teacher

Some

the

Some

in the five

the

Buddha

the

Chief

in the

Precepts,others
the

his
of

allotted

Buddha,

element

be

of

of the

nihilation
an-

remains.

On

learnt from

the

world

with

work,

his

clergy,

Dlpankara.

established

gives

he

three

for it is said in that

Buddhavamsa,

they,having

that

can

the

Faith, departing

existence

said

be

Then

some

of

trace

no

in

the

having preached
them

of

Nirva;?a

attained

subjectall

To

ha^sdng returned

Teacher

branches

Sumedha.

priesthood with

established

and

Story of

living thereafter
city of Ramma,
life,having fulfilled all the duties

course

narrative

the

to

The

other

the

in
this

house

head.

them,

to

of the

city of Eamma,

the

open

their

at

Refuges

in

people of

the

the forest.

Refuges,

in the

privilegeof

ten.

priesthood, the

four

glorious

Fruitions,
On
201.

To
On

bestows

he

some

the

some

Lord

he

some

those
of

the analytical
peerless
qualities
Knowledges.

grants the eight

men

bestows

the

three

"Wisdoms

sublime
and

Acquisitions,
the

six

supernatural

Faculties.
202.

In

this order

Therewith

Vij. says,

Fahcaaila, then

the

the

wide

"In

Great

Sage

exhorte

commandment

of

the multitude.

the

world's

Protector

was

spread

abroad.

that

in the

order,viz.
Daaaaila^ and

in

the

so

on."

Saranagamana

first,then

in

the

THE

30

203.

He

of the

NIDANAKATHA.

miglityjaw, of

Procured

the

salvation

shoulder, DTpankara by

the hroad

of many

warded

men,

name,

future

them

off from

punishment.
204.

206.

207.

208.

them

Even

of four

leagues,the

at

distance

them

the

first conversion

At

the

second

When

the

There

took

the

Teacher

The

first

Again

third

had

was

thousand

of

meeting

the

three

million

When

the

Mighty

Then

the

Sage

spotlessArhats
One

dwelt

surrounded

thousand.

hundred

millions..

at Narada

seclusion

Ku^a,

together.
loftyrock Sudassana,

met

the

on

millions.

millions.

into

Conqueror went

thousand

assemblies.

million

S-age

Great

angel world,

in the

of nine

an

truth).

hundred

the truth

conversion

DTpankara

when

of the

converted

converted

preached

place a

thousand

Buddha

the

Protector

Buddha

The

hundred

(to the knowledge

At

A
209.

instant,

ripe for salvation,reaching

awakened
205.

in

Beholding persons

himself

hundred

nine

with

thousand

millions,
210.

At

that

time

was

wearing matted

ascetic

an

hair, a

of austere

man

penances.

Moving

the

through

in

air, accomplished

the

five

supernatural

Faculties.
211.

The

(simultaneous)conversion
thousands, took

Of
212.

and

ones

Then

did

the

of

tens

thousands,

of twenties

of

place.
conversions

the

twos

of

beyond computation.^

were

religion of Dipankara

pure

become

Buddha

widely

spread.
Known
213.

to many

Four

hundred
with

Ever
214.

215.

Blameworthy
Not

having

The

word

Freed

217.

obtained

by

saints such

human

as

and

Shone

the

Sunanda

Bodhi-tree

Eighty

Tissa

was

cubits

servitor

height

conspicuousas

Lit.

The

human

existence.

"

to

(of sin).

RammavatI,

father,Sumedha

his mother.

of

disciples,
Dipankara Buddha.

his chief

the

female

disciples.
Pipphali.^
Sage Dipankara
pine,or as a noble Sal-tree

is called
Great

Deodar

the

bloom.

'

the

his chief

were

were

was

his

of this Buddha
in

worlds.

these,
called

was

Sagata

three

leave

of all taint

khattiya Sumedha

Nandu

that time

passion,void

cityof Dipankara
and

at

of the

still imperfect in knowledge.


sanctity,
in the world
of men
and angels,made

The

Sumangala

Faculties,endowed

shines

The

The
219.

final

of Buddha

from

knower

they who

Buddha

And
218.

all

are

the six

powers.

Dipankara,

upon

flourishing.

saints,possessedof

miraculous

attend

and

prosperous

thousand

blossom

216.

men

innumerable."
arithmetically

Banyan-tree.

in full

BUDDHA.

ATONBANJVA

hundred

220.

And

thousand

long

so

he

as

the

was

years

of this Great

age

Sage,
brought many

he

earth

living on

was

31

to

men

salvation.
made

Having

221.

the

Truth

flourish,having

to

saved

multitudes

great

of men.
flamed

Having
And

222.

is

Dlpankara

Next

tlie

to

had

three

were

Teacher

assemblies
million

millions,

third

monarch

named

with

Buddha
The

of millions.
"He

will

Faculties, and

Bhadda

and

ruddha

was

body

After
the

Sumana,
three

was

hundred
at

same

cycle four

Revata

assemblies

The

his

cubits

him,

the

and
of

three

end

Brahma

was

chief

two

and

hood
priestmillion

the

satta,
Bodhi-

high,

of

supernatural
the ecstatic

heavens.

and

The

the

khattiya
Sujata,
queen
Anudisciples,

Upatissa
the

was

his

chief

Salakalyam, his
the

of

duration

years.
one

Buddhas

Sobhita.

saints,of these
divisions

six

failure

mother

thousand

the

the

to

E-ammavatI,

Bodhi-tree

eighty-eight

was

in the

servitor, Tissa

disciples,his

his life

and

his

universal

preached the Law.


preaching gave up his
monk.
Having mastered

was

were

that

Buddha,"

father, his

Subhadda

At

head, in number

Buddhist

Buddha

his

was

as

house

open

Teacher's

reborn

was

Ko?z^anna

Sunanda

female

born

been

having practisedwithout

meditation, he
of

millions.

Treasuries,^ having obtained

three

city

the

thousand

ten

having predictedof

become

having heard
kingdom and became

second

hundred

at their

Teacher

He

the

nine

Yijitavin,kept

the

feet,

lapse of one
appeared. He also
first assembly there

the

the

at

Bodhisatta, having

the

disciples.

unrivalled.

immeasurable,

renown,

saints,at

millions,

the

at

his

on

Kow"fafifia,

Ko?zrfaniia

of

his

Buddlia, after the

Dlpankara

the

asankheyya,

jewel-wheels

named

of boundless

together with

existingthingsvanity!

Leader

the

was

all

not

died

fire,he

glory,these

are

"

infinite power,

Of

of

mass

this

wholly gone,

After

time

all this power,

All
223.

like

asankheyya, in one
born, Mangala,
were
had
Mangala Buddha
at the

of the Buddhist

first there

Scriptures.

were

million

million

millions,at
that

by

third

assembly

an

nine

second

hundred

and

with

hundred

accompanied

millions,
The

Teacher

his various

retinue

upon

works

meritorious

the
gave

doctrines,

attained

Arhatship

The

analyticalKnowledges.
the

to

went

Teacher

done

by these
of family in former
men
existences, and perceiving that
they had merit to acquire the robe and bowl by miraculous
Come,
stretchingforth his right hand exclaimed,
means,
priests."^ Then
straightway all of them having become
robes
and
bowls,
equipped with miraculously obtained
and
elders of sixty
perfect in decorum,^ as if they were
and
attended
standing,paid homage to the Teacher
years
him.
This
his third
was
assembly of saints. And
upon
other
Buddhas
whereas
with
a
light shone from their
bodies
of eighty cubits
to the distance
side, it
on
every
his body
but the lightfrom
not so with this Buddha,
was
worlds, and trees, earth,
permanently filled ten thousand
and
all other things,not excepting even
mountains, seas

looking

back

whole

his

the

It is related

his, prince Ananda,

nine

thousand

ten

millions.

preach the Law.


with
dealingsuccessively

Ananda

together

of

the

him

to hear

discourse

and

the

priests,at

step-brother of

Teacher
a

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

32

*'

pots and

and

pans

overspread with

articles,became

such-like
film

of

gold.

The

as

duration

it

of his

were

life

during the whole of this


ninety thousand
years, and
and other heavenly bodies could not
period the sun, moon
distinction
shine by their own
no
light,and there was
between
night and day. By day all living beings went
if in the light of
in the light of
the Buddha
about
as
the limits of night and
and
the
ascertained
men
sun,
in the evening
day only by the flowers that blossomed
was

and

the

birds

in

the

morning.

cries
other

Buddhas

The

formula

Vijesinha.

and

If

also possess
by

whicli

animals

other

by

Buddha

admits

uttered

asked, "What,

am

this

that

power
a

layman

"

to the

their
do

not

reply, Cerpriesthood.

THE

34

ought

sacrifice

to

wrapped
that

butter

hundred

whole

vessel

wicks, and

having

with

the

not

'twas

as

enters

one

him

guards
Blessed

who

One

224.

he

lit

the

therein

whole
the

spent
And

hair

in

body

having

same

way

clarified

having
jewelledwick -holders, worth

shrine.

of

root

and

Buddha,"

filled with

fire to the

set

head, he

his

his

pieces,

the
dawn

and

with

thousand

this

of

wrapped,

are

golden

life for

my

the

round

torches

NIDANAKATHA.

of his
whole
he

as

of his

the

calyx of
guards himself.

head

thousand

body beginning
in

night
thus

was

till

strove

heated,

even

lotus, for the

cumambulat
cir-

Therefore

Truth

has

the

said,

E-eligionverilyprotectshim

walks

who

according

thereto,

Religion rightlyfollowed
blessingis

This
The

righteousman

the

through

And

the
view

to-morrow."
"

escort

and

**

'*

Nay
At

?"

"

how

Brahmin,

but

how

of

state

ment.
punish-

bodily lustre

also the

that

time

them

all with

house."

having

thought

invited
to

you

the

for the

them

himself,
1

and

Teacher

The

"

am

Viz. Gotama

have

Teacher's
million

come

and

day, on
perfectlywell
Bodhisatta.

me

you

wish

you

in

your

first

assembly,

millions."

consented.
next

with

do

monks

monks

was

meal

your

many

many

"

my

to

Lord, take

accordinglyhe replied,

bring
at

of this work

merit

discourse, said,

his sweet

for ?

not

goes

through ten thousand


At
this time
Bodhisatta,^ having been born
our
with
brahmin
Suruci, approached the Teacher
of inviting him
to his house, and
having heard

worlds.

the

rightlyfollowingthe Law,

constantlyextended

of this Buddha

as

in

then

brings happiness.

take
The
his

able

"

your

Lord,
meal

Brahmin
way
to

home

supply

'

MANGALA

all these monks

with

broth

necessaries,but
sit

down?^'

throne
six

of

This
the

abode?''
the

looking

the

and

with
to

room

obtain

and

hand

he

got

one

any

seeing
"

There's

that
"

him

said,

Yery well,

I've

"I've

me."
it."

build

he

was

kasi?^a

circle.^

thought

to

precious

stones

know

to

you
house

"

do ?

hall

or

it for him."
What

"

is

priestsfor

morrow,
to-

"I'll

all?"
of

means

it,

paying

Yery well, I'll build


and
began looking out for a site.
fiftyleagues in extent ^ as level as

some

Indra

himself,
rise

can

them

the

Has

"

Bodhisatta

any

million
seat

in

axe

The

done."

be

to

having

said,

build, I'll build

hall

man."

good

went

spot

not

pleasure if you've

have, my

And

There
a

"

work

million

"

of

to

also

And

and

sort

job

invited

with

one

Bodhisatta

is

head

carpenter,

for hire ?

to

me

got

will you
build

I do

orders

anybody

sir?"

What

that

art

no

"

the

be done

job to

of

having

me

of his merit."
"

before

appeared

it behoves

them,
form

the

eye

their

at

my

beheld

Suruci

brahmin

claiming,
ex-

from

divine

Buddha

the

thirty-

Indra

down

me

to

marble

and

warm.^

the

"The

share

miraculously assumed

hundred

become

them

the

three

like
such-

and

for

room

caused

with

seat

be

bring

down

clothes

his

of

to

said,

clergy

for

thither

go

wishes

Bodhisatta,

perplexed

there

can

thought

Who

and

invited

how

35

rice and

and

archangel Indra,
leagues away, to

thousand
"

BUDDHA.

"

up

fixed
Let

"

his

hall
such

over

eyes

made
and

it, while

upon
of

such

the

an

he

seven

extent

of

ground." Immediately the edifice bursting through the


The
ground rose up.
golden pillarsof this hall had silver
the silver pillarshad
the gem
capitals,*
golden capitals,
pillarshad coral capitals,the coral pillarshad
gem
of all the
while
those
made
capitals,
were
pillarswhich
1

When

throne

good

becoming

Lit. twelve

Used

The

in the
Pali

man

is in

Indra
diflSculty,

apprisedof

is

it

by

his

marble

warm,

or

thirteen

yojanas ;

yojana is

column

four

leagues.

ecstatic meditation.

word

for the

capitalof

is

"

gha^aka,

little pot."

THE

36

preciousstones

seven

said,
at

NIDANAKATHA,

*'

Let

the

hall

intervals," and

fringe of
they were

had

bells

capitalsof tlie
hanging wreaths

have

looked

hung

The

again.
whose

down,

Next

same.

of

instant

lie

little bells

looked

he

musical

tinkling,as
stirred by a gentle breeze, was
like a symphony
of the five sorts of instruments, or as when
the heavenly
choirs are
He
going on.
thought, Let there be hanging
garlands of perfumes and flowers,'*and there the garlands
hung. He thought, Let seats and benches for a million
million
monks
rise
way
straightup through the earth," and
vessels
water
they appeared. He thought, "Let
rise up
of the building," and
the water
at each
corner
vessels arose.
efiected
Having by his miraculous
power
"

"

all

this, he

look

and

frame

"

This

hall

Indra

my

by

hall

as

renunciation

fivefold

And

joy.

good action, the palace

hence

great,
the

this

alms

for
For

been

in such

singleday, I will
the gift of external
satisfaction

the crowned
the

of

feel

Bodhisattas

have

must

right that

give

cannot

they sever

hall

; it is not

week."

whole

when

his whole

thought thus within himself,


wrought by mortal hands, but surely

archangel Indra
this I should
give

Bodhisattas, but

Bodhisatta

looked

he

as

part with

the

The

sir,

he

hot, and

give alms for


goods, however

said, "Come,

wages."

my

good intention, my

became

built

and

hall, and

hall

not

was

me

pay

in every

the

on

brahmin

the

at

thrilled

gazed

through

looked

was

he

as

hall,and

at your

went

the

to

went

heart

joy

the

to

their

at

head, put

self-

out

the

give it away.
in the Sivijatakagave
alms in
Bodhisatta
For when
our
of his capital,
at the four gates of the
the middle
city,at
of gold coins, this
a
daily expenditure of five bushels
within
him
faction
failed to arouse
a
feelingof satisliberality
henna-

anointed

eyes,

out

cut

But

at his renunciation.

the

archangel

Indra

brahmin,

and

asked

them

and

gave

out

to

came

for
them

his

on

him

eyes,

away,

and

the

other

in

the

then

hand, when

disguise of

indeed,

laughter rose

as

he

within

took

him,

MANGA

did

nor

And

Ms

hence

sattas

also

we

million
week

alone

able

themselves, taking
A

with

turns

supernatural
bowls

of all the

butter

and
he

use,

three

and

monks

clarified

medicinal

This

them
robes

when

has

such

given

cloaks

angels
them.

to

contain
his

by

own

caused

the

filled them

with

molasses, for

received

thousand.

thanks,

great alms, who

novices

by

hundred

returned

Men

them, together with

to

worth

upon

day, having

back

to

hall, and
the

each

washed, and

and

he

days

but

waited

themselves
last

Bodhi-

Bodhisatta

sufficed not

more

be

priests were

man

the

gavapana.^

unclarified, honey and

The

Teacher,

its purpose.

that

them,

men,

the

to

gave

robes.

ordained

The

On

power.

in

called

upon

fiftyleagues or
monks, yet they seated

the

"

wait

to

them

alms

of

space

the

the

them

not

from

as

priests," seated

gave

were

37

regards almsgiving
this
no
satiety. Therefore
ought to give alms for seven

"

BUDDHA.

hair's breadtli

that

see

thinking,
a

swerve

have

can

million

for

heart

LA

considering,
he

can

be ?

"

and

perceiving that at the end of two asankheyyas and


four thousand
Buddha
named
a
cycles he would become
this prediction:
Gotama, addressingthe Bodhisatta, made
the lapse of such
such
"After
and
a
period thou shalt
become

hearing

the

become
me?

prediction,thought,

will

hands

ascetic

up

so

much

the

at

of

the

The
was

to the

and

word

life

Faculties
he

was

and

Dhammasena

glossprinted in

clarified butter.

the

to

am

life do

and, treating all this


ordination
embraced

having
of

householder's

received

And

Bodhisatta,
that

seems

and

Buddha,
and

the

reborn

in

cityof Mangala Buddha


the
khattiya Uttara;

Sudeva

According

honey, sugar

his

can

drivel, he

the

The

It

"

world,"

the

Teacher.

learnt

of

father

Uttara,

good

supernatural

end

heavens.
his

the

life and

attained

what

give

prosperity like
the

Gotama.'*

named

Buddha,

Buddha

were

text it is

his

the

having

Attainments,
the

Brahma

called

was

at

Uttara,

mother

his

compound

two

of

was

chief

milk, rice,

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

38
Palita
disciples,
chief

two

female

servitor, Sivall and

his

was

disciples. The

Naga

his

was

Bodhi-tree,

his

eighty-eight cubits high. When


body was
lived ninety thousand
took place,after he had
the

instant

same

in

darkness, and
of

lamentation
After

225.

thousand

ten

all

there

worlds

Ko??67anna

torch

after

the

named

in

world, held

Buddha

had

worlds, the Teacher

He

also

three

Golden

third

Mountain,
million

eighty

Bodhisatta

the

and

cry

Mangala,
aloft the

of

million

appeared.

saints,at the

first

millions, at the second,

ninety
of

Sumana

named

great assemblies

assembly the priestswere


the

in

died, shrouding in darkness

thousand

the

great

Leader

ten

on

at

years,

of truth.

the

had

death

involved

were

was

his

men.

Dispelling darkness

And

worlds

his

Asokii

million

of

At

millions.

millions,

this

at

the

time

Naga king Atula, mighty and powerful.


And
had
he, hearing that a Buddha
appeared, left the
kinsmen, and,
Niiga world, accompanied by his assembled
celestial music
the
to
Buddha,
making offeringswith
whose
million
million
of monks, and having
retinue was
a
given great gifts,bestowing upon each two garments of
fine

cloth, he

this

Teacher

The

Sudatta

age

established

in the

foretold

him,

city

his

was

of

of this

Three
"

One

Buddha

father, Sirima

his

Befuges.

day

he

named

was

mother,

And

will be

Khema,

Sarawa

and

his servitor, So??a


Udena
disciples,
Upaso?2a his chief female disciples.The Niiga was
Bodhi-tree, his body was
ninety cubits high, and his
ninety thousand
years.

Bhavitatta

his

was

also

Buddha."

and

the

was

226.

After

his

chief

After

Mangala

In

things unequalled,the

all

him

the

came

Teacher

the

Revata

Leader

named

best

Sumana,

of all

appeared.

He

beings.
also had

REVATA

three

assemblies

were

innumerable,

millions,

heard

the

the

at

At

the

at

been

having

satta

of saints.

also

so

BUDDHA.

Teacher's

first

the

second

third.

born

39

there

At

the

as

assembly the priests

that

were

time

the

brahmin

million
Bodhi-

Atideva, having
established

preaching, was

in

Three

raising his clasped hands


Refuges. And
abandonment
of
head, having praisedthe Teacher's
passion,presented
also made

him

with

monk's

his

to

human
And

robe.

upper

the

he

Buddha."
a
prediction, Thou wilt become
called Sudhaiinavatl,
the city of this Buddha
Now
was
his father
the
was
khattiya Yipula, his mother
Yipulii,
his chief
Yaruna
and
Brahmadeva
Sambhava
disciples,
the

"

servitor, Bhadda

his

the

disciples,and

After

his age

Sumana

The

his

Naga-tree

eighty cubits high, and


227.

Subhadda

and

the

came

his

chief

Bo-tree.

His

female

body

sixtythousand

years.

Leader

Bevata,

named

unequalled, incomparable,

Conqueror

was

matched,
un-

supreme.

him

After

appeared the

assemblies

three

million
hundred
At

of

that

saints;

monks

millions,
time

Ajita, and

having

established

in

the

donation

the

Order

to

this

head.

To

shalt

become

of

this

his

father, Sudhamma

lis

chief

Bo-tree
age

his
;

One,

disciples,Anoma
chief
his

female

body

ninety thousand

was

millions.
the

gave

brahman

great

at their

Buddha

was

Asama

mother,
his

the
the

Sudhamma

eight
fifty-

the

cubits

of

name

king

and

servitor, Nakula

disciples,and

years.

nine

prophesied,saying, "Thou

he

his

as

and

Sudhamma

Blessed

sand
thou-

preaching, was

the

monks, with

second

hundred

born

Befuges,

also

the

at

been

also had

He

assembly

Teacher's

the

Buddha."

city

first

eight

having

Three
of

the

at

third

heard

man

the

Sujata

the

at

Sobhita.

present,

were

Bodisat

the

Teacher

was

Sunetta
and

Niiga-treehis
high, and his

After

228.

E-evata

Subdued

After

and

Narada.
tbe

first

at

tbe

second

lord of
tbat

bead.

king

Sundarl

was

bis

fatber, Yasodbara

bis

cbief

bis age

229.

Bo-tree

After

bis

of

men

After
too
a

bad

tbe

tbat
tbe
beart

wbo
At

grove,

Teacber
made

reverence,

was

bis

motber, Nisabba
bis

servitor,

years.

of

infinite

perfectBuddba

tbe

"

best

fame, glorious,difficult

tbat
tbe

were

tbe

at

dwelt

Teacber

tbe
of

monks

tbousand,

forest.

CandavatI, Yasava

tbe Arjunadisciples,
fifty-eigbtcubits bigb,

tbe

assemblies

million

monks

madassin
Ano-

female

came

appeared

tbree

bundred

cityof

surpass.

bim

million

at tbeir

"

Anomadassin,
to

body

great

too, saying,

disciples, Yaruna

tbousand

Sobbita

bim
Tbe

called

was

bis cbief

bundred

One

gave
Buddba

tbe

Buddba."

Blessed

Sumana

and

propbesied to
be

tbe

time

powerful, tbe
yakkbas. He, bearing

witb

tbe

and

bis

tree

sbalt

tbat

and

came

monks,

Teacber

tbou

Anoma

and

of

saints;

present,

were

At

six.

of

appeared,

Order

tbe

monks

tbird

of millions

bad

to tbe

And

tbe

of

assemblies

chief,migbty

millions

Buddba

tbree

tbousand

Yakkha

Hereafter

tbe

"

bad

at

seven,

many

donation

one

eigbt bundred

was

in

Anomadassin

at

Bodisat

asagkbeyya bad elapsed, tbree


kalpa Anomadassin, Paduma,

an

born

were

unrivalled.

mild, unequalled and

wben

Sobhita,

named

tlie Leader

came

and

bim,

Buddbas

"

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

40

at

plunged

saints ; at

present,

tbird

two

great grove

time, wbilst
Bodisat

named

tbe

baving

tbe

tbe

born

to

of

uninbabited

as

livingin
a

witb

walking round
experienced great joy, and tbrice
obesiance

tbree

tbousand

Tatbagata was
been

assembly

second

bundred

in ecstatic trance, and

bim, and

first

at tbe

in

He

Paduma.

lion, saw
trustful
bim

witb

uttered

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

42

tree

Ms

was

Mgli, and
231.

Ms

Bo-tree;

his age

After

body

cuMts
eighty-eiglit

was

ninety thousand

was

Paduma

the

came

years.

perfectBuddha,

best

the

of men,

Narada

After

by

the

Narada

cycles ago

there

Buddha

first

second,

million

the

on

million

Vebhara

million, at the third


that

time

the

Buddha

as

offeringof

an

at their

Hereafter

^'

eight hundred

thou

shalt

of

Padumuttara

but

all, men

and

His

city was

called

be

there

were

no

refuge

in

father

Sujata, Devala

and

warrior, his mother


his

servitor,Amita

the

time

infidels,

the

Buddha.

Ananda

was

and

name

announced,
at

HaijsavatI,his

At

Order, with

And

One

angels, took

of the

also he

to him

Buddha.'^

Blessed

the

disciples,Sumana

And

head.

million.

the

to

the

at

thousand

Mahratta

robes

of saints ;

hundred

thousand

the

Buddha

present,

were

nine

Mountain,

Bodisat, born

of Jatikiy gave
the

monks

world-

one

assemblies

three

rival.

thousand

kalpa only

one

also had

He

without

hundred

in

appeared

called Padumuttara.
at the

unequalled,and

name,

the

Sujata

his

chief

Asama

his chief

female

the Sala-tree
his Bo-tree
disciples,
; his body was
eighty-eight cubits high,the lightfrom his body extended
thousand
twelve leagues,and his age was* a hundred
years.

232.

After
of

Niirada

by

like the

him,

thousand

at

the

best

the

million

the

name,

Conqueror

unshaken,

sea.

when

elapsed,two Buddhas,
one
kalpa. Sumedha
saints ;

perfect Buddha,

men,

Padumuttara

After

the

came

first

thirty

thousand

Sumedha
also

and

had

ones

were

cycles

the

had

born

Sujata,were

three

assembly, in

sinless

world-

assemblies

of

in
his

city Sudassana,

present,

at

the

second

NARADA

nine
the

hundred,

BUDDHA.

tlie third

at

Bodisat, born

eight hundred.
hrahman

the

as

43

At

that

TJttara,

named

youth

time

lavished
in

of money
millions
he had
saved
eight hundred
the Buddha
to the Order, with
giving a great donation

at

their

head.

accepted
the

the

And

he

E-efuges,and
And

vows.

Sumedha

Sudatta
Sarana

the

the

also

thou

shalt

be

the

Law,

and

home,

and

took

to

his

the

Buddha

prophesied,

Buddha."

One

his

was

Sabbakama

and

abandoned

Blessed

king

listened

him

to

saying, "Hereafter
of

then

called

was

father, Sudatta

his

The

city

Sudassana,
his

mother,

chief

disciples,
Sagara his
his two
chief female
servitor,E/ama and Surama
disciples,
the
his
Bo-tree
his
great Champaka-tree
body was
;
eighty-eightcubits high, and his age was
ninety thousand
two

years.

After

233.

The

Padumuttara

Sage

hard

in all the

After
three

him

third

forty.

him

and

heard

Buddha
with

its

of
servants

the

was

to

to

him

Blessed
his

Law,

the

birth

in

time

the
the
also
One

Bodisat

Buddha

was

the

to

dwellers

of

the

in

Buddha

Order, with

was

the

universal

he

went

Order, with
four
vows

father, PabhavatI

under

midst, did

the

the

duty

as

continually

gave

great

Buddha

their

head.

at

prophesied. The
Sumangala, Uggata
his

to

continents

city of

Teacher
called

had

tage
land, taking advan-

in their

monasteries, and
the

the

took

and

also

born

was

gave

He

assembly sixty
second
at the
fifty,

the

at

the

and

treasures,

All

glory,supreme

first

head, his kingdom of the

seven

donations

this

the

at their

Teacher.

And

that

hearing that

and

monarch;

in

Sujdta.

saints ; at the

present,

were

At

Teacher

the

of his

monks

equal,brilliant

medha,
Su-

named

world.

appeared

assemblies

thousand

to

Leader

the

came

mother,

the

Sudassana

king
and

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

44-

Deva

his

chief
his

Nagasamala
Bambu-tree
hollows
and

Narada
disciples,

Bo-tree

thicker

and

female

chief

his

his

disciples,and

; this

they

tree,

than

wood

servitor, Naga
say, had

it was
mighty upper branches
The
of peacocks' tails.
body of
fiftycubits high, and his age was

was

great
smaller

ordinary bambus

in its

bunch

the

have,^

as

brilliant

this

Blessed

ninety

and

as

One

thousand

years.

In

234.

that

the

age,

Mandakalpa, appeared

Leader

the

Sujata,
Mighty jawed

After

million

time

of his

assemblies

monks

million,

at

the

the

third

Bodisat,

eight
a

as

cost

of

million

at

the

first

second

nine

at

the

hundred

called

the

three

Yedas,

the

Law,

and

million, and

million

hundred

million.

brahman

young

thoroughly learnt
Teacher's
preaching of
a

saints ;

present,

were

had

at

equal.

to

world- cycles had


eighteen hundred
Buddhas,
Piyadassin, Atthadassin, and
in one
born
were
kalpa. Piyadassin also

Dhammadassin,
three

hard

measure

when

him,

elapsed, three
had

whose

grandly framed,

take, and

can

none

and

At

Kassapa,

listened

built
stood

that

to

who
the

monastery

firm

in

the

him
the
Teacher
to
Refuges and the Precepts. And
prophesied,saying, After the lapse of eighteen hundred
Buddha."
The
a
city of this
kalpas thou shalt become
"

Blessed

One

called

was

Anoma,

his

father

was

Sudinna

his
Cauda, Palita and Sabbadassin
king, his mother
Sobhita
his servitor,Sujata and Dhammachief disciples,
and
the
dinna
his chief
female
disciples,
Priyaggu-tree
His
his Bo-tree.
body was
eighty cubits high, and his
years.
age ninety thousand

the

Compare

Jataka

No.

20

below.

ATTHADASSIN

After

235.

THE

Sujata came

BUDDHA.

45

Piyadassin,Leader

Self-taught,hard

match,

to

of the

world,

unequalled,of great

glory.
After
He

him
had

too

nine

million

the

at

three

the

same

as

the

the

assemblies

eight hundred
eight million

second

at the

number

mighty
of

sunshade

Teacher, who
Blessed

called
his

Bo-tree.
his

from
a

was

chief

saints ;
monks

hundred

him.

Sobhita, Sagara the


his

the

Bodisat,

from

The

Santa

present,

heaven

oflPered it to the

flowers, and

mother,

first

thousand, and

time

that

the

at
were

brought

to

Atthadassin.

and

city of
king was
Apasanta

servitor, Dhamma

this
his
his

and

Su-

female

and
the Champaka his
disciples,
His
body was
eighty cubits high, the glory
a
over
body always extended
league,and his age
thousand

hundred

In

236.

At

Susima,

disciples,Abhaya
his

his

eight

Mandarava

was

called

thousand

prophesied also

One

dhamma

of

third.

ascetic

father, Sudassana
chief

Teacher

the

appeared

the

years.

Mandakalpa Atthadassin,

same

Dispelledthe

thick

darkness, and

best of men.

attained

supreme

Enlightenment.
After

him

appeared the

too

had

three

He
a

hundred

seven

millions.

assemblies

million

thousand

At

Teacher

monks

time

at

the

his

the

the

called

gods, made

Sunanda,
Sunetta
female

an

Sarana, his father


Paduma
his

and

Sarana

was

Phussadeva

servitor, Khema

and
disciples,

the

red

saints ; at

third

Bodisat,

offeringof
from
heaven, and heavenly music.
Teacher
prophesied. The city of

of

Dhammadassin.

and

as

sweet-

the
his

first

second

eight

hundred

Sakka

the

king

smelling flowers

And
this

the

the

at

present,

were

millions,
that

of

named

to

him

Blessed

too

One

the
was

king, his mother


chief
disciples,

Sabbanama

Kuravaka-tree

his

chief

(calledalso

THE

46
his
Bimbijala)
and

bis age

237.

NIDANAKATHA.

Bo-tree.

hundred

In the

His

thousand

years.

Mandakalpa

same

eightycubits high,

body was

the far-famed

Dhamma-

dassin

Dispelledthe

thick

darkness,illumined earth and

heaven.

After

world- cycles ago, only one


him, ninety-four
Buddha, by name
Siddhattha,appeared in one kalpa. Of
his

too
disciples

million

assemblya
second

there

three

were

million

assemblies

monks

; at the

first

present,at the

were

nine hundred

millions,at the third eighthundred


At that time the Bodisat,as the ascetic Man-

millions.

gala of great glory and giftedwith the powers derived


from the Higher Wisdom, brought a great jambu fruit
and

presentedit

to the

The Teacher, having


Tathiigata.
the
eaten
fruit, prophesied to the Bodisat, saying,
kalpashence thou shalt become a Buddha.'*
Ninety-four
The cityof this Blessed One was
called Yebhara, Jayasena
the king was
his father,Suphassa his mother, Sambala
"

and

Sumitta

his chief

and

Surama

his chief female

his Bo-tree.

tree

his age
238.

hundred

After

Revata
disciples,

Sivali
servitor,

and the Kanikaradisciples,


body was
sixtycubits high,and

His

thousand

years.

Dhammadassin,the Leader

E/Ose like the

his

sun,

Siddhattha

named

bringingall darkness

to

an

end.

After him,
Tissa and

ninety-two
world-cycles
ago, two Buddhas,
Phussa
born
in one
by name, were
kalpa.

Tissa the Blessed


at the

first

at the

second

hundred
the

One

had

thousand
nine

millions.

wealthyand

three assemblies

millions

hundred
At

famous

of monks

of his saints ;
were

present,

millions,at the third eight

that time

the Bodisat

was

born

Sujdta, When
warrior-chief

as

he

TISSA

had

taken

of

and

vows

rishi, lie heard

taking
the

tlie

47

tlie wonderful

acquired

that

had

Buddha

Mandarava

heaven-grown

BUDDHA.

been

powers

born

; and

flowers

lotus, and

of

Paricchattaka-tree

in Indra's
heaven),
(which grows
he ofifered them
in the
to the
Tathagata as he walked
midst
of his disciples,
and he spread an
awning of flowers
in the sky.
To him, too, the Teacher
prophesied,saying,
Buddha."
a
"Ninety-two kalpas hence thou shalt become
One
called Khema,
JanaThe
was
city of this Blessed
sandha

the

warrior-

mother,

the

god

Sambhava
female

his

his

was

Brahma

and

father, Paduma

thousand

servitor, Phussa

After

Of

infinite

him

After
had

his
his

virtue

appeared

six

and

the

assemblies
million

five,at the third

chief

Bo-tree.

His

hundred

age

unequalled

named

Teacher
of

monks

three

his

present,

were

million

hundred

two

the

the

Bodisat, born

laid

aside

his

kingdom, and, taking


the

people, and

the

Buddha

three

prophesied

city of this Blessed


Jayasena the king was

as

servitor.Gala
1

Gruide

and

Comp.

to him

One
his

was

the

at

first
second
At

chief Vijitavl,
under

vows

his

19-20,

in

the

called

the

his

verses

chief

manner.

same

Kiisi

father, Sirima

Upacala
pp.

the

at

thousand.

icarriorthe

He

preached the Law


of Moralitjr.i
Perfection

the

Dhammasena

and

chief

rivalled.
un-

Pitakas, and

fulfilled

The

Surakkhita

and

Phusm.

saints;

time

Teacher, learnt

the

glory,was

that

his

his

world.

three

assembly

And

disciples,

Sudatta

and

Siddhattha, Tissa, the

of the

the

chief

his

years.

239.

to

his

Udaya

and
the Asana-tree
disciples,
was
sixty cubits high, and

body

too

chief

(Benares),

his

mother,

disciples,
Sabhiya
chief female disciples,
130-134.

48

THE

and

the

NIDANAKATHA.

Amalaka-tree

his

eight cubits high, and


240.

In

the

his age

ninety

body

fifty-

was

thousand

Phussa

Mandakalpa

same

His

Bo-tree.

years.

the

was

Teacher

supreme,
the

Unequalled, unrivalled,

chief

Guide

of

the

appeared

the

world.
After

ninety world-cycles

him,

Blessed

One

Vipassin. He

named

of his saints ; at the


hundred

that

monks

thousand

hundred

one

time

the

Bodisat, born
to the

inlaid

with

the

three

six

blies
assem-

million

present, in

eight

the

second

third

At
eighty thousand.
the mighty and
as
powerful
Blessed
One
a
golden chair,

kinds

seven

had

too

assembly

were

thousand, in the

king Atula, gave

snake

first

ago,

of

To

gems.

also

him

prophesied, saying,"Ninety-one world-cycleshence


shalt

become
called

was

Buddha."

his

his

Asoka
disciples,

chief

female

After

241.

this

the

his

One
his

was

Tissa

and

servitor,Canda

thou

Blessed

king

mother, Khandha

his

Candamitta

and

the

disciples,and

tree) his Bo-tree.

efiulgence from
leagues,and his

city of

Bandhuma

BandhumatI,

father, BandhumatI
chief

The

he

Bignonia (or PataliHis


eighty cubits high, the
body was
his
hundred
a
body always reached

age

Phussa,

hundred

was

the

thousand

years.

the

Supreme Buddha,

best

of

men,

Yipassin by

name,

the

far-seeing,
appeared in

the

world.

After

Buddhas,
three
hundred

one
him, thirty-

called

assemblies

Sikhin
of

monks

thousand

eighty thousand,

his

at

the

worldand

Yessabhu.

saints ;
were

third

there

cycles ago,
at

the

Sikhin
first

present,

seventy.

At

at

two

were

too

had

assembly
the

that

second
time

the

THE

so

243.

In

the

NIDANAKATHA,

named

Conqueror

the

Mandakalpa,

same

Vessabhu,

Unequalled
After

unrivalled, appeared in the world.

and

have
world-cycle,four Buddhas
Kakusandha,
Konagamana, Kassapa, and our
appeared
One
the Blessed
had one
Buddha.
Kaknmmiha
assembly,
monks
at which
were
forty thousand
present. At that
in

him,

this

"

time

Ks/tt'ma

the Bodisjit,as

Buddha
and

he

drugs,

listened

Teacher, and
Buddha
One

head, and

their

at

took

the

the

to

having given also collyriums


the
Law
preached by the
And

vows.

him

to

also

called

father, Visakhii

the Brahman

his mother,

woman

the

Blessed

the
city of Kakusandha
Kheraa, Aggidatta the Brahnuui
The

prophesied.

was

to

tion,
great donaOrder, with the

king, gave

bowls,

and

including robes

the

his

was

Yidhura

Buddhija his servitor,


Sanjiva his chief disciples,
the
imd
Siinm and
disciples,
Campaka his chief female
His body was
fortycubits
great Sirlsa-tree his Bo-tree.
high, and his age forty thousand
years.

and

After

244.

Yessabhu
of

best

there

disciplestoo
thousand

by

monks
the

to

the Teacher, and

having given

cloths

at

their

an

At

And

he

took

the

him

too

the

Buddha

One

was

the

vows

equal.

to

Of

Cigamana.

that

to the

invitation

at

which
the

time

his

thirty
Bodisat,

by his ministers,
preaching of the Law.

to
a

of line texture,
from

hard

surrounded

head, he kept up

of silk,and

called

listened

Kon

assembly,

one

kini^ went,

Piihlnita

Buddha

Teacher

present.

were

as

And

was

infinite and

name,

appoaretl the

him

perfect Buddha,

men,

Kakusandha

After

the

came

the

the

great donation, giving


and

The

Sobhavatl, Yauuadatta

with

woven

the Teacher's

prophesied.

Order, with

hands.

city of
the

gold.
And

to

this Blessed

Bi*ahmim

was

KASSAPA

his

father, Uttara

Bhiyyosa

servitor, Samudda
and

the

and

mother,

disciples,Sotthija his
female
his chief
disciples,
Bo-tree.
His
body was
was
thirty thousand
age

his

high,

his

woman

chief

Uttara

Udumbara-tree
cubits

twenty

his

and

51

Brahman

the

Uttara

and

BUDDHA.

his

years.
245.

After

Kakusandha

best

by

world.

Of

which
time

his

Bodisat,
in

and

thousand

in

Going

the

three

heaven
with

At

that

plished
youth Jotipdla,accom-

well

was

of

One

the

known

earth

on

potter Ghatikara.

Tissa

bamitta

his

and

Benares, Brahmadatta
of

Bharadvaja

servitor,Anula

and
disciples,

the

cubits

twenty

and

father, DhanavatI

mother,

was

called

was

his

was

Teacher

appeared in the
one
assembly, at

present.

were

friend

the

of

hearing the Law, he


took the vows
zealouslylearning the three Pitakas,
; and
he
in works
of
in duty and
glorified,
by faithfulness
And
to
supererogation,the religion of the Buddhas.
him
too the Buddha
prophesied. The birthplaceof the
Blessed

to the

was

Brahman

Yedas,
the

as

him

monks

the

as

Kassapa

there

disciplestoo

twenty
the

named

chief

men.

among

Teacher

the

Conqueror,

name.

world, supreme
him

the

Buddha,

of men,

Konagamana

After

Perfect

the

came

and

the

brahman

chief

his

Uruvela

Nigrodha-tree his
high, and his age

the

caste

his

Sabdisciples,
his

chief

female

His

Bo-tree.
was

man
brah-

twenty

body

thousand

years.
24t).

After

Konagamana

best

came

by

that

name,

Bighteousness,and
in

Perfect

Buddha,

of men,

Kassapa

Again,

the

the

kalpa

in

Conqueror,

king

giver of Light.

which

Dipagkara

the

Buddha

of

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

52

therefore
in

order

is

said,

And

And

248.

commentary,

from

Buddhas

and

Medhagkara,

this

kalpa, it

Saranagkara,
Kondanna

Dlpagkara, and

the

and

Sumana,

and

Maggala^

Revata,

and

sage,

Anomadassin,
And

the

are

of men,

Sobhita

249.

their

On

Bodisat, they
in

but

perfectBuddha

the
best

here

and

Tanhaijkara

247.

the

to

all the

mention

to

made

mentioned

not

also.

appeared

Buddlias

appeared, three other


prophecy was
part no

Sujata,Piyadassin the

and

Sumedha,

Padumuttara,

Narada,

Paduma,

famous

one,

the
250.

Siddhattha

Dhammadassin,

Atthadassin,

guide

of

world,

perfect Buddha,

the

Phussa

Tissa, and

Yipassin,

Sikhin, Yessabhu,
Kakusandha,
Guide,
These

251.

well-controlled
like suns,
their

and

flames
Thus

asav^hheyyasplus

has

the
four

Bodisat

And

The

to

us

thousand

up

like

through

four

kalpas, making

twenty-fourBuddhas, beginning
after Kassapa there
is no

present supreme

in accordance

resolve

thick darkness

blazed

prophecy from each


beginning at Dlpa^jkara.

received

furthermore
"

Now

ones,

out.

down

come

the

beside

Buddhas,

the
dispelling

went

of the

Dipaijkara.

Buddha

other

the

hundred

one

resolve in the presence


with

too

sinless

the

disciplestoo,

of fire and

Bodisat

our

perfectBuddhas,

the

Appearing
They,

Kassapa

"

were

the

and

Konagamana,

(tobecome

with
a

the

Buddha.
of

the

So

twenty-

saying,
Buddha) only succeeds

TIONS

QUALIFICA

OF

BODISA

TS.

53

of
:
eight qualifications
by the combination
and of the male
and
capable
being a man,
sex,
of attaining arahatship, association
with the
of the world, perfection
Teachers, renunciation
in

virtue,

combined

himself

eight qualifications.And

these

according to the resolve he had made


feet of Dlpagkara, in the words,
for
the
I will search
"Come,
Buddha-making

exerting
at

in

the

himself

conditions, this way


and

beholding

rest

to

be

the

I made

as

Perfections,
the

even

Buddhas,

the

So the

252.

Almsgiving and
for the
making

search, I beheld

my

to his last

the
of

the

first

fell to

him

Bodisats

who

have

thus

as

way,

resolved

to

they

become

perfectin

men,

his

on

Yessantara.

as

appearance

which

lauded

are

of

up

rewards
all

"

Almsgiving ; '^^
births, fulfillingthese
through many

down

came

to

of

Perfections

Perfection

fall

that

the

"Then,

And

and

qualitiesnecessary
according to the words,

Buddha,

he

earnest

' '

determination,
he

and
self-sacrifice,

of

acts

every

part, and

destined

to

Buddhahood,
Traverse

the

They
the

They

born

not

are

worlds
do

though
When

254.

in hell,nor

become

not

they

through

thousands

of

space

between

ghosts

consumed

by hunger,

want.

do

not

born

to

born

in the

thirst,and
And

road

of ages.

millions
253.

long

among

small

become

animals,

even

sorrow.

they

men

are

not

blind

birth,
'

See

verse

125, above

p. 19.

gee

verse

126,

above

p. 19.

by

THE

54

They
They

hard

not

are

the

among
255.

do

of

hearing,they

classed

not

are

dumb.
become

not

women

dites
hermaphro-

among

eunuchs

and

They

NIDANAKATHA.

found,

not

are

these

"

destined

men

to

Buddhahood.
Free

256.

from

the

follow

They

Though

Nor

the

in the

Bent

258.

of

to rebirth

born

not

are

the

among

angels

Abodes.^

renunciation, holy in

and

world

the

it,

walk

They

ceive
per-

state,

destined

Pure

upon

not

heaven, they

Unconscious

they

are

in

dwell

philosophy, they

of Karma.

working

they

into

after vain

not

the
257.

deadly sins,everywhere pure-living,

acting

as

for

the

world's

weKare,

all perfection.
fulfilling

While
limit

no

he

was

to

the

of
when
and

he

thus

the Perfections, there


fulfilling

existences

Almsgiving.
the brahman

was

in which

As, for

fulfilled the

he

instance, in

Akitti, and

the

the brahmin

was

fection
Pertimes

Sagkha,

the

king Dhananjaya, andMaha-sudassana, and Mahagovinda, and the king Nimi, and the prince Cauda, and
the merchant
Yisayha, and the king Sivi, and Yessantara.
the Wise
in the Birth
as
So, certainly,
Hare, according

to the

words,^

259.

When
own

There

In

the

All

the

four
and

food, I ofiered

my

self,
is

one

no

of

Perfection

unconscious,

for

coming

one

saw

highest of

the

the five worlds

following verses
Cariyapitaka.

like

me

in

giving, such

is my

Almsgiving,
thirty-onespheres of
below
down

these
to

verse

are

existence

called the
269

are

Pure

the

angels are

Abodes.

quotationsfrom

the

PERFECTIONS

he, offering
up
called
In

for

like

his

the

there

instance, in

Sllava, and

the

Bhuridatta,

the

Allnasattu,
the

son

the

is

times

limit

when

king Campeyya, the


snake
king Chaddanta, and
of king Jayaddisa in which

snake

Goodness.

when

So,

not

In

like

and

with

angry

Perfection

instance,in

of

of
there

the

fulfilled

certainly, in

with

the

stakes,and

times

of

sons

the

striking

Bhoja,

such

is

Goodness,

himself, acquired the

manner

prince

javeKns,

Perfection

he, offeringup

king
king

the

he

as,

"

the words,

piercing me

with

was

the

was

snake

of

my

called

he

fection
Per-

existences

"

me

the

to

snake

SaijkhapalaBirth, according to
Even

the

Supreme
Almsgiving.

of
no

55

the

Perfection

260.

BODISAT.

life,acquired

own

Perfection

manner

THE

OF

Supreme Perfection,

Goodness.
is

no

when

limit

he

was

to

existences

the

as, for

"

prince Somanassa,

the

prince Hatthipala,and the wise man


Ayoghara
which, forsaking his kingdom, he fulfilled the Perfection
"

in

of Renunciation.

in the Cula-Sutasoma
So, certainly,

Birth, according to the words,


261.

The

kingdom,

which

was

in

not

for

my

like

power,

spittleI rejectedit.
And,

rejecting,cared

Perfection

of

is my

from

ties of

Eenunciation,

he, renouncing the kingdom


sin,^ acquired the

it, such

for freedom

Supreme Perfection,

the

called the

tion
Perfec-

of Renunciation.
In

The

like manner,

Saggas, of

false doctrine.

there

which

there

is

are

no

limit

five"

to the

existences

"

as,

lust,hate, ignorance,pride, and

56

for

THE

instance, in
and

Yidhura,

and

Bodhi,
fulfilled
the

the

the

he

There

is

he, pointing

of
the

ascetic

the

and

wise

the

and

he

which

in

"

So, certainly,in

Wisdom.
wise

no

in

the

set

the

Senaka

man

of

by wisdom,

out

pain.

like

one

in wisdom

me

such

is my

Wisdom,
snake

the

out

of

matter

free from

the

acquired

Perfection

had

which

Perfection

Supreme

into

the

called

the

got

Wisdom.

So, certainly,in

Birth, according

Maha-Janaka

the

words,
Out

sight of

of

waters, all
There

is

he, crossing the


Perfection

are

other

no

shore, in

the

men

Perfection

And

Araka,

Mahosadha

man

the

Perfection

263.

man

was

brahman

to the

wise

man

Birth, according to the words,

Searching

bellows,

tlie wise

was

Maha-govinda,

wise

when

lie

when

man

Perfection

Sattubhatta

262.

times

wise

and

the

time

the

the

Kuddala,

man

NIDANAKATHA.

of

Great

of

way

in

dead,

thinking ;

acquired

Ocean,

such

is my

the

Supreme

of Resolution.

Birth, according

Khantivada

the

the

Resolution,

called the Perfection

so

if

as

of

midst

the

to

the

words,
264.

Even
I

was

my

he

when
were

angry

Perfection

he, enduring great

acquired the

me

senseless

not

struck

sorrow

Perfection

as

sharp axe,

as

if

thing,

with
of

with

the

king

of Kasi

such

is

Patience,
if he

of Patience.

were

senseless

thing,

THE

58

garlands

NIDANAKATHA.

and

thus
he
perfumes, and
acquired the
Perfection
of Equanimity.
This
is a
will be
found
only, the account
summary
at length in the Cariya Pitaka.
Having thus fulfilled the Perfections,in his birth as
Yessantara, according to the words,

This

269.

earth,

unconscious

ignorant of joy
E'en

she

by

shaken

he

earth
had

passed

he

away,

and

power

was

times,

mighty

And

shake.

to

be

grief.

or

free-giving'smighty

my

seven

such

performed

she

though

of

acts

in

when,

the

reassumed

virtue
fullness

of

in

existence

made

as

the

time, he

the

Tusita

heaven.

should

Thus

nidana, from

the

to this

birth

down

understood

be

the

Resolution
in the

at

City of

AYIDtJEE

II."

period, called Durethe


feet
of Dlpagkara
Delight.

NIDANA.

dwelling in the City


so-called
"Buddha
the
of Delight, that
proclamation''
three
such "Proclamations"
take
took place. For
place
When
the three.
These
earth.
are
on
they realize that
thousand
of a hundred
at the end
a
new
tion
dispensayears
their
will begin, the angels called Loka-byuha, with
It

hair
away

their
with

men,

and

will
be

the

flying and

and

"

when

was

tears

their
make

Friends,
be

Bodisat

was

thus

dishevelled, with
with

their

clothes

all

weeping

faces, wiping

hands, clad in red


in

garments,

disorder, wander

among

proclamation,saying,
one

new

destroyed;

hundred

thousand

years

from

now

dispensation; this system of worlds


will dry up
the mighty ocean
even

there
will
; this

THE

burned

to

the

and

up

Therefore,

sympathy,

and

and

peace,

world, up
away.

pass

kindness, and

in

mothers, support your

your

in

whole

the

live

mercy,

elders

the

mountains, will

angels,will

immaterial

cherish

59

of

tlie monarcli

friends, do

fathers, honour

TIONS.

destroyed;

of the

realms

PROCLAMA

Sineru

great eartli,with
be

GREA

is called

This

tribes."

your

Age [Kappahalahalag].
proclamationof a new
Again, when they realize that at the end of a thousand

the

Buddha

omniscient

an

years

will

angel-guardians of the world


go
and
make
proclamation,saying,
of

on

earth."

thousand

from

years
This

this

is called

time

the

[Buddha-halahalaiQ
]
the angels
Again, when

from

place

Friends,

"

earth, the

on

appear

end

the

at

will appear

Buddha

place

to

proclamation of

Buddha

hundred
from
"

place

Friends,
universal

universal

years

place

to

end

the

at

that

monarch

will

the

of

end

they go
proclamation, saying,

hundred

at

will appear,

make

and

of

monarch

realize

This

earth."

on

appear

this time

from

years

is

[Cakkaproclamation of a Universal monarch


the three great proclamations.
These
are
vatti-halahalaij].
When
of these three they hear
the Buddhation,
proclamacalled

the

then
him

to

and
the

when

the

him

beseech
first

signs

do

to

world- systems

thousand

ten

having
together; and
living beings will become

assemble
the

of

deities

the

the
so,

that

appear

Buddha,

they

beseeching

so

"

his

of

which

ascertained

present

go

him

life

is

Accordingly on this occasion they


all,with the archangelsin each world- system,^assembled
in the
in one
world, and
going to the future Buddha
of Delight,they besought him, saying,
Heaven
the Ten
0 Blessed
thou
wast
One, when
fulfilling
to its close.

drawing

**

Perfections, thou
^

The

names

are

didst

given

not

in the text

do
; the

and
Santusita, Paraniraitta-vasavatti,
in
of the

the

Buddhist

different

heavenly

cosmogony.

so

seats

Maha-

from
four

desire

for

the

Maharajas, Sakka, Suyama,

Brahma,

in^each

They

are

the

angels
arch-

world-system(Cakkavala)

glorious state
Brahma

of
of

or

"

with

for

the

sake

the

moment

of

has

now

But

the

prayer

of

the

following

five

who
be

Being,

in which

the

granted

the

on

of

time

the

his

should

he

where

born; the mother

should

be

time

when

the

him, and

bear

''

not

country

he

Buddhahood;

viz.

the

has

succession

in

wast

life should

her

complete.
Of

these

he

this the

time

When

the

hundred

"Why

of

speak

Because

of
of

is

perception
lead

not

Neither

is
then

like

but

to

streak

That

away.
the

term

and

over

that

the

At

hundred

time

the

nor

such

is

rife

drawn

the

is not

existence

age

the

of

man

Why

not

for

edification,

time.

When,
hundred

proper
one

admonition

vanishes

is the
was

human

and

no

time.

of

water

is under

that

the

term

place

no

be

gospel will

not

years.
men;

finds
on

years,

is

the

when

among

sinners

Buddhas

can

the

that

hundred

one

there

therefore

time

the

when

time

without

That

right

therefore

of human

perceive

men

sality
things,of the univerof individuality,
delusion
is
believe, saying, 'What

the

listen

under
sin

arrived.

not

all

of

truth, and

is it the

addressed

of

salvation.

to

existence
Because

of the

and

unknown;

and

people will neither


of?'
this they talk

than

more

are

impermaneuce

sorrow,

has

thought,

subject to birth, decay, and


pearl of the preaching of the Gospel

threefold

the

is

period

he

point

time

such

in

"

existence

the

years,

Time, thinking, Is

this

on

human

of

duration

Buddhas

the

on

And

not?"

living beings

; the

the

or

not

death

first reflected

thousand

that

not

at

and

Now

thy

had

he

important points,

tribe

should

if

as

or

Omniscience

One, arrived

deities, reflected

continent

the

for

One,

thou

reaching

of mankind

Mara,

or

earth

upon
of

hope

Blessed

Great

the

appear;

the

time, 0 Blessed

the

advent;

king

Salvation

come,

"

mighty

Sakka,

archangel

an

them
fulfilling

"

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

6o

quickly
however,
thousand

time."
hundred

Now
years.

BIR

The

Great

Being

had

arrived.

advent
Then
the

but

"

decided

In

"

in

of

three

ISA

T.

do

the

appear," and

"

appear

'*

he

calling to
in

that

born

in

now

fixed

mind

caste

that

the

do

he

thinking,
leagues in

the

Buddhas

Country.^ And
Kapilavastu was

named

town

concluded

he

it

Middle

the

upon

reflectingon

that

he

The

either

but

whichever

Kshatriya
he

of

then
is

ought

be

to

thousand

has

the

seas

Kshatriya
highest repute.

the

shall

be

must

be

for

eager

born

father.''

my

cunning
for

after

hundred

upwards has kept


this lady Maha
Maya

continent
of

love, or

birth

Now

surrounding each
Hardy's Manual

"The

thought,

Perfections

her

the

he

Mother,

the

from

of which

chief

the

See

Majjhima-desa,

in

Sudra

tribe.

unbroken.

Precepts

islands.

held

is not

and

the

the

predominant, I

fulfilled

ages,

in

or

"The

thought,

Yaisya caste, nor

Brahmana

now

the

on

the

the

Buddha

drink, but

In

is

reflectingon

mother

five

the

caste

decided

Then

in

Suddhodana

it, and

Thus

in

he

Tribe,

the

born

not

are

caste,

thus

in it.

Buddhas

of

district

which

country,

Then

in

do

continent.

District, and
the
reflectingupon
thousand
is large, ten
Jambudvlpa indeed

extent

his

Buddhas

Then

"

of

and

continents

they

time

considering
surrounding islands/

their

the

the

that

Continent,

with

Jambudvlpa

the

on

BOD

saw

the

great continents

thought,

not

THE

therefore

reflectingupon

four

he

OF

TH

there

(Mahadipa)

Buddhism,

is

five hundred

are

p. 13,

adds,

commentator

the

"

This

is the

country thus

spoken of in the

Vinaya," quoting the passage at Mahavagga, v. 13, 12, which


the
boundaries
follows : *' To the E. the town
as
gives
Kajaggala,and beyond
itMahasald;

to the

S.E.

to the W.

the brahman

Mountain."

These

later Brahminical
vol. i. p. 119

Jambudvlpa
China

as

capitalas
the

the
the

universe.

the river

town
are

and

different

literature,
on

SalalavatI;
from

which

(2nd edition). This


;

that
Middle
navel

is,of the then


Country, and
or

centre

to the S. the town

and

district Thuna;

boundaries

the
see

land

known

of the

as

world

other

of the

Setak

annika

the

Usiraddhaja
Madhya Desa of

Alterthumskunde,'
regarded as the centre of

was
"

on

Chinese

just as

the

have

looked

people

world, and

the N.

'Indische

Lassen's

sacred

to

their world

as

on

the

talk of

their
centre

own

of

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

62

sucli

slie

one,

shall

be

life should

And

further

last,he foresaw

that

consideringhow

long

it would

days.
these five important points,
reflected
on
deities by granting their prayer,
saying,

still last ten


thus

Having
he
"

the

favoured
The

time

"You

He

of

heaven

City

of

seven

Ones, for

he

Joy,

dismissed

then

depart;"

may

and

months

arrived, 0 Blessed

has

Buddha."

her

motlier."

my

and

them

attended
the

entered

with

by

the

of

grove

to

me

become

the

words,

angels

Gladness

of

the

in

the

Delight.
of

angel-heavens (Devalokas) there


the
of Gladness
there
is such
a
angels are
; and
grove
of them
is about
who
to depart
wont
to remind
any one
of the opportunitieshe has gained by good deeds done in
fallen
When
former
hence,
birth, saying to him,
a
in

Now

each

the

"

thou

mayest
when

In

thus

He

by

of

his

acquired merit,

departed

conceived

in

order
in

account

And

there, surrounded

him
was

bliss."

about

walking

and

in

reborn

be

to

the

detail.

fuller

At

angels

minding
re-

thence

of the

Lady Maha
Maya.
better, the following is the

womb

this

explain

also,

that

time, it is said, the

proclaimed in the City of


enjoying the feast.
Kapilavastu, and the people were
the Lady
days before the full moon
During the seven
free from
Maha
as
Miiya had taken part in the festivity,
brilliant
with
intoxication
it was
as
garlands and perfumes.
On
the seventh
day she rose
early and bathed
festival

Midsummer

was

four
hundred
perfumed water : and she distributed
in her
thousand
piecesin giving great largesse. Decked
richest attire she partook of the purest food : and vowing
she
entered
her
the
to observe
Eight Commandments,
she fell
her royal couch
beautiful chamber, and lying on
in

asleepand
The
her

up

four
in
and

dreamt

this dream.

archangels,the
her

Guardians

couch, carried

placing

her

under

her
the

of the

to the

Great

world, lifting

Himalaya

tains,
moun-

seven
Siila-tree,

MA

YA'S

MA

HA

DREAM.

63

Plain, sixtyyojanas broad,


leagues higli,on the Crimson
Their
then
came
they stood respectfullyaside.
queens
toward
her, and taking her to the lake of Anotatta,
bathed

her

her

heavenly garments

in

to free

; and

from

decked

there

mansion

is the
in

head

towards

Then

the

it

from

her

and

with

Silver

future

on

who

had

wandering

her

dressed

with

flowers.
which

fumes
perfar

Not

is

golden

heavenly couch, with its


it they laid her
down.

East, and

and

anointed

Hill, within

Buddha,

was

stains

heavenly

they spread

the

elephant,and

human

from

her

become
Golden

the

on

white

superb

Hill,

far

not

ascending the Silver


the North.
Hill, approached her from
Holding in his
lotus flower, and
silverytrunk a white
uttering a farreaching cry, he entered the golden mansion, and thrice
to his mother's
couch, he gently struck
doing obeisance
there, descended

her

right side, and


Thus

related

four

the

her

eminent

spread

dream

and

them

satisfied
cows.

he

had
What

"

The

when

the

dream

will

has

and

It is instructive

actual

fact that

the

he

the

Incarnation

had

thus

to

them, and

not

it will

not

be

to notice

that

entered
is

he

had

with
vessels

milk-rice

and

covered

with
and

them,

gave

and

their

then

pounded
com-

of

tawny
desire,

every
asked

he

he

them,

"

the

scene

he

satisfied

and

Bodisat

and

garments

new

said, "Be

conceived

man-child

giftsof

of it ?

come

food

occasion

state

honey,

her

sleep,
raja had sixtyhad
costlyseats

delicate

sweet

This

told

Brahmans

queen

and

from

and
the

filled with

with

And

for

ready

Midsummer

the

day, having awoke


to the raja. The

silver bowls.

and

gold

of

dalbergia flowers,

ghee

womb.^

end

summoned,

silver

with

the

at

spot made

and

gold

next

her

to enter

Brahmans

leaves

green
of

on

seemed

conceived

And

festival.
she

he

was

thence, and

in

anxious, 0
fruit of her

later

womb

child.

woman-

accounts

his mother's

king

womb

it is
as

in
so represented
occasionally

your

will
You

be

will

soberlyrelated
a

white

Buddhist

as

elephant :

sculptures.

64

THE

have

And

son.

will become
bis

!N^ow
himself

will

tbe

of

Good

the

bis

received

behold
dumb

spake
straight. The
from

their

world-

bonds
The

chains.

animals
sick

were

In

clear.
fell

all.

Rain

from

tbe

their

flight on

Tbe

the

sprang

I think

different

read

high.

"it"

of

waters

earth

tbe

flowers

All

the

In

each

ghosts
ceased

be

rendering
instead

of

"

of

fire

was

food

and

afraid.

The

allayed. All men


began
peted
neighed, and elephants trumwas

soft

breeze

due

season.

Tbe

each

Bracelets

and

All

the

mighty

was

covered

of
meaning
the similar

the

The

birds

forsook

their

waters'

stayed

became

ocean

with
on

passage,
at

and

trees

though
verse

fresh.

lotuses

land

twigs of

phrase

heavens

pleasantlyfor
Water, welling up

the

blossomed

forth

gave

wafted

rivers

branches, and

is the

freed

the

of
in

water.

tree-lotuses

Prof.

104,

every

covered

were

appropriateto each. On earth


together,breaking even
by sevens

this

became

received
to

The

were

hell

bloom
up

sand
thou-

ten

noise.

prisoners

earth, overflowed.^

trunks, and

with

of

out

very

Everywhere
colour.

cool

and

Thirty-two

crooked

speak kindly. Horses


instruments
gently. All musical
its note, though none
played upon them.
other ornaments
jingled of themselves.

to

made

constituent

the

The

All

hungry

wild

Tbe

of

veils

quaked,

systems

beard

another.

walked.

and

illness of all who

flow.

light appeared. The


from
longing to
very

sight (as if
glory). The deaf
with

tbe

manifest.

immeasurable

lame

The

became

tbe

violently. Tbe

made

were

one

extinguished.
drink.

become

Buddba

womb,

their

bis

this

mother's

shaken

were

world-systems an
blind

if,leaving

will

future

tbe

thousand

ten

also

Omens

wben

in

and

trembled,

; but

world

tbe

from

moment

incarnate

elements

Monarcli

religious life, be

remove

life,

houseliolder's

sin."

and

at

Universal
tbe

adopt

wbo

ignorance

lie, if lie adopts

king, a

borne, be

Buddha,

NIDANAKATHA.

through
Childers

where

vegetation." Compare Dathavagsa, i. 46.

has

would

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

66

with

arches

and

And

flags,and banners.
golden palanquin carried
her

sent

Now
of

with

away

called
the

to

of

belonging

various-

roamed,

Lumbini

grove

the

or

The

like

wanted

like

bending down,
within
took

hold

her.

The

of

reed

birds

The

of

difierent
of

whole

of

sal-tree

mighty

of

the

branch

of

heated

by steam,

When

glade,

it, and

the

curtain

people drawing a
Standing, and holding the

branch

approached
she
upon

her, retired.

round
of

she

branch

the

hand.

her

the

and

wood.

the

entered

desire

the

grove

the

creepers,

some

filled with

was

and

swarms

variegated

hall

roots

fruits

branches

of

sal-tree

the

Stretching out her hand


branch, and then her pains came

of

reach

of

hold

take

to

cities,and

of

mass

of

banqueting
it

both

and

wood

monarch

the

to

one

sweetly.

besporting herself in the


attendants, carrying the queen,
came

pleasuregrove

time, from

that

of

she

of

flocks

beholding

queen

people

blossoms

warbling

well- decorated

king.

is

was

bees, and

was

there

At

the

coloured

kinds,

the

to

branches, it

amidst

and

in

queen

attendants, he

thousand

towns

grove.

topmost

flowers

by

two

Lumbini

the

the

seating

water-pots,

great retinue.

the

between

sala-trees

well-filled

and
plaintain-trees,

of

sal-tree, she

the

delivered.

was

Brahma
pure-minded Maha
there bringing a golden net ; and receiving
angels came
before
that net, they placed him
Buddha
the future
on
Be
his mother, saying,
joyful,0 Lady ! a mighty son
That

the

moment

very

four

"

to thee

is born

other

Now

Not
womb

from

like
a

unsoiled

womb,

The

with

ofiensive

future

pure

and

preacher descending from


any

and

out

impure

left his

Buddha

ladder, erect, stretching

by

their mother's

they leave

livingthings,when

Bodisat.

so

"

it smeared

leave

womb,

mother's

pulpit or

his

impuritiesfrom contact
fair,and shining like

matter.

hands
with
a

gem

and

man

feet,

his mother's

placed

on

THE

fine muslin
showers
them

of
and

From

the

BIRTH

of

Benares.

water

came

refreshed
the

golden net,

roll of fine cloth

the

upon
of

and

world- systems

open

garlands, said,
thee, how

the

other

stopping at
the

chief

seventh

the

voice

immediately

his

birth

as

Sakka

from

asked
He

the

him

as

fine sandal- wood

some

out

In
to

came

the

him,

womb
*'

answered,

The

single
sweet-smelling

What
"

Madurattha
last birth

in

in

his

Mahosadha
he

was

in his

is it you

directions

ten

intermediate
like

one

is the

other

best

deities
Then

hands.

forth

sent

his noble

births

three

adds

the

there

thus

mother's

birth

voice
"

am

uttered

womb

; in

Yessantara, and

as

the

birth

archangel
being born, and placing

hand,

went

his

in

"

fist.

So

the
the

rest, "I
will be

no

He

away.

hold, dear,

Medicine, mother

; henceforth

like

other

no

This

their

leaving his

on

holding this

VilSsinT

holding medicine, they gave him


child
(Osadhadaraka). Taking
this is my

like

victory,beginniag with,

Mahosadha,

birth.

Thousands

fan, and

royalty in

Buddha

his

in this

of

of

world."

future

up

the

the

step, he

shout

the

of the

Now

with

symbols

the

shouted

and

white
him

stood

finding no
"

on

archangel Brahma
the
umbrella, and
archangel

walked

he

the

followed

nadir),and

strides, saying,

as

him

Suyiima

he

four

the

compass,

the

seven

And

over

the

and

took

direction."

with

of

zenith

himself, he

held

lope
ante-

him

East.

him

to

in

occasions

on

hands

the

visible

of

received

men

angels ofieringhim
0
great Being, there is
Searching the
greater ?

points

points,the

used

are

and

"

of

him

cloth

on

"

then

four

(the

as

towards

became

Men

space.

looked

and

ground

honour

received

him

leaving their

on

two

so,

in

had

received

hands

was

his mother.

angels who

their

67

heaven

and

touch, such

to the

From

from

Bodisat

kings

royal state.

BUDDHA.

thougli this

down

of the

four

THE

But

the

hands

skins, soft
of

OF

as

His
you

because

name

medicine

mother
come

he

"

came

of Medicine-

they kept

in the
supreme
rebirth for me."

am

came

world;

THE

68

it in

chatty (an

and

others, as

This

up,
"

drug

Medicine

is

powerful drug,

called

was

blind

the

healed.

was

came,

he

hence

and

as

of

it became

and

water-pot);

sickness

all the

many

"

sprang

earthenware

which

drug by

NIDANAKATHA.

So

this

the

is

deaf

and

saying

powerful
(The Great
a

Mahosadha

Man).
he

womb,

stretched

left his

birth, as he

Yessantara

in the

Again,

mother's

his

is
right hand, saying,"But
I would
house, mother?
give a

out

anything in the
You
his mother, saying,
are
born, dear, in
gift." Then
a
wealthy family," took his hand in hers, and placed on it
a
bag containinga thousand.
Lastly,in this birth he sang the song of victory. Thus

there

"

the

future

Buddha
of

out

came

of

his

in

his

mother's

conception,

thirty-twoGood
Now

Lumbini

the

Channa
the

the

at

Omens

the

also

came

miles,

These

cloaks

their

treasures

Bodisat

our

the

birth, the
in

born

was

some

count

as

and

mistake
one,

eight

one

took

day

the

too, the

and

rejoiced,saying,

here,

only six-

as

the

Connatal

list contains
Ones.

last,one
miles

"

In

in

size.

and

went

of

angels in
joyful; and
Kapilavastu,

nine"

I think

was

Ones.^

Bodisat
choirs

full

vases

Connatal

astonished

were

four

these

Sahajata, the

towns

that

the

Of

being.

six, and

one

called

are

is

when

into

four,

one

seven

There

his

moment

seen.

great Bo-tree, and

people of both
to Kapilavastu. On
the Tavatigsa heaven

of

he

as

the

The

waved

the

at

as

moment

were

his voice

of Rahula,
lady, the mother
attendant, Kaludayi the minister, Kanthaka

royal horse,

two

uttered
And

the

time

very

births

womb.
at

so

grove,

the

of treasure,

three

or

before

if the

four

Kaluduyi

and
Ananda, the loving disciple. So Alabaster
Hardy
of Buddhism, p. 146). Bigandet also
(Wheel of the Law, p. 106; Manual
of Amittodana, which
the son
is against the
adds
Ananda, but calls him
tradition (Life or
Legend of Guadama, p. 36, comp. my Buddhism,
common
features, an early one, for
legend is certainly,as to its main
p. 52). The
it is also found, in greatlyexaggeratedand
terms, in the books
contradictory
we

should

of

Northern

insert

Buddhists

Senart, p. 294).

(LalitaVistara, Foucaux,

p.

97, Beal, p. 53, comp.

THE

to Suddliodaiia

tlie

tlie

Bo-tree, will

At

tbat

time

SIMEON,

king, a

become

of

is

son

69

born, wlio, seated

under

Buddha."

ascetic

an

adviser

through

BUDDHIST

Kala

named

Suddhodana

Devala

(a

fidential
con-

the

king, who had passed


religiousattainment)^ had

the

eight stages of
his mid- day meal, and
eaten
had
to the Tavati;)sa
gone
heaven, to rest through the heat of the day. Whilst
there
these
sittingresting,he saw
angels, and asked
them, ''Why are you thus glad at heart and rejoicing?
Tell

the

me

The

angels replied,"Sir,

born

hear

and
it will

us

from

house,

sat

"A

given

Buddha
the

the

Kingdom

to

say

is born

his

hair

of

the

those

future

Buddha

ascetic's
from

his

work

my

And

the
own

head

at

own

also

Saniapatti.

Dhmnmacakka-jQ pavattessatt.
was

considered

plattedhair.
pada, V. 394),

This

or

skins !

clean

the

splendour
the

in that

by
placed

of

in

planted

For

the

him."

future

them

on

there

birth

Bodisat, and

the

of

head

the

ascetic, assuredly the

splitin

The

two.

ascetic

rose

to
right for me
homage to the Bodisat.

is not

"It

this

did

wonder

homage

to

son.

'

It

to

said,

see

me

But

saluted

seeing

clad

and

destruction," he did

king

and

grace

! let

be

round,

saying,

Righteousness.^

are

ascetic.

had

have

we

the

feet

the

would

seat, and

to

be

one

"

king

ascetic.^

worthy to
ignorant ones

no

son

feet

become

apart for him, and

set

salute

to

of

is

king

glad !
they said, quickly came
and
entering the king's

to you,

his

ordered
in

seat

will

infinite

it is that

the

the

Bo-tree

his

see

angel-world,
on

turned

matted

was

under

Therefore

down

they
The
king
and
brought

of

be

the

son

his

found

Suddhodana

to

ascetic, hearing what

down

if

will

his word.

The

seated

who

son,

Buddha,
To

of it.''

reason

"

"

Your

What
low

See

my
the Brahmans

among
is referred
is the

use

yearnings

to

of
are

in the

"

Buddhism,"

plattedhair,
within

p. 45.

sign of holiness to
verse
strikingBuddhist
a

you,

fool !

and

the

What
outside

wear

matted

(Dhammaof a garment
thou

makest

THE

70

Now

the
of

events

in

ages

ascetic

forty

the

had

the

the

"Will

of

power

Bodisat's

he

callingto

the

(kalpas)in
Looking at

ages

future.

prosperity on
himself,

NIDANAKATHA.

become

marks

he

Buddha

the

of

forty

past, and

the

body,

mind

of

future

considered

with
And

not?"

or

Buddha,
a
perceivingthat he would most certainlybecome
he smiled, saying, "This
is a wonderful
child."
Then
him
when
to behold
reflecting, Will it be given to me
"

he

has

become

not.

before

Dying

"

Formless

World

thousand

Buddhas

and

to go

fortune

be

so

"

he

that

time

that

while

this

shall

be

men,

And

in the

perhaps

or

shall not

it will not
child
is my

Great, indeed,

it would

reborn

hundred

wonderful

so

that

perceived

among

them.

taught by

Buddha.

appear

behold

to

become

Buddha

when

loss !

able

be

be my

"

good
he

has

And

he

wept.
The

just

people seeing this, asked, saying,


smiled, and

now

"There
become
"

is

It will not

be

granted

when

he

man

indeed, is my

would
his

In

"

Call

In

"

"

the

weep

"

me," he said,

to

has

become

him

see

to

his

house, and

to behold

"

Buddha.

so

Great,

as

to

Nalaka.

nephew

said

Buddha

her,

So

Where

"

to any

"

he
he

one

it

saw

went

to

is your

son

house, brother."

him,"

said

family
master

not
-politeness,

See

reply.

"

the

Our

to

granted

sister's

will

assuredly he

him;

"

be

Nalaka

loss !

relatives

my

you

one

master

Will, sir,

"

bewailing myself, I weep."


reflecting, Will it be granted or not

Then
of

the

was

do

in

to weep

little

master's

our

then

great

begun

now

misfortune

no

Buddha,"

Why

"

"

befall

misfortune

any

has

Our

"

"

is

of

I^o. 3.

When

he

Suddhodana

here, of

unfrequent

below, Jataka

he.

in the

course,

the

the

Jutakas, to

he

came

said

king, dear,

sage.
address

It
a

is

to
a

him,

son

is

pretty piece of

stranger

as

relation.

THE

born,

This

Buddlia, and

very

day give up

Bearing
bim

urge
in

in

witbout

of

tbe

robes.

7;
lie

thirty-fiveyears
be granted you
to
uncle

bis

will
bim.

see

!"

world

tbe
that

tbe

not

was

to

man

tbougb born
incalculable
wealtb,^ straigbtway took
store
a
yeUow suit of clotbes and an
a

of

inner

eartbenware

In

it will

mind

family

out

Buddlia.

young

become

NAME-GIVING.

cause,

pot, and

And

bis

sbaved

man,

young

bead

and

put

tbe

on

for tbe sake of tbe


saying, I take tbe vows
greatest Being upon eartb," be prostrated bimself on tbe
in adoration
towards
ground and raised bis joined bands
tbe Bodisat.
Tben
putting tbe begging bowl in a bag,
and
carrying it on bis sboulder, be went to tbe Himalaya
"

mountains,
Wben

lived

and
tbe

reacbed

He

in wbicb

Now

kinds

Let

*'

and

made

sent

for

excellent

of

"

worth

cooked

well

rice

tbree
gave

Literally

Patb, be past
final

tinction
ex-

remains.*^

man

tbe

Bodisat'

bead,

and

eigbt

tbem

eightyand

tbem

pleasant food

tbe

times

seven

Tben

Brabmans

seated

Vedas, and

milk.

in

tbey

who
in

tbe

bad

king's

to

eat, and

koti," both

eightyand

did

seven

numbers.

''and
Literally,

Nalaka.'

"

caused

Perhaps some
subject to

manner;

originallyto

all

Childers

him

Sutta
the

mortals, but
compares

the

is
fate

of salvation
for
declare, 'The
way
called.
Tathagata, "gone, or come, in
all men,"
of
is
an
adjective applied

to
so

afterwards
use

of

'

Son

used

as

favourite

epithet of

of Man.'

In
the
parmibbayi.
JSibbana-dhatuya
Anupadisesaya
will
be
found.
this
of
Buddhism,"
phrase
p. 113, an analysis
3

and

montbs

seven

Hill, by tbat

day tbey batbed

bundred

tbe

being lucky

"

power

of

way

Himalayas,
lived

be bad

tbe

us

one

bouse, and

Gotama.

or

beard

tbe

to

wben

part

no

ready

mastered

like

And

and

En-

complete

to

for
perform tbe rite of cboosing a name
witb
four
So tbey perfumed tbe
king's bouse
of odours, and
it witb
decked
Dalbergia flowers,

bim."

returned

fiftb

tbe

on

saying,

attained

pilgrim along tbe most


Golden
a
standing near

wben

away

tben

monk.

to bim

went

Arabatsbip.

longer as

bad

Tatbagata

ligbtenment, Nalaka
salvation.^

life of

tbe

translator's

THE

72

them

NIDANAKATHA.

great honour, and

of what

the

Among
270.

child

them

them

asked

should

recognizethe signs

to

be.

"

E-ama,

and

and

Kondanya

eight Brahmans

Their

senses

all

then

subdued

there,

were

and

Mantin,

Sudatta,

and

Bhoja, Suyama

These

and

Lakkhana,

and

Dhaja,

they

the

declared

charm.

Now
it

these

had

them

by

was

been

interpreted.

becomes

becomes

glory and

But

the

on

of

Seven

remain

Monarch

; but

if he

the

takes

so

of

all

them,

man

householder,

saying, they
Cakkavatti
king.

And,
of

of

youngest

two

"

should

power

them

holding up
alternative, saying, If a

Buddha.'*

recognizersof signs;
the night of conception

were

dream

the

in

Universal

all the

the

that

fingersprophesied
having such marks
he

Brahmans

eight

he

vows,

declared

Brahman

young

Kondanya, beholding the perfection


raised
the
of the
Bodisat,
on
auspicious marks
ambiguity,
one
finger only, and prophesied without
is no
said, There
sign of his remaining amidst the
of household
life.
Buddha,
a
Yerily,he will become
the
the
veils of sin and
remove
ignorance from

whose

up
and

family

name

was

"

cares

and

world."

This

man

deep

resolve

birth.

of

in

it

wisdom

had

holiness, and

Therefore

seven

former

already,under

that

was

that

he

he

had

Buddhas,

surpassed

perceived

the

the

how

last

his

reached

now

made

other

Bodisat

only be subjectto this one life ; and that, raising


only one
finger,he so prophesied,saying, The lot of

would

"

possessed

one

the

of

cares

Buddha
Now

of

these

household

marks

will

life.

Yerily

not

he

be

cast

will

amidst

become

"

those

Brahmans

went

home,

and

addressed

their

THE

74.
and

continents

surrounded
he

by

prevent

sight of

his

child

son

so

kinds

becomes
if he

and

honoured

shall become

of

nurses

four

ing,
saytions
directo the

he
^

So

Bodisat

the

And

saying,
king, we

Buddha,

live attended
the

from
up

son,

or

shall

grew

assembled

he

Kshatriya monks,

by

free

great beauty, and

Bodisat.

shall become

king,

clansmen

Buddha

by Kshatriya nobles."

honoured

so

coming

dedicated

one

that

attended

live
if he

the

four

heaven,

Then,

in the

apart

those

hall, each

this

"Whether

give each

of

son.

festival

the

and

of

men

tliat surround

vault

retinue."
miles

two

the

day also, of eighty thousand

That

shall

in

it were,

as

innumerable

an

islands

thousand

placed guards

to

in

tlie two

walking,

and

them;

NIDAMAKATHA.

raja appointed
fault, for

every
in

and

great splendour

retinue.
by an innumerable
Now
one
day the king held the so-called Ploughing
On
that day they ornament
Festival.
the town
like a
palace of the gods. All the slaves and servants, in new
with
crowned
sweet- smelling garlands,
garments and
in the king's house.
For
the king's work
assemble
a
thousand
dred
hunploughs are yoked. On this occasion one
surrounded

and

and

the

for

king

also the

his

thick

it the

with

raja

had

canopy

round

it

raja,

clad

away

Literallya
'

'

is

mere

to the

house

with

spot.

There

giving

the

child's

couch

spread
in
to

Kshatriyawas

inlaid

hung.

Then

splendour
plough.

and

But

with

goads

and

retinue

sacred

and

leaves

curtain

went
1

reins

their

silver.

ornamented

was

and

went

couch

the

use

horns

and

son

tree

to

with

were,

with

king, leaving his

The

six

one

cross-bars, ornamented

and

so

minus

eight

the

red

plough
gold ; and

oxen.

great retinue, took


there

dense

laid
with

of the

oxen-reins

was

Jambu-

shade.

out

; and

stars

of

Under
over

gold, and

leaving a guard there,


attended
ters,
by his minis-

-six leagues in circumference/ where


thirty

number.
the warrior

caste.

the

'thirty-

THE

At

such,

the

PLOUGHING

time

attendant

the

FESTIVAL.

king

ministers

takes hold

75

of

hundred

one

golden plough,
and
eight minus
a

ploughs, and the peasants the rest of the


ploughs. Holding them
they plough this way and that
The
the
side to
other, and
raja goes from one
way.
from
the other back
comes
again.
On
this occasion the king had
the
great success
; and
Let
seated
round
the Bodisat, thinking,
us
nurses
go
the
from
within
the
to
out
see
king's glory,*'came
The
future Buddha, looking all
curtain, and went
away.
round, and seeing no one, got up quickly,seated himself
and
cross-legged,
holding his breath, sank into the first
silver

one

"

Jhiina.^
The

delayed

little.

round, but

that

circular

form.

in

master

it.

miracle

that

raja,saying,

"

The

Seeing the
of

the

king

have

turned, that of the

the

food,

turned

trees

steady and
their

curtain

young
and

turned
re-

Bodisat

sittingcross-legged,
and
told the
shadow, they went
the prince is seated
in such
and

while

; and

other

remained

hurriedly raised

of

kinds

remembering

nurses,

And

the

Jambu-tree

such

manner

of

shadows

the

alone,

was

inside
and

The
of

preparing various

in

engaged

nurses,

the

shadows

of

the

is fixed

Jambu-tree

the

hurriedly and saw


raja went
and
did homage to his son, saying, This,
is the second
homage paid to thee !
"

other

in

that

trees

circle ! "

miracle,

Beloved

One,

"

But
the

Bodisat

the

had

king

three

due

course

mansions

grew

made,

And

to manhood.

suitable

for

the

three

stories
seven
high,
high, one
five stories high ; and
and
he
one
provided him with
fortythousand
dancing girls. So the Bodisat, surrounded
like a god surrounded
by well-dressed
dancing girls,
by
instruments
by musical
troops of houris, and attended
which
played of themselves, lived, as the seasons
changed,
one

seasons,

nine

in

of

state

translator'

"

stories

religiousmeditation.
uddhism,*'pp. 174-176.

full

explanationis given

in

the

THE

76
in each -of these

NIDANAKATHA.

enjoyment of great majesty.


And
the mother
of Rahula
his principalqueen.
was
Whilst
he
in the
thus
was
enjoyment of great prosperity
the following talk sprang
up in the public assembly
of his
not

clansmen

would

The
*'

king

Your

and

given

should

is

skill.

Seven

do."

what

can

The

skilled in
shoot

as

and

how
So

the

nothing,
think

you

they could
lightning; and

of

assembly

assembled

those

so

hair, and

the

of

midst

his

twelve-fold

other

masters

clansmen

his

show
kindred

my

then, in

to

me

may

split even

by

was

show

will

relatives

his

for

necessary

Bodisat

that

he

do

city,that
I

now

The

unsurpassed

bow.^

it is
the

from

showed

people, he

art

round

so.

archery
quick

as

days

learn

him,

"

no

crier

did

king

out,

said to

what

pleasure: now

to

there
the

break

and

One, say that you

Send

the

Buddha,

this ?

learn.
my

future

about

king

should

war

pleasure ;

to

''

for the

up

devoted

if

do

"

do ?

sent

lives

learn;

relations,Beloved

are

you

he

does

he

in

Siddhattha

"

thing

one

what

mansions

skill,
the

of

doubted

no

longer.
Now

day

one

the

future

Buddha, wanting

to

to

go

his

pleasureground, told his charioteer to harness his chariot.


the
latter accordingly decked
The
gloriously beautiful
state

horses

of the
So

white

the

of

the

in the

The

Omens."

skies, and

went

Enlightenment
And
they did

gods represent
A

the

gloss adds,

Sarabhar)gaJutaka."

"

man

This

so

be

the

towards
for
let

is near,

wasted
should

white

as

the

the

leaves

Bodisat.

chariot, resplendent like


time

The

it four

to

he informed

And

ascended

"

harnessed

and

breed, and

Sindhi

angels thought,

attain

trappings,

lotus flower.

Bodisat

mansion

to

all its

with

chariot

by making

by

with

age,

understood

as

garden.
Siddhattha

young
us

him

show
a

son

at

the

of

decayed

is related

the

teeth

full in

the

and
stick

in his hand.

Buddha

his

and

Then

hair

down

But

he

only

is not

servant's

that

as

was

body,

visible

and

with

the

future

to

charioteer.

of

other

said,

"

When
then

Shame

in the

this, whose

is

man

men

"

is told

charioteer, as

of

kind

he

answer,

his

asked

"What

Mahapadana,

in

broken

Bodisat

the

77

and

hair, bent

grey

OMENS.

FOUR

THE

he

be

decay of every living being is notorious


back
at that very
agitated heart he turned
his palace.
The
does
son
king asked, "Why
my
hurriedly?
old man," they said;
"He
has
an
seen

heard

his

life ! since

to

!"

the

very

and

with

spot and
back

turn

entered
re-

so

''

seen

old man,

an

"By this
get ready

long

world

them

at

"

and

will

point

plays
he

as

not

Then

each

the

to

the
be

continues
his

turn

the

raja; "quickly

performed
in

the

thoughts

increasing the
of

having

world."

me," exclaimed

concerts

pleasure,he

the

will forsake

ruin

you

So

son.

my
of

he

"and

to

enjoyment
forsaking

guards, he
at

compass,

before

intervals

placed
of

half

league.
the future Buddha,
he was
as
day, when
Again, one
represented by
going to his pleasureground, saw a sick man
the same
the gods, he made
inquiry as before ; and then,
a

with

agitated heart, turned

The

king

also

orders

same

placed them
a
league.
Once
to

his

the
with
The

the

all round

more,

when

at

the

pleasure ground,

as

before

all round

at

re-entered

his

palace.

inquiry, and gave the


again increasingthe guard,
of three-quarters
distance
of

future
saw

and

same

before; and

the same
gods, he made
agitatedheart, turned
king also made the same

orders
them

as

made

back

Buddha,
dead

man

inquiry as
back

and

as

he

was

going

represented by
before

re-entered

; and

his

then,

palace.

inquiry,and gave the same


and
again increasingthe guard, placed
of a league.
distance
a

THE

^8

NIDANAKATHA.

Once

the future
Buddha, as
again,when
to his pleasure ground, saw
had
who
one
and decentlyclad,he asked
world, carefully
"

Friend, what

there

was

his

of

Buddha

no

understood

kind

all in

at

what

neither

is that ?

man

distinguishingcharacteristics
gods, he said,

the

by

his

As

charioteer,
that

at

is

charioteer
were

spired
nevertheless, inmendicant

time

what

nor

but

the

friar ;

"

of

renouncing the world.


that day the future
And
Buddha, cherishing the thought
to his pleasureground.
of renouncing the world, went
on
The repeaters of the Digha Nikiiya,^
however, say that
all the four Omens
the
he saw
on
same
day, and then
There
he enjoyed himself
to his pleasure ground.
went
described

and

during

the

sunset

seated

robed.

Now

himself
his

At

that

who

now

the

that
had

for

And

out

will

he

ground and
By the

of

and

had
treatises,
At

preach
a

legendsof

Buddhist

of

straight.

hence?"
of

the

he

perceived

future
"

is it

Buddha

Friend

Yissa-

Renunciation.

Buddhist

book
to

from.

is the

last

splendour. Go to the pleasure


with heavenly array."
which
angels have, he acpower

him

the

This

in

learn
Thus
of

in the

Order

books

or

India, the
his

himself, "Who

Yissakamma,

"

of

of

mendicant

the

Buddhist

friars

their

"

were

deus

descends
ex

the
it

pupils, study,

collection

of

long

itself.

lives of persons
of importance in the
of the Archangel Sakka
becomes
seat
then

in

Scriptures,which

by heart, repeat to
the Digha Nikaya, or
repeaters [bhanaka)to

losing
temporary bliss,he
Buddhist
the
Vulcan, to act as
Vissakamma,

Fearful

to

seated

was

Great

specialschool

critical moments

Sakka

Siddhattha, to-day,at midnight,

clad

selectingsome
their especial duty

which

him.

noble

miraculous

of

expound,
2

be

adorn

members

The

the

around

adornment

said to

he

stood

from

descend

the

young

on

thinking

to

time

the

throne

And
me

will carry
time

the

wants

come.

kamma,

was

ointments, and

moment

at

royal resting stone to be


brought robes of different
of ornaments,
and
garlands,

kinds

various

lake ; and

beautiful

the

the

on

attendants

warm.^

became

in

bathed

perfumes, and

and

habit

advantages

and

day

colours, and

the

That

"

abandoned

was

going

was

world, the

the

mendicant

"

he

religious
warm.

himself, or sends
machinu, and put things

TAMA'S

GO

cordingly, that very


of the royal barber
the

material

Bodisat's

knew,
the

"

for

This

; and

is

first round

no

it is

man,

of

the

turban

of the
the appearance
folds ; when
the turban
a

thousand

folds

folds

rise
size

on

the

largestof
Priyaggu creeper,
blossoms.
like

And

the

Brahmans

shouts

of

is
were

the

head

flower
he

the

victory,and

and

so

of

barber's
it

of the

put

hand

the

when

there

folds

many

thousand

round,
sand
thou-

ten

could

rest

the

flower

the
even

of

for

in

Black

the

Kutumbaka

as

future

to

seem

beyond imagination ;
as

by

arose,

times,

ten

When

time

second

the

Bodisat

the

diadem,

the

round

gods."

on,

hand

Buddha

became

in full bloom.

arrayed in all his splendour, the


while
exhibitingeach one his peculiar skill,
with
of joy and
words
honouring him

when

musicians

them

the

Kuyyaka

And

How
head

son

was

again ;

arose

small

his

wrapt

was

tlie likeness

arranged

jewelry on

appeared.

so

the

of

touch

the

in

near

from

taking

turban, he

At

79

drew

moment,

the

head.

SON.

was

the

"

of lower

men

he

festive cries and

his

car.
superbly decorated
At
that
time
Suddhodana
the king, who
had
heard
that the mother
of Eahula
had
brought forth a son, sent
known
a
saying, "Make
joy to my son !
message,
my
The
future Buddha, hearing this, said, An
impediment
has come
into being, a bond
has come
into being.'' When
the king asked,
What
did
and
heard
son
my
say ?
that
From
henceforth
let
saying ; he gave command,
E-iihula (impediment) be
But
the
grandson's name."
my
the town
Bodisat, riding in his splendid chariot, entered
with great magnificence and exceeding glory.
At that time a noble virgin,Kisa
Gotami
had
by name,

praise;
"

ascended

with

castes

''

"

"

"

"

gone
and

to

she

the

flat

beheld

roof

the

of

the

upper

story of

beauty and majesty of


he
as
was
proceeding through the city.
delighted at the sight,she burst forth into
joy :"

her
the

palace,
Bodisat

Pleased
this

song

and
of

8o-

THE

271.

Blessed

indeed

is that

motlier,

Blessed

indeed

is tliat

father,

Blessed

indeed

is that

wife,

Who

this Lord

owns

Hearing
made

happy,

heart

of

and

"

sin the

out, then
delusion

of

And

thought
the

him

to
came,

is

This
to

whose

mind

mother

is
the

happy,

says.

lastinghappiness
estranged

was

fire of lust is gone

the

when

gained ;

his

On

"

is all she

attain

When

"

of

is made

happy

himself,

to

heart

father

his

heart

every

peace

glorious!

so

is made

answer

"

"

one

heart

can

peace

from

such

his wife
what

by

the

"

Bodisat

this, the

catching sight of

But

NIDANAKATHA.

fires of hatred

the

and

the
gained ; when
troubles
of mind, arising from
pride, credulity,and all
is
other
sins, have
ceased, then peace is gained ! Sweet
of
the lesson this singer makes
hear, for the Nirvana
me
is that
I have
which
been
Peace
trying to find out.
This

are

day

very

I will

the

break

from

away

world

his

neck

loosingfrom

Then
hundred

I will

thousand, he

has

fallen

But

the

in

love

only

cares

after

the

stringof pearls worth

it to Kisa

sent

on

Thereupon
The

force

Buddhist,

with

Bodisat,

reclined

GotamI

the

women

of this passage
words

of

couch

to the

and

and

stands

in the

or

words

Nirvana,
a

of

lastingstate

the extinction

of the

'

of

words

Peace

occur,

happiness and

fires

'

with

and

"Where
gone

of its two

other

'

present."

in

dour,
great splenskiKul

in

meaning which,

to the

array,
of

No

words

the

connote

or

impossible in

sentences.

the

Siddhattha

me

convey.

ground,
unfamiliar

one

fullness

nibbanai)

same

and

one

beautiful

is due

blessed, happy, peace,

is

sent

teacher's

"Prince

state.

in

words

Nirvona

has

clad

nibbuta

originalin

and

me,

as

entering his palace

on

languages cover
exactly the
explain them
fully to any
would
be difficult anywhere,
the above
pretty clear from

Nirvana

household

follow

Delighted at this, she thought,

fee.

by

is

peace

itself ! ^

Nirvana

I will

renounce

then

out,

gone

Indian
note

in
out,

ideas.

same

modes
but

thought
meaning is

the

ceased, occur,
;

where

stands

in

To

of

their
in

them,

meanings

nibbanat)

in Western

song,

in them
the

the

nibbuta

the

original.

here on
earth
peace, to be reached
troubles ' mentioned
in this passage.

THE

82

Then

said lie," I

Great

Channa

stables

saddle

"

went

cloth, beautified

with

is the

and

is

one

very

he

saddled

Even

whilst

he

and

lamps

the

pleasant spot

entering the
mighty steed

under

ought

saddle

to

of

canopy

pattern of jasmine flowers.

This

"

to-day," thought

saddled

being
tightly,and
was

so

those

as

the

yard,

he ;

Kanthaka.

saddlingme

rides

at

horse/'

stable-

light of

Kanthaka, standing

to-day to accomplislithe

me

the

to

the

by

saw

resolved

am

Renunciation

So

NIDANAKA7HA,

to the

not

the

as

horse

other

on

pleasure grounds,

knew,

days

because

He

"

for such
master

my

is about

Renunciation."
to-day to carry out the Great
Then, glad at heart, he neighed a mighty neigh ; and the
thereof

sound
had

the

not

thought,

from

mother, and
fed

lamp,

the

"I

will
he

with
head

the

on

threshold, the

the

to take

my

going

away.

become

time

will

is said

be

no

this

on

town,
hear

one

son."

my

of

At

it.

errand,

And

apartments

in

; and

back
he

the

that

and

rising
E-ahula's

that

left the

Jataka

will

him

see

moment

prevent my

when

"

commentary,

Therefore

I have

palace.
is not

days old,"

seven

was

should

the

view

At

found

that

in

given

the

above

accepted.^
the Bodisat

when

said,"My

had

Literally, about an ammana


the Arabian
jasmine."

The

{i e. five

"

Jataka

Elu,

Commentary
or

old

left the

good Kanthaka,

in

at

the

awake

And

commentaries.

and

Channa

sent

to

come

Buddha."

Rahula

horse, and

had

went

let

sound, and

just look

I will

other

And

the

all the

over

burning dimly in
The
of Rahula
mother
was
asleepon
jasmine flowers,^and restingher
many
of her son.
Stopping with his foot on
Bodisat
thought, "If I lift her hand

she

son,

what

Now

penetrated

door.
opened her chamber
with
sweet-smellingoil,was

strewn

hand

Bodisat

chamber.

inner

bed

the

couch

his

have

gods stopped

after

Now
he

would

here

Sinhalese,

on

or

referred

which

palace,he
do thou

six

bushels)of

to

is, no

the

save

the

to his

went
me

largejasmine

doubt, the older

present work

this

is based.

mentary
com-

THE

to-niglit
; so

once

MYTHIC

tliat

HORSE.

I, having become

the world
of men,
help, shall save
Then
leaping up, he seated himself
Xanthaka
was
eighteen cubits
of

his

neck, and

fleet,and

and

of

all

white

neigh or
penetrate through all
muffled
it ;

the

and

Bodisat

The

; told

steed

the

the

that

of

Kanthaka's

on

in

clean

from
he

the

that

step, the

the

shell.

the

of

If

would

angels so
could

none

palms

nape

strong

was

sound

Therefore

neighing

back.

chank

ground,

town.

his

the

Now

be

not

rode

to catch

hear

their

hands

king thinking,
able

at

back

hold

its

of

stop him.

In

"

time

any

placed

get away," had

mighty

of

the

mighty

tail,and

arrived

great gate of the city.

the

at

the

on

Channa

midnight

will

and

by your
angels too."

his feet.

under

at

over

each

placed, at

like

paw

of

sound

Buddlia

length
proportionate height ;

should

he

83

to

that

thousand

The

the

open

Bodisat

city gate

at each

men

Bodisat

the

way

of the

and
two

mighty and strong


of elephants as
ten
thousand
according to the measure
million
of men
elephants,and according to the measure
million
He
million
If the
door
men.
as
a
thought,
Kanthaka's
back
does
with
not
Channa
open, sittingon
with
holding his tail, I will press Kanthaka
thighs,
my
the city rampart, eighteen cubits high,
and jumping over
!
Channa
I will get away
thought, If the door is not
gates

to

was

"

"

opened, I will
right hand
my
close

to

away
I will

my

"

the

master

my

round

up

Channa
and

that

moment

the

so

the

get away

the
Mara

And

other

or

whereof

will

door

he

as

will

if the
of

he

hold
and

is not

tail,and

my

"

putting

rampart

seated

master

my

holding by

angel residingat

At

girth,I

"

with

neck, and

my

Kanthaka's

opened, verily one


accomplished that

have

on

leap over
thought, If

Kanthaka

rampart

been

the

take

waist, and

spring

back, and

*'

had

get

opened,

is

on

leap

door

those

him

had

three

my
over

not

would

thought.

But

gate opened it.


came

there

with

the

intention

THE

84
of

stopping the
*'

Bodisat

of

"

Yasavatti,"

would

you

! Well

Mara

"

"

are

to

appear

will

lord

! in

the

the

it is not

but

And

shall

arise

closelyas
of the

mansion

lunar
left the

and

it ;

stop

with
at

or

from
or

anger

to know

for

ten

of

it."

slip,as

some

its

that

the
sprang
he

instant

the

face

to

fulfil your

towards

place a spot

(that is. The

Shrine

built

afterwards

happened).

And

where

the
for
of

he

thousand

hand, and

there

keeping

torches, and
on

his left.

is

behind
And

him

no

on

So
at

the

it-;and

him

while

"

believed

was

in
with

front

the

for

volved
re-

too, and

you

he

fixed

Cetiya
Dagaba
have

to

direction

carried
on

as

Bodisat,

great honour

of him

some

he

to gaze

earth

need

Staying

Kanthaka

was

when

broad

wish."

miracle

Uttara-

stayed: saying

Kanthaka's

this

And

Kanthaka-Nivattana

going, he went
exceeding glory.
For
then, they say, angels in
which

the

so

city,gazed

the

the

within

was

"

order

July).

up

did

in

was

1st

in

his

desire

moon

potter'swheel, and
0 Great
him,
Being,

to

were

the

on
{i.e.

city a

like

to

never

when

day of Asalhi,

upon

leaves

the

Now,

"

"

moon

had

empire

"

would

salha

make

get

watching

ever

which

shadow

and

I will

you,

of

object.
the future
Buddha, making light of the kingdom
world, thus within his reach, castingit away as one
the fullsaliva, left the city with great honour
on

But

it

him,

thousand

sovereignty that

Buddha,

within

followed

he

you

wheel

world-systems shout for joy."


thought the Tempter to himself :
forth, whenever
a
thought of lust

malice

become

that

thousand

time

make

"

this

from

two

desire.

Then

days
will

the

claimed,
ex-

reply.

know

and
!

air, lie

seven

and

appear,

lord

tlie

he.

was

me

my

my

said

do

standing in

continents

Stop,

and

will

empire

Who
am

tlie four

sovereignover
adjacent isles.
"

Depart not,

tlie wheel

now

NIDANAKATHA.

his

in
and

sixty
right

deities,undefined

THE

the

on

of

edge

RENUNCIATION.

GREAT

85
aloft

torches

horizon, held

the

other

Nagas, and Winged Creatures, and other


doing homage
superhuman beings, bore him company
with
heavenly perfumes, and garlands, and sandal-wood
full of
the
And
whole
sky was
powder, and incense.
the

deities,and

"

Paricchataka
rain

pouring
floated

around

instruments
midst

of

thick

when

and

sea,

of the

boundaries

or

as

the

heaven,

every

side

thousands

when

the

thunder

great

of
roars

songs

musical
in

the

against the

heaves

ocean

the

with

as

gather. Heavenly

clouds

on

sounded,
the

Indra's

from

flowers

world

and glory,the Bodisat, in that


Advancing in this pomp
one
night, passed beyond three kingdoms, and arrived,
of the river
bank
of thirty leagues, at the
end
at the
But
called
Anoma.
why could not the horse go still
for he
of power
It was
further ?
not
:
through want
could go from
one
edge of the round world to the other,
of a
the circumference
as
easilyas one could step across
wheel
lying on its side ; and doing this in the forenoon,
But
and eat the food
he could return
prepared for him.
this occasion
he was
on
constantlydelayed by having to
along, and break his way through the mass
drag himself
"

from
garlands and flowers, cast down
profusionby the angels,and the Snakes,

heaven

of

Creatures, that
that

he

only got

Now

hid.

were

so

also

it

was

over

is this river
my

Hence

Winged

called

river

side, asked

"

lord, is Anoma."
our

renunciation

of the

world

shall

be

said he ; and
signallingto
(illustrious),"
horse, by pressing it with his heel, the horse sprang
six hundred
the river, five or
yards in breadth, and

stood
The
on

flanks

the

such

Anoma

called

over

What

Its name,

"And

his

"

very

thirtyleagues.
Bodisat, stopping at the

the

Channa,
"

his

and

in

the

on

the

oppositebank.
the horse's back, stood
from
Bodisat, getting down
sandy beach, extending there Kke a sheet of silver,

THE

86

said to

and

taking

my

become

*'

But

"

You

must

Channa,

NIDANAKATHA.

lord, will become

also, my

allowed

be

cannot

for

be

myself witb
rigbt band,
diadem

the
bair

The

"

be

went

it in tbe

into

Cutting

bair

sky.

off

tbem

cut

sword

the

in

If

that
There
more.

any

become

to

am

bis

curling

same.

beard

or

if not, let it fall to the

diadem

together

plaitedbair

off and

with

It remained
the

bis

So

off.

length,and

beard

"

air ;

The

in

bair

bimseK,

and

them

cut

head.

either

stopped

and

the

in the

air.

his

divine

it witb

as

held

he

jewelled
The

angel
archand

eye,

off his

bair, witb

Tbe

Lordly Being

Tbe

thousand-eyed one,

Received

Again
Benares

to

else to

one

any

I will

so

suited

jewel casket, a league high, be placed


Tavatigsa heaven, in the Dagaba of the Diadem.

receivingit

272.

to his

caught sight of

Sakka

both

not

are

rigbt for

left,he

in the

league

of mine

inches

shave

the

the

towards

turban

his

lived, and

at all to

threw

bim

to

over

this

plaitedtresses, together

to two

let it stand

Buddha,

them

reduced

Bodisat, saying

ground

tbe

them, with

as

refused

Tben, taking bis

holding

long

need

no

was

tbe
muslin

it

humbly

Bodisat
is not

cast

in

pleasant perfumes sweet,

it to the

Sakka, the sky God,


a

golden

tbougbt,
suitable

sky.

"

for

This
a

casket.

my

raiment

mendicant."

of
Now

bad
archangel Ghatikara, who
formerly been
of Kassapa Buddba,
friend
in the time
led by
was

tbe

to

world, you

be

delivered

locks

rigbt,it lay close

as

tbe

times

Buddba,

sword."

and
on

the

length

future

my

thus

was

from

going

am

bermit."

renounce

it is not

Now
of

be

Tbese

"

tbougbt,

bair

tbe

cut

back,

go

Kantbaka.

and

mendicant.

now

Three

; and

request of Cbanna's
ornaments

to

said.

back,'' be

Tben

Kanthaka.

and

ornaments

thou

do

Channa,

bermit."

go

tbe

Good

"

bis

bis

DEATH

whicli
friendsliip,

think,

to

Renunciation,
of

The

I will

three

And

robes, and

to him.

talked

monk

devout.

Bodisat

in the

himself

dressed

his

parents of his safety. And

Channa

to

gave

outward

garb of

sacred

the

he

mendicant,

he

I shall
his

bear

ciation;
Renun-

and, in his

go

Channa

did

Bodisat

never

heaven

of

second

the

But

spot, in the

day

one

Coins

Ancient

the

sixty,

is far too

much

coincidence

(Chap.
VesaU,

xvi.
and

thirty from
and

for the

between
at

the

pp.

and

commencement)
make

the

from

death, he returned,

the

world, spent

Anupiya,
he

Childers
and

hard

went

on

by
foot

thirty leagues,^
s. v.)
(Dictionary,

eight

miles.

See

my

make
together
Rajagaha, which
think, an undesigned

Kapilavastu
is here, I

There

Southern
makes

torn

now

the river Anoma,

Kapilavastuto
fiftymiles

So

thirtyyojanashere mentioned,

The

16, 17.

direct distance.

Northern

this would

called

grove

said by
league is yojana.,
seven
reallyonly between

Measures,

hundred

four

or

to

and

together with

Kanthaka'

died

Tavatigsa

single;

but

been

sight,he
Kanthaka.

of

name

unable

was

the

Then
joy of salvation.
Rajagaha, a distance of

miles, but

twelve

of

mango

rendered

word

The

had

he

in

reborn

the

"

their

of

out

was

Channa
sorrow

in

days

seven

and

more

bewailing,to the city.


Bodisat, having renounced

and

weeping

going

angel, with

an

sorrow

the

with

master

my

And

heart

as

far the

see

grief.

broken

to be

of the

eight

"

forth

these

"

reverently,and departed.
he
Kanthaka
stood
as
listening to the Bodisat
this time
And
Channa.
with
thinking, From

Now

in

strainer

adopted
enjoined upon

to the

homage

that

bowl,

girdle.

Arahat, and

an

assure

of

alms

the

of
eight requisites

The

and

to

and

wealth

the

these

Taking

name,

and

go

water

Are

signs of

long interval,
is accomplishing the Great
sites
provide him with the requiold in that

grown

friend

my

Eazor, needle,

them

KANTHAKA.

mendicant."

273.

had. not

To-day

''

OF

accounts;
the

total distance

to

for the

Lalita

Vistara

Rajagaha
exactlysixtyyojanas.
Bodisat

go

to

via

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

88

enteringtlie city,begged his food from door to door.


thrown
The
whole
city at the sight of his beauty was
into commotion, like that other Eajagaha by the entrance
of
itself by the entrance
of Dhana-palaka, or like heaven

and

the

Euler

The
"

guards
We

Naga,
The

to the

went

! such

king

town.

Gods.

of the

such

and

the

king, watching
of

full

became

what

Supanna,^ or

he

is."

tell whether

cannot

or

he

begging through
is a god, or a man,

Great

and

wonder,

orders

gave

the

But

the

when

; if

earth

he

Great

the

seating himself,
His

there

the

Pandava

of

out

his

revoltingfood,
food

such

his

and

of life where
with
you

various
saw

begging
And
what

clad

one

thinking,

that

now

is this that

These

are

like the

ate

you
you
the

you

his

meal.

to

eat

if it would

as

the

become

would

that

are

born

himself,
in

left

like

all

doing

But

garb,

"

family

that

time

for

that

And

have
and

were

very

state

rice,
since

ever

you

him,

that

beheld

third- season's

kinds.

finest

mendicant's

have

by

even

never

were

been

live

by
!'

come

purpose,

overcoming

his

food.

superhuman Snakes and Winged


gods or angels,to be able to assume

tlie

the

admonished

perfumed

was

shall

food

my

of

in

'When

he
feelings,
1

curries

And

easilyobtainable, into

were

food

had

And

East, under

made

himself

it is true

drink

your

he

birth
he

eyes,

"

food.

Then, though distressed

for in that

with

food

began

mouth.

saying, Siddhattha,
where

rock, he

turned, and

stomach, however,

come

the

it is."

entered.

had

towards

facing

support him, he

to

he

if

city ;

justas
of

scraps

at which

gate

food

enough

was

the

snake, it will dive

the

eat

collected

Being

cityby
of

it will

man,

perceived

left the

shadow

; if

superhuman

it leaves

or

palace,
guards,

his

to

it is

If

"

his

from

Being

and
see.
saying, Go, my men,
as
being, it will disappear as soon
god, it will depart through the air
into

the

is

being

said, describinghim,

and

king

Creatures, who
the

appearance

were

of

posed,
supmen.

THE

90

And

those

five

NIDANAKATHA.

mendicants,

Kondanya
through villages,market

and

the

rest,

towns,
begging their way
And
there.
for
royal cities,met with the Bodisat
they stayed by him and served him, while he
years
carrying out the Great Struggle,with different kinds
service, such as sweeping out the hermitage, and so
he
Now
Buddha
will become
a
thinking the while,

and
six
was

of
on

"

will become

he

now

!"

Buddha

Bodisat

the

most
thought, I will perform the utterpenance." And he brought himself to live on one
seed of the oil plant,or one
to fast
grain of rice,and even
fused
entirely; but the angels gathered the sap of life and init into him
By this
through the pores of his skin.
skeleton
thin
as
a
as
fasting,however, he became
; the
colour of his body, once
fair as
dark ; and
gold, became
the Thirty-two
signs of a Great Being disappeared. And
one
day, when walking up and down, plunged in intense
meditation, he was
overcome
pain ; and he
by severe

Now

fell.

fainted, and

of

certain

Then

of

he
"

dead

was

Your
*'

"He
down

Arahats

'*

to

in the

died
the

saying,

king
do

not

midst
heard

he
and

Jambu-tree,

compelled to
stood

the
up.

Such

"

is the

the

thought
king, saying,

believe

it.
!

do

had
on

the

homage

Bodisat

And

seen

the

Great

day

angelswent

"

fell

and

credit

to

could

it,
die

never

"

the

when

recovered

Struggle."

son

king

miracles

to the

before

refused

My

not

the

or

Buddhahood,

to

this, he

"

And

dicant
men-

who

those

Buddha,

of the

attainingto Wisdom
ask,
Why did
you

because

was

attain

without
If

And

The

"

say,

said,

Suddhodana

becoming

unable

was

When

told

and

went

to

others

But

(saints)."

die after

he

and

angels began

is dead."

son

Did

the

is dead.''

Gotama
condition

"

Kala

believe

at

the

Devala

it ?

foot

of

had

"

it
the

been

Bodisat.
consciousness
and

told the

again, and
king, Your
"

OFFERING.

SUyATA'S

king, is

son,

And

as

when
he

But

sky.
Wisdom

and

the

of

sound

great bell is heard

has

man

five

the

been

not

Omniscience

attain

able,
; how

Great

fair

became

he

can

do

so

way

to

towns,
upon

it.

colour, like

thought, "This
to
years' penance,

six

by

even

in

in the

appeared

Being

mendicants

attendant

lived

food, and

collected

Then

my

noised

the
not
was
perceived that penance
begging through the villagesand

ordinary material
And
the Thirty-two signs of
again upon him, and his body
unto
gold.
he

I knew

became

Being's six years'penance

the Great

abroad,

"

dead.''

not

was

son

king said,

the

And

well."

91

when

now,

he

goes

begging through the villages,and takes material food?


lost in the Struggle. To think of getting
He
is altogether
who
wants
to
advantage from him is like a man,
spiritual
What
is
his head, thinking of using a dewdrop.
bathe
And
him
?
to be got from
leaving the Great Being,
they took each his robes and begging bowl, and went
entered
and
Isipatana (a suburb
eighteen leagues away,
for its schools of learning).
of Benares, famous
Now
at that
time, at Uruvela, in the village Senani,
"

there

was

the

Senani

girl named
landowner,

in

Sujata, born
who,

when

she

the

had

of

house
grown

up,

into
prayed to a Nigrodha-tree,saying, If I am married
a
family of equal rank, and have a son for my first-born
thousand
child, then I will spend every j^ear a hundred
And
this her prayer
took efiect.
an
on
ofieringto thee."
her ofiering,
the full-moon
And
in order to make
on
day
of the Great
of May, in the
sixth
of the month
year
of her a thousand
in front
she had
driven
Being's penance,
"

cows

she

into
fed

had

five

meadow
hundred

of rich
cows,

grass.
with

With
theirs

their
two

milk

hundred

and so
down
to eight. Thus
on
aspiring after
fifty,
quantity, and sweetness, and strength, she did what is
called, Working the milk in and in."

and

"

THE

92

NIDANAKATHA,

And

of May,
early on tlie full-moon
day in tlie month
the offering,"she rose
thinking, JSTow I will make
up
in the morning
milked
and
those
Of
early
eight cows.
"

their

accord

own

udders, and

of milk

streams

and

new

huge bubbles
together; not
from

rose

At

them.

her

drop

fell

milk

right

lost ; not

cows'

miracle,
the

fire

boiling,

was

and

it

poured

made

rice-milk

the

was

this

and

hands

that
to

or

the

the

placed ready,

were

Seeing

own

When

it.

rising,turned

the

that

with

; and

from

away

vessels

new

hands, took

own

to cook

kept

into

poured

pans

began

the

as

her

Sujata,with
into

soon

as

calves

the

ran

round

least smoke

the

fireplace.
four

the

time

guardian angels

of

the

world

and kept watch


points of the compass,
held
it a
over
by the fireplace.The archangel Brahma
The
of state.
archangel Sakka
put the sticks
canopy
together and lighted the fire. By their divine power the
gods, gathering so much of the Sap of life as would suffice
for the
and
angels of the four
support of all the men
their circumjacent two
thousand
isles
continents, and
as
crushing the honey- comb formed round
easilyas a man
take
the honey
stick would
a
they infused it into the
times
other
the gods infused
milk-rice.
At
the Sap of
from

came

the

four

"

"

life into

each

mouthful

of

rice

he

as

took

it ; but

on

the

the
and
on
day of his Death,
day of his Buddhahood,
they infused it into the very vessel-full of rice itself.
wonders
appeared to her
Sujata, seeing that so many
this one
on
day, said to her slave-girlPunnii, "Friend
! Yery graciousis our
Punna
god to-day ! Never before
Go at once
such
wonder.
I seen
and keep watch
have
a
Yery good, my lady," repliedshe ;
by the holy place."
"

and

ran

Now

and
the

hastened
Bodisat

to

had

the
seen

foot
that

consideringtheir purport he
Yerily this day I shall become
of the
end
night he washed

on
'*

of the

tree.

night

had
a

and

five

drawn
Buddha."

dressed

dreams, and

the

conclusion,
And

at

the

himself, and

GO

till the

waiting

food, lie

his

lighting it
And

TAMA

she

his

with

and

the

saw

sat

to
at

round

go

the

93

foot

begging

of

that

tree,

the Bodisat

saw

tree

sittingat the
region of the East ;
like gold from
the
thought, To-day

all the

lightingup

whole

GOD.

glory.

there

coming

TREE

come

early,and

all up

foot of the tree


and

should

time

went

Punna

THE

AND

in

colour

she
issuingfrom his body. And
our
god, descending from the tree, is seated to receive our
hand."
excited
And
with joy, she
offeringin his own
returned
this to Sujatii. Sujata,
quickly,and announced
her
all the
fitting
beornaments
delighted at the news,
gave
a
daughter, saying,"To-day, from this time forth,
in the place of an
elder daughter !
be thou to me
And
it is
since, on the day of attainingBuddhahood,
hundred
to receive
sand,
thoua
a
golden vessel worth
proper
"

rays

"

conceived

she
into

worth

food

vessel

of

vessel, like
full.

water

Taking
it in

wrapped

it
a

will

put the milk- rice

"

And

sending

for

thousand, she poured

out

put it therein.

to

We

idea,

gold."

hundred

the

All

from
she

lotus

covered
And

cloth.

the

flowed

leaf, and

gold

into

filled the

herself

in

the

vessel

golden dish,

adorning

of

the well-cooked

rice-milk

it with

vessel

and

all her

splendour,she put the vessel on her head, and went with


great dignity to the Nigrodha-tree. Seeing the Bodisat,
filled with
she was
exceeding joy, taking him for the
the spot whence
tree- god; and
advanced, bowing, from
she saw
him.
covered
Taking the vessel from her head, she unit ; and
in a golden
water
fetching sweet-scented
she approached the Bodisat, and stood by.
vase,
The
earthenware
by the archangel
pot given him
which

Ghatikara,
at

stretched

that
out

placed

the

of

Great

the

Pointing

had

never

Not

moment.

his

right hand,

vessel, with

to

Being.
the

the
The

food,

she

till then

left

him,

seeing his pot,


and

took

milk-rice
Great

the
in

Being

said, "0,

my

the

peared
disapBodisat

Sujata

water.

it, in the
looked
lord!

hand

at

her.

accept

THE

94

offered thee, and

I liave

what

NIDANAKATHA.

"

'*

much
her
than

tree

leaf.

dried

of

bank

the

of

their

Bodisats

had

day

his

The"

gone.

of

name

into

descended

Arahats,

by

worn

into

forty-nineballs

of

fruits, he

became

he

after

did

cravings

But

golden vessel, and

the

become

the

let it go down

of the

seven

the
he

he

sat

rice
had

for

forty-

days

he

spent,

foot

of

had

no

teeth

without

the

Tree

other
nor

of

food

feel

the

joy arising from


joy arising from the Noble
the

the

Fruit

thereof.

eating that
"

If

pot go
"

and

The

seeds.

it went,

in

fruit

the

I do

not

of

PalmjTa

understand

the

the

shall
up

milkbe

the

he threw

rice,he took

able
stream

to-day to
; if

not,

it into the water.

eighty cubits up the


of the stream, all the way
as
river in the middle
quickly as
And
fleet horse.
diving into a whirlpool it went to the
a
Snake
King) ; and
palace of Kala Nagaraja (the Black
the three previous
strikingagainst the bowls from which
And

spiteof

he

on

said,

stream

garb

dividing the rice


seeded
singlemany

only food

lived

let this

Buddha,

bank,

Buddhas,

so

his

finished

had

he

when

the

milk-

time

the

on

the

on

sweet

at

joy arising from

the

on

of

wash

He

nature.

Meditation,

intense

Path,

of

nor

in

and

times

seven

all that

bathe

not

the

Buddha,

During

"Wisdom.

size

was

the

days, during

nine

vessel

again

all that

ate

is

bathed.

East;

the
the

that

Now

water.

leaving the

bathing place

thousand

many
to

Palmyra
any

so

face

his

with

down

and

himself

dressed

having

And

river

the

that

the

Supatitthitaferry. Putting

the

seat, and

to the
right hand, took the vessel and went
into which
the
on
Neranjara river, down
thousand
complete Enlightenment so many

the

on

rising from

Bodisat

the

But

he

seemeth

good/' And adding, May there arise to thee as


!
she went
to me
joy as has come
valuing
away,
thousand, at no
more
golden vessel, worth a hundred

to thee

he

withersoever

depart

stream,

(Borassus Flabelliformis)has
allusion

to

one-seeded

always
Palmyra.

three

THE

Buddhas
and

had

eaten, it made

them,

sound

95

click ! "

click!

"

Killa,
stationaryas the lowest of them.
Yesterday
snake-king,hearing the noise, exclaimed,
''

Buddha

But

praise him

to

the

to-day

now

arose,

continued

Bodisat

the

evening,
Wisdom,

decked

the
1

and

The

songs.
with

five

path

other

river.
the

on

hundred

six

or

he

and

grove

of

And

in

stalks, he
the

Tree

yards wide,

Genii, and

Winged

beings, ofiered him


heaven, and sang heavenly

super Imman

flowers

from

thousand

ten

in

roused, towards

Snakes, and

The

day

of the

droop

it is

when

gods.

smelling

sweet-

lion

flowers

stanzas.

of the

bank

the

on

the

along

by

Creatures,

when

like

proceeded,

hundred

spent the heat

"

arisen

has

another

in many

sala-trees in full bloom

of

WISDOM.

remained

the
a

OF

THRONE

world-

systems

filled

became

of

approval.
At that time there came
from
the opposite direction
a
grass-cutter named
Sotthiya,carrying grass ; and recognizing
the Great
of
Being, he gave him eight bundles
The
Bodisat
took
the
ascending the
grass.
grass ; and
South
the Bo-tree, he stood
at the
rising ground round
of it, looking towards
the North.
the
At that moment
perfumes

Southern
the

seemed

hell, and

to reach

The

garlands and

horizon

lowest

seemed

and

below
horizon

Northern

the

above

descend

to

the

shouts

the

of

level

mounting

up

highest heaven.

Bodisat, saying, "This

cannot,

think, be

the

round
turned
it,
right place for attainingBuddhahood,"
to the Western
keeping it on the right hand ; and went
zon
horithe Western
Then
side, and stood facing the East.
seemed
Eastern
and

horizon

to

Yakkhas

Jataka

on
luring men
but
even
shape ;
aborigines are

of their

and

stories
to

hy

beneath
ascend

to

where

him,

Nagas,
the

descend

to

he

their

destruction.

then
called

can

be

Yakkhas

cannibalism.

above

lowest
the

standing,

was

Supannas.

the

The

cannibalism

They

are

Yakkhas

are

hell, and

highest
the

earth

characterized

; the female
invisible till

Yakkhas

they

heaven

seemed

out
throughas

sirens
human

assume

That
recognized by their red eyes.
in the Mahavagsa
results
probably
On the others,see above, p. 88.

the

the
from

Ceylon
a

dition
tra-

THE

96
to

bend

on

its axis

and

up

The

NIDANAKATHA.

like

down

its circumference

when

Bodisat, saying,

This

"

is trodden
I

cannot,

right place for attainingBuddhahood,"


keeping it on the right hand ; and went
side, and
horizon

stood
seemed

horizon

Southern

the

to ascend

above

Bodisat, saying, "This

The

right place
keeping it

Northern

hell, and
heaven.

highest
I

cannot,

it,

Northern

the
lowest

the

the

round

the

to

attaining Buddhahood,"

for

on.

turned

the

lying

think, be

Then

beneath

descend

to

South.

the

facing

wlieel

cart

great

think, be

the

round

turned

it,

to the Western
right hand ; and went
Now
in the
the
East.
side, and stood facing towards
have
all the Buddhas
East
sat crossis the place where
legged ; and that place neither trembles nor shakes.
steadfast
is the
The
Great
Being, perceiving, "This
spot chosen by all the Buddhas, the spot for the throwing
hold
of the grass
of the temple of sin," took
down
by
And
end, and scattered it there.
one
immediately there
fourteen
cubits
seat
a
was
long. For those blades of

the

on

form
in such
would
a
as
arranged themselves
the ablest painter or
carver
beyond the power of even
design.
of
the trunk
Bodisat
The
turning his back upon

be

grass

Bo-tree, and

with

firm

resolve, "My

may

become

dry
will

; but

up
not

that

prince

will not

till I attain
!"

And

That

the

time
wants

to

he

and

the

East, made
and

nerves,

blood

very

in

bones,

body

my

complete insight,this

to

himself

sat

immovable,

down
as

in

seat

cross-

if welded

may

with

told

"Satan's
army

the

free

himself

yet !

"

from

he

stretches

the

hosts

sounding

led forth

twelve

dominion.

my
to

went

And

news.

War-cry,"
of Mara

thinking, "Siddhattha

angel Mara,

get free

let him

angels, and
called

the

the

thunderbolts.

hundred

the

the

arid, and

leave

towards

skin, indeed, and

legged position,firm
At

face

his

to

the

army

the

of

his

drum,

of Satan.

leagues before him,

NIDANAKATHA,

THE

98

give Mm

battle

!"
and

The

face

to face.

Great

attack

us

looked

Being

all the

that

Let

from

three

on

fled, and

had

gods

round

him

hind
be-

sides,

their

place was
Then
beholding the hosts of Mara
empty.
coming thick
him
from
the
North, he thought, "Against me
upon
is putting forth
alone
all its
this mighty host
energy
saw

and

strength.

nor

any

Then

"

And

rushed

could

as

half

have

rooted

sat

have

the

made

of

heap of ruins.
goodness of the Great

But

could

have

one

Then

the

the
and

virtues
of

my

Thus

the

the

down

and

the

whelm
over-

Ten

And

the

fections.^
Per-

away

diately
imme-

four

corners

of

peaks

tains
moun-

leagues high
of the

trees

and

of his

thus

will I drive

the

towns

hem

must

blow.

to

shrubs

shield, I

on

together from
torn

from

virtue, and

meditating
"

fed

forest

"

"

villagesaround
majesty of the
him

robe

with

they

their

were

able
un-

"

overwhelm

I will

him

with

and

water

a
mighty rain to fall. And
slay him," he caused
another
clouds
dreds
gathered, overspreading one
by hunand
by thousands, and poured forth rain; and by

of

violence

he

Then

mighty,
His

the

torrents

the

great flood, overtopping

his robe

retainers

as

through the
Being, they reached

even

saying,

the

approached
on

me

nal
cardi-

ten

shake.

to

so

and

gone,

power

to

brother,

nor

those

leagues, three

league, two
up

But

me.

whirlwind

winds

earth

he

mother,

nor

angel,saying,

caused

such

and

help

sword

the
so

the

Siddhattha,"

could

with

host

Mara

of the

to

long been
So, making the

this
it !

is here,

have

store.

strike

relative

other

virtues
my

father

No

Great

even

caused

mountain

of
acquisition

above, pp.

64-58.

the

Being.
space
storm

peaks
the

Ten

where

the

But

it
a

of rocks
came

earth

of

trees

not

was

the
able

dew-drop might
to fall.

through

Perfections,or

saturated

was

Cardinal

forest,
to

wet

fall.

And

the

mighty,
air, spitting

Virtues,is

described

forth

fire

THE

ATTACK

and

smoke.

OF

But
into

Being, they changed


Then
came

he

"

they

reached

the

EVIL

ONE.

99

reached

they

as

of

bouquets

the

Great

flowers.

heavenly

And
they
deadly weapons.
two-edged swords, and spears, and
flaming through the sky. But as
flowers from
Being, they became
of

storm

one-edged, and
smoking and

"

arrows

raised

THE

Great

heaven.
Then

raised

he

though they
heavenly
Then

sky

But
red

as

feet of the

at the

scattered

charcoal.

the

through

came

flowers,were

of

storm

the
red

as

embers,

Kigsuka

Buddha

future

as

flowers.

he

raised

through the
they fell at

of ashes

storm

exceeding hot,

air

feet of

the

and

the

in colour

future

the

; and

ashes

came

like fire ; but

Buddha

the

as

of

dust

sandal-wood.
Then

raised

he

fine, came

feet of
Then

the

smoking

and

raised

he

sand, exceeding

flaming through the air ; but


future
Buddha
as
heavenly flowers.
of

storm

And

mud.

the

mud

away

it

Buddha,

brightnessof

the

darkness

his

on

slay,or

mounted

the

drive

future

Siddhattha, from
It is meant

for

that
me

thick

but

when

and

And

darkness.
it reached

darkness

the

does

before

the

the

wind,

and

! ''

It

seated

and
does

the

cried
not

"

on

coal,
char-

and

mud,

So

stand

prince !

girded,and
seat

the

Why

"

this

Buddha,

and

Buddha.

future

said,

"

weapons,

sand, and

the

away

nine

these
the

the

away

Mountainthe

by

host, and

Seize, or

approached

unable

drive

to

on

the

sun.

ashes, and

the
"

fourfold

rocks, and

the

rain, and

brought

disappeared as

Mara

was

and

he

became

darkness

Thus

"

it

came

flaming through the air ; but it fell at


Buddha
the future
as
heavenly perfume.
saying, By this I will terrifySiddhattha,

him

called

the

; and

"

future

the

of sand

and

smoking

drive

storm

feet of the

fell at the
Then

you

the
he

still ?

And

himself

his

back, he

out,

''

belong

Get

up,

to thee

THE

100

The
"

Great

Mara

NIDANAKATHA.

! it is not

have

been

by you
perfected, nor

that

It is not

you

Yirtues.

higher

in the

diligentlysought
the

world, and

not

belong
Then

after

of

his

But

wheel.

remained

to

as

lesser

said,

Yirtues

Yirtues,

have

the

nor

sacrificed

and

it

that

me

unable

self
your-

the

him,

over

This

does

seat

the

Great
which

garland

of

Salvation

endure

to

of

barb

have

belongs."

the

at

it became

canopy

Cardinal

of Wisdom.

the

and

words,

Self-renunciation, who

cast

anger,

Sceptre-javelin of his,
as

of

enraged Mara,

the

Ten

Knowledge,

thee, it is

to

the

who

attainment

the

his

the

great Acts

five

to

listened

Being

whose

mence
vehethat

Being
in

was

of

shape

flowers, and

mind

bent

was

good.

upon
Now

other

at

Sceptre-javelin,it
if it

the

were

it thus

shouted,
and

they

too

fell

whose

into

hurled

mind

shall
him

bambu.

rise

huge

the

ground

was

bent

on

of

from

of

masses

good

upon

throws

at

the

of Miira

flee ! **

and
But

rock.

as

however,

host

seat

the

his

solid rock

"When,

his

bouquets

as

One

pillarof

garland-canopy,all

at

"Wicked

asunder

shoot

he

Now

"

cleaves

tender

turned

that

times, when

these

feet of

Him

edge of the rocks that


in amazeencircle
the world ; and
ment,
stretching forwards
they looked on, saying, Lost ! lost is Siddhattha
beautiful ! What
he
the
can
Prince, the glorious and
And

stood

angels

the

on

the

"

do

to

Then
throne

himself

save

the Great
on

which

!"

Being exclaimed,
sit the

"

Buddhas-to-be

have

reached

when

the

they

they shall
perfectin all goodness, on that day when
Enlightenment."
And
he said to Mara, standing there before him,
that thou hast given alms ?
who
is witness
"

are

reach

Mai

a,

"

And

Mara

followers, and
And

that

forth

stretched

said,
moment

"

So

his hand
are

many

there

arose

my
a

to

the

hosts

of his

witnesses."

shout

as

the

sound

of

THE

earthquake from

an

his witness

am

Then

the

OF

POWER

! I

the

CHARITY.

of the Evil

hosts

addressed

Tempter

One, saying, I
"

!"

his witness

am

lOi

the

Great

Being, and said,


! who
Siddhattha
is witness
that thou hast given alms?''
And
the Great
hast
living
Being answered, "Thou
in this
witnesses that thou hast given alms : and I have
place no living witness at all. But not counting the
alms
I have
given in other births, let this great and
solid earth, unconscious
though it be, be witness of the
"

hundredfold

seven

Wessantara
And
he

or

the

witness

in my

thee

of

hosts of the Evil

Then

the

he realized

fell down
army

born

was

as

birth

that !

One

as

uttered
"

Wessantara
a

the

his

said, "Are

"

voice, saying, "I


shout

robe,

hundredfold

seven

overwhelming
with

as

the

of

beneath

as

of

it

were

am

the

hundreds

of

of foes.

thousands

as

earth, and

the

witness

great Earth

to

when

from

right hand

towards

not

you

great giftI gave


And

his

it forth

are

I gave

"

withdrawing

stretched

you,

great alms

on

with mountains,"
mighty elephant Girded
what
the generosityof Wessantara
had been,
his knees
before the Great
Being. And the
"

of Mara

fled this way

and

that

so

way,

that

not

even

together: throwing off their clothes and


their turbans, they fled,each one
straighton before him.
But
the heavenly hosts, when
they saw that the army
of Mara
had fled, cried out,
The
!
Tempter is overcome
the
let us
has
Siddhattha
Prince
Come,
prevailed!
honour
the Victor
!
the Winged
the Nagas, and
And
the
Creatures, and
Angels, and the Archangels, each
went
Being at
urging his comrades
on,
up to the Great
the Bo-tree's
foot, and as they came,
two

left

were

"

"

274.

At

the Bo-tree's

foot the

Naga

bands

Shouted, for joy that the Sage had


"

The

And

Blessed
the

Buddha

Tempter

"

^he hath

is overthrown

won

prevailed!
!"

ssisc

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

102

Winged Ones
the Sage had won
;
!
he hath prevailed

At the Bo-tree's foot the

275.

Shouted, for joy that


"

The

And

the

Buddha

Tempter

"

is overthrown

Angel hosts
the Sage had won
;
!
^he hath prevailed

Shouted, for joy that


"

The

And

Blessed
the

Buddha

Tempter

"

is overthrown

! ''

the Bo-tree's foot the Brahma

At

277.

! ''

the Bo-tree*s foot the

At

276.

Blessed

Gods

Shouted, for joy that the Sage had


"

The

And
The

Blessed

Buddha

"

he hath

Tempter is overthrown

the

won

!
prevailed
!"

gods,too, in the ten thousand world- systems,


garlandsand perfumes and uttered his praises

other

offered
aloud.
It

while

was

the Great

the

Being

sun

thus

still above

was

put

to

flightthe

the
army

horizon,that
of the Evil

Then, whilst the Bo-tree paidhim homage,as it were,


his robe,
over
by its shoots like sprigsof red coral falling
One.

he

acquiredin

the firstwatch

of the

Past, in the middle watch


Present, and in the third watch
of the

of Causation

Chain
Now

on

his thus

tracingbackwards
the

twelvefold

which

leads to

nightthe Knowledge
the Knowledge of the
the Knowledge of the
the Originof Evil.^

revolvingthis
and

Chain

way and that way, and


forwards,and thoroughly
realizing
of

Causation, the

ten

thousand

to their ocean
quaked twelve times even
And
boundaries.
again,when the Great Being,making
the ten thousand world-systems
to shout for joy,attained
of day to complete Enlightenment,
the whole
at break
ten thousand world- systems became
as
on
a festive
glorious
of the flagsand banners
raised
day. The streamers
the edge of the rockyboundaryto the East of the world
on

world- systems

Dibba-cakkbu,and Paticca-samuppuda.
Pubbe-nivasa-fiana,

HEAVEN

readied
and

AND

the

to

South, reached
in

like

manner

surface

of

the

earth

and

those

the

earth.

forth

the

from

above

another,

the

of loosened

sky

the

great Voids

the

rays

It

their

bonds

the

Great

deaf

could

blind

The

course.

from

their

use

fell

birth

and

from
heard

feet;

and

away.^

sung

by

Long

have

by

Through
Seeking
"Whence

all the Buddhas.

hard

pain
the

Chain

the

many

and

long

of Life,

births

long, in vain,
this

comes

And

I wandered

thus

his Pain

Compare

of

waters

perse,
dis-

to

and

Bound

able

been

ness
dark-

profoundest depths ;

loosed, and

were

mass

tastefully
arranged :

The

the

birth

in

wonders

When

its

sand
thou-

ten

like

seemed

never

their

sight;

from

The

them, the hells whose

to

one

surpassing glory and honour, and with


niscience,
happening around, that he attained Omin the Hymn
of
vent
to his emotion
gave

thus

Triumph,
278.

lame

the

wreaths

sprang,

rocks.

nosegay

light.
in

of trees, and

sevens

revolved

had

down

stayed

were

suns

sweet,

and

many

seven

became

was

South, and

; lotus

bloom

by

very

between

filled with

received

chains

like

or

became

rivers

sound;

West

flags and banners


the highest heaven,

branches

and
with

the

they

as

wreaths,

the

birth

of
to

lilies

and

from

even

of

trunks

covered

world-systems

Ocean

reached

the

on

East, and

to the

those

; the

were

creepers,

hung

and

those

so

103

flagsand banners in heaven


swept down
upon
universe
the
trees
flowering
Throughout
put
loaded
blossoms, and fruit-bearingtrees were

clusters of fruit

even

GLAD.

of

their

with

ARE

and

while

the

on

West

very

North, and

North

EARTH

Life

in

man,

his

Consciousness,

"

to bear

is

Birth,

death

but

lead

Thirty-two Good

Omens

to Birth

at the

Buddha's

again.
Birth, ahove, p.

64.

THE

Found
0

Cause

No

! It
of

longer

shalt

!
!

all

are

ridge-pole

Into

Nirvana

of

me

beams.

thy

!
mind

my

for

house

shattered

now

end

make

thou

Thy

is found

Individuality

Broken

The

NIDANAKATHA.

has

has

cravings

past

reached

been

at

last ! ^

train

of thought is explained at length in my


"Buddhism,"
pp.
Unconscious
out
has no
The
to this.
pain: withShortly, it amounts
What
be
Consciousness,
gives men
no
pain.
Individuality, there would
Consciousness
sinful
condition
of heart.
It is due
?
to a grasping, craving,
The

100-112.

The

absence

of

these

endures

longer

be

house

of

is

for

time

The

passed
he
so

has

many

away.
solved

the

has

ages

strength
is

Bodisat

The

but

found

now

the

of

then

give
of

peace

to

no

the

Nirvana
reached

has

he

jewel

and

last ;

at

the

in

it will
care,

Buddha:

mystery;

great

been

of

ridge-pole

sin, the

of

sciousness
Con-

Nirvana,

body dies), and

the

(until

beams

reached

Having

Nirvana.

individuality its seeming

Nirvana:

through

but

renewed.

have

they

is

cravings

salvation

sought

long, long struggle

the

over.

The

Buddhism,"

be

found:

these

is

following

of

p.

but

where

180,

difficult

and

beautiful

Through
I have

house-builder

Again

1 have

central

Thy
To

broken

I have

births

canst

thy

rafters.
is

support
mind

my
arrived
at

of divine

storm

shutters

The

posts

The

roof

knowledge

of Delusion

all

of

is shattered

Craving

has

will

meaning

of

resembling house,

(thee).
build

for

me.

destroyed.

has

the

has

gone.
extinction

come

blown

are

of Double-mindedness

Blindness

inner

found),

not

also in
figure of the house is found
Vistara"
Gya Tcher
(p. 107 of Foucaux's
(Trumpp, pp. 215, 216, 471). The last

The

Manual

The

express

desire

seen

thou

Nirvana

the

"

Turnour

births

! I have

house

and

"

of the

repeated

to

me

having

not

architect

the
are

different

(to me

run

Painful
0

verses

many

Seeking

to

seem

in his

given

by Gogerly

versions

similar

they scarcely

translation

literal

Spence Hardy's

are

of evil-desire.

(vi. 79-81) ;
Pa) ; and in

Manu
Rol

is

passage

as

follows

in

the

the
:

Adi

"

Lalita
Granth

"

!
away
broken

there

are

"

down

; the

no

longer

ridge-pole of spiritual

fallen

on

the

ground

the

vessel

of

Folly

has

burst

THE

io6

throne, thinking,
omniscience."

deeds

And

that

It

"

And

at
steadfastly

the

NIDANAKATHA.

the

was

that

on

he

thus

spent

spot where

of virtue

he

fulfilled

spot became

throne

such

the

as

result

the

gained

through

known

days gazing

seven

had

I attained

that

countless
of

Dagaba

of

years.

the

fast
Stead-

Gaze.
Then
he

he

had

created

stood

walking
stretched
known

as

But

and

East

the

Dagaba

the

North-west
the

week

of the

the

the

or

and

should

Now

say
built

spot became

Cloister.

angels

created

of gems

; and

that

of the

House

of

to

he

the

spent

here

of

jewels,
thought out :

were

explanations of

two

Gems

kinds

seven

books

seven

the

passage,

correct.)

as

close

weeks

the

to

Bo-tree, he

to the

week,

meditating

that

at

long

fault

which

Shepherd's Nigrodha-tree :
the Truth, and
enjoying the

on

of Nirvana.^

sweetness

So

house

spent four

fifth

there

sat

the

days

seven

cloister

that

Jewelled

accepted

thus

went, in the

"

Bo-tree

mansion

be

Having
and

the

week

the
place where
they give these

as

both

of

And

spot where

spent

jewelled

West.

to

Abhidhammikas

either

means

that

he

the

and thinking out the


cross-legged,
Pitaka
both
book
and
generally
by book
the origin of all things as therein
explained.

respect of

(But

and

there

seated

Abhidhamma
in

in

fourth

throne

walk, and

down

from

for

the

cloistered

up

between

in

the

time

time

I followed

have

him, and

angel Mara

find

no

this

sin in him

thought to himself,
man
seeking some

; and

indeed, he

now,

with
he sat
sorrow
overcome
power." And
the highway, and as he thought of the following
down
on
sixteen
sixteen
the
lines on
ground.
things he drew
Thinking, I did not attain,as he did, to the perfectionof

is

beyond

my

**

upon
'

eense

The
the

monks
seven

Vivnitti.

of

duty it

whose
hooks

in the
the

clause

Perhaps
gained, and

salvation

to Abhidharma

is to

learn

Ahhidhamma

the

hy heart, repeat, and


Pitaka.

should
Truth

be

See

rendered

p. 78.
Realizing the

(Dhamma) may
Scriptures.

of the rest of the

commentate

above,
be

used

in

sweet

distinction
contra-

therefore

Charity ;
line.

one

the

to

Then

and

of

Then

thinking,

the conditions

"

did

did,

he

as

Self-sacrifice,and

and

not

precedent
of

like

become

not

attain,

not

and

him," he

like

knowledge
I have

him/* he drew

LongsufFering, and Truth,


Kindness, and Equanimity ; ^ therefore

become

not

did

Goodness,

Exertion,

Eesolution, and

I have

"

107

like

become

not

thinking,

Perfections

Wisdom,
and

I have

EVIL.

OF

DAUGHTERS

THE

nine

drew

attain

Perfections,

Ten

the

acquisitionof
objectsof sense, and
the

to

the

him,'' he

the

ordinary
extra-

therefore
line.

eleventh

the

drew

lines.

more

the

thinking, I did not attain to the Ten Perfections,


ordinary
conditions
precedent to the acquisitionof the extraof
and
dispositions,
knowledge of inclinations
of compassion, of the double
attainment
miracle, of

the

removal

Then
the

"

I have

hindrances, and

of

like

become

not

of

omniscience
the

him," he drew

therefore

five other

lines.

highway, drawing sixteen lines for


these sixteen thoughts.
At that time
Craving, Discontent, and Lust,^ the three
daughters of Mara, could not find their father, and were
And
be.
he
could
looking for him, wondering where
the ground,
when
him, sad at heart, writing on
they saw
they went up to him, and asked, Why, dear, are you sad
And

he

so

sat

the

on

"

sorrowful

and

he

And

answered,

is

escaping

in

vain,

am

sad

and

Be

that

"

will
him

"

to

from

find

my

1
2

On

it

as

fault in him.

watched, but
it is that

Therefore

may," repliedthey,
to

Ten

our

influence, and

"

think

not

back

come

We

so.

bringing

us."

said

your

these

Tanhu,

have

Long

sorrowful."

"Beloved,"
under

Beloved, this illustrious mendicant


power.

some

subjecthim
captivewith

him

"

he, "you

influence

Perfections,see

AratT, and

Kaga.

cannot

he

by

stands

any
flrm

means

in

above, pp. 15-18, and pp.

bring
wavering."
faith, un-

54-58.

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

io8

But

"

we

we

will

bring

Do

not

you

So

women,""

are

him

be

bound

man,

But

words,

thee

raised

Blessed

the

neither

his

paid

of

Various

"

with

in various
of

aged

with

selves
them-

fall

will

love

in

with

some

of them

free

made

Some

We

women.

sat

mature

him

tempt

assumed

the

ance
appear-

had
who
virgins, women
child, or only once,
or
only twice, middleolder women,
six times
and
they went
up
his
humble
One, and professed themselves
One
the Blessed
to that even
paid no
; and

hundred

women,

the

older

He

them.

at

women,

young

to their

attention

any

tastes.

So each

forms."

had

never

to

with

with

some

men's

are

virgins,some

women,

passion.

said, "0,

and

plunged in the joy of Nirvana, with a mind


of sin.
by the complete extinction
Then
the
considered
daughters of Mara
:

moment

"

look

to

eyes

One,

wait

humbly

we

One

Blessed

nor

this

grieved."

so

upon

the

"

reply ;
allurements

the

by

they approached

holy

the

was

women,

"

"

Blessed

handmaidens

attention, since he

free

made

was

by

the

complete

tion
extinc-

of sin.

Now,
them

teachers

some

approaching
saying,

are,

be

broken

with

form

in the
Let

teeth

and

thus

Such

who

men

Blessed

the

put away

the

them

on

the

in the

No

one

Whose
lost.

said,

can

paths

*'

done

put

such

they
not

commands.

ye
in

Why

the

from

strive

presence

I have

away

verses

ScriptureVerses

e'er disturb

inward

not

manded,
com-

should

This

of sin ; but

two

saw

he
elderlywomen,
remain
just as

Depart

be

One

Blessed

the

heads."

issues

in those

admonished

280.

bald

ill-will,have

he

Buddha

women

things might

linger in

lust, have

One

when
of

these

believed, for the Master


But

ye

"

that

say

put away

folly." And
the Chapter

his self-control

victories,once

of

gained, are

never

THE

BLISS

HOLINESS.

OF

mind

whose

Sinless One, tlie Wise,

That

109

embraces

all-

How

him
281.

what

by

"

"

can

"

allure

you

to his fall ?

has

He

who

No

craving wants

desire ;

ensnaring,venomous

no

Sinless

The

sin

what

guile

to lead

him

One, the Wise,

aught astray
mind

whose

embraces

allHow

thus

these

One

Blessed

the

by

unholy

any

the

But

spot,

on

shielding him

and
And

the

he

when

truth

by

their

to

had

said
led

be

to

means

any

father,

fessing
con-

that
away

One, when

to

had

spent

snake-king, when

the

folds

seven

of

There

Mucalinda-tree.

the

with

he

his

hood,

week
he
storm
so

at that

spent

arose,

that

the

enjoyed the bliss of salvation as if he had


from
all disturbance.
restingin a pleasant chamber, remote
to a
Thence
he went
Rajayatana-tree,
away
also sat down
there
enjoying the bliss of salvation.
he expeweeks
seven
so
passed away, during which
rienced
of
Meditation,
no
bodily wants, but fed on the joy
joy of the Paths, and the joy of the Fruit thereof
One

Blessed
been

allure

you

desire.

Mucalinda,

week,

returned

not

was

can

"

spoken

Blessed

went

"

women

had

he

that

sin

what

guile

to his fall ?

him

And

what

by

"

(thatis,of Nirviina).^
Now,

as

he

sat

there

on

the

last

day

of the

seven

weeks

day he felt a desire to bathe his face.


And
Sakka, the king of the gods,brought a fruit of the
And
Sakka, too,
Myrobolan-tree,and gave him to eat.
of
the
snakethorns
of the
provided a tooth-cleanser
the

"

forty-ninth

creeper,

and

Dhammapada,

water

verses

"

to

179,

bathe

180.

his

face.

gee

"'

And

Buddhism,"

the

pp.

Master

108-110.

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

no

used

the

down

there

At

that

time

of the

foot

the

at

were

five

hundred

Orissa

And

carts.

and

honey cake,

went

One

Blessed

And

Master.

the

to

Bhalluka

have

took

Master, and

the

to

offer

to

said, "0,

and

us,

upon

mercy

of

cake, and

rice

with

relation

hearts

their

by
^

India

blood

moved

they

up

Central

to

angel,

an

theirs, stopped their carts, and


food

him

sat

tree.

merchants, Tapassu and

two

travellingfrom

name,

face, and

his

bathed

tootli- cleanser,and

this

accept

food.^'

Now,

the

day

bowl

had

on

milk, his

shall

knew

his

I take

had

it ?

"

Then

One

from

kindness
them

the

to

above

one

become

four

the

closed

size,becoming visible only


Blessed

The

bowl, and
The

they asked
something to which
right hand he tore

when

and

And

Ukkala

Land,
2

See

above,

We

have
and

"

modern

the

add

Buddhism,"

p.
here

them

Let

"

of medium

one

of it.

mouth

the
that

new-created

"

we

from

his

they

built

Patna

to

The

reverence," with

pay

may

Majjhima-desa.

to

from

of

out

thanks.

gave

relics within

placed the

into

four

refuge in the Buddha, the Truth,


and
became
professed disciples. Then,
us
him, saying, Lord, bestow
upon

Order,

Hair-relics.

into

up

the

took

brothers

two

the

and

it,and

One,

saying,

food

of

corners

four, and, placing

lines round

as

the

received

One
ate

the

another, commanded,
And

one."

Blessed

jet ; and the


angels,received

four

four

Angels

sapphire. And
they brought

of

of

bowls, made

other

One

in their hands.

Guardian

the

Then

them.

accepted

four

the

thought, and, coming


made
heaven, they brought bowls
Blessed

food

rice-

sweet

Blessed

the

so

receive

never

the

received

disappeared;^

Buddhas

thought, "The
How

he

when

head, and
a

to

gave

Diigaba in

their

his

own

them, the

city,

own

it.^

latter included

Allahabad.

See

all the

above,

Buddhist

p. 61,

Holy

note.

93.

interestinginstance of
glory local relics,of which
an

to

p. 195.

The

ancient

form

the

growth

other

of this

of

legend

instances

will

legend,as

found

to

be

ticate
authenfound

in

here, must

BUDDHA

THE

the

returned

its foot.
the

there

And

no

of

depth
in

arose

Buddhas

his

he

as

mind

Then

altogrether lost !

angels

of

in

went

!"

Lord

at
to

"

Proclaim

other

words

preaching

the

world

said,
!

Truth

be

arch-

of

and

in

and

him

from

begged

purport

the

will

and

thousands

proclaim the

thou

rulers

Master,

the

world

! the
the

of

tens

to

up

Blessed

him

with

brouo'ht

Lord, mayst

Truth,

like

"

Alas

is lost !

heavens

and

systems,
Blessed

the

gained, than

ing,
heavens, exclaim-

Brahma

of the

world

! the

Alas

"

had

to others.

great Ruler

the

kind

that

not

Truth

explain that

of

aware

ing
there, consider-

(feltby each of
his having arrived
of abilitynecessary

doubt

became

he

which

Truth

the

seated

he

was

sooner

Truth) that he had

the

PerfectlyEnliglitenedOne rose up thence, and


to the
Shepherd's Nigrodha-tree, and sat down

But

at

HESITATES.

of

of

the

Truth.

to

of

Master

the

had

Alara

that

But,

it.

comprehend

arisen

Ceylonese

claim

now

sanctuary of

Dagaba

in

was

Ceylon

in

referred

to in the

chap,
found
version

Beal,

of

490

the

in
in
Rom.

an

to

Orissa.

Orissa, and
in the

a.d.,

M.

Maha
V.

the

Asiatic

Leg.)

the

J.

the

Both

hair-relics

related

A.

E.

inscription

on

S.
the

43-56

were

Kesa

in the

casting

he

mined,
deter-

the

Burmese

and

The

latter

say that
thence
to

brought
Vagsa,

Dhatu

and

edition of the 39th


of my
The
legend in the text is

1875.)
great bell

Researches,vol. xvi. ;

p. 240.

and

how

former

(See verses

Vagsa.

in

ancient

that

manner

very

chants
mersay that the two
referred
to is the celebrated

The

possess
that the

on

inaugurate the King-

Dagaba above
Shooay Dagob (Bigandet,p. 101, 2nd ed.).
and

that

And

Benares.

still in

were

them.

to

Burmese,

were

relics

the

when

in

fixed

mendicants,

time

he

might be, he perceived

then

I will go

There

"

for

him

they

five

the

perceived

died

had

too

of

Deer-forest

at the

were

saying,
have

where

in his mind

they

he

served

had

faithfullythey

So

days.

seven

perceived that
Then
he thought

evening.
about

dead

been

refiection,he

further

on

but

Uddaka,

the

And

granted his request.

considering
first reveal the Truth, thought at first
he should
whom
would
who
teacher, as one
Alara, his former
quickly

Then

comp.

at

(Hough's

Rangoon

Hardy,

M.

B.

p.

183

NIDANAKATHA,

THE

112

of

dom

Eighteousness."
his

begging
tree, with

the

And
the

had

night

bowl;

and

when

he

the

going

of

May.

to him

of

of the

day
took

his

mendicant

he

had

arrived

he

day

full-

wh6n

month,
robe

his

and
half

way,

And

Buddha

the

at

Bo-

the

Upaka.

become

days,

the

on

eighteen leagues, just

how

of that

few

Benares

to

he

away,

Hindu

the

delayed

neighbourhood

fourteenth

gone

met

evening

of

passed

had

announced

the

month
of the

dawn

at

in

intention

of the

day

moon

daily food

he

But

he

; and

hermitage

on
near

Benares.^
five

The
Buddha

of the

use

said

coming,

of form,

He
of

necessaries
of

acuteness

another,

to

one

Gotama.

mendicant

the

seeing already

mendicants,

back

beauty

the

comes

to

recovered

has

and

sense,

afar

Friend, here

turned

has

life,and

"

from

free

roundness

of

complexion.

he is, after
as
ought to pay him no reverence
; but
of a seat.
So
all,of a good family,he deserves the honour
will simply prepare
seat for him."
a
we
The Blessed
One, castingabout in his mind
(by the power
that he had of knowing what
was
going on in the thoughts
their
of all beings) as
to what
thinking, knew
they were
thoughts. Then, concentrating that feelingof his love which
and
able to pervade generally all beings in earth
was
And
them.
the
it speciallytowards
heaven, he directed
of his love diffused itself through their hearts ; and
sense
unable
to
and nearer,
he came
nearer
as
any longer to adhere
We

their
before

resolve, they
and

Buddha,

either

by

announced

respect. But,

to

address
^

as

or

his

them
not

"

seats, and

with

that

bowed
of

mark
he

down

had

ence
rever-

become

him, in everything they said,


Then

Buddhahood,

the

every

knowing

Brother."

Buddha

the hermitage in
Isipatana,

p. 91.

not

addressed

they
name,

him

welcomed

him, and

their

from

rose

by

Blessed

or

as

close to Benares.

One

cants,
mendi-

saying, "0

his name,

Deer-forest

the

brother.'
See

above,

^-^^

114

and

the

Feast

sixty in
0

with

NIDANAKATHA.

which

different

it closes

were

directions,with

sent

over,

the

words,

forth,

Go

"

the

out

himself
teaching." And
at the Kappasiya forest,
going towards TJruvela, overcame
half
thither, the thirty young
Bhadda-vaggiyan
way

mendicants,

nobles.
and

the

them

these

There

went

he

also forth

Uruvela

Kassapa

and
he

formula,

formula,

into

the

the

called

grove

the

he

"

Follow

three

received
!

me

"

about,

"

them
!"

me

Palm-

into

five

thousand

one

the

Order

established

they

with

them

in

seated

were

to he drawn

on

Firey

from

Arahats, he

hard

grove,

had

and

thousand

thousand

"

who

rest,

received

these

by

and

First,

ascetics,brothers,

''

attended

the

regionsround

Hindu

Arahatship by his discourse, when


the Gayii-slsa
hill, On the Lessons
And

the

three

Follow

"

Path

by performing

overcame,

And

entered

Uruvela.

to

on

miracles, the

the

Third

with

hundred

disciples.

advanced

the

Order

the

sending them
himself

least

the

advanced

most

all into

And
he

Of

and

preaching

went

ihe

to

with

by Rajagaha,

the

to Bimblobjectof redeeming the promise he had made


the king.^
sara
from
When
the king heard
the keeper of the grove
the
is come," he went
to the
Master,
saying, The Master
"

attended

by

feet of

at the

their

on

and

gave

gold.
seats

on

How

the

the

forth

halo

one

the
is

he

Kassapa

those

"

sacred

fell down

feet, which

bore

mystic figure of the sacred wheel,


of light like a
of cloth of
canopy
his retinue
respectfullytook their

and

side.

questionoccurred

to

those

it,then ? has the Great

in

student

nobles, and

priestsand

Buddha,

surface

Then

Now
"

innumerable

religionunder

under

One, becoming
addressed

the

Great

the

Elder
1

See

above

thus

in the

entered

Kassapa,

Mendicant

of their

aware

Mendicant

Uruvela

"

And

doubting
verse

p. 89.

nobles,

priestsand

"

or

as

Uruvela

the

within

Blessed
selves,
them-

THE

282.

TRIAL

"WTiat hast
That

thou

thou

"5

dweller

abandoned

in

Uruvela,

Fire

the

God, counting

I ask

thee, Kassapa, the meaning of this thing :

How

is it thou

the

hast

given

Elder, perceivingwhat

repliedin

the

verse

Some

283.

KASSAPA.

seen,

hast

thyselfpoor

And

OF

But

the

sacrifice

Blessed

One

of

fire ?

intended,

"

rely on

men

Others

the

up

sensual

on

this, I

Therefore

see,

sights,and
love, and

is dross

find

some

in

taste,

sacrifice

on

long

so

charm

no

sounds, and

sin remains.

as

ofieringsgreat

or

small.
And

(in order

make

known

his

he bowed
discipleship)
Buddha's
The
his head
Blessed
to the
feet, saying,
I am
the
Lord
is my
master, and
disciple!" And
he
into
the air up
times
to the
rose
seven
height of
to the
so
height of seven
two, three, and
on,
one,
up
palm-trees; and descending again, he saluted the Buddha,
took
and
aside.
seat
a
respectfully
Seeing that wonder,
multitude
the
praised the Master, saying, Ah ! how
of
the Buddhas
!
Even
so
mighty
great is the power
infidel as this has thought him
an
worthy ! Even Uruvela
Kassapa has broken through the net of delusion, and has
of the Buddhas
!
yieldedto the successor
Blessed
One
But
the
Not
I
said,
now
only have
to

"

"

"

"

Uruvela

overcome

the

Maha

Four

and

Ndrada

the

retinue, attained

the

rest

he

Kassapa

And

Truths.

all his

And

me."

conquered by

in

Kassapa;

became

ages,
in

uttered

that

too, he

was

connexion

Jataka, and

king
to

former

the

of

proclaimed the
Magadha, with nearly
of

Fruit

the

First

Path,

lay disciples(without entering the

Paths).!
^

to

TJpasakas ;

keep

the

Five

that

is,those

Commandments

who

have

taken

the

(" Buddhism,"

Three
pp.

Refuges and
139, 160).

the

vow

THE

ii6

And
the
he

the

invited

from

in

Blessed

Rajagaha

The

of the Buddhas.
them.
basket

packed quite
of

exceeding beauty
not

contain

the

Place

lesser

their
of

for
the

beautiful

that

day they

him

that

young

and
the

and

Brahman,

made

for

way

Truth, and
the

284.

the

the

of

(thatis,

greater and

not

was

the

he

fold
ten-

hot,

to

deprived

of

tion,
considera-

on

took

in front

the

felt

be

in

or

gazing

with

Sakka

room

road,

multitude

And,

; and

could

gloriousbeauty

endowed

be.

not

And

in these

with

as

he

verses

passionsare

Glorious

Now

on

might

descended

Order.

Master

And

the

of the

form

of

Buddha,

him, singing the praises of the Buddha,

the

whose

He

the

out

get

One

reason

like

it called

There

throne

should

understood

and

Being

the

contain

not

Wisdom,

spots all the

it with

Blessed

the

which

nourishment,
he

say

successor

became

is
was

sung.

of the

of Wisdom.

Reeds

power

such

to

the

see

long,could

Yannabhu

to be

came

multitude, beholding the

Buddha,

was

form

power

warn

at

Rajagaha,
already seen
out
early

had

to

of

whose

fated

crowded

so

grove,

So

The

singlemendicant

at the

full.

of

characteristics

even

Grove

Him

rising

in

not,

of Reeds

delight.

are

had

the

Praise), for

of his person,

who

road, six miles


of

whole

The

dwelt

those

who

Grove

the

to

and

day,

next

who

both

those

One, and

the

respectfulsalutation.

men

number,

of

him

told

then, confessinghis faith,

for

One

all the

day

next

from

Blessed

the

eighteen kotk
the

had; and

had

he

tlie Master

sittingnear

side, departed with

his

The

still

king

five wishes

NIDANAKATHA.

walked

subdued

all subdued

in heart

has

who

and

once

freed

to

come

the "Blessed

"

those

front, magnifying

SingI gold,
him

in

One

were

from

gaha
Raja-

mere

sin.

cetics,
as-

SINGS

SAKKA

He

285.

And

"

with

him

He

who

has

sin and

One

Blessed
once

Rajagaha

to

come

who

those

crossed

\ \

the

Singi gold,

as

freed from

Now
286.

sin has

wlio is free from


Glorious

PRAISES.

;
cetics,
as-

mere

were

saved.

flood

the

has

Raja-

to

come

gaha
Glorious

And

287.

"

with

But

now

He

whose

him

who

those

dwelling

;
cetics,
as-

mere

sin.

from

freed

and

wisdom

whose

and

One

were

once

flood

o'er the

crossed

Blessed

the

Singi gold,

as

fold
ten-

are

He

has

who

and

seen

gained

precious

ten

things ; ^
Attended

The
The

Blessed

have

One,

has

"

the

young

the

verse,

288.

is

who

Buddha,

The

Arahat,
His

Then
the

hearing

The

the
the

servant

am

Archangel,

and

Tinno,
That

crossed

is, the

Scriptures(orthe

the
Four

ocean

of

of the

whose

young

Brahman,

what

is he ?

son

"

And
in

they said, answered

all subdued

happy

most

entered

Rajagaha.

in

unequalled among

the Master

to

"

exceeding fair,and yet


And
they said, "Whence

or

wise, and

retinue,

is

him."

Brahman,

Brahman,

He

beauty

yet beheld

young

as

come

Brahman

young

never

the

comes

by

hundred

ten

multitude, seeing the

thought, "This
we

by

upon

heart.
men.

earth !
"

I.

upon

entered

path thus made


Rajagaha attended

free

the

by

transmigration.

Paths, the
Truth, Dhamma).

Four

Fruits

thereof,Nirvana,

and

the

Il8

thousand
the

mendicants.

Order

with

In

Grems

the

Grove

Blessed
At

One
the

shook,
taken

if it

as

the earth

the

when

and

the

Great

the
and

there
whose

Ceylon

One.
of

Grove

is

of

easy
Let

broad

the

of

is

earth

Buddha

has

dwelling-

no

caused

acceptance
is

there

whose

Wihara,

Master
had

had

given

surrounded

went,

Bambu

Now

India

in

by,

Religion

Grove,

and

Blessed

the

monastery
the

all

Faith).

Buddha.

the

dwelling-

no

caused

acceptance

shake.

to

Monastery,

in

the

this

close

Bambu

"

this

Bambu

shake

to

earth

For

the

place, save
And

of

said, "Now

"

root

me

and

; but

is

Grove,

the

hand

without

visit the

is far away

water

the

over

Order,

to

flowers, in

live

cannot

dwelling-placefor

acceptance

with

water

I would

Eeeds

had

; and

presentation of

the

season

Bambu

fit

the

lord,

accept it of

place, save

seat

the

is

resort, and

the

of

head

scented

of the

my

of

out

called

mine,

poured

(the Buddha,

and

season

^ow

he

great donation

gave

at their

and

saying, "I,

Three

king

gems,

in token

Buddha,

Grove,

as

And

golden goblet.
of the

The
Buddha

the

brought, bright

to

NIDANARATHA.

THE

for

thanks

by

the

Bambu

it,he

rose

accepted
the

of

members

Grove
from

the

his

Order,

Grove.
that

at

Moggallana,

time

two

ascetics, named

Sariputta and

living near
Eajagaha, seeking after
Of
salvation.
these, Sariputta,seeing the Elder
Assaji
his begging round, was
on
pleasurably impressed by
him, and

were

waited

on

him, and

heard

from

him

the

verse

beginning,
"

"What

And
^

times

things soever

he attained
The

celebrated

in the

ruins

to

verse

of the

are

produced

the

blessingswhich

here

referred

to

has

been

from

causes."^

result
found

from

inscribed

great Dagaba at Isipatana,and facsimiles


in Cunningham's Arch feci ogical Reports, plate xxxiv.
vol. i. p.
text is given by Burnouf
in the Lotus
de la Bonne
Loi, p. 523 ;
See
also
41.
40,
Hardy's Manual, p. 196.

are

123.

and

con-

several

given
The
in the

FIRST

THE

version

and

COUNCIL.

that

repeated

his

to

verse

19

companion

the
And
to
he, too, attained
Moggallana the ascetic.
And
conversion.
each
first result from
blessingswhich
of them
took orders
left Sanjaya,^and with his attendants
Of
under
the
Master.
these
two, Moggallana attained
in
Arahatship in seven
days, and Sariputta the Elder
half
the

office

which
the

And

month.

of

the

Council

so-called
whilst

Now
there
that

Chief

his

Sariputta

in

the

his

son,

the

So

gaha.

who

take
and

desires

to

And
the

So

"

of

king's

the

and
disciples
he

stood

listened

admitted

forth

robes

there, with
of

Elders
1

Their

Or

then

the

to the

to the

all of

Sage,

hundred

Rajagaha,

to

the

king,

and

with
with

and

hour

thinking, Let
stood
just beyond
"

And

discourse.
with

his

them

that

created

"

Come
moment

he

as

whole

And

Order.

said,

sat

the

at

And

and

bowls

and

Sir;

you.

king's command
went
quickly

Wihara.

his hand

And

mendicants."

and

Arahatship,

to be

Look

"

go

stay awhile," he

to

stretched

the

"

to

lightenmen
En-

Complete

sixty leagues distance,

the

message

himself

here."

son

my

held

heard

king

father, Suddhodana

king

attained

asked

One

courtier,

bring

on

Righteousness,
Grove
near
Raja-

Bambu

of
disciples

entered

the

Order

Kingdom

retinue, and

Your

the

the

amongst

of instruction

to

the

it,0

be

followers

thousand

and

attained

certain

and

the

he

to

dwelling

was

devoted

accepted
respectfully

reply,

Buddhas

had

years

the
at

name,

you

on

Arahatship,

of the

six

as

'

he

down

to

see

day

^
Disciples.

founded

men

in my

say

the

of the

for

said

thousand

and

attained

dwelling

he

two

Grove, Suddhodana

Bambu

then

was

these

Elder

Successor

had

appointed

Disciples;

of self-mortification, had

works

and

Master

the

so

retinue,

the

Blessed

among

us,

appeared

by miracle,

like

years'standing.

teacher.

perhaps.

"

He

of Mendicants.

formed

the

Corporationof

the

Disciples,"that is, the

THE

NIDANAKAIHA.

time

when

120

I^ow

from

Arahats

the

become

deliver

not

neither

manner

in

the

to

before, and

nine

courtiers

And

men.

do, stayed away


And

when

the

bring even
brings back,

no

he

message,

for my

lowers,
fol-

his
the

same

of

retinue

had

they

in silence.

found

king

the

in

went, and

he

they all,neglectingwhat

there

any

was

courtier

with

each

king,

The

Arahatship with
Then
the king in

silent.

did

he

so

nor

And

him.

sent

attained

remained

sent

return,

him, called another

manner

and

thousand

his messenger

from

as

same

manner

did

the

Arahatship

attain

worldly things :
to the Sage.

to

king's message

received

message
same

indijfferent

the

seeing that

they

sake,

who

one

'*Not

thought,

even

would

message

and

come

of

one

these

will then

who

all his
searching among
in everypeople he thought of Kala Udayin. For he was
thing
serviceable
to the
king, intimate with him, and
born
the same
on
trustworthy. He was
day as the future
Buddha, and had been his playfellowand companion.
So
the king said to him,
Friend
Kala
Udayin, as I

what

out

carry

And

say?"

"

"

wanted
but

to

there
sent

or

to

me
"

see

I can,

become
"

to

see

son

king

times

who

thousand

has

either

of my

life is not

before

Can

die.

men

back

come

end

the
son

my

nine

them

Now

far

off,

help

you

"

''

the

was

reply,

"

if I

am

allowed

to

recluse.''

My friend,"

you

of

one

message.

my

I sent

son,

my

is not

I desire

and

as

see

said

will, but help

the
me

king,
to

see

*'

become

my

son

recluse

or

not

"

received
the king's message,
with
respectfully
and
the words, *'So be it,0 king!
went
to Riijagaha;
of the
and
stood at- the edge of the disciples
at the time
the gospel, and
Master's
attained
instruction, and heard
received
into the
Arahatship with his followers, and was
*'

And

he

"

Order.

The

Master

spent the

first Lent

after he

had

become

NIDANAKATHA,

THE

122

from

sin

and

Anga,

and

from

thousand

ten

"

Kapila-vatthu

from

started

"

from

thousand

ten

classes in

tlie upper

the

Magadha
classes

and

travelled

Rajagaha,

intention

league a day ; going slowly with the


Kapila-vatthu,sixty leagues from

in

upper

of

ing
reach-

Bajagaha,

in

two

months.

that

Elder, made

the

bowl

and

the

delicious

to

him.

Then

would

go

"

Sit down

"

I will

"

Where

"

He

food

from

out

set

to

bowl

the

best

the

himself

Master
in the

To-day

And
made
even

see

asked

you,

this

at

same

in the

the

king.

attended

king

!"

by twenty
said he.

this; and

eat

you

provide

town,

him

with

the

Buddha."
the

he

by talking

of

the

the

finished

One

has

high

Elder

come

so

character

food

brought

fed,

was

The

him

Elder,

meal, told the king,


far, to-day
of

the

king's family delighted with


On
that account
they saw him.

all the

the

himself

Master

his

into

Master.

king's table.

had

the

the

bowl

sky, took

the

of the

hand

So

manner.

Blessed

the

into

Every day

journey, from

the

before

and

rising up
it.

ate

day by day, when


**

"

Elder, in the sight of all,threw

air, and

on

as

then," said he.

eat

journey,

it to the

again, and placed it

even

made

king waited on him, and


cleansed
with
perfumed chunam, and
of food, and
placed it in the Elder's

"

food

filled

himself,

for
and

up,

heart, said, "Do

at

hand, saying, Give

The

his

on

agreed ;

the

filled with

the

rose

see

here."

had

And

and

now

arrived

has

son

Elder

The
then

Master

king, glad
my

glad to

was

ready

made

Elder

rejointhe Master,

mendicants,

until

air and

splendid couch,

food
the

king

the

eat," said the king.

and

has

The

The
on

into

rose

know

king

away.

is the

thousand

started,"

sit down

him

with

gave

if he

has

will let the

"

king's house.

the

in

appeared

One

Blessed

the

thinking,

Elder,

the

And

so

far."

Buddha,

he

the

Master,

the

Blessed

''HE

^dffjCK

ARE

SAKYAS

123

pre-eminence, saying, "Pre-eminent, O


all those of my
mendicants, among
discipleswho gained
Kala
over
Udayin."
family,was
my
The
Sakyas, as they sat talking of the prospect of
what
place
seeingtheir distinguishedrelative,considered
he could stay in ; and deciding that the Nigrodha Grove
would
be a
pleasant residence, they made
everything
with flowers in their hands
And
they went
ready there.
him ; and sending in front the little children,
out to meet
and the boys and girlsof the village,
and then the young
of the royal family; they themselves,
and
maidens
men
with
decked
of their own
accord
sweet- smelling flowers
close behind, conducting the Blessed
and
chunam, came
There
One
the Blessed
One
to the Nigrodha Grove.
sat
One

him

gave

down

Buddha's

the

on

throne

rounded
sur-

Arahats.

thousand

by twenty

prepared for him,

The

in their
Sakyas are proud by nature, and stubborn
is younger
than
we
pride. Thinking, "Siddattha
are,
brother, or
standing to us in the relation of younger
dren
nephew, or son, or grandson,''they said to the little chiland
the young
before
people, Do you bow down
behind
will seat ourselves
him, we
you." The Blessed
One, when
they had thus taken their seats, perceived
what
thinking, My relations pay me
they meant
; and
"

"

reverence

no

fell into the


the

air

as

if

performed
of the

foot

The
"When

See

different
made

down

in

force

ecstasy depending on
shaking off"the dust
like unto

miracle

them

wisdom,

on

do

to

and

so," he

risinginto

of his feet
them, he
upon
that double
miracle
at the

Gandamba-tree.^

presented

were

the

feet

your

I must

now,

king, seeingthat miracle, said,


you

to him

come

above,
account

day

turn

which

round

and

you

The

miracle

Faith

Devala

(Dhammai)).

Blessed
to do

themselves

Commentary,
on

the

One

this

occasion

saw

the

on

obeisance

born, and

were

place

Dhammapada
performed
in
(ratana-caijkamar))

p. 105.
of the

jewelledterrace
it,preached the

on

to Kala

''

334, has
It says

sky, and walking

up

he

and

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

124

Braliman's

head, I did

first obeisance.
in the

shade

When

of the

festival,I
and

bowed

bow

feet.

the

who

singleSakya

down

before

the

Blessed

the

obeisance

One;

not

turn,
second

miracle, I

obeisance."
there

him,

to

from
of

all

and

couch

my

refrain

to

my

ing
plough-

did

unprecedented

able

was

of

was

third

was

your

you

That

is my

did

on

day

over

feet.

This

king

the

shadow

this

That

you.

seated

on

your

seeing

at your

Then, when

the

at

Now,

down

not

how

saw

to

were

you

Jambu-tree

down

obeisance.

obeisance

was

bowing
them

did

obeisance.
So

Blessed

the

bow

down

down

before
the

on

Blessed

thunder-

the

did

not

with

not

He

him.

all sat

even

to

Lo

the
fall

rain

! what

sky,

And

and

sat

when

of

his

there

the

relatives

at

in

peace

pronounced
When

paid

they
the

either

leaving,

"

So

thousand
no

his

heard

his

him, and
or

any

to

another,

"

the

to

The

him

or

Blessed

filled

Lo

! what

shower

now

as

discourse

went

of

who

"

his

relations,
connexion

Wessantara.

they

rose

Not

away.

meal

Master,

of

one

on

of us."

attended

him

them,

him

by twenty

Kapilavatthu to beg.
invited

and

up,

ministers, asked

accept your

day

next

bowl.

body of him
seeing it became

story of his Birth

had

get

the

the

To-morrow

came

one

wonder

mendicants, entered
one

all

neath
be-

did

get wet,

this

king
the

on

said

on

rain,

rumbling

only did
in the
me
assembly of my
in this
happened." And

to

reverence

fell

to

of

shower

away

wished

said, "Not

upon

also

formerly

went

And

wet.

get

Teacher

water

drop

forth

poured
who

astonishment, and

But

took

cloud

earth.

wish

miracle

also

the

assembly

; and

copper-coloured

but

wet

he

seated, the

pre-eminence

the

of

for

prepared

was

from

to

hearts.

Then
and

descended

him,

seat

One

yieldedhim
their

One, having compelled his relatives

to

his

One, standing

at

Then

house,
the

or

gate,

BUDDHA

THE

direct

to the

from

on

the

of the

houses

house

had

first

the

door

hand

of

One;

majesty

of

in

the

And

shall

so

fulfil

me,

the

go

my
of

duty

beginning

chief

the

at

Siddhattha

was

in the two-storied
and

open,

with

now

door

the

titude
mul-

and

window,

in

potsherd

door, with

to

yellow robes.

shaven

Is this
looked

his
hair
?

becoming
the

at

"

Blessed

him

gloriouswith the unequalled


distinguishedwith the Thirty-two
the eighty lesser marks
of a Great
the street of the city with
halo
a
colours, proceeding to a fathom's

Buddha,

"

pomp,

beheld

she

they

the lady, the


sight. And
My lord, who used to go to
with
gilded palanquin and

the

from

clad

opened

and

of

own

my

thrown

town

very

food

beard, and
she

as

young

were

at

royal

his

begs

And

houses

this

sign

every

the

Rahula, thought,
in

Did

did

door, the windows

to

transfixed

of
fro

and

and

that

rumour

was

mother

tradition

and

three- storied

and

on

go

"

daily food/'
begged straighton.

from

begging

Buddhas

town

kings, or

their

house, he

At

native

future, learning

for

former

125

they beg straight


?
Then, not findingthat any of
direct, he thought, I, too, must

gone

accept this descent

disciplesin

FOOD.

'*

to house

Buddhas

begging

in their

rounds

begging

FOR

the

tlieii did

considered, "How
their

BEGS

characteristic

signs and
Being, and lightingup
resplendentwith many
length all round his person.
And
is

she

begging
him

Men,"
291.

it to

announced
his bread

from

with

eight

the

the

king, saying,

door

to

stanzas

"

door
on

and

;
"

Your

"

The

she

Lion

son

nified
magamong

beginning

"

Glossy

dark

and

Spotlessand

fair

and
as

soft and
the

Well-proportioned and
his

nose

Around
The

curly is

his hair

is his forehead

sun

prominent

and

delicate

him

Lion

is diffused
among

Men

network
!

of rays

;"

is

126

THE

NIDANAKATHA.

The

stantly,
king was
deeply agitated; and lie departed ingathering up his robe in his hand, and went
One, and
said,
quickly and stood before the Blessed
do you
"Why, Master, do you put us to shame ? Why
food ?
Do
think
it impossible
go begging for your
you

provide

to

*'

This

is

Not

so.

"

the

Great

has

ever
"

meal

Master
;

begged

his

and

These, and

thousands

of the

Rise

292.

of

verse,

to the

293.

And

verse

Maha

holy

of the

Follow

not

after

Sammata,

white

their

in

the

"

in

bliss,

in the

and

next."

king attained to the


hearing the following

the
on

Path

"

sin !
virtue

in

rests

and

bliss.

in the

story of the Birth

attained
he

begged

life !

in this world

the

Kassapa.

to

standing

verse

rests

Second

Both

heard

And

from

then,

follows

the

have

virtue

holy

chief

one

life !

Who

he

Buddhas,

the

of

descent, 0 king ! but


down

finished

was

all not

rest

uttered

First, and
Fruit

the

alms."

in this world

Righteousness,^he
And
Path.
just as

on

reply.
the royal race

prophets (Buddhas),

and

Both

after

under

the

follows

of

couch

them

loiter not

and

Follow

when

amongst

Who

the

Fruit

the

was

is from

of

he

after

tbe

when

"

descent

of other

street

up,

king

''

daily food."
of kings is your

lived

Follow

And

and

Kondanya

and

daily food,
middle

succession

Dipagkara

monks

many

our

Elected

is the

so

custom,

our

succession

This

mine

for

was

canopy

the first king among

the

to

dying,
of

men.

next.

the

as

Fruit

of

seated

on

state, he

Keeper

the

Third

the

royal

attained

Dhammapula

Jataka.

to

TAMA'S

GO

The
ArahatsMp.
Great
Struggle.^
Now
took

he
One

king

hard

all the

obeisance

Conversion,
the

Blessed

them

when

household

the

with

the

meal

came

and

did

One, except only the

mother

of

of

women

Blessed

the

to

of

served

And

soft.

and

solitude

conducted

palace,and

the

to

food, both

over,

realized the Fruit

bowl, and

Buddha's

his retinue

and

practised in

never

had

he

as

the

savoury
was

soon

as

HOME.

RETURN'

the

Rahula.
But
salute

attendants

to

in his eyes,

when

he

has

him

I will pay

come

of

the

carry,

went

of the

daughter

and

reverence."
the

to

she

rebuked, howsoever
And

me."

king

to

to the apartments
disciples
king, saying,"The king'sdaughter

of the
be

wise

me

any

chief

his two

with

am

to

come

One, giving his bowl

Blessed

And

to welcome

will himself

lord

my

and

go

"

value

no

her

lord, stayed behind, saying, If I

their

shall in

told

she

she, though

he

down

sat

the

on

be

may

pleased

prepared

seat

for him.
And
laid

she

her

even

head
she

as

of

fullness
of

quickly and

came

time

forth

of your

When

dressed

taking but
When

custom.

elevated

she

had

one

she

"

heard

heard

told

king

One, and

him,

to

of her

of

the

ness
good-

unguents, she

also

her

relatives

my

that

had

you

and

sent

ankles, and

obeisance

the

When

couches, she slepton


she

his

daughter heard, 0
that
put on the yellow robes, from
she heard
only in yellow. When
meal
a
day, she adopted the same

heart, saying,

Master, that you

by

did

so

Blessed

for the

love

him

And

intended.

had

her

feet, and

his

on

held

you
a

used

message,

spread

mat

given

the

up

them

no

saying,

of

attention
at
no
you,' she paid them
daughter'sgoodness of heart, 0 Blessed

See

above, p.

89.

the

renounced

the

on

of

use

Let

Such

all.
One

take

us

"

floor.

garlands

And

more.

of

use

when
care

is my

NIDANAKATHA.

THE

128

'Tis

"

should

watch

wandering

And

herself."

over

Moonsprite
On

the

and

of

house

Buddha

went

the

without

tector,
pro-

went

the

as

away.
of

coronation, and

the

all

celebrated

she watched

mature,

of

marriage

house, and

his

to

for

you

story of his Birth


of

she

that

"

formerly, even

his seat, and

festivals

the

warming, and
being
king's son, were

the

not

the

from

rose

has

mountains
was

told

he

day

next

is mature

the

wisdom

her

when

and

reply,

she

that

now

among

the

was

wisdom

her

that

''

king

herself

over

protector, and
when

wonder,

no

Nanda,

the

But

the

together.
him

gave

his

bowl

to

the
object of making him abandon
him
true
world, he wished
happiness; and then, rising
from
his seat, departed. And
(thebride) Janapada KalyanI,
man
gazed wonderingly at him,
seeing the young
go away,
cried out,
and
so
quickly ?
My Lord, whither
go you
with

; and

carry

the

"

"

But

he,

bowl," followed

your

to

him

One,

Take

"

And

the

was,

into

the Wihara.

unto

even

Blessed

the

to

say

him, unwilling though he

received

One

Blessed
the

venturing

not

Order.
It

the

was

on

that

the

Blessed

day

the

and

him

sent

to

attended

gloriousin

appearance

is your
have

we

and

ask

the

not

since

seen

crowned,

earth.

have

The

boy

went

in

boy

his

best,

Look, dear,

"

thousand

Archangel

second

and

monks,

Brahma

at

That

great treasures, which

certain

his home.

abandoned

Go

now,

am

the

inheritance, saying, Father, I

for your

; for

the

Kapilapura

On

One, saying,

the

he

reached

Nanda.

twenty

had

He

treasure

by
as

he

arrayed

Blessed

father.

When

son.

Eahula

the

monk,

that

ordained

One
of

mother

day after

third

son

need
is heir
to

up

love of his father, and

the

I shall become
of

the

treasure.

to his father's

Blessed

stood there

Candakiimara

am

king
Give

your

over

me
"

all
the

property.'
One, and gained the
glad and joyful,saying,

Jataka.

THE

130

Third

Patli.

And

father

in the

Three

attended
the

in

the

Buddha

became

head, and

received
to

come

built

Rajagaha

to

resided

at

along

And

Teacher,

the

on

the

from

promise

heard

early in
door
being

the

the

Truth

he

day

gave

Buddha

their

at

Teacher

the

very

next

Order, with

of

there

heard

angel, and

an

house

that

he

Savatthi.

road, forty-fiveleagues in length, he

the

at
resting-places

league,

every

And

for each.

thousand

hundred

to the

went

arisen.

And

Pindika, bringing

friend, and

the

of

the

to

carts,

to

converted.

great donation

Then

returned

Anatha

had

morning he went
opened by the power

would

his

establislied

brethren, and

the

his intimate

the

and

One

he

householder

Rajagaha,

Blessed

of

in five hundred

merchandise

that

; and

Fruits

company

time

that

trader

Blessed

tlie

so

of Sita.

Grove

At

the

by

NIDANAKATHA.

expenditure

at

an

he

bought

the

of

Grove

eighteen kotis of gold pieces, laying


the ground, and
erected
there
side by side over
a
building. In the midst thereof he made a pleasant
it separatelyconstructed
around
for the Sage, and

called
them
new

room

for

Jetavana

dwellings for the eighty Elders, and other residences with


single and double walls, and long halls and open roofs,
and
ducks
with
ornamented
quails; and ponds also he
made, and terraces to walk on by day and by night.
And
on
a
so
having constructed a delightfulresidence
pleasantspot, at
to the

message

attended
arrived

course

which
son

youths

the
in

by
at

the

Buddha

messenger's words,

city of
the

should

of

splendour,and

Savatthi.

sent

him

And

he

flagsresplendentwith

monks,
Then

at
on

and

left
and
the

on

the

Jetavana

he

and

monastery;
arrive

sent

come.

great multitude

in festival attire.

five hundred

eighteen kotis, he

Sao^e that he should

decorated

merchant

his

of

expense

Master, hearing the

The

gaha

an

with
his

cloth

five

Eajain

due

wealthy
day

on

arrayed
hundred

retinue, holding
of five different

THE

FIRST

colours, appeared

before

Maha-Subhadda
of

the

and

merchant,
with

forth, with
food.

full

clad
in

in

Blessed

front, and
the

entered
and

they

Jetavana

Anatha

shall I deal

Pindika

One.
of

this Wihara

with

of

his

as

if

Lord,

reply, give it

then

"

"

Mendicants, whether

spaces

person,

my

"

grace

the

making

him,

monks,

How,

the

lay disciples
infinite

the

Buddha,

asked

householder,'' was
of

Order

with

bright with the halo from


sprinkledwith gold-dust.

were

Blessed

of

himself,

great multitude

monastery
a

full

also dressed

traders

grove

Then

"

the

the

by

wife went

great merchant

One, sending this retinue


attended

them,

carrying vessels

to meet

out

damsels

behind

merchant's

five hundred

unequalled majesty of

of the

the

him

daughters

two

And

water.

all the

them

robes, went

The

of

matrons

robes, with

new

new

in

behind

the

behind

five hundred

with

ornaments,

five hundred

And

And

Sage.

forth

went

all her

the

131

Cula-Subhadda,

carrying water-pots
decked

MONASTERY.

present

now

or

the

to

hereafter

to

arrive."

And

the

great merchant, saying, So be it,my Lord,"


the hand
over
golden vessel,and poured water
"

brought a
of the Sage, and
this
the

at their

present

now

Wihara

Jetavana
Buddha

And

dedicated

or

the

Cold

294.

So

This

ward

and
ofi",

heat

of prey,

And

when

in the

been

direction

"

rains

has

with

givingthanks,
monasteries, saying,

And

ancient

give

and

creepingthings,and gnats,

the

every

And

the

'*

Mendicants

to all from

advantages of

they

saying,

of

Order

accepted the Wihara,

also beasts

formula

Ceylon over

Wihara,

to come."

cold

dreaded

Arise, they ward


1

the

head, and

hereafter

the Master

pointed out

to

the

them

season.

heat

and

winds

ofi*.

found
in rock inscriptions
in
constantly
of
Buddhist
hermits.
cave-dwellings

India

and

THE

32

To

295.

give

to monks

Wherein
To

296.

in

Buddha

Let

therefore

And

his

him

man,

weal,

own

food

Give
And

clothes, and

Then

shall

they

The

He

mind.

preach

Truth, when

sins

no

Pindika

the

dedication
held

festival, too, eighteen kotis

ago,

spent wealth
too, in

time

of

bought
over

that

it,and

the

merchant

so

At
that

on

Blessed
Mitta

And

in

named

the

the
one

kotis.
Buddha

bought

it, and

over

of

Anatha

but

four
fifty-

to

Punabbasu

Sikhin,

Buddha

the

dedication

months.

spent

spot by laying golden bricks


there a league in length.
monastery
Blessed

the

nine

very

the

festival from

months,

amounting

the

at

four

were

named

merchant

Yipassin,a

receives,

man

began

festival lasted

"

"

dies away

in

Truth,

grief,

and

dedication

he

the

more,

festival
day. The
Visiikha's
building ended

Long

to him

here

second

monastery

drink.

Truth, dispellingevery

Which

Pindika's

mien

dwelling-places

upright in

the

men.

them, and

to

built.

learned

cheerful

with

deed.

worthy

wise

lodge there

Let

Anatha

clear,

pleasantmonasteries

Have

298.

in peace

mysteries grow
calls

The

To

dwelling-place,

safetyand

tliink till

Regarding

297.

NIDANAKATHA.

that

built
time

of

Sirivaddha

very

spot by standing golden ploughshares

built

there

league in length.

And

monastery

in the
named

time

three-quartersof

of the

Blessed

Buddha

Sotthiya bought that very


spot by laying golden elephant feet along it,and built a
in the
half a league in length. And
there
monastery
Vessabhu,

merchant

time

of

the

Accuta

golden

bricks

quarter

of

Blessed

that
built

in

the

there
of

And

extent.

Pindika

kahapanas
in

acres

of

all

One

Buddhas
in

lived

that

And

Epoch.

that
has

his

till

now

place

the

attainment

death.

This

tell

the

laying

by

thirty

monastery

And

deserted.

will

we

is

Anatha

spot

which

of
is

not

the

so

the

one

Blessed

omniscience
Proximate
of

stories

in

acres

One,

very

there

spot

from

spot

Bo-tree

the

that

built

and

For

extent.

the

under

it,

over

sixty

Blessed

our

bought

merchant

the

of

time

the

in

golden

laying

monastery

And

merchant

by

spot

it,

over

length.

in

the

Ugga

tortoises

Kassapa,
very

there

built

it, and

over

that

bought

of

named

league

Buddha

Blessed

the

time

the

in

golden

half

monastery

monastery

merchant

laying

by

spot

Sumaggala

bricks

And

laying

by

spot

there

length.

Konagamana,
very

time

named

in

merchant

very

built

and

it,

league

that

bought

over

Buddha

bought
and

also

133

Kakusandha,

Buddha

Blessed

named

WIHARA.

JETAVAMA

THE

all

his

Births.

END

OF

THE

ACCOUNT

ATTAINMENT

OF

THE

OF

CAUSES

BUDDHAHOOD.

THAT

LEAD

TO

THE

GLOEY

BLESSED,

THE

TO

BE

ALL-

THE

WISE

ONE.

BOOK

No.

This

1."

discourse
delivered

One

I.

Holding

the

on

while

THE

HOLY,

the

to

True

the

(Apannaka),

the

at

Truth.^

Jetavana

Blessed

Wihara,

near

Savatthi.
What

the

was

About

arose

circumstance
the

five

which

concerning

hundred

this

friends

heretics,

tale

of

the

Merchant.
For

day,

one

five

took

and

him

medicines
in

down
the

clothes

respectful

Teacher.^

saluted

And

Pindika.
Teacher

Apannaka

Literally,

they
full

the

the

Order

sat

down

the

beheld

in

and

on

close

sat

side

one

to

his

of

also

Anatha
of

and

he

and

belief

wrong

and

bestowed

coimtenance

glory;

honey

One,

Mendicants,

of

many

and

Blessed

manner

followers
and

moon

of

had

brought,

things,

becoming

One,

And
like

and
those

Blessed

the

the

on

oil

vestments

other

merchant

his, and
and

saluting
and

garlands
and

and

And

Jetavana.

to

offered

clothes

and

of

ointments

and

perfumes

the

Pindika

friends

heretics,

molasses

went

told, Anatha

are

hundred

garlands
and

we

the

person

Jataka.
sat

down

on

one

side, avoiding

the

six

improper

ways

of

doing

so.

with

endowed
and

surrounded

and

also

the

HOLDING

TO

THE

TRUTH

all the

greater and

lesser

to

clusteringrays

which

Buddha),

from

issued

in his

thunder-

Red

in the

pride

cloud, he

him

of

Rock

halos, and

like

like

in voice

Then, though mighty

marks

honour,

length with brightness ;


(the peculiar attribute of a

fathom's

35

preached

them

to

archangel'svoice, perfect and

lion

young
like

Yalley,^ or
in

in

roaring
monsoon

voice

pairs.

like

an

and

pleasantto hear, a
discourse
varied with many
counsels, as if he were
weaving
a
garland of pearlsout of the stars in the Milky Way !
When
the Teacher's
discourse, they
they had heard
down
were
pleased at heart ; and rising up, they bowed
and giving up the wrong
to the One
Mighty by Wisdom,
their refuge, they took
belief as
refuge in the Buddha.
sweet

"

And

from

that

time

Pindika

Anatha

they
the

to

in the

were

Wihara,

habit

of

with

going

and

taking garlands

perfumes with them, and of hearing the Truth, and of


giving gifts,and of keeping the Precepts, and of making
confession.

And

Riijagaha.
Prophets was
And

him

to

Blessed

One

left,those

And
he

had

had

to their

returned
former

men

when

and

the

broken

trust

going

in

the

bowing

his

side.

the

Teacher

down

to

they

heresy, and

their

honoured

him, seated
told

he

of the

faith

the

condition.

Then

Successor

to

eight months,
again brought

or

Pindika

to

of

again put

former

seven

Anatha

And

him, and

that

to their

Siivatthi

Successor

the

faith ; and

after

One,

from

again
as

that

up

giftsas before,
respectfullyby

himself

soon

returned

Jetavana.
with

men

with

gave

Blessed

the

returned
those

gone,

back

went

they, as

heresy, and

in

trust

One

Blessed

!N^ow the

Prophets

had

had

taken, had

resumed

had

the

their

condition.
the

Blessed

One, by the power

continuallyspoken through
1

famous

haunt

of lions in the

of

the

countless

Himalaya

sweet

words

ages,

opened

Mountains.

APANNAKA

136
liis lotus

mouth

with

scented
odours

another

they

Blessed

when

the

countless

one

like to

then,

could

of the Three

beneath,
Buddha

for

refuge

to

is true, 0

said, "It
the

spoken,

in heaven

nor

And

Grems

Teacher

above,

said,

beyond

nor

of all.'* And

Whatever

of

in other

laid down

are

the

in

the

"

And

etc.

Scripture

"

be

to

there

treasure

^gain,

be,

may

is announced

Whatsoever

again,

less,

qualities

there

creatures

Prophets

worlds,"

the

in

any

much

"

to them

described

they
*'

wisdom

goodness and
he

as

the Chief

chief

asked

disciples,

my

you,
gone

it,and

thus

in

beginning,

or

he

systems of the universe, is there

world-

Successor

here

then, that

conceal

had

etc., the

be

smelling

pleasant tones,

Refuges,^ have

not

greater."

passages

full of sweet-

''

they

in hell

Not

"

jewel-casket

!"

One

And

his

it true,

Three

faith ?

And

Is

"

the

up

opening

were

forth

sending

them, saying,

giving

if he

as

heavenly perfume, and

and

JATAKA.

From

the

of all

pleasantthings,"etc.
And
he
Whatever
or
men
said,
disciples,
women,
have
taken
Gems
endowed
with
their refuge the Three
as
these gloriousqualities,
in hell ;
be born
they will never
but freed from
birth in any
place of punishment, they
"

will be reborn

in

heaven, and

You, therefore, by leaving so


your

reliance

And
show

here
that

in

They

who, for the

taken

who

1
'

Trust

Three

in

Gems.'

the

of

sake

exceeding bliss.

refuge, and
done

Three

put their

trust

placing

wrong."

should

refuge in the
punishment :

be

quoted

Perfection

Gems,

to

vation,
Sal-

and

will not

be

"

have

will not

Having put
They

following passages

placesof

Those

safe

teaching, have

other

the

those

have
reborn

on

into

enter

go

world

oflPthis mortal

will enter
Buddha,

to

in

some

the

of

in

Buddha,

pain :

coil.

heavenly body
Order,

and

in

the

Truth,

which

are

the

APANNAKA

138
their

to

wliich
in

own

no

wilderness

Whilst

end.
the

for a refuge tliat


foolisUy mistook
refuge,and becoming the prey of demons
astrous
dishaunted
to
a
by evil spirits,came

reason

was

And

desert.''

who

those

adhered

right belief, found

certain, the

very

JATAKA,

absolute,

fortune

good

that

in

spoken,he

thus

had

he

when

the

to

remained

silent.

Anatha

Then

seat, and

did

him, and

bowed

said,

obeisance

Now,

"

least, 0

at

disciplesin breaking
to

But

us.

destroyed
held

is known

the

in

the

to

how

rise in the

sky !

Then

for

that

said,

''

countless

ages

have

he

give

change
from

upon

of

was

at

time

of Benares, there
Bodisat

One

to

full

moon

make
to

was

that

dark

time

it were,

country

of

attention,

the

full

in

an

Kasi

and

Brahma-datta.

called

born

See above, pp. 54-58, for

costly
by
moon

cloud.

snow-

king

if you

concealed

been

had

ledge.
know-

most

merchant's

the
Ten

the

perfect

the

was

of

doubts

as
attentively,

the

which

in the

to

it

practised

with

free, as
birth,-ni-setting

the bosom

Once

that

manifest
of

it

though

householder

have

ear

fillingup a golden measure


!
Having thus excited

made

attained

so

"

essence

who

those

us,

object of resolving the

Listen, then, and


were

from

pleasethe Blessed
as
one
causing the

One

Yirtues,^ and

Cardinal

were

''

the

preciselywith
world

to us,

plain

reasoners

it

May

and

these

is made

desert, while

saved, is hid

were

Blessed

the

refuge

self-sufficient

demon-haunted

to you.

known

best

the

those

truth

this matter

with

of

foolishness

! the

Lord

exalted

clasped hands,

with

him

his

from

arose

One, and

Blessed

the

to

before

down

house-lord,

the

Pindika,

merchant's

explanationof

this.

the

city
The

family ;

HOLDING

and

in due

lie grew

course

with

five hundred

from

east

to

Benares

there

dull, and
Now

unskilful

the

in

Bodisat

and

ready

merchant

them

likewise

ready

Then

"

get grass.

or

come

And

that

the

up,

best

have

and

I
"

shall

second
front
go

over

grass

will

thus

shoots

carts, and

got

oxen

for

young

to

the

him

much

as

men

bullocks

first.^'

on

go

suffice

not

the

go

It will

be

much

on

road

has

curry-

saying,

in

on

that

front,

for

is not

cut

touched,

stufis,of which

price I

at what

better

been

not

like.''

So

he

better

to

go

first."

on

it would

that

to

him,

be
"

who

Those

have

by

eaten

will
men

eat

traversed
the
the

there

"

the

go
I

rough places plain, whilst

the

the

undisturbed

will be

the water

it occurred

my

will

road

you

be

goods

saw

been

foolish

water, and

that

will

ground they

"

"

grass

picked ;

the

have

first,whilst
tender

eat

there

make

the

carts,
foolish

that

Will

travel

shall

Bodisat

will

of

''

thought,

the

told

he

been

for

And

this

ought

me

sell my

the

or

I, friend, will go

But

stupid,

bullock-

hundred

"If

and

together.

men

not

At

east.

travellingtogether;

go

will

the

for

said,

him

other

oxen

and

to

merchandise

hundred

me,

get wood

for

first.

to go

me

five

with

he

after

on

travelled

merchant,

journey.

thought,

Either

can't

two

west

Benares

five

carts, all
to

sending

We

for

come

thousand

And

it in

Bodisat

will find it hard


to

in

loaded

should

the

he

start.

the

merchant

for

to

from
young

collected

loaded

them

trafficking

resource.

great value, and


made

about

Sometimes

carts.

another

was

139

went

sometimes

west, and

too

and

up,

bullock-

TRUTH.

THE

TO

old

in

shall
rank

have

gone

freshly grown

and

that

oxen

will

be

the

sweet

APANNAKA

140

that
curry-stufFs
where

there

have

is

supplies,whilst
have

dug

work

The
his

he

from

will

prices

merchant

friend, you

said,

is

too

killing
goods

seeing all

these

go

due

country, and

they

sell my

may

in

get

that

Very well, then

"

and

started;

inhabited

So

and

dig

I shall

established."

have

"

wells

the

ahout

picked :

was

on

first."

!"

yoked
passed

course

the

to

came

border

wilderness.

Now

there

have

of

want

by

so

of

food

demon-haunted

then

of

and

So

was

placed

with

filled them

of

and

wilderness

merchant

the

desert, which

the

entered

demons,

this

these

carts, and

his

on

of

presence

waterless.^

and

great water-pots

the

that

beasts, of

thieves, of wild

of

reason

water,

of
insufficiency

of wildernesses, those

kinds

five

are

become

and

old

others

drink

haggling

and

the

the

the

shall

said, "Well,

waggons

of

we

the

by going afterwards,

foolish

beyond

these

water

prices they

advantages,

where

grown

no

and

"

; whereas

the

at

JATAKA.

water,

sixty leagues

was

across.

But, when
the

he

fellows

throw

having

thus

them

eat

So

bulls
and

he

and

"

begrimed
1

and

with

have

they
power

the

desert,

I will make

"

of

these
and

brought;

resistance, I will

carriagedrawn

ten

and

merchant,

adorned

but

his hair

by

swords

the

their

beautiful

attended

meet

to

thought,

water

of

middle

the

!"

one

created

carriage,
with

destroyed

arrows,

went

there
the

away

every

and

dwelt

who

demon

reached

had

clothes
mud.

with

shields, in their
seated
a

like

garland

all wet, and


His

attendants

at
glossrepeats these descriptions

somewhat

his

of

milk-white
with

demons

twelve

or

by

bows

hands, he

lord

in

his

water-lilies,

carriagewheels

too

went

before

greaterlength.

HOLDING

after

and

of

of water

drops
Now

of

of

trading

red

water-plants,and

tricklingfrom

mud

chiefs

the

stalks of

edible

and

all wet, decked

clothes

and

lotuses, carrying bunches

white

lotuses, eating the

TRUTH

THE

hair

their

him, with

garlands

with

TO

with

them.
whenever

caravans,

wind
head-

blows, ride in their carriagein front, surrounded


attendants, and

their

At

that

time

there

same

dust

and

the

so

when

it

ride behind.

manner,

headwind,

was

the

escape

behind, they,in the

from

blows

thus

by

merchant

went

in front.
As

demon

the

out

of the

are

you

And

the

made

hurrying

for the

said

to the

And

you

demon,
I

carts

to

"We

have

with

see

dripping with
you

with

water-plants?

"

come

had

sooner

forest

that

with

water, it is

here

and

the

carts

are

you
*'

To

"

And

said
"

there

with

and

in

this

wreaths,

and

you

there

heard
say

onwards

"Where

of the
beside

way,

him,

Benares.

water-lilies
with

does

tanks

that, than
Yonder

in

dirt, and

it rain
there

on

the

covered

the

covered

whole

with

these
a

carts

in

things."

answered

is green

country abounds

pools

full,and

are

lotuses."

asked,

And
"

as

Where

"

country," was

cart, and

he

streak

after another, he

one

such

such

"

far from

and

Pray,

are

he.

Such

waiting

thus

mud.

ponds

are

such

and

always raining, the

passed by
going

carriage

"

thence

from

his

carriageout

stalks, soiled

the demon

is this

What

his

come

by, and

road

No

lotus
and

water

have

turned

kindly,saying,

pass,

lotus

eating

hands,

he

"

merchant

room

your

to ?

coming,

greeted him

and

way,

going

him

saw

this, what

the

reply.

have

you

got

"

APANNAKA

142

This

"

is there

in this

*'

There's

"

You

but

the

himself

went

And

poured
the

And

before

the

And

journeying

and

ranged

men,

And

cook

here

to

hundred

stood

carts
a

month

had

started, the

and

went

desert.
store

points

all the

there
and

Bodisat

straighton
There

of water,

he
and

of

the

sent

on

the

to

oxen

nor

oxen,

worn-out

demons

men

one

the

;
came

young

their

bones

had

and
to

beaten

the
loaded

five
!

merchant

left the
mouth

laid up
in

tered
scat-

were

foolish

the

bones

merchant

been

then

oxen,

their

And

vessels, and
drum

and

foolish

compass

from

up

men

leaving

away

till he

came

all,both

waited

the

water

weary.

the

the

half after the

the

the

the waggons,

the
for

just as they

filled the
had

tied

And

destruction, and

to

of

least water.

the

not

water

them

of

and

they unyoked

went

account

on

came

for

Now

flesh, and

and

slept.

night

slew

"

out

was

drink, became

to

rice.

and

of the

end

So

all

these

there

and

their

behind.

their

folly,accepted

was

neither

was

added,

cupful),and

circle, and

city,and

demon
ate

in

men

at the

their
and

them
there

fell down

his

pots broken,

till sunset,

on

And
the

could

in

there

them

he

home.

having nothing

And

wheels.

his

had

he

you
away

long

too

as

of

pour

Then

soon

(without saving even

away

carts.

demons'

merchant,

and

word,

as

this ;

as

front

pots and

already delayed

to the

foolish

In

ease."

your

far

as

it.

the

little,and

back

that

demon's

have

on

sight,went

at

water

of

need

Break

on

we

bring

to

no

water.

go

on,

go

you

right

there's

and

water,

Do

done
on

heavily,what

very

in that."

plenty of

there's

"

have

along

comes

"

one

water

further

last

coming

cart

JATAKA.

the

city,
of

the

plentiful
encamp-

TO

HOLDING

to call tlie

ment
"

Without

There

without

thus

^NQ

not

When

Bodisat
*'

and

throws

fellow

But

as

soon

desert.

throw

fruit

when

he

desert

with

doesn't

this

had
his

desert, that

himself

The

foolish

is

have

been

his

water

its

very

red-eyed and

bold,

who

went

persuaded by
will

people, have

know, methinks, how

thinking
;

merchant

the

to

direction.

him,

saw

wilderness

fellow

all his

and, with

the

opposite

he

This

all

away

of

the

as

in

water

no

will doubtless

me

out

he

the

middle

from

coming

shadow.

no

to

wearied

And

before, showed

as

him

is

arid

the

way

were

There

before

on

same

knew

is the

name

reached

if he

as

!"

nor

be

water

wilderness

flower

followers, he entered

had

in the

Bodisat

nor

the

of

thus

waggons.

he

demon,

in

trees

eaten

them

cupful

leaf

H3

addressed

even

before, be

his

hundred

thus

let not

eaten

exhorted

The

let not

poisonous

are

asking me,

have

you

TRUTH.

together,and

men

asking me,

used

THE

have

fallen

clever

I am,

this
been

prey.

and

how

fertile in resource."
Then

he

said

don't

merchants, and
we

some

see

well

"

as

how

Begone

throw

; and

more

quite

him,

to

the

away
soon

We

as

do

we

travelling

we've

water

lighten carts

to

are

got till

it,we

see

stand
under-

by throwing

ours

away

The
of

demon

sight,returned

were

that

us

and

from

all kinds

and

his

gone,

told

and

went

were

hair

on

to

men

yonder

there

his

little way,
demon

said to the
was

onwards

the
it

was

with

them

chewing

the

edible

all wet, and

city.

when

he

When

Bodisat,

beginning

of lotuses

were

and

"

got

the

demons

Sir ! those

of the

green

men

forest,

always raining. They


in

garlands

lotus-stalks

they came

and
;

out

had

branches,

their

dripping with

clothes
water.

APANNAKA

144

Let

throw

us

the

tlie water,

away

when

he

heard

We

"

was

now

rain- wind

his

made

put

the

anybody

say

men,

in this desert

pond

or

Bodisat

heard

ever

you

men

saying

are

of green

stretch

''

that

it rains

forest.

How

the

on

far

can

"

felt ?

league,Sir."

ISTow does

"

witli

so."

some

be

About

"

heard

side of that

other

collectingall

lake

any

never

And

"

quickly

on

go

they said, the

"Have

question to them,
there

what

halt, and

waggons

that

and

!"

light carts
And

JATAKA.

reach

rain- wind

the

the

of any

body

of

one

you?"
Sir."

"No,
"

And

"

About

rain-cloud

visible ?

"

league.Sir."

does

"Now

top of

far off is the

how

of

one

any

top of

the

see

you

single

cloud?"

"No
"

How

far off

"

Four

or

"

Now

"

least flash of

has

Now

have

hope

young

lightningbeen

"

by

seen

any

thunder

can

any

be

heard

"

Sir."

of you

heard

the thunder

"

Sir."

These

must

seen

"

league or two,

"No,
"

the

far off

How

"A

leagues,Sir."

lightningbe

Sir."

"No,
"

flash of

can

five

has

of you

one

the

Sir."

one,

fellows
come

of

are

to

not

make

destroying us

merchant

who

went

they

men,

throw

us

in
on

our

are

The

weakness.
us

had

They
with

water

our

away

before

demons

no

foolish
power

of

V"APANNAKA

146

he

uttered

Holding
he

tlie

following

the

to

Truth

belonging

verse

thus

and

this

to

the

uniting

lesson

on

stories,

two

said
"

1.

Thus

speak

Mere

logicians speak
wise
takes

the

Blessed
truth.

the

three

happy

the

six

joys

of

finally

life
hells

and

of

end

the

double

datta's

followers.

That
Buddha

in

established

wise

the

and

Buddha,

the

hundred

and

summed
chant
mer-

young

men

Deva-

were

men

wise

tlie

told

and

merchant's

young

at

Conversion.

foolish
his

also

were

chant
mer-

young

myself."

OF

THE

STORY

ON

the
is, I think, between
and
his contemporaries

anusandhi),

The

four

He

five

connexion,^
*'

but

the

And

discourse,

Devadatta,

was

of

delight,

man."

those

Fruit

the

in

ways.

all

and

Arahatship;

of

sixteen

the

of

rebirth

to

confers

below,

heaven

grades

the

concluding,

the

the

lesson

the

Truth

here

of

Truths

finished

The
of

attendants

END

in

the

on

time

that

lowest

Truths

having

by

existence

leads

established

Jataka

was

five

Four

Teacher

of

the

the

narrative,

the

up

Untrue

the

to

in

disciples

attainment

the

discourse

disciples were
The

the

to

so,

truth

those

Brahmalokas

the

the

is the

according
of

is

this

taught

Life

so.

what

conditions

to

not

question

can

none

that

true

One
"

among

proclaimed

for

leads

according

which

knows

man

And

regarding

and

that

Some

The

the

JATAKA.

between

the

story

and

TO

HOLDING

persons
on

the

the

in

the

other

maxim.

story
:

not,

THE

on
as

TRUTH.

the

one

Childers

hand,
says

and

(under

No.

2.

YANNUPATHA

JATAKA.

The

About

staying

was

there

dwelling
the

evil

result

of

subject

And

forest.

There

after

produced

inward

of

which

was

to

had

no

kind

the

could

of

meditation

the

their
be

referred

here

retired
;

of

the

him,

consisting

but

various

tainment
at-

"The

in

self-

one

ways,

{Kammatthana)

to

unable

was

to

in

to

season

he

about

of

suitable

rainy

salvation

brought

maries
sum-

practice

he

occurred

had

two

presentiment

or

the

saw

he

Teacher

endeavour,

prayer

he

the

thought,

it

discourse

learnt
to

the

pass

Then

This

change.

to

hint

insight.^

Buddhists

The

for

constant

least

the

even

of

from

family

When

he

himself

applied

of

heard

Order.

told,

are

good

heart

noviciate,

proceeded

months

three

obtain

to

he

and

the

receiving

what?

we

of

man

converted

starting-point

as

of

About

Prophets,

young

with

and

doctrine,

the

entered

years

uttered

was

perseverance.

Jetavana,

And

five

meditation.

discourse

Savatthi.

no

of

to

lusts, and

of

the

passed

went

Teacher.

from

had

Savatthi,

at

This

"

at

Successor

the

whilst

For

who

mendicant

etc.

while

One

Blessed

the

by

Ones"

Determined

**The

Eoad.

Sandy

leading
,

conviction

firm

leads

to

which

Rome,

so

insignificance

naturally
which
go
But

so

thought
and
;

it

to

his

the

find

might

of

may

any
be

acquire
of

the

finite

teacher,

and

disciple must

object may
by gradually
be

sense

of

individual.

done

of

taken,

difficulty
be

impermanence

the

in

work

The
this

doing
him

to

out

his

and

things. As every
the
starting-point

as

increasing

unassisted

recommend
own

taken

of

proportion

accordingly

were

ask

the

all finite

worked

near

things,

mind

certain

steps,
of

and

the

of

out

which

enlightenment.

way

he

the

realize

ignorant

examples
and

to

the

road
from
finite
inthe

would
way

in

disciple would
shoidd
adopt.

2."

148
Teacher

belong

said

there

to the

lowest

think, neither
of my
I

VANNUPATHA

will

live

Buddha,

And

His

forest ?

the

the

he

from

the

Teacher

devote

have

you

will

be, I

is the

good

glorious

of

the

said

the

Teacher,

person

of

the

sound

of

the

sweet

him,

Brother, you
subject of meditation, and

to

"

religioussolitude ; and
have
given yourselfup

yourself to
back, and

come

there

must

to Jetavana.

intimates

to

What

me.

the

hearing

returned

men;

E/cturningto

of

sight

and

us

this birth
for

Fruit

nor

of

kinds

In

friends

received

now

class.

within

and

Law.'*

left

in

four

were

Path

dwelling in

JATAKA.

Have
again to the pleasures of social intercourse.
you
then
attained
the
aim
of
those
have
utmost
who
really
Have
given up the world ?
escaped transmigration
you
?"i

Brethren

"

Fruit

thereof.

fated

to

and

be

You

us

him

to

and

creature;

Path

so

that

have

the

nor

am

back

come

attempt.'*

done

Brother

wrong,

after

taking vows

the

the

againsthis
Lord

Teacher

! that

mendicants

will.

! this

have

you
What

has

brother

the

of

aim

said,
this

brought
he

done

taken

having
abandoned

member

he

them,

saw

sanctifyinga faith, has


back

the

conclusion

to the

come

useless

neither

Teacher.

the

When

"

have

gained

religionof the Teacher whose firmness


immovable, to have
given up the attempt. Come,
show
this matter
And
to the Buddha."
they took

so

let

have

according to
is

have

the

given up
"

! I

the

of the

"

see,

brother

here

"

the

in

vows

endeavour

Order, and

to

has

so
complish
ac-

come

to us."

Then

the

said

Teacher

given up trying ?

to

him, "Is

it true

you

have

"

complete realization of the relation of the


of brotherhood,
things,will lead to that sense
great
is the
viz.
of humility,of holy calm, which
utmost
aim,"
Nirvana, and
from
its
result,escape
involves,as
transmigration.
^

successful

individual

to the

Kammatthana,
Sum

of

all

"

2,-

It is true, 0

"

How

"

is

to be

the

not

"

ROAD.

One

Blessed

such

to

of

man

"

who

the

in

water

Then

in resolution
But

^but

*'

and

few

alone

Tell

bom

in

went

about

One

the

The

taken

in the

After

the

charcoal,
who

so

established

in

that

had

no

brother

formerly

sandy desert,

of

at

that

risen
man

to travel

the

and

were

when

and

sandy

desert

could

One

manifest

walk

it took

as

on

grew

was

up,

he

carts.

twenty leagues
fine,that when

so

be

Buddha

he

desert

was

not

reigning in

future

five hundred
a

made

was

Kasi, the

it became

over

Blessed

of birth.

Brahma-datta

closed fist,it could


had

this

of five hundred

attention,he

family ;

arrived
sand

sun

bullocks

through change

country

he

across.

saved.

tell how

!" said

their

with
trafficking

day

waggons
were

that

yet you

mendicants

merchant's

energy

this was."

time, when

upon
in

Why,

story, besought of the

the

in

excited

thing concealed

Benares,

your

was

know

and

men

water

how

us

thus

having

hundred

brother

! We

; and

the

Listen, then, O

Once

five

that

words

trying now

up

obtained

saved.

By

sandy desert, and


?
give up trying,now

"

waggons

of

others, hearing that

his energy

by

irresolute

so

the

One, saying, Lord

given

yourself

the

Blessed
has

you

those

by

proved

the

"

is it that

How

bullocks

and

taken

now

full of determination.

were

men

obtained

have

desires,contented, separate from


"

alone

reply.

system, have

few

149

the

was

world, perseveringin effort

formerly you

SANDY

it,brother, that you,

according

vows

THE

kept
hot
it.

in
as

the
a

hand.

mass

of

fore,
Those, there-

wood, and

water, and

2."

150

rice

oil, and

and

their

in

And

night.

awning

an

travelled

and

carts;

formed

daybreak they

at

spread

JATAKA.

VANNUPATHA

early,they passed the day sittingin


they supped

their

they yoked
like

chosen, and

be

side

this

On

he

sea

in

that

shall

the

wood
be

to

and

arranged

the

on

the

stars, and

out

by

and

not

the

The

out,

"Stop

the

very

water
oxen,

the

line.

is all gone

had

we

We

But
these

the
will

yet cool.

on

seeing a

are

lost ! "

one

over

round

and

Towards

their

while
of

stars, called
The

Why,
Our

And

under

about

"

out,

yesterday !

tuft

asleep,

drawing

were

cried

men

worn

fell

waggons!''

Bodisat, saying to himself,

And

he

night through.

canopy

perish," walked

But

come.

left

down, in despondency, each

cushions

drive.

and, observing the

the

waggons

looking at

turned

had

they

directed

the

lay down

had

oxen

stop the

spreading the

he

pilot had

to

over

night

more

and

away,

stopped, and

Then

one

long march,

whole

waggons,

encampment

and

the

up,

to

other

passed

after supper

The

the

had

in

where

which

the

on

just as they
in

carts

by

pilotwoke

the

broke

road
went

oxen

dawn

them

perceivethat

same

he

cart, and

during

rest

pilot had

story traversed

our

when

out.

foremost

cool,

safe to the

of

thrown

set

so

sunset

stars.

sand," and

directing
of

want

did

taken

and

yoked;

At

travellingwas

land-

caravan

And

to be

water

meals

become

The

thought, "Now

of the

out

get

the

merchant

way.

had

on.

their

shade.

the

so-called

of the

the

fifty-nineleagues he
we

taking

ground

went

brought

occasion

desert

the

the

knowledge

his

by

and

oxen

over

voyage

the

when

and

encampment,

an

it, and

over

tlie

during

day
the

up
this

wood

unyoking

is

and
the

heads, they lay

his waggon.
"

If I lose
the

heart, all

morning

was

Kusa-grass,he thought^

2.-THE

This

"

have

must

there
And

he

made

they dug sixty

thus

far,

as

soon

beneath.

gurgling

lad, if you

My

you

lose

into

the

The

the

and

he

all drank

split

up

set,

they put

to

their

virtuous

the

their

full

good

deeds.

acts, and

of

old
And

the

sold

returned
age,
the

passed

and

then

Bodisat
away

well.

passed

the

his

sun

place
double

home,

away

to

the

at

gifts,and

according

they

rice, and

to

own

till

And

Then

when

their

struck

rose

cooked

went

in

by

fell below,

it.

And

gave

down

and

merchandise

to

Don't

stood

the

in

well, and
their

page.

go

water

in

axles, and
it.

his

and

And

bathed

with

water

lost.

determination,

and

it, and
of

and

all

they

and

the

blow."

palm-tree

water,

oxen

all be

stream.

under

to

called

split in two,

the

up

they

profit,and

of

rock

flag by

up

good

and

got upon

sound

hammer,

got

water

ear

the

shall

though

yokes

There

appointed.

to

and

he

out, and

iron

rock

the

the

extra

fed

it, and

this

be

his

heard

we

now,

up

height

of

their

ate

lived

got

blocked

the

was

treble

he

down
And

they

and

And

give

went

longer

its brim

he

obeyed,

stone.

no

And

Take

heart.

lad

it.

give

pit, and

despair,
at

of

had

despair.

well,

applied

down,

spot.

rock

must

the

into

that

they

on

in

up

There

"

descending

sound

the

tested

struck

diggers

thought,

when

And

deep.

the

stooping

and,

stone,

"

and

rock,"

cubits

in

dig

and

hoe

struck, they all gave

Bodisat

the

bring

of

spade

it

as

But
that

the

whicli

water

some

it."

them

And

IS

by attracting

grown

beneath

be

must

ROAD.

SANDY

and

according
did
deeds.

other

2."

VANNUPATHA

152

Buddha

the

"When

the

uttered

verse

The

2.

of

the

in

And

wise,

if

he

priest

is

(which
After

the

but
this

brother

the

attendants

whereof

Rest

for

efibrt.
his

heart

had
the

the

concluded,

despairing

in

Fruit,

highest

Four

the

the

page
and

stone,
without

the

Jataka,

up
who

at

time

that

water

gave

to

perseverance

on

stories,

two

the

summed

The

"

told

Arahatship

and

Buddha;

the

the

OF

THE

STORY

OF

THE

formed

saying,

despaired

the

multitude,
other

men

leader

caravan

SANDY

he

by

myself."

END

drink.

to

declared

he

discoursed,

had
and

the

broke

sand,

"

in

Teacher

conclusion,

in

the

Nirvana).

connexion,

the

Buddha,

as

continuing

by

not

he

when

into

on

found

they

weary

established

was

he,

story,

dug

strong

thus

had

And

Truths.

road

very

"

he

resolve

firm

the

so

Finds

When

the

A.

"

men

Till

told

had

ATA

ROAD.

not,
was

were

was

of tlie

streets

other

took

the

in

Now

in

the

All

abject poverty.

family

girland

one

their

gained
was

indeed

the

head

in the
of

the

it

but

did

At

not

time

the

along,callingout,
pots !

^'

him, she

saw

me

said

But

we

are

This

The

you

to her

long
And

pans.

gold.

hawker,

their

its

he

as

house.

grandmother,

"

going

was

water-

my

When

the

Mother

! do

girl
buy

is

ours

no

called

woman

take

take

What

shall

give

we

in

change
ex-

to

use

us

give

can

; you

that

get one."

old

to

dear.

"

of

dish

and

away

him

of

of

had

water-pots ! Buy

my

door

poor,

for it ?
"

Buy

"

which

days

pots and

of

was

the

There

of

out

two

ornament."

an
"

the

avaricious

to the

came

among
it

those

dirt, and

with

that

know

in

the

Only

hire.

gold

eat

covered

unused

even

that

was

to

of

and

for

others

in

lost.

been

left ;

were

vessel

used

house

brothers

property had

the

house

neglectedand

they

and

sons

living by serving

prosperity;
lain

the

grandmother

her

the

him, while

to

wealthy family reduced

was

all its

died, and

had

round

went

fell to him.

city there

that

allotted

street

that

street

Bodisat

them, the

citybetween

sellinghis goods

to

JATAKA.

Z."SERI-VANIJA

154

this.Sir, and

hawker,

him

seat, gave

the

the

and

after

dish, and

give something

asking

said,

Will

"

little sister^

to your

for it?"
The

gold !

"

back

with

hoping
said,

took

hawker

"

turning it roimd,

And

to

the dish, and

needle, and

found

get the dish without


is this

What
1

On

worth

this mode

of

thought,
he

This

"

scratched

that

giving
It is not

it

was

them
even

see
politeness
above, p.

be

must

line

on

its

Then

so.

anything, he
worth
70.

haK-

Z."

And

penny."
his

which

it

allowed

child, the
the

in

this

looks

called

they

thousand.

All

ground,

and
It

of

the

was

on

to

give

got

now

My

"

dish

surly man

kind

when

voice

but

perchance

in

in

come

He

dish

this

who

and

is worth

sat

it

that

saw

was

hundred

possessionare

my

equal

not

have

been

make

we

gave

pieces),and

carry

his

and

things

penny.
halfthe

gold by

present of

cash

it.

them

of

bag
with.

in

had

he

hand

stock-in-trade, worth

all his

the

it."

take

asked

He

more.

the

on

into

you

all the

them

worth

not

was

changed

trifle for it,and

some

it

it

threw

just now

came

saying

away,

virtue, so

your

to

had

he

dish.

goods

eight pennies,

used

has

the

Mother

"

must

five hundred

and

him

went

(fivehundred

keep

have

to her

said,
the

threw

now

to

up

girl spoke

grandmother

dear,

And

him.

Bodisat

The

he

mother

But, Sir, a hawker

us

that

!"

it in value

Give

into

came

"

gave

said,

power

the

what

pleasant,and

gold, and

"

the

just
;

street

him, then," said she.

Call

So she

to

And

came

the

to enter

it."

take

down,

from

up

water-pots,"came

my

But

away

merchant,

he may
"

exchange

one

155

Bodisat

the

house.

who

went

hawker

And

Buy

"

before.

dealer

That

"

left.

very

as

floor,and

him

had

that

grandmother

SERL

ground, he got

the

on

to either

callingout,
of

OF

away.

the other

door

the

went

was

street, and

it

throwing

seat, and

Now,

MERCHANT

THE

and

only
the

And

to

let him

yoke

these

he

that
took

departed.

And

going quickly to

pennies to

boatman,

the

and

river-

got

side,he gave

into

the boat.

those

eight

JATAKA.

Z.-SERI-VANIJA

156
that

But
said

Bring

"

hawker

covetous

house, and

to tlie

dish, I'll give you

that

out

back

came

for

something

it!''
Then

dish, worth
But
us

gave

lost

have

bitter

scatteringthe

he

carried

after the

the

he
away,

And

cried

he

said,

the

other

unable

was

all the

club

the

"

to

And
retain
And

goods,
yoke by

at

the

which

pursued

clothes, and

off his

"

out,

the

saw

Hallo,

that

first time

very

stop !

Don't

gazed

his

in the

Bodisat

Boatman

spot his
Devadatta

Bodisat

gave

heat

"

and

stop

gazed
grief;
mouth
of the

at the

his
until
sun

harboured

departing

heart
his

grew
heart

destruction.

own

prevented

so

againstthe Bodisat,

hatred

that

and

violent

from

flowed

harbouring
on

"

with

torn

was

like tank-mud

"

Thus

the

and

blood

hot, and

about

he

worth

0,

"

altogether!

me

river- side, he

the

as

Bodisat, he

broke

as

tore

reached

Bodisat

the

that.

this

!"

boat
But

them, and

away."

Bodisat.

When

going

worth

had, and

he

money

master,^

your

lost all self-command.

he

house, he seized

of the

had

; and

penny.
half-

out, "Through

ruined

has

him, and

of mind

his presence

door

He

overcame

sorrow

called

he

it

taken

golden pot

thousand

hundred

this

be

to

gold

our

worth

not

was

has

said

You

"

seems

it,and

for

heard

he

When

fellow

just dealer, who

thousand

thousand,

hundred

said,

him, and

scolded

she

hatred

he

brought
This

was

againstthe

Bodisat.
But
and
^
as

the

passed
The

away

reader

easilyhere

to

gifts,and

according

will not

irony as

take
her

this too

to his

did

good acts,

deeds.

seriously.

gratitudeabove

other

finds

The

old

turns
lady'sscorn
in
expression flattery.

Z."

It

when

was

that

he,

the

If

in

You

fail

Like

So

the

to

up

And

Truths.
had

given

made

the

The

dealer

wise

END

of

enumeration

sinning.
State

only

can

neglects

the
births

other

salvation

expect
and

4.

now.

foolish

six

5.

reached

be

before
in

some

who

monk

established

told

in

double

the
the

up

the

he

story,

Jataka

by

Devadatta,

was

is

THE

will

in

birth

within

"time

of

other

1.

Energy.

then

and

MERCHANT

perhaps

divisions:

Learning.

salvation

the

was

dealer

OF

State

its

Four

the

on

cluding,
con-

the

but

myself."

STORY

Happy

the

dwelt

to

as

manner

discourse

summed

and

THE

OF

What

was

the

had

Teacher

then

such

Mrvana.

is, in

connexion,

the
**

that

when

in

despondency

"

And

of

end

in

up

Fruit

highest

the

at

Seriva.

Arahatship,

of

subject

"

Remorse

of

man

verse

State

deep

discoursing

Teacher,

the

lead

trading

discourse,

Grace,

Happy

suffer

you

this

of

the

this

following

time

reach

to

will

Long

the

present

157

finished

had

uttered

this

SERI.

OF

Buddha

Buddha,

as

3.

MERCHANT

THE

6.
as

one's

grace"
future

OF

hest

be

Faith.

of
If

man.

reach,

may

round
;

it

from

This

born

as

pass

only

It
be

of

Happy
man,

many

again.
can

the

Fear

3.

Mind.

being

one

comes

world

understood

Modesty.

2.

Presence

SERI.

one

ages
is

gained

folly

in
to

here,

No.

4.

JATAKA.

CULLAKA-SETTHI

The

"The

One

Eajagaha,

uttered,

man"
at

the

Elder

Treasurer.

This

etc.

while

concerning

the

Chullaka

wise, far-seeing

Blessed

the

of

Story

discourse

the

"

Jivaka's

Mango-grove

whose

name

near

Eoadling

was

Younger.

Younger
house

in

had

discover

parents
Let

pieces.

there."

So,

us

to

go

privately together

did

not

if the

us

friends

he

But
us

let

The

the
;

Parables,

pp.

61-68,

of

the

Bhommapada

p.

181)

to

to

the

have

present

been

story

as

is

about

take

be

this

to

said

hy
of

him.

lived

far

gone

saying,
for

where

I
!

again
all

together

was

hard

place
home

go

known.

husband,

it will

us

is used

Jataka

introduction

spoken

her

it

place,

be

she

went

the

"

of

both
have

no

"

while,

"

Let

to-morrow."

go

the

when

us

dwell

they

some

not

slip by, saying

days
us

in

tear

and

had,

place, they

to

Let

introductory story

would

and

were

let

they

with
;

relations.

to-day

go
^

confinement
and

dwell

And

child

with

gone

and

certain

consulted

she

child,
far

where

will

they

they

out

stay here.

country,

things

go

conceived.

she

and

with
am

in

settling

there,

to

where,

matter

few

the

taking

far-off

find

can't

wrongdoing,

some

intimacy

would

"We

"

wealthy

an

people

him,

to

this

out

And

said

of

contracted

that

the

Roadling

daughter

had

afraid

she

done,

The

say,

being

how

explained

born.

E-ajagaha, they

she
my

be

to

be

to

slave, and

what

ought

came

in

with

If

it

here

Now

the
Little

to

in

Rogers's

different

Commentator

Eoadling,

Birth
that

on

and

it

Buddhagosha'

Story.

would

book

Verse

25

(Fausboll,
aptly

lit very

I
^."CHULLAKA

Then
home

she

THE

TREASURER.

sillyfellow

thought, "This

because his offence has been

are, after

all,true

will be better for

friends.

her

out, she

not

But

goes

go

parents
not, it

or

set her

house

neighboursthat

to the house ; and

her, and learned

he

home, she started

own

returned

man

great.

so

Whether

he had gone
So, as soon
as
order, and tellingher nearest

going to

dares

go."

to

me

159

inquiryfrom

her

on

was

The

way.
could not

he

when

she

in

find

neighboursthat she
had gone home, he followed her quickly,
and came
up to
her halfwayon the road.
of
labour had
There the pains
justseized her. And he accosted her, saying,"Wife,
what

What

"

The

"

the

stop!

the

"

is this ?

Husband, I have givenbirth

"

on

on

shall

very
road.

we

do

now

thingwe

were

What's

the

"

to

she.
son,"replied

said he.

goinghome for has happened


of going there ?
Let us
use

"

So
was

not

saying,
they both agreedto stop.
born on
the road, they called him
long after she conceived again,and

before

; and

that child

as

too

called the firstborn Great

was

born

Roadling,and

And

as

the

child

E-oadling.JSTow
all took placeas
the road, they
on
the second

Little

And

taking the two babies with them, they


back to the placewhere they were
went
living.
And
whilst they were
there
this
child of the
Kving
road heard
other children
talking about uncles, and
grandfathers,and grandmothers; and he asked his
mother, saying,"Mother, the other boys talk of their
and grandmothers. Have
uncles, and grandfathers,
we
Roadling.

relations ?

no

"

relations here,
have
You
dear !
no
Certainly,
my
rich gentleman,at Rajabut you have a grandfather,
a
gaha ; and there you have plentyof relations."
"

"

Then

Then

why

don't

she told him

we

the

go

there,mother

reason

"

of their not

said he.

going.

But

^."CULLAKA-SETTHI

60

when

said

it, she

spoke

her

to

Can
?

Well, I myself daren't

*'

will take

These

let
the

on

make

us

tinually
con-

and

us

the

eat

boys

quainted
ac-

face to

face, but

there."

you

Yery well, then ; any way


acquainted
ought to be made
family."
they

are

grandfather's side."

them

meet

about

again

children

like

"

So

and

parents kill

our

Come,

TAKA.

again

*'

relatives

their

with

her

to

husband,

troublingme.
they see us

when

us

children

the

JA

took

two

the

you
with

the

their

grandfather's
in

children, and

children

due

course

Rajagaha, and put up at a chowltrie (a public


And
the mother,
at the gate of the town.
resting-place)
of her arrival.
taking the two boys, let her parents know
When
they heard the message,
they sent her back word
arrived

following effect

to the

is

at

unheard-of

an

in

stand
and

children
the

dwell

and

go

so

sight.

our

to the

children
And

Roadling used
Buddha
preach ;

Great
the
from

the

of

mouth

grandfather,
"

to

with

If you

such

sum,

But

the
took

daughter

handing

her

over

go.

grandfather'shouse.
of

younger

the

but

two,

his

grandfather to hear
by constantlyhearing the Truth

go

Teacher

of

renunciation

towards

daughters

like.

their

in their
the

and

may

and

let them

much

the

two

sent,

up

and

such

And

here."

grew

was

take

they

messengers,

Roadling

Little

them

parents

children

the

Let

send

her

and

sons

among

wherever

they may

money

be without

ordinarypeople ; ^ but these


deeply against us, that they cannot

thing

sinned

have

two

To

"

the

would

himself, his mind


And

world.

he

said

it, I should

allow

turned
to

his

the

enter

Order."
''

What
"

man.

you
1

not

enter

are

Of

you

saying,my

all persons

in the

Order.

Become

the

Literally,"those
Arahats, whose
conviction.

subject to

natural

desires

child
world
a

"

answered

I would

monk

by

that
transmigration,"
have

not

given

way

old

the

rather

have

all means,
is,those
before

who

intense

if
are

gious
reli-

^."

62

lie

with

confusion

commit

neither

to

of

consequence
dull ;

became
learnt

the

able

been

not

reach

to

world

the

to

learnt

he

trying

was

of

he

could
In

as

initiated,

soon

he

as

learn

to

this

away.
him

to

those

whelmed
over-

passage.

line he

said

out

away,

so

though

now,

passed

of

aim

was

the

"

who

the

Hoadling, you

discipline. In four
learn a single stanza,

utmost

Go

had

brother

this

recite

he

whilst

and

brother

contempt, that

nor

conduct

months

fit for

not

his

by

forgot each

elder

his

Then
are

next

That

memory,

this

he

four

verse

JATAKA,

recitation.

learning a

was

one

CULLAKA-SETTHI

months

you

have

how

you

hope

can

have

up

the

And

he

given
!

monastery

"

But
Little
expelled him.
E-oadling,out of love for the
religionof the Buddhas, did not care for a layman's life.
time
the elder Roadling's duty to
Now
it was
at that
And
the
regulatethe distribution of food to the monks.
Jivaka

nobleman
and

going

his

to

and

from

seat, he

Great
there

with

the

Teacher

five

hundred,"

"

Will

the

take

their

morning

One

called

Little

makes

no

as

pline

to

so

me

now?
such

do

the

day

the

world.

the

five hundred

brethren

are

reply.

to-morrow

brethren
at

our

come

house

disciple,is dull,

faith ; but

overheard

he

this, and
the

monks,

leave

to

alms, and
next

the

Eoadling,

many

been

has

me

to

up

accept the

"

and

tion
invita-

excepting him."

accepting for
manner

rising

going

many

was

meal

in the

Roadling

Little

"How

Then,

and

Buddha,

the

to

"

and

Buddha

progress

for all

for

About

"

the

him,

"

and

asked

Boadling,

discourse.

the

flowers,

them

presented

grove

to

saluted

sweet-scented

many

Mango-

listened

Teacher,
his

brought

broken.
I

good
went

What's

must

deeds
away,

Elder

Surely

out.

me

thought,

become
as

the
a

Though

"

accepts in such
my

brother's

good of
layman,

laymen can."
saying he would

this
and

And

love
dis-

give
early

re-enter

^."CHULLAKA

Kow

tlie

early in

Teaclier,very

the

surveyed

TREASURER.

THE

world, became

tlie
of

aware

163
lie

when

morning,

And

matter.^

this

going out before him, he remained


walking up and down
by the gateway on the road along which Little Roadling
would
have to
he left the
And
Little Roadling, as
pass.
the Teacher, and
house, saw
going up to him, paid him
Then

reverence.

Little

said

Teacher

! whither

Roadling
morning P

the

the

are

going

you

"How

him,

to

now,

this

at

in

time

"

"Lord!

brother

my

has

expelled me,

again in the ways of


under
Eoadling! It was
religiontook place. When
to
why did you not come

"Little
of
you,

layman's
And

life

he

of his

advantage

took

for

cloth, created

the

him

gave

Roadling, stay here, sitting with


and

rub

the

this

words,

"

''

impurity !

piece of

a
"

me

front

in

white

very

said, "IN^ow, Little

and

purpose,

him

seated

pelled
ex-

will

stay with

may

fession
pro-

your

What

me

"

brother

your

E-oadling,and

Little

apartment, and

own

You

you

that

me

going

am

world

the

to wander

away

so

face

your

the

to

East,

repeating to yourself
The
removal
The
of
of impurity !
removal
And
time
so
was
saying he went, when
cloth

called, to Jivaka's

and

up

down,

house, and

down

sat

the

on

seat

pared
pre-

for him.^
But
did

Little
the

so,

piece

of

soiled.
And

he

me,

The

world
could
2

the
of

just

the

seniority.

white

condition, and
all
and

component
death, and

This

"

and

now,

is become

things !
the

"

eyes

is

dailymeal

invited

refection

thought,

he

as

his mind's

benefit

monks

he

and

frequently representedin the later books as bringing the


thus perceivingwhom
he
eye in the morning, and
during the day.

Buddha

before

When

opened

were

desired

exceeding

now

lost its former

it has

was

soiled, and

became

was

he

as

Changeable indeed are


felt the realityof decay

of his mind
1

cloth

cloth

through

did

Roadling

"

being

was

there

went

set

up,

to be
as

and

soon

sat

served
as

in the

the time

themselves

house
was

down

of

some

announced
in

the

layman,
by

the

order

of

"

all

call
their

^."CULLAKA-SETTHI

164

the

Teacher, knowing that

tlie

Then

JATAKA.

of

eyes

mind

his

opened, sent forth a gloriousvision of himself, which


in visible
form, and
appeared as if sittingbefore him
saying, Little Roadling ! be not troubled at the thought
were

"

has

this cloth

that

thee, too,

stanzas

must

to the

This

to the

the

as

of the

Stainless

this

Word

of the

Stainless

is the

"

who
to the

stanzas

his

from

thought,

its former

this

Word

of the

Stainless

about

all

doctrine

incident

One

it to

all

understood
been

gifts of an
the Scriptures.
king, who, as he

city,and the sweat


forehead, wiped the top of his
When

robe.

this

body
has

the

the
pure

things !

his conversion.

the

transfer

robe

became

white

robe

soiled.

become

impermanency.
of

intellectual

the

the

round

component

of

stain.

finished. Little Roadling attained

condition, and

are

the

By

"

for delusion.

right word

told, he had

white

his pure

One

put away

were

are

we

going

once

stain

the

stain.

have

Arahatship, and with


Arahat
by them he
; and
ago,

for anger.

right word
put away

to

Long

One

reallyis

have

'

stain

'
"

live up

Who

Word

is the

stain.

this

that

stain

for lust.

right word

anger,

the

dust, but delusion, that reallyis the stain:

monks

'Tis the

that

but

these

uttered

put away

"

who

It is not

the

vision

have

'

stain

*
"

live up

Who

indeed

the

Within
sin ;

and

care

lust,that reallyis

dust, but

monks

'Tis the

he

and

And

is the

"

who

It is not

This

'

stain

*
"

live up

Who

with

"

dust, but

monks

'Tis the

down

lust

stained.

and

This

was

of

remove

It is not

And

soiled

so

stains

the

are

thou

these

become

"

It

And
was

of

forehead

dirty,
has

lost

Changeable
so

on

trickled

he
this

realized
account

impurity brought

^."CHULLAKA

But

to

brought
The
"

return

to the

Teacher

Are

to

monks

Lord,
Nay, my
Great
Roadling.
there

Jivaka
find

sent

whether

out

nobleman,

in the

monastery,

there

are

presentation.
said,

"

Jivaka

there," said

monks

no

and

hand,

Jivaka," said the Master.

are,

then

his

with

vessel

the

"

"But

of

the so-called water

Buddha

no

165

Jivaka, the

story.

our

covered

there

TREASURER.

THE

saying,

man,

there

are

Do

"

monks

any

then, and

go,

you

the

at

not

or

monastery."
At

that
there

says

are

And

are."

Little

moment

thousand

filled

monks,

robes,

here

monks

no

he

Roadling thought,

the

Mango-

unlike

each

him

there

priests a
some
making
repeating the

with

grove
other

and

brother

My

show

will

the

repairing them,

some

"

"

some

"

Scriptures.
The

back, and

went

is alive
It

with

told

Jivaka,

monks

the

at

Sir, the whole

"

monastery,

Mango-

grove

monks."

reference

with

was

all these

seeing

man,

to

this

that

of

it is said

him,

that

"

Roadling, multiplying himself


Sate in the
to the

the

Then
"

say,

pleasantMango-grove

fold.

till he

bidden

was

feast."

Teacher

told

Teacher

The

thousand

the

sends

to

messenger
for

him

who

again, and

go

Little

is called

Roadling."
So
the

he

came,

Eoadling
they
"

am

so.
am

called

Then

Little

But

from

Little

thousand

Roadling

monks
Little

am

"

returned, and

man
are

said
"

answer

The

and

went

Little

said,

Why,

"

Sir, they all say

"

Eoadling !
go and take by the hand
and the rest
E-oadling,'

the

will

first who

'

says

disappear."

^"CULLAKA-SETTHI

66

And

lie did

Elder
And

the

with

said,

Elder,

spiritof

all the

Then

the

the

to

of

at

short

Roadling's

And

he

lion

utters

did

benedictive

from

rose

bowl

And

so.

And

of

when

the

his

his

the

Blessed

the

discourse

and

seat

of

monks

One

returned

his

body
completed

and

arose,

meditation.

the

had

discoursed

apartment,

subject
assembly, entered

them,

to

He

standing

then

fragrant chamber,

pounding
pro-

dismissed

and

lay down

to rest.

In

the

placesin
Teacher's

with

hall

of
"

curtain

of

learn

as

not

mastery
with

the

intellectual

single meal,
Scriptures!
Buddhas

And
had

the

arisen

from

over

his

and

by

Ah

Truth,

those

Little

Little

he

powers

how

great

One,

knowing

is

he could

rivalled
by his unArahatship,

him
the

of

space

all the

understood
the

were

Roadling, and

Buddha,
gave

it

as

months

thereof, in

powers

of

power

the

"

Blessed
in the

hall, determined

couch, he

put

flowers,issued
Roadling

has

now

with
him

from

become

that
to

his

on

girded himself
lightning,gathered round
kamala

the

the

Brethren, his

"

in four

but

the

garment,

as

flowers !

because

stanza;

one

themselves

capacityof

dullard

that

kamala

diiFerent

began uttering

surrounding

the

from

collected

instruction,and

sweet

knew

expelledhim

monks

thus

praises,

elder brother

not

the

evening
the

lenge,
chal-

his

(monastery),accompanied by

the

young

addressed

over,

Little

the

Scriptures.

daily duties,
door

Teacher

Wihara

the

was

benediction."

into

mendicants.

their

Jivaka, take

the

compressed

meal

the

fearlesslyas

as

otliers

disappeared,and
messenger.^

the

*^

will pronounce

the

the

Teacher, when

Jivaka, and
he

And

so.

returned

JATAKA.

an

go

this
there

conversation
; and

rising

orange-coloured under

his

belt

as

it

were

with

his wide

red

his

and

flowing robe
fragrant chamber,

Elder, a

monk

of the

higher

of

the

proceeded
peculiar

tlie

to

of

midst
of

midst

peculiar
rises
the

soon

mendicants

looked

mildly

assembly

is most

of

sound

no

of

all

the

these

behoves
be

first

the

addressed

talk
"

worldly

it

through
The
Then
been

me

monks
the
hidden

it

the

him

through

now

Teacher

the

""

has

with

is

been

praises

thy

subject
"

became
asked

Blessed

great
great

the

Buddha

One

made

by change

of

in

birth.

!
in

for

to

will
he

which
is

of

talk

telling !
When

Little

religion

It

the

"

place

talk.

their

Mendicants

become

me

of

voice

what

and

by

first.

angelic
subject

one

myself

and

are

we

If

not

speak

interrupted?
this

stirs,

blinded

and

to

the

The

speaking,

sweet

the

thought,

heard

be

can

is

What

of

foot

nor

majesty

sitting in

said,

he

hand

venture

And

not

are

thing

told

the

and

him,

conversation,

"

that

we

illumines

silent.

yourselves together here,

you

Lord

it

when

and

were

without

would

brethren

seated

among

they

speak

to

the

have

you

by

the

begin

not

long

"

and

sneezing

or

Buddha

to

me

the
rays

assembly

round

kindly

awed

"

in

sun

young

in, the

seemly

life

my

men

of

glory

himself

horizon,

talking

and

coughing

sit here

to

were

the

came

their

stopped

Teacher
This

Buddha

the

as

in

Buddha

six-coloured

those

the

on

ascending

the

seated

depths

ocean

As

mountains

for

of

tread

And

pride.

he

like

of motion

grace

majestic

ready

emitting

Buddhas,

the

over

made

throne

the

to

his

splendid hall,

the

the

of

time

the

the

like

throne

magnificent

the

'*

in

167

surpassing

tliat

with

Buddhas,

elephant

mighty
the

tlie hall

to

TREASURER.

THE

^."CHULLAKA

"

he

Roadling
;

any
And

heard
has

now

formerly

how

this

riches.'^
to

explain

manifest

that

which

was.

had

^.

68

in the

and

family;

treasurer, and

to attend

going

was

lying

the

on

is

This

for the

With

said, *'A

he

took

and

the mouse,

cat, and

got

gave

them

They

flower

went

the

That

been

price

taking

the

day

picked.

in

this

certain

it.
water

the

by

water

the

of flowers ; and

bought
to

went

garland-makers

In

without

took

and

potful of water,

thinking,

flowers, he

the

of

fallen

returning from

bunch

flowering shrubs

away,

had

blossoms

each

him

gave

; and

garden.

they

as

trade

then

thing

molasses, with

of

bits

with

day,

molasses

more

the
eyes

farthing for

forest,he

next

start

it away

gave

seeing garland-makers

the

of

with

said, and

farthing he bought molasses,

ladle-full.^

mouse

state

up,

such

say

And

the

he

as

dead

fellow

official

the

wouldn't

of the

use

the

day

good birth,

pot.

in

saw

young

of

man

what

who

man

good reason,"
shop

One

considering

young

poverty, heard

into

king

wise

was

wife."

certain

he

omens.

post of

the

And

might, by picking this thing

support

Now

and

time, he

in his head
and

the

upon

road;

the

at

stars

all

treasurer's

received

he

ChuUaka.^

understood

in

born

was

up

grew

called

was

skilful, and

and

"

he

when

reigning in Benares,

was

Kasi, the Bodisat

of

land

Brahmadatta

when

Long ago/

JATAKA.

CULLAKA-SETTHI

"

from

which

way

in

gave
half

the

him,
the

little time

gained eight pennies.

he

Some

time

dry

sticks

the

wind
of

way
1

the

With

and

this

'

'

Ulugka,'

Choollacker

poor.

leaves
and

The

of them.

story compare
half

and

king's garden,

getting rid

Pronounce

rainy windy day, a quantity

branches

in the

Indian

after, on

cocoa-nut

Katha
with

the

Sarit

shell,the

the

on

common

Book

the first
form

down

gardener

young

Sagara,

accent

blown

were

went

man

VI.

saw

29

vv.

and

of

by
no

and
foil.

syllable.
of cup

or

ladle

among

^.-^CULLAKA-SETTHI

lyo

througliall
thousand

that

pennies

will

be

carriage that

attendants

and

his

taking

merchants

seat

from

came

had

orders

for

outside

not

for

the

far

oflP,

when

that

men

should

he

eight

great show

deposit

his

to

He

port.

pitched

tent

sea

all its proper

port with

seal-ringas

gave

the

to

by

informed

be

of

tripleceremony.^

On

that

hearing

merchants

told,

were

of

merchant

depositfor
On

ship

from

came

They

and

such

Each

deep.

of

thousand
and

him

had

as

the

for

thus

to

great

already paid

merchants

him

agreed
then

in

footmen

his

the

upon

"

him

gave

then

ship, and

relinquish hi8 remaining

to

themselves

made

they

and

been

shareholders

become

to

another

goods :

has

place

hundred

goods.

the

have

went

arrival,

their

thousand

the

buy

to

can't

You

hearing this, they

three

arrived, about

Benares

"

such

had

them."

announced

share

he

trader

hire, with

the

to

his

the

come

for

driving

Then

ship's cargo.

it with

for

grass

good plan," got

was

respectability,
gave

friend

had

large vessel

"This

thinking,

and

man's

young

his

afterwards

days

told him

of

the

city,bought

pence.

few

the

JATAKA.

of

the

taking

with

owners

cargo.

So
him

two

"

announced

attendant

But
can

course

he

scarcelybe intended
paying for

to

thousand

should

the cargo.

have
to

Benares,

And

from

which

knock,"

another

to

The

master.

access

as

ceremony.
That
is,twice
of

them

to tbeir

great consequence,
much

threefold

to

returned

thousand.^

with

attendant

third

pupil

hundred

Literally,

outside
the

Chullaka's

him

was

so

The

omission

the

be

that

mean

to

be

attended

hundred

priceof the
led him

slipof

the

the

third, and

appeared to

of the

his acuteness
must

to

and
difficult,

piecesfrom each
paid out of this sum

suggest that

take

attendant, he

latter thus

feeling of

to go

man

with

of
so

merchants.
It
cargo.
out
off with-

story-teller's.

^"CHULLAKA

gratitude, lie
ChuUaka
"

"It

the whole
And

within

get into

family
the

when

was

the

Buddha,

thus

great in

became

he

double

his
lad

he

gave
him

made

him

But

tale,

as

this

him

his

heir

to

died, he

treasurer

treasurer.

have

mouse.

such

the

told

and

heard

So

when

finished

had

the

the

Bodisat

and

his discourse

followingverse
nurse

that

tiny flame,

far-seeingman.

the

smallest

raise himself
Blessed

to

capital.
!

wealth
made

One

plain

what

he

had

Roadling has now


through
religion; but formerly through me
Little

thus

given

story, he

made

the

by concluding,
Little

was

was

END

dead

let

to

had

Jataka

pupil

he

that

me

he

great in riches."

When

the

him,

his deeds.

might

said

marriage, and

city

with

the

Mendicants

become

to

get all

to

man,

treasurer

do

Buddha

able

Can
was

the

high

And

of

one

E'en

"

in

uttered

The

said,

said

according to

As

It

months,"

never

estates.

post

passed away

as

you

else's hands."

one

daughter

received

he,

what

to

the

It will

"

any

grown-up

It

four

ChuUaka

thought,

good

went

asked

treasurer

my

story,beginning with

when

all the

doing,

by adhering

acquired it

the

and

"

was

171

thousand

Then

been

you

TREASURER.

hundred

treasurer.

have

this wealth

he

took

the

"What

THE

OF

"

Eoadling,
myself."

THE

STORY

OF

this

lesson, and

connexion,
He
but

CHULLAKA

who

was

ChuUaka

THE

and

then
the

told

summed

the
up

ChuUaka's

high

TREASURER.

surer
trea-

No.

5.

TANDIJLA-NALI

JATAKA.

The

TThat

"

is the
told

Teacher
called
At

that

held
the
a

the

office

food-

tickets

better
when

day

Dabba

know
tickets

the

When
him

give

by birth,
he

sometimes

crying
of

kind.

he
"

out,

One

threw

the
should

Why

how

us

issued

received

inferior

kind,

other

any

Mallian

give

to

out

of

he

rice

in

Feer

they

then,

gave

do

the

Journal

tickets

did

he

out

which

the

Well,

"

distribute

to

them

and

disorder,

you

"

began

giving

when

Leon

to-day

into

saying,

tickets,

day

better

office

the

threw

know

not

Asiatique,

which

in

nor

worse,

vol.

1876,

the

to

which

viii.

ii.

pt.

510-525.

pp.
2

of

Compare

the

monk

When

an

inferior

confusion,
than

TJdayin

sometimes

into

tickets

but

the

meant

about

Order.^

morning,

the

thus

that

Order

^This
"

"

the

From

Dabba,

received

basket

out

the

better

he

the

etc.

Jetavana,

at

the

in

rice, and

hall

distribution-

steward

in

he

of rice^^

7neasure

named

Elder

of

of

kind

Riee.^

Simpleton.

the

time

of

sojourning

the

TJdayin

of

value

while

Measure

that

seeing
a

other
steward

customs

offered

belonging

giving

the

it

monastery,
to
exchange

of

senior

monk

who

with

their

daily

{e.ff.above,

are

distribution.

Absence

was

provided

were

stewardship

the

4.

steward,

provide

the

tickets

regulating

ignorance.

to

to

them
for

or

hrethren

all the

layman

food

qualifications
from

TJddesika,

Bhatt'

The

fear.

p.

162)

distributed

was

at

the

said

to

2.

6.

Good

sense

to

storehouse.
be:

1.

of

temper.

had
food.

sometimes
the

duty
times
Some-

grain,

monks
The

by

or

the

necessary

Knowledge

justice.

the

3.

of
Freedom

the

b."THE

storehouse

the

better

When

fixing

what

storehouse

the

monks

scratch

the

the

OF

turns, too, he
monk's

taken

wall

or

RICE.

and

kept

was

each

had

on

MEASURE

in

did

the

floor,to show

and

such

kind

of rice

had

for such

and

such

kind

of rice

thus

were

fewer,

more,

had
So

mark

he

gave

monks

the

mark
was

out

said to

high, or

such

But

but

would

when

make

that

the

come

thus

far, and

far.

But

low

the

in hall.

monks
down

turn

next

When

; when

they
too
high up ; but ignoring the
the tickets according to the signs
too

was

him,

storehouse, the

Brother

And

low."

too

"

Udayin ! the mark


again, The good rice is
"

inferior

"

mark

such

it be

is the

why

so,

I will

you

house."^
store-

trust

"

rather

in

rice

repelledthem, saying, If
different ?
Why should I trust
he

mark
the

fewer

or

worse.

made.

is too
in

more

the

the

right turns,
he

either

were

come

places,he

on

the

distinguishto

not

their

for such

day there
they were

which

had

turn

175

boys and novices cast him out from the hall of


distribution,exclaiming, When
you give tickets.Brother
You
are
Udayin, the brethren
deprived of their due.
are
incapableof the ofilce. Leave the place!
tion.
in the hall of distribuThereupon a great tumult arose
Then

the

"

"

Teacher

The

What

is the

The

is

"There

Elder,

noise

Elder

in

great tumult, Ananda,

about

told

Ananda

of

asked

it, and

heard

the

hall.

"

Successor

the

the

of

the

how

Prophets

it

was.

Then

he

said,

"

Not

his

stupiditybring

the

same."

word

not

am

of

Possiblywe
monk

whose

inferior

sure

doubtful

kind

should

that

loss

understood

I have

derivation, which
translate

dates
seniority
to the

only, Ananda, does Udayin by


others, formerly also he did
upon

now

monk

"

from

whose

The
such

has
turn

and

rightlythe meaning
only

been

found

rice has

for the better


such

dates
seniority

of vassaffffa,"a.
this passage.

in

and

year,
such
from

the

and

come

turn

such

to

the

for

the

year."

6."

74

The

Elder

asked

Then

matter.

He
and

At

both

that

so,

he

to the

given
Now

the

thought,

long

be

not
to

"

And

used

king

keeping
post

his

his

in

that

kind;

the

kind

and

price for

proper

wealth

having

the

in his
in

in

goods

avarice

this way,
house

my

he

it will

will

come

valuer."

and

looking

into

out

the

stupidmiserly peasant crossing the

determined

he

And

estimates

window,
a

asked

make

to

if he

could

; and

would
the

his

valuer

undertake

king, with

safer, established

treasure

the
the

and

office.

object of

that

fool

value

the

in

the

of valuer.
the

Thenceforward
and

rence
occur-

his Yaluer.

was

things of

that

appoint another

saw

said he

man

of

covetous.

all the

sending for him,


The

an

Benares,

Bodisat

our

the

valuer

before

palaceyard, he

in

king

things

was

this

Him

manifest

thereof.

owners

If

that

explain

to

made

was

have

to

opening

yard.

One

horses, elephants,or

I will

end.

an

TAKA.

of birth.

time

jewelry, gold, or

done

One

Brahma-datta

ago,

valued

Blessed

Blessed

by change

of Kasi.

land

JA

the

the

hidden

Long

TANDULA-NALI

dullard

elephants,paying

deciding just
to the

ISTow
horses

fellow, and
hundred

the
had

horses

chose

as
office,

at that

from

he

as

time

no

he

at

horses
a

mere

regard
:

and

to

their

to

since

decided, so

horse-dealer

northern
the

used

measure

he

the

And
of

value, but

had

been

pointed
ap-

price was.

brought

prairies.The
valued.

real

horses

king

five
sent

he valued

rice,and

hundred
for that
the

five

straightway

b."THE

ordered
and

tlie horse-dealer

the

horses

horse-dealer
had

what

thus

what

of

can,

there

we

want

horse-dealer

the

king

royal

of

'

him

ours

are

you

value
If

he

and

presence,

do.

from

you
?

him

ask

know

to

Can

the

and

horses

the

told

should

"

rice,

Then

and

he

he,

is worth.

And

value

can

taking him

And

it for

he

says

will be

the

us

bribe, and

him,

and

the

to

go

him

said,

went

the

All

"

hint

right!

you."

audience-hall," said he;


into

went

other

many

advice,

gave

of rice for

with

Bodisat

the

took

Bodisat's
and

him,

measure

then, let

"Well,
and

bribed

he

your

the

accepted

valuer, and

the

suggested.
I

rice,but

into

stable.

what

many

of

measure

valuer,

him

place by

75

too."

The
to

former

so

your

him

with

go

the

that

of rice

measure

the

fellow," said

now

measure

in

asked

to that

know

standing in

us,

and

RICE.

given

lodged
the

to

bribe

We

'

worth

went

OF

to be

be

to

happened,

Gfive

"

MEASURE

the

king's presence.

ministers

there

went

also.
horse-dealer

The
"I

acknowledge,
of the

value

be ?

rice may
The
"

king,

How
"

"

"

and

the

valuer

not

knowing

valuer, what
of

The

horses

but

king, and
of

measure

the value

what

are

what

will

rice
the

of the

had

said,
is the

king

be

of

measure

happened, asked,

five hundred

rice, 0 king !

of

measure

that

the

"

measure

king,

hundred

Yery good, then

only
worth

now,

before

down

five

ask

pleasedto

bowed

"

worth

horses

is that

are

measure

worth
of

rice

"

of rice is worth

measure

without

the

''

said he.

If five hundred

rice, what

horses

all

Benares, both

walls," repliedthat foolish feUow.

within

the

For

goes

rice

just

the

whole

of

circumference

of

the

rice

at

in

leagues

so-great city
a

and

of

measure

valuer

Truly

he

him

to

is

just

the

Then

Bodisat

is

All

Benares

And

what

suburbs,

at

have
to

of

king

broad

his

but

this

great

just

wisdom

long

so

"

earth, and

account,

the

stayed

our

hands, laughing,

price ;

by

depth

king

appointed

the

time

of

this

uttered

Thus

of
in

the

office ?

they laughed

five

Bodisat

to

Bodisat

horses

rice

the

worth

!^

and

ashamed,

the

worth

hundred
of

measure

was

its environs

and
are

stanza

of rice

measure

same

the

course

Leon

its

that

scorn.

That

his

the

suited

the

beyond
worth,

is

he

can

What

in

think

to

alike

were

rice

How

Then

and

used

royal city

famous

and

hundred

estimated

their

clapped

ministers
We

"

saying,

king's realm,

the

the

twelve

three

all

with

together

time

was

fellow

foolish

the

that

was

of

measure

Benares

suburbs

its

then, when

that
at

at

the

this

Hearing

in

Benares,

rice

of

measure

of

of

horses

and

Now

Benares.

Yet

extent.

king

bribe, valued

rampart

land

the

and

leagues,

the

please

to

tlie

first valued

lie

dealer's

the

taken

had

JATAKA.

tliat

story

of

measure

he

TANDULA-NALI

b."

1-76

drove

office

passed

out

of

away

that

Yaluer.

fool,
And

according

to

deeds.

These

Feer,

lines

are

in the

not

Journal

in

the

printed

Asiatique

for

text.

1876,

But
p.

see

620.

the

Corrigenda

and

6.

No.

DEYA-DHAMMA

JATAKA.

On

Those

"

told

who

while

fear

at

Trne

Divinity.^

sin/*

to

etc"

This

"

Jetavana,

concerning

proprietor

who

Blessed

the
monk

One

of

much

property.
For

monk,

when

he

and

the

he

the

to

call

allowed

the

to

and

One
and

them

spread

from

the

his

in

cell, and

him,

"

But,

"

It

was

after

this

monk.

brother,
on

he

the
had

said

this

occasion
told

the

Birth

he

liked

out

his

robes

for

and

other

this

robe,

on

that

work

things
to

garment
his

and

rooms

coverlets,

of

number

ceived
re-

cooked,
all

and

monastery.

was

brethren

lodging,

to

came

things,

asked

"

he.

robe,

related

was

day,

use,

ordained

he

the

dry,

so

upper

by

own

and

in

and

the

Story,

Introductory
that

the

and

this

under

this

of

Story

Buddha,

(Fausholl, pp. 302-305), uttered


The
32,
Introductory Story to No.
Dhamma-padag.
version
of this
tale
is
volume,
really only another

commentator
the

these

robes

his

And

hermitage

with

one

seeking

the

seeing
are

taken

were

brother,"

Mine,

"

and

Whose

of

for

furnished
had

cell to

the

what

wear

rest

had

who

country,

he

to

the
he

when

day,

have

well

was

one

from

detached

were

he

rice,

became

wife.

had

after

even

and

fraternity

night

at

wear

in

And

it.

ate

slaves

his

and

ghee

his

he

erected

And

Order.

of

ordained,

with

Savatthi

at

death

storehouse

filled

store

dwelt

the

be

to

and

into
used

and

going

was

kitchen

after

told,

are

we

and

of

landed

Jataka,

according
the

141st

translated
of

the

to

the
verse

helow
luxurious

Q.-ON

and

garment,

this

all yours

they
"

Yes

"

Brother,

robes

under

the

And

the

you

have

entered

coverlet

this

let

saying, "Come,
took

the

are

"

went

this brother
has

here

much

of

of
the

yourself thus

the

to

sets

Order

him

bring

us

them, he said,

saw

bring

you

and

him,

three

only

furnished

have

! this mendicant

Lord

"

allowed

you

Teacher

that

has

Buddha

Sage," they
When

and

garment,

self-denying Buddha,
the

179

indeed," said he.

yet, though

grandly/*

DIVINITY.

"

; mine

TRUE

"

before

Teacher.
How

is

it,mendicants,
will?"

againsthis

property and

large

wardrobe."
this

"Is

then, brother, that

true

have

you

so

many

things?"
"

It is true, 0

"

How

!"

One

it,brother, that

is
Have

Blessed

not

have

become

thus

rious
luxu-

being

content

with

little,

you

inculcated

simplicity,seclusion, and self-control


the
Teacher
On
hearing what
angrily,
throwing
there

said,

"

Teacher,

for

throwing

Order

off

lost to all

And
his

when

sense

bowing
But
was.

had

to

the
Then

been

propriety, and

the

Teacher

the

hidden

asked

Teacher

stood
the
made

by change

of

the

in

out

"

and

people

can

of

life

having

now,

temptation,

sense

conscientious

shame,

when

you

entered
stand

you

of all the

the

there

brethren,

"

Teacher's

of

monks

formerly

in the presence

the

way

midst

support

Buddhas,

of shame

heard

him

then,

of the

sense

he

How

robes

your

had

years

in the

this

called

his loins !

round

giving

twelve

honourable

and

cloth

watersprite.

so

robe, he stood

said, he
in

about

go

But, brother, you

lived

were

only

the

will

off his

with

Then

and

Then

"

"

saying, he

robed

himself

recovered

again,

and

respectfullyaside.
Teacher

to

manifest
of birth.

explain
the

how

matter

that

which

Q."DEVA-DHAMMA

i8o

Long

Bralima-datta

ago

re-existence

the

which

on

fro, and

born, whom
When

another

could

and

to

dignity of

dear

forth

the

to

gave

he

could

him
run

was

son

get about

died.

The

chief

queen.

and

king,

and

son,

they

another

the

on

Prince.

fro, and

of the Bodisat

and

near

Moon

and

the

assumed

time

when

by himself,

the

run

to the

lady

brought

called

that

him,

And

in

Benares,

queen

for

name

Mahigsasa.

they
he

get about

the mother

very

chose

they

of

of his chief

womb

of Prince

name

and

to

in the

in

king

was

tlie Bodisat

And

country of Kasi.

day

JAIAKA.

they

self,
him-

king appointed
She

in

due

his

called

by

became
she

course

Sun

the

name

Prince.
When
love

the

! I

promise

But

give

to

the queen
time

some

son

was

The

said

he

son,

for

you,

can't

the

thought

to

said,

"

in

his

joy,

"

My

boy, whatever

you

boys

kingdom

for

But

will be

king,

son

two

the

me

And
Your

"

boon.

used

when

her

majesty,
Now

give

"

sons

flames

gloriousas

are

kingdom

besought

*'

him
the

This
lads

to

very

plottingsome

him

of

alone ! "

child

your

again
will

woman

! '*

And

the

when
And

boon.

granted

the

to

it.

want

be

to

reserve,

her.

himself,

My

said

My

againstthe

evil

some

"

she

when

But

should

for my

in

promise

born, granted

give

he refused

And

she

was

kingdom

the

she

up,

king said,

fire !

him.

when

son

my

the

me

kept

grown

when

She

his

saw

!"

ask

at

king

Sun
his

now

have

he

of

name

evil

again,

he

surely be plotting
sent

for

Prince

was

mother

intention

no

and

them, and
born,

demands

of

womankind

against you.

giving
is
Do

the
it to

cruelty!
you

get

6."

into

away
and

who

tlie

And

thought
brothers

They

And

went

down

at

Prince

in the

water

Now

and

that

pond

Yessavana

by

heads,
fore-

Prince

Sun

the

how

too, will

you

to

go

of the

lotus

been

my

accordingly.
region

mountain

said

tree, and

path,

Sun

the

to

yonder pond
us,

sat

and

too,

some

plants."

delivered

of the

(theKing

with

Bodisat, leaving the

of

had

stood, he

away

go

the

the

himself,

matter

entered

they

palace, after

drinking yourself,bring

leaves

So,

their

on

the

them

foot

bathing

''

courtyard,caught sight of

the

Prince, dear ! do

Sun

of

departed with

till

the

them

out

learnt

There

Himalaya.

after

in

he

he

on

back

come

by right !

yours

lie kissed

himself, "I,

"

dead,

am

father, the

their

when

to

is

that

down

going

of

l8i

forth.

playing there

them.

"

city

them

were

leave

was

DIVINITY.

wlien

lamenting,

sent

they

taking

of

in

and

and

As

TRUE

tlie forest ; and

reign

weeping

ON

to

over

sprite

water-

had

Fairies),who

said

to

him:
"

Thou

down
true

hereby granted as thy

art

into

the

water,

divinity. But

only

save

such

over

as

prey

those
go

not

all those

who

know

what

who

thou

down

go
is

hast

no

to

ask

power,"
So

from

all those

who

he

]^ow

signs of

into

to eat

Prince

it without

him, and
"

used

Sun

Do

forth, the

went

any

up

know

what

him

the

spriteused
what

water,

if

the

were

they

did

not

alive.

the

to

hesitation.
of

water-

beings,and

divine

them

demanded
you

into

down

went

characteristic

know,

time

that

pond,
Then

and

stepped

the

demon

is of divine

nature

"

down

seized

Q."DEVA-DHAMMA

82

Oh,

"

the

was

and

don't

in his

cave.

But

the

coming,

'^

Do

him

know

Yes, I do.

"

You

Some

too

and

his bow

in his hand.
when

the

don't

drink, and

pick

plants, and
?

ease

your
And

the

eat

as

demon,

flowers, and

the

Bodisat

and

and

not

was

form

the

your

of

so

stalks
go

on

journey.

; and

of

the

your

have

seized my

*'

Yes, it is I," said he.


elder brother

him, he

saw

knew

said,

It is you

The

who

he

"

Bodisat

lake there

edible

the

water-

the

the

by

water.

have
lotus

way

at

that

he

"

soon

as

into

down

the

girded on,

tired with

seem

himself,

into

to himself

Bodisat

! you

get

you

bath, and

was

friend

Hallo, my

took

the

himself,

of the footsteps

marks

down

that

to

He

his sword

saw

said to the

thought

be haunted

must

the water, he

and

woodman,

demon

into

down

pond

; and

place.

same

gone

is called divine."

the

saw

fast,with

stood

"

happened."

had

boys

the

sprite;
But

have

place,and

the

in

demon

divine," said he

Bodisat

that

he

is

what

delayed,the

both

long

so

was

too, the

nature

in the

must

he

fast

is of divine

know

to the

he knew

before

put him

accident

where

Why

Moon, Gods,"

nature," said he,

Him,

far-spreadingsky

don't

therefore,went

^'

the

that

Prince.

what

him, too, and


he

found

he

as

The

then

When

and

into the water, he put him

Moon

asked

you

going

Sun,

is of divine

off down

the

sent

"

Then

what

Bodisat, when

and

he took

*'

know

carrying him

seized

call the

They

reply.

You

"

yes

JATAKA.

is

more

brothers

advanced

in his

!"

theology.

t.-^ON

83

for,then?"

"What
"

DIVINITY.

TRUE

I have

been

who

all those

granted

into this

down

go

pond."
All!"

"What?
"

Well

divine.
"

all

But

"Yes,

The

rest

have

you

If it be

"

Speak

attributes

Then

then

on

which
the

And

the

him

with

food, and

couch

Bodisat
at

the

uttered

verse

you
"

one

in heart

Bring

the

the
he

provided

and

him

decked

spread

said, "Give

ear

is."

nature

the

made

then
he

And

should

water-

sprite

deed

"

world.

called divine.

that, his heart

heard

Bodisat

brothers.

the younger

and

in the
be

said to the

your

fear to sin,

word

Teacher, in you

me

journey."

there, and

divine

who

beings

nature

of

my

"

are

0, Wise

with

arbour.

feet, and

good, kindly in

when

up

his

regarding

perfumes, and

himself

seated

The

touched, and
"

beautiful

pure

Whose

And

in

you

water, and

with

him

teach

Bodisat,

him

brought

The

These

the

listen what

and
attentively,

the

have

who

to know

get

unclean

all

am

anointed

sprite sit

divine."

are

I would

"

sprite bathed

water-

who

I shall

said,
I

but

the

water-

"

divine."

are

flowers,and

And

beings ?

of divine

need

any

; and

Bodisat

for him

out

then

are

prey."

my

so, I will tell you

matter;

with

are

beings

what

know

who

certainly."

"

this

those

save

was

"

place my
Which

of the two."

trust.

I will

shall I

bring ?

give
"

Q."DEVA-DHAMMA

i84

"But,
divine
"

Teacher;

What

do

"That
the

"

of

I both

it.

to this forest

from

tellingme
the

not

"

bring!

to

honour

that

has

him

eaten

it.

Therefore

you

to

bring

divinityis,and

that

father, and
sent

us

his

to

The

Were

with

in the

wilderness,'no

us.

avoid

I, to

came

we

begged

being

willing
un-

live in the forest,

danger.

along

I walk

mother

father

our

away

from

it is that

that

boy's account

for him

was

safe

way

what

that

on

our

be

might

we

all the

"

It is

grant that,

to

ogre

and

pay

Demon,

for it

kingdom

came

with, it ?

the,

"

two, you

know,

according to

that

the

all about

seniority."

to

the

well

so

in accordance

act

neglecting the elder,

younger

due

not

mean

you

know

wlio

you

nature, do you

JATAKA.

lad

to

himself

beKeve

would

one

*An

say,

all blame,

have

told

Teacher.

Thou

not

him,^^

Yerily thou

only knowest

hast

what

spoken well,

hast acted

divinityis,but

as

divinity

would."
And

when

he

had

thus

magnified

believing heart, he brought


gave

them

Then

said

of evil
that

you

of other
thine

Bodisat

the

deeds

been

beings.

by

born

And

him,

to

committed

have

evil

as

now

With
ogre

these

do

good !

words

he

the

with
and

brothers

his

an

Friend, it
in

ogre,

some

thine

ever

by

on

reason

former

living on

still go

you

is

birth,

the

sinning.

flesh
This

escaping from

henceforth,

birth
re-

therefore, put

"

succeeded

being converted,

there under

"

you

From

states.

evil,and

away

both

Bodisat

to him.

iniquity will prevent


in

the

back

forth

the

the

protection. And

in

Bodisat
one

And

convertinghim.
continued

day

he

saw

to

by

live
the

9.^

No.

MAKHA-DEYA

JATAKA.^

Tlie

These

"

Jetavana,

at

latter

has

Now
the

reference
related

that

time

his

place,

the

subject
On

and

above

which

other

no

said

the

ing
magnify-

were

Mighty

talking

Lord

subject,

sat

brethren,

are

but

The

Katha.^

on

What

'^

sit here

you

in

down

sat

saying,
as

Wisdom.

by

and

assembly,

the

you

Mdana

One

the

when

Renunciation.

they

as

told

is
?

"

tion,"
Renuncia-

your

they.

"Mendicants,

Prophets

in

the

entered

Teacher

Great

priests

addressed

on

the

of

Teacher

the

"

to

the

Deva.

This

etc.

Renunciation

the

"

in

been

at

Then

hairs,^^

grey

Makha

of

Story

not

then
the

renounce

only

world;

did

Successor

the

also

formerly

of

he

did

the
the

same."
The
the

monks

Blessed

change

of

Long
a

king
1

asked

For

Sagvara

One

in

named

Nos.

Corap.
See

manifest

the

above,

Mithila,

Makha

Jataka,

made

explain

to

an

that

how

Then

was.

hidden

occurrence

by

birth.

ago,

him

and

8,

Book

the

Deva,

see

land

of

righteous

respectively

Bhaddasala

Yideha,

there
and

man,

Jataka,

Book

xi.

Makha-deva
pp.

in

81-83.

Sutta,

No.

83

in

the

Majjhima

Mkaya.

was

ruHng
xii.,

and

^."

in

THE

OF

STORY

MAKHA

righteousness.^Eighty-four

prince,as
he

many

when

good barber,

one

whenever

thousand

in

shared

sovereign.

was

long time,
let

he

many

As

DEVA.

the

he

you

find

he

years

said

lived

had

he

his

to

as

long,

barber, "My

hairs

grey

was

and

government,

such

day

187

on

head,

my

know."

me

And

after

barber

hair ; and
hair

found

day

one

he

to be

seen

on

it out,

"Pull

king

of

passed

one

is

it,saying, There
"

head, 0 king !

your

grey
a

grey

"

put it in

then, friend, and

the

away,

jet-blacklocks

the

among

told the

had

time

long, long

!"

hand

my

said he.

So he tore
the

it out

with

the

king.

of

hand

thousand

of

years

golden pincers,and
There

lifetime

the

elapse. But, nevertheless, as

to

hair

he

nigh

come

house
Deva

though

have

not

been

As
of the

able

thus

to

He

get

have

come

rid of the

and

down

of

0
upon

meditated
burned
from

on

the

inside

Makha
you

yet

passions

his

body,

and

unbearable.

"This

very

day

leave

must

life !
religious

appearance

him, drops of

within

became

in the

had

frailties and

and

is mentioned

Death

you,

him

grey

foolish

oppressed
myself to

the

himself

"

still

! "^

hearts

meditated

found

king

upon

King

it in

eighty-four
the

looked

thought,

hair, his heart

grey

thought,
devote

he

deprave men's
he

if he

as

hairs

grey

perspirationrolled
robes

or

And

fire.^

on

which

him,

unto

allotted to

if the

as
deeply agitated,

was

then

were

he

placed

the

his

And
world

very
he
and

"

Maliavar)sa,
p. 8, in

Kst of the

legendarykings

of old.
2

At

Ime

is meant

p. 81,

above, the

kilese.

The

use

to refer to the

same

idea is

put

into the

of the determinative

mouth

pronoun
known
particular
imperfections

of Gotama

impliesthat
as

kilesa.

himself.
the

king
They are

acquisitiveness,
ill-temper,dullness of perception,
vanity,wrong views, doubt,
of respectfor public opinion.
and want
sloth,arrogance, want of self-respect,

9."MAICHA-DEVA

l88

Then

lie gave

for his eldest


have
I

to tlie barber

amounted

revenue

to

done

on

all

with

the

assume

you

for

of those

His
him

who

giving

said,
the

up

Then

the

uttered

this

These

verse

Laying

spent

hairs

I should

he

And

and

myself

laid

to

came

of

your

hand,

he
when

died he
his

his

that

in the

in

living
had

constant

was

sovranty

the

spoken, he

practisingperfect

bom

allotted

family.^ And

story is given below,

holy thought

he

in

life !

of my

and

in

beings, and

reunited

his scattered

to

hermit;

years

head

to me,

down

in Mithila

whole

Makha

his

my

evening

exhausted, he became

The

in

upon

Deva, of which

after
;

thousand

all

come

the

upon

became

goodwill towards

the

istics
character-

king

hair

grey

have

devote

of Makha

heaven

called
the

reason,

appearing

spoken,

eighty-four

Brahma

that

hands

and

meditation.

world.

embrace

intention,

this

the

messengers

thus

Mango-grove

seek

will

"

stern

'Tis time

day,

in

man.

"

king, taking

angel

Having

formed

is the

What

world

grey

Are

very

"

he

garden

myself

old

in heart."

subdued

ministers, when
and

the

hairs

the

will

sent

grey

now

he

an

to abandon

sovereignty.

are

son

become

me

in

And

My

hopes ;

I will train

Mango-park,

"

am

human

religiouslife,and, dwelling
Deva^s

him,

to

It is time

villagewhose

thousand.

head.

my

heavenly things.
Do

said

of

grant

hundred

and

son,

appeared

have

JATAKA,

king

devotion

to

in

the

again
time

called

there

was

Mmi,

and

after that

he became

Nimi

Book

Jataka,

xii.

2."

hermit

in

goodwill

that

STORY

OF

MAKHA

DEVA,

all

and

beings,

189

and

practised

again

returned

Mango-grove,

same

towards

Brahma

perfect
to

the

heaven.

The
that

Teacher,
then

not

Buddhas

One

the

follows

prince

the

the

had

thus

told

The

and

barber

Eahula,

was

of
but

the

Deva

OF

THE

STORY

OF

MAKHA

Path

he

story,
the

to

when
lished
estab-

Jataka

as

Ananda,

was

the

myself."

END

the

DEVA.

the
Four

And

up

time

Makha

of
the

Third.

double

summed
that

of

Stage
the

some

subject

Successor

the

proclaimed

First

Second,

the

on

too,

world,

the

connexion,
"

discoursed

formerly

entered

some

Blessed

but

abandoned

Some

Mrvana,

thus

having
only,

had

Truths.

the

THE

king

the

was

10.

No.

JATAKA.

SUKHAYIHAEI

The

"Se

told

whom

while

that

others

minded.

and

Arahats,

Ananda

Past

and

six

will

be

full

for

himself

of

he

this

change,

to

which

One,

and

in

the
add
the

he

Translator's
CuUa

story

Vagga,
has

been

when,

angel,

an

and

very

Koad

the

and

to

of

the

Devadatta

The

of

story

Anupiya,

at

called

and

mind

to

king,

caring
self
him-

surrounding
lolled

had

in

his

he

And

realizing

of

exclamation

from

wandering,

was

places.

upper

free

how

now

waste

an

joy,

"

Oh,

"

Buddhism,'
VII.

of

as

and

Arahat,

became

Upali

Bhaddiya

as

Happiness

Of

Jataka.

uttered

when

vows

IJpali.^

events

couch

forests

Happy-

Knowledge

the

he

when,

there,

the

protection,

royal

was,

and

had

guardian

his

here

Happiness

he

and

Future,

to

up

the
the

Meditation.

Deep

venerable

anxiety

on

anxiety

the

town

with

Stage

Khandahala

the

every

chamber

to

of

the

like

with

See

in

day

one

how

attained

noblemen,

related

took

Bhagu

First

and

power

young

Now

and
the

Present

the

Bhaddiya

of

the

near

together

so

Kimbila

entered

the

acquired
the

did

Anuruddha

Nirvana,

named

Teaclier

the

"

Happy-minded

noblemen

young

these, Bhaddiya

the

TMs

etc.

Mango-grove,

Elder

the

Bhaddiya

six

not^^

guard

Anupiya

about

name,

the

the

at

Life

Happy

i. 1-4.

prohahly

p.

65, and
The

arisen

name

in

the

there

authorities

Bhaddiya
explanation

means

of

the

the
name.

quoted,
Happy

Id."

This

told

tlie monks

diya is prophesying
The
is

Blessed

One
full

Bhaddiya

THE

HAPPY

LIFE.

Blessed

the

saying,

One,

! not

replied, Mendicants
of joy; he was
so

Bhad-

"

!"

Arahatship

about

igi

"

in

also

only

now

former

birth."

The

monks

that

hidden

And

world, and
life of

he

was

In

number

of

attended

by

the

of

villagestill

he

practisedthe

his

he

months,

the

him

to

yourself!
So the

The

he

leave

stop, saying,

Himalayas

Nirvana

When

took

Send

adopted

of

"

You

your

there

the

and

greatly,until

there
of

the

passed

king.

But

old, Sir.

are

the

Attainments.

Eight

attended

Himalayas, and

patronage

had

the

disciplesthere,

the

and

towns

took

up

his

king

in

the

four

rainy
asked

the

king

Why

go

but

dwell

to

the

here

"

Bodisat

word

Benares,

to

dwelling-placeunder
royal park.

abandoned

ascetics,journeyed through the


came

north-west

ascetics.

left the

he

an

worldly lusts, and

disciplesincreased

five hundred

rainy season

body

the

by

evils of

Himalaya region,and

and

hermit,

of the

Brahman

religiouslife, he

the

to the

went

the

And

of

manifest

made

reigning in Benares,

was

perceiving the

advantages

explain how

to

of birth.

wealthy

One

One

Brahma-datta

became

the Bodisat

country.

Blessed

through change

ago, when

Long

the

the

Then

was.

event

Blessed

requested the

gave

translated

"

the

five hundred

ascetics in

Happiness is also a name


(thatis,perfectpeace, goodness,and wisdom).
"

of

charge

Arahatship

or

92

his

to

shall

senior

will

VIHARI

pupil, and

sent

the

senior

abandoned

having

Mni

saying,

away,
in

men

As

the

"You
I

Himalayas.

he

saluted

to pay

mat

then

side.

the

the

on

of

him

floor,lay down

saluting him,

took

his

the

Though

just as

"

the

to

shall

his

was,

himself

king

his

to

he
!

This

ascetic

hands, I had

And
verse

having

of

to the

thus

in order

as

king,

joy

forth
!

the

not

into

"

ascetic

had

must

He

lies

layman,

joy

the

even

men

many
as

when

joying
en-

with

this,' and
to

the

he

of

joys

religiouslife."

Bodisat

king

like you.

king

in reference

spoken, the

did

content.

once

happiness of

to instruct

he

!"

song

such

the

see

seeinghim,

guarded by
no

to

respectfullyon

broke

was

was

'

meditation, and

the

and

his side.

park

seat

heart's

singing a

this exclamation

by

Oh, Happiness

ease,

thinking, Formerly,
in their

teacher

Bodisat, "Sir, this

royal splendour,and

this

teacher, and

the ascetic,on

king,displeasedthat

Great

utters

teacher,

quietlyhere

the

disciplesaw

joy, Oh, Happiness

there, quite at his

arms

the

friendly greeting ;

to

enjoyed

is

with

his

see

on

where

went

arisen, said

He

preparatory

region

our

also

king

get up, but lying there

"

to

; and

spiritualinsight.

to

live

you

place

offered

the

teacher, and

have

of

desire

respects

my

to

and

him,

Just

not

Do

"

went

spreading a

The

religiouslife

Himalaya
a

had

who

soon."

Then

chant

the

ascetics,

justgoing

one

the

of meditation

conceived

day

one

said to the

back

for

course

living in

was

devotee

royal

was

acquired the eight kinds

ascetics,he
and

the

through

gone

he

pupil

mighty kingdom

thereto, had

be

TAKA,

stay here."

Now

am

JA

these

live with

and

go

IQ.-^SUKJIA

in

further

uttered

righteousness
"

11.

STLAYAGGA.

.No.

11.

CHAPTEE

LAKKHANA

JATAKA.

The

^*The

while

the

at

datta.^
the

Five

schism

in

mendicants

called

chief

of
with

adopted
but

of

Path

The

Treasurer,

in

the
See

for

asked

he

taking

four

he

wanted,
hundred

dwelt

of

the

at

there

go

be

the

related

rock

CuUa-hagsa

translator's

Jataka
'

of

the

those

them

Khandahala

Jataka,
in

the

Buddhism,'

and

as

12th
p.

in

as

far

Jataka,

76.

far

Book."

as

his

to

his
as

sinking

viction.
con-

Fruits

the

far

away

brethren,

with

as
as

went

the

back

"

pupils

open
of

them

gloss,

and

his

to

hundred

become

number

bring

adds

five

have

open

it, said

Deva-datta,

instruct

and

became

knowing

with

and

in

mendicants

minds

Deva-datta,"

Saraudda-vanija
the

heresy

them,

of

these

Sariputta

"

Holiness,

story
will

Deva-

about

what

and

Master,

their

now

to

Abhimara,
in

and

told

Master

Deva-datta

get

went

of
the

the

you

preach

"

when
not

him,

And

Do

Order,

minds

the

him,

the

the

disciples,

yours

and

could

tlie

Gaya-slsa.

conviction.

two

and

with

Afterwards
to

occasion,

This
"

Rajagaha,

near

grove

one

Rules,^

the

on

Beauty.'

good."

the

to

Bambu-

For

made

is

advantage

of

Story

you

of
!

"

appointment

as

his

as

into

rejection
the

earth,

11.

THE

"

and

They went,
in the

Fruits, and

Bambu

Grove,

And

OF

STORY

to

the

day

as

paying

his

exalted

him,

excellent

saying

Lord

the

after

how

Minister

of
his

as
disciples

without

now

them.

mendicants

"

five hundred
is

Deva-datta

One,

brother,

Righteousness,returningwith
retinue, whereas

the

the

to

with

One,

Blessed

elder

our

appears

them

standing by,

was

Blessed

the

to

returned

mendicants

return

the

to

respects

instructed

dawn

at

those

bringing
Sariputta on his

195

them, and

preached
next

'BEAUTY:

followers

any

''
at all !

only

Not

"

surrounded

glory,
in

former

former

that

the

by

the

Then

the

was

Long
there

in the

ago,

ruled

Bodisat

deer.

his

brethren

And
his

not

now

in

following;

same."

One

forest
had

as

One

explain how
manifest
a
thing
to

made

the

at

two

head

when

of

ones,

young

At

Magadha.

herd

Magadha,
time

that

he
of

grew
a

Kala

and

the
he

up

thousand

Lakkhana

named

Beauty')

of

(the

(the Dark

Brownie').
he

When

My

the land

deer, and

Beautifully-marked One,
*

of

king

life

to

He

had

beloved
And

about."

charge

Now

of

cityE-ajagaha,in

certain

came

lived in the

the

of

same.

Blessed

Blessed

in

Sariputta come

by the interval of existence.

hidden

"

the

deprived

requested the

monks

was.

One,

did

been

also he

! has

assembly

birth, also, he

birth

The

mendicants

Deva-datta

has

only

now,

in

become
I

he

old.

am

placed

of each
the

old,

land

of his
of

five

Do

he

called
you

hundred

now

them,

and

said,

lead

the

herd

of the

deer

under

sons.

Magadha

at

crop

time, when

the

1\."LAKKHANA

196
is

corn

ripeningin

tlie deer in the


in

some

another, the

deer

that

So

sent

for

of

growing

Bodisat

his

We

forest, and

"Very
Now

to

will

and

dawn,
men

"

and

will

in

such

into

the

some

But

do

part of the

!"
their

with

departed

and

ought

or

in

in

difierent

to travel

to

travelled

places
"

in

some

other

the
resource

He

by day,

hand,

; and

he

nor

even

when

he

were

ought

late alike

"

village gates.

of

the

in

some

open,

So

deer.

diminished

numbers.

learned

knew

at

deer.
there

the

here

tion,
to destruc-

was

approached

such

of his herd

forest with

the

and

that

the

number

are

lurking

early and

"

stay.
not

not

evening twilight past

re-entered

fertile in

And

times

of deer

deer

the

kill many

and

and

to follow

such

at

again."

destroyed,as usual,

on

time

dullness, knew

herd

his

such

wound

have

they

mountains

they

in his

led

he

the route

on

down

come

ambush,

he

Beauty,

when

to

come

abroad.

cut

are

he, by his stupidity,


brought many

and

time

get along by

mountainous

and

they;

! the

will

deer

hand,

at

was

children

My

the crops

At

"

up

Brownie,

; and

ambush

"

to the

live

who

men

when

times

The

said

they

But

at

well,"

come

there

and

not

when

quite well,

time

the

are

many

time

crop

stirringmuch

away

return

the

wont

the

herds.

attendant

know

kill

to

snares

And

many

old,

without

herds

your

said,
come

are

another

lead

you

and
has

crops

destruction.
or

lay

crops.

that

saw

sons,

"

means

place,and

one

to destruction.

the

he

in

fix stakes,
dig pit-falls,
and

the

eat

for

danger brewing

Some

men

them,

in

would

come

when

of

sons

stones

that

creatures

is

there
fields,

the

adjoining forest.

traps with

set

JATAKA,

no

when

to

and
go

clever,

village gates
dawn

or

and

on,
;

he

by evening

\\."THE

but

twilight;

they

Brownie, going
the herd
without

back

when

this stanza,

The

he

so

readied

the

he

come,

brought

had

arrived

of his

crops
side.

mountain-

alone.

herd,

came

the

But

Beauty,

to his

up

of

rest

parent

of his deer.
his

saw

the

with

the

from

Bodisat

the

when

and

down

one

consultation

as

months

all the five hundred

by

And
held

four

came

losingeven

attended

197

midniglit,and

at

destruction, and

to

'BEAUTY:

losinga singleanimal.

they stayed

cut

were

OF

lie travelled

tlie forest without

There

STORY

of

herd

approaching, he

sons

deer, and

put together

"

hath

righteous man

profit,and

the

in

courteous

speech.
Look

there
of

Then

at this poor

he had

thus

old

good

back

with

all his

troop

kindred,

look

When
to

Beauty coming

at

Brownie, deprived of
his son,

welcomed
and

age,

passed

the

all he had

Bodisat

according

away

!^

lived
to

his

deeds.

the

Thus

Master

of what
has

not

This

only

now

is

verse

first line of

the

is

glory,surrounded
former

has

quoted by

did

Commentator,

verse

is

It

worthy

either

deer

with

belonged
the

facts

to
originally
to

hint

attemptingto make

still

human

assembly
the

deprived

same.

of

his

the
p. 146, where
details.
some

though differingin
same,
curious, as there is nothing in the

righteousness courtesy.
is made
or
purposely in discord

absurdityof the

Dhammapada

been

in illustration

mendicants
the

by

birth, also, he

Deva-datta

the

substantiallythe

or

ithe

this lesson in virtue

said,"I^ot only now,

in

; in

IntroductoryStory
The

had

Sariputtacome

of his brethren

And

he

them

gave

some
more

fable
other

about

tale,

stronglyat

poetry.

following
lie

JATAKA.

\\"LAKKHANA

198

in

united

summed

was

former

tlie

the

up

Jataka

Euhula,

of
but

the

was

father

the

was

and

his

mother

OF

THE

STORY

'

myself."

ABOUT

and

Brownie

BEAUTY.'

the

'

ants.
attend-

attendants

was

EXD

connexion,
Then

"

And

same."

Deva-datta's

Sariputta,
The

the

was

made

attendants

Buddha.

the

lie

follows

as

his

and

Deva-datta,

'Beauty*
followers

and

stories,

two

also

birth

mother

the
of

No.

12.

NiaEODHA-MiaA

JATAKA.

The

"Follow

while

the

Kumara
of

rich

deeply
she

rooted

in

of

desirous

life.
of

What

"

is it

When

husband,
And

'

the

get

This

when

are

you
to

take

and
she

said

to

the
a

knew

her

life, but
her

was

parents,

pleasure

leads

to

another
take

in

"

hold
housethat

to

Nirvana.

Let

grew

Introductory Story
was
Dhammapada
spoken

up,

is

This

of

is

family

You

daughter.

vows.'*

she

family,
the

only

she

asking,

permission,
to

she

lay

within

according

our

the

repeated

parents'

heart

lamp

was

things

vows

dear

saying,

are

and

after

When,

which

her

no

she

"

you

allowed

be

cannot

her

Buddha
!

wealth,

great

my

the

the

daughter

transient

when

in

named

the

in

told

Elder

was

like

finds

take

to

the

all

and

she

heart

Master

Eajagaha

time

And

my

of

shone

pleasure

vows.

want

ordained

be

me

of

birth,

the

no

the

dear

Mother,

teaching

had

take

to

city

From

tlie

told,

are

Arahatship

she

TMs
"

despised

last

pitcher.

mind

we

and

her

etc.

mother

the

virtue,

future

translucent
own

of

reached

destiny

the

She,

merchant

had

"

about

Kassapa.^

deer^*^

Banyan

Jetavana,

at

Deer.

Banyan

unable

was

"Let

thought,
I

will

make

to

obtain

it

be

so.

with

favour

vows."
she

given also
(Fausboll,

entered

as

pp.

the
327

family

another

occasion
and

on

foil.)

which

v.

160

as

of

JDHA-MIGA

200

wife, and

lived

And

woman.

knew

life

houseliold

due

in

JATAKA.

as

virtuous

she

time

and

tive
attrac-

conceived, but

she

it not.

Now

All
the
city they proclaimed a feast.
in the
dwellers
city kept the feast, and the city was
like a city of the gods. But
decked
she, up to the time
when
the feast was
anointed
self
herat its height, neither
about
in her every-day clothes.
nor
dressed, but went
in

Then

her

that

husband

said

her,

to

"

My dear ! all the cityis devoted to the feast ; yet you


adorn yourselfnot."
The
stituent
body, Sir, is but filled with its thirty-two conthere be in adorning it ?
parts. "What profitcan
For this body has no
divine, no
angelic attributes : it is
of gold, or
not
made
or
yellow sandal- wood ; it
gems,
red ;
of lotus-fiowcrs, white
or
springs not from the womb
"

"

it is not

filled with

the

verily it

is born

corruption:

and

mother:

wearing
which

in

its

attributes

the

away,

of

nectar-balm
it
the

are

dissolution, the

holiness.

But

springs from father


decomposition, the
destruction, of that

is

impermanent ! It is produced by excitement ;


it is the
of pains, the subject of mournings, a
cause
It is the
lodging-place for all diseases.
receptaclefor
the

of

action

discharging:
house,

its end

there, in

"

dwelling-placeof
^

The

foul

Karma;

is death

the

thirty-twoconstituent

of

and

its

and

sight

worms

it is

within, without

goal is

all the

the

world,

creeping things !

partswill

be found

enumerated

''

to

ever

charnelbe

the

in the Khuddaka

mentioned
in the following verses, which
of them
are
p. 3, and most
'
attractive ' younff
sound
attributed
wooden
to the
wife, and which
enougli after her spiritedoutburst.
Tossildythey are a quotationby this

Putha,
are

not

commentator

The

whole

of

monkish

some

of the conversation

Bound

rhymes

togetherby

O'erspreadwith
The

It

body
seems

as

thinks
in the

bones

flesh and

is hidden

not

he

is omitted

it

'neath

and

appropriateto the occasion.


Dhamraapada commentary.

sinews,

integument,
its

reallyis !

skin,
"

\2."NIGR0DHA-MIGA

202

retinue,

numerous

into
sided
her

the

with

JATAKA.

the

to

Order

of

Nuns

Deva-datta.

wish

had

^but

"

And

she

and
fulfilled,

been

and

nunnery,

had.

those

among

who
that

overjoyed

was

that

mitted
ad-

her

she

had

become

nun.

Now,
noticed

the

hands
and

they

far

became

alteration
feet and

and

How

she

as

asked

with

gone

in her

person,

back, and

the

her,

Lady,

"

child,

the

"

with

be

to

seem

nuns

swelling of her
in her
girth;

increase

you

the

child.

is this?"
I don't

"

know

how

it

nuns

led

her

is, ladies

; but

have

the

kept

vows."

Then

the

Sir ! this young


husband's
consent,
"

it

is evident

whether
when

into

she

is with

child;

Deva-datta,

What

nun.

being

not

kindness,

people can
about

say,

child

when

so

or

nun

in her

she
shall

the

Order.
and

was

now

Deva-datta

and

womb,

and

condones

returned

girlsaid to the

to the

And

Not
the
What

men.

Master

they

leagues of

of

not

took

road

under

that

him

Take

and

did

I enter

the

who

is

with

such
I

me,

"

Go

if he

pray

stone

bowed
young
is

religious
supreme

0,
difficulty,
you,

and

go

"

passing

stretched

the

And

Elder, Deva-datta,

himself,

at Jetavana

her;
which

! the

obtained
!

But

nunnery.

Buddha
I

himself

the

Ladies

nuns,

under

deprive me

to
"

Buddha.

life, but
among

it,'I

"

and

or

bearance,
having no for"If
compassion, thought thus:
of Deva-datta's
side is carrying

Buddha,

"

the

not

"

"

not

now

laywoman

!
disgraced. I must unfrock this woman
without
with
inquiry, he answered
any
eagerness,
and
from
the Order
!
expel this woman
just as
were
rushing forwards to roll away a mere
piece of
When
and
they heard his decision, they arose,

him,

her

know

we

do

we

But

shall be

to

him,

difficulty
gaining

received

became

was

with

was

that

she
she

lady, after

asked

and

Deva-datta,

to

from

the

forty-five
Eajagaha to that

over

12."

place,they arrived
the

THE

BANYAN

in due

course

Master, told him

The

Teacher
when

will

has

Therefore,
heard

to

in the

So

the

accepted

Kosala, Anatha
the

evening, when
said to Upali
of the

young

when

he

had

discipleshad

Elder,

Go

and

in the

"

accordingly
himself

seated

before

received

she

conceived

the

before

or

!"
and

assembly;

in his

place,called the Lady


in charge to her the

the

into

afiair

this

to

go,

Order, and
after

that

this

month

child

poor

conclude

then

find

and

Yisakha,

"

was

the

assembled, he
into

the

in

went

king, and gave


Do
:
following investigation
you
what
out
exactly on
day of what
Visakha

And

church

of the

the

disciple,and

examine

presence

of

king

Pindika

distinction.

of

nun

Elder

The

of

all classes
the

the

influential

the

persons

Pasenadi

Elder, Anatha

the

his ministers."

and

for

Yisakha

Lady

well-known

other

king

sent

Pindika

heretics

mendicant
saying, 'The
!
expelled by Deva-datta
talk, this case
ought to be

nun

he

day

ceived
con-

was

of

of the

presence

child

the

world, yet the

the

such

prevent

next

Younger,

saluting

matter.

still in

was

opportunity

an

Gautama

whole

the

203

Jetavana, and

at

thought, "Although

she

have

DEER.

whether

day."

Lady agreed; and having had a curtain hung,


it of the young
behind
made
nun
a
privateexamination
;
and
comparing the days and months, found out that in
truth she had conceived
while
she was
yet living in the
The

And

world.
the

she

Elder, in the midst

to be

Elder, and

to the

went

told

him

the

assembly, declared

of the

; and

so

nun

innocent.

Thus

was

in

down

her

innocence

grateful adoration
and

Master;

she

And

established.

with

returned

assembly, and

the

to

she

the

other

nuns

bowed
to

the

to

the

nunnery.
when

Now,

strong
the

in

feet

her time

spirit
"

the

of Padumuttara

was

come,

result

of

the

she
wish

Buddha.

brought
she

had

And

forth

uttered
one

son

at

day, as

Vi."NIGRODHA-MIGA

204

tlie
of

king

knew
has

of the
had

"

To

of

care

in their

nuns

of

it," said he.


had

brought it
they called him
royal state, he
he

noviciate

as

became

known

Buddha

the

age, received

full orders

care

harem,

in

entered

was

time

as

the
the

attained

he

and,

Prince.

the

when

and

the

naming-day
brought up in

was

old, he

years

hindrance

the

Kassapa

as

of his

on

he

as

nun

young

to be

women

And

but

They

undertake

us

to the

cry

it."

from

Let

the

reason.

! that

king

comes

prince.

seven

under

necessary

"

given

Kassapa

was

the

child. Sirs, is said

child

up

lie heard

ministers

said,
cry

K A.

nunnery,

religiouslife.
the

and

When

the

and

to

he

his

asked

matter, and

son,

take

And

the

passing near

was

child, and

J ATA

went

on,

the preachers. And


eloquent among
cants
him
the Master
the pre-eminence,saying, Mendigave
! the chief of
disciplesin eloquence is Kassapa
my
the Prince."
Sutta, he
Afterwards, through the Yammlka
tained
attained
to Arahatship. His
mother, the nun,
too, obAnd
Nirvana.^
spiritualinsight, and reached
gion
as
Kassapa the Prince became
distinguishedin the reli-

he

became

the

most

"

of the

vault

day

one

had

returned

exhorted

the

in

from

their

reached
Literally
of

itself.

It

among
reached

the

his

hearing
day-rooms

*'

the

in the

moon

Successor

the

together at eventide
they sat there, they
saying, Brethren,
1

full

the

for

chief

the

of the

midst

his

this

night-rooms,and
religiousconversation.
or

the

character

Elder

Fruit

Prince

; the

of intellectual
Jataka

No.

meal,
The

exhortation, spent the

the

benefit

of

and
activity

234.

then

the

Kassapa,

earnest

; that

day
met

And,

as

Buddha,
and

resultingfrom

last

highestresult
IntroductoryStory to

his

apartment.

stage of the path leading to Nirvana


in which
is a striking proof of the estimation
several
times
that
are
early Buddhists,
they
the

when

Buddhas,
taken

and

entered

exalted
the

of

rounds

brethren, and

after

brethren,
either

the

as

of heaven.

Now
he

Buddhas

the

the

pletion
com-

is,Nirvana

women

declared

were

to

held
have

^zeal. Compsire

12."

BANYAN

THE

BEER.

205

Lady his mother, were


nearly ruined
by Deva-datta,
ance
through his not being a Buddha, and having no forbearor
kindness; but the Supreme Buddha,
being the
King of Righteousness, and being perfect in kindness
and
forbearance
and
the means
of
compassion, became
salvation

Then

to them

the

!"

both

Master

entered

the

hall with

the

dignitypeculiar

What
seatinghimself, asked them,
?
are
sittinghere talking about, 0 mendicants
you
said
"Lord/*
they, "concerning your excellences!**
And
they told him the whole matter.
Not
has
the
!
said he,
now
only, 0 mendicants
to

Buddha,

and

"

"

**

"

Successor
a

of the

these two

refuge to
Then

that

the

had

monks

; and

was

been

Long

jewels,his
as

and

of

hard
a

life

as

kamala

of

as

white

were

One

explain

to

that

how

which

reigning in Benares,

was

When

deer.

his

as

his

he

silver,his

his

body

tail
as

mouth

hoofs
as

born

was

like

were

eyes

flowers, his

lacquer-work,
ox,^ and

Tibetan

same.**

the

was

and

of birth.

golden colour;

horns

cluster

to

salvation

manifest

made

Brahma-datta

came

of

was

One

by change

he

Blessed

the

of

source

formerly also

Blessed

when

ago,

been

asked

the

hidden

the Bodisat
he

Buddhas

"

large

red

was

bright

were

fine

round

in

tail

the

as

size

as

foal's.
He
hundred

Deer;

lived in the

forest

deer, under
and

not

far

the

with
name

from

him

Bos

an

attendant

of the

King

there

dwelt

Grunniens.

herd

of the
another

of

^yq

Banyan
deer,

\2.-NIGR0DHA-MIGA

2o6

golden

he, under

as

like attendant

The

hunting,
all the

Benares

of their

Suppose

the

and

devoted

was

used

to

day,

every

to

summon

struction
de-

the

to

This

'*

in the

now

the

king puts

park

to

were

we

drive

deer, and

end

an

food

sow

them

our

and

of

number

deliver

entrance, and

all

to

deer
to

over

king.''

So

they planted in

the

park

and

tied

and

provided water,

the

citizens, they entered

kinds

of

And

in

weapons

league

place where

were

living.

of

the

strikingthe

ground,
the

with

their

herd

they

went

"0

put
from

swords

the

enter

the

to

to

stop
the

When

on

and

and

the

deer

by

forest

shut

about

the

beating

making
the

going

constant

We

And

have

Deer

the

on

of deer
a

gate.

out

great noise

And

made
then

to
now

park with
so

rounding
sur-

Monkey

herd

all
deer.

surrounded

the

the

said to him

filled your

them!^'

drove

eat,

calling

javelinsand bows, they

work.

our

forest, and

feed

leave, and

your

and

; and

and

park,

the

bushes, and

were

king, and

king! by
a

and

for

part of the

Deer

Banyan

they

to

clubs

look

doing they

so

trees

to

catch

best

clubs, they

place where

by rattling their
the

in

deer

forest, with

encircled

And

across.

very

Then

they

the

gate; and

the

up

hands,

shall

for

grass

the

their

thinking, "We
them,"

meat,

hunting

go

close the

it,and

time

ordinary work.

for

provide water
into

to

people thought,

work.

with

Deer,

Monkey

that

at

without

ate

never

townspeople

The

of the

name

herd.
of

king

the

JATAKA,

the

chase, you

brought
them.

saying, they

deer

forth
Hencetook

their

departed.
the

king

heard

that, he

went

to

the

park

; and

12."

seeing there

two

their

But

lives.
shoot

to

cook

would

thenceforth

deer, and
and

go

the

take

to their

heels

twice, they became


the

for the

sent

of deer

said

Deer, and

Monkey
almost

"Friend,

all this

told

all the

though they certainlymust

them

not

it

take

be

by

turns

Let

the

deer

put

his head

the

deer

the

on

to

and

off the

carry
But

Monkey

Deer

Monkey

Deer,

Order

turn.
"

cannot

make

You

know

others.

Go

Receiving

**

Be

told him
it

cook

well

this

his

be

done,

it

turn

neck

used

"

in

roe

to

Lord

on

was

the
and

come

to pass

enough

of the

herd
went

to

with

am

the

young.

will both

we

son,

my

the

She

young.

take

by."

me

lot," said

your

yours.

lying there.

forth

turn

on

day

he,

it has

"

fall

fallen

upon
upon

the
you.

!"

away

and

the

If

placing

the

said,

brought

deer

place of execution,

deer whose

the

with

was

and

I have

When
our

who

day

next

lie down.

lot fell
upon

the

day

one

found

let

One

execution.

the

after

And

he

one

He

the

Let

to the

thenceforth

execution.

Bodisat.

laceration."

lie down,

and

go

of

block

it is go

will at least escape

killed.

were

arrows.

place of

block, and

or

die, yet henceforth

herd, and

turn

once

being destroyed.

are

the

to the

my

whose

agreed :

used

with

to go

lot fall upon

let the

He

wounded

death, and
hit

the

to

they

deer

Now,

of

and

his

as

soon

been

wounded,

or

as

fear

had

they

self
him-

go

sometimes

deer,
the

with

when

weary

herd

it home

The

one.

; but

sometimes

would

he

quake

207

deer, lie granted them

bring

shoot

bow, would

And

DEER.

golden-coloured

saw

BANYAN

THE

so

no

help

the

Do

from

matter.

you

go

him,
He

back.

she

went

listened
I will

to
to

the

Bodisat,

her, and

relieve you

said,

of your

l9."mGR0DHA-MIGA

2o8

And

turn."

block

of

The

lie went

of

life

and
hastily,

The

king

no

king.

my

the

and

to her

?
I

her.

life ?

he

his

mounted

he

the

to

the

place,

King

Why

are

of

you

it

fate

told

and

came

Now

her, and

down.

to

Harbour

else.

one

any

further

no

me

impossible

was

accepting death

golden-coloured
among

up

King
one

men,

compassion.

Rise

in

her

0
suspicion,

so

of the

Deer!

full

ance,
forbear-

of

pleasedwith

am

thee

lives, both

grant your

to

!"

though
men

And

friend

My

"

young

life to

even

saw,

matter.

of

with

roe

miserable

the

this

"But

than

your

her

kindness, and

king

him, is lying in

"

Lord

yet

never

fallen upon

lain

great king !

"My

grant you

transfer

to

me

place,have

you

the

great retinue

Bodisat, said,

great king !

I, giving

in

of

King

this mean?"

it

heard

I not

that the lot had

So

"The

"

lying here

for

told the
sooner

! did

Deer

"

does

the

beholding

to

What

proceeded with

chariot, and

the

promised

was

execution.

tlie

upon

lay down.

cook, seeing him, exclaimed,

place

and

put his neck

himself,and

execution,and

Deer, whose

went

JATAKA.

be

two

safe, what

shall

the

rest

do, 0

"

their lives to the rest,


my

"

Then

"

Thus, then, great king, the deer in the park will have

grant

but
gained security,
"

They

"

Great

what

also shall not

king

even

will the others

They

"

Great

though

the

also shall be free from

safety,what

king

even

shall the

do ?

"

be molested."

shall the rest of the four-footed


"

Lord."

though

deer

dwell

creatures

do ?

secure,

what

"

fear."
the

quadrupeds

flocks of birds do ?"

are

in

12."

210

"

When

the

in

man

Deer

but

kingdom,

When

not

the

herds, and
other

put up
leaves

Henceforth

"

round

the

that

of

edge

the

trespassed beyond

they

received

the

from

the

Bodisat

the

as

the
to eat

he

sent

husbandmen
let them

but

crops;

deer, and

from

fields, and

deer

And

let the

field

the

allowed

not

tie

sign."

time, they say, the sign of the tying of leaves

in

seen

their

guard

to

Not

deer."

forbidding them,

so

Henceforth

the

my

assembled

that, he
are

you

to hurt

you

And
'*

men

fence

no

From
was

the

to

heard

Deer

Banyan

give up

with

allowed

of

tlie leader

to

I may

"

Begone

shall be

people'scrops."

message

oath

my

said,

he.

boon," said

kingdom

my

pleased,I granted

well

was

Banyan

JATAKA.

NIGRODHA-MIGA

it ;

for

that
such

time

not

instruction

the

was

single

Bodisat.

continued

his

with

passed away

his life

thus

herd

long

to instruct

according

to

his

of

the

deeds.
The

hearkened

king, too,

then, in due

Bodisat, and

the

to

exhortations

time, passed away,

according to

his deeds.

The

Master, having

of his
the
was

And

of

and

nun

when

the

was

Deva-datta'

was

Kassapa

END

the
Deer

royal Banyan
OF

only
the

THE

the

now

discourse
I

was

Prince

in

fully expounded
told

the

summed

and

then

was

Not

he

had

he

*'

Kassapa

same,"

the

connexion,
who

saying,

finished

double
the

up

Monkey

Deer

following, the
Prince, the
was

STORY

roe

king

Four

story, he

THE

birth

Truths.
made

by saying,

the
"He

Deva-datta, his herd


was

was

the

nun,

her

son

Ananda,

but

the

myself."
OF

tion
illustra-

protector of

former

the

Jataka
was

the

in

BANYAN

DEER.

13.

No.

JATAKA.

KANDINA

The

[The

Long
the

So

they

were

Now

is

the

same

of

that

as

the

YIII.]

of

Magadha
At

at

the

wont

to

go

the

of

hands

of

season

the

Rajagaha,
harvest

of

people
forest

the

to

away

in

reigning

was

Magadha.

much

friends

And

when

to

Then
of

Magadha.
of

foot

the

at

the

with

us

But

come

lie

the

down

from

in

that

inhabited
the

in

caught

him,

You,

"

mountains,

the

jungle,
country.

mountain-

side
of

snares

love,

and

and

Sir,

the

but

are

inhabited

difficulty.

Pray

simple
is

country
don't

go

down

"

fallen

he, being

Now

from

came

to

danger

and

back,

turn

roe

lived

who

them.

said

the

with

beset

stag,

he, being

with
she

deer

home,

down

deer

with

those

return

went

mountain

certain

made

to

Love.

mountains.

the

was

of

country
suffered

deer

king

ago

Book

in

Jataka

of

Story

Introductory

Indriya

in

Dart

when
for

waiting

along

went

the
the
in

people
deer
ambush

into

deep

to

with
of

return

all

for

love

her,

would

not

her.

Magadha
from

along

saw

the
the

that

the

hills, they
road.

And

time
used

just

IZ."KANDINA

212

where

those

hunter

hehind

The

two

she

smelt

roe

The

stag there
he

foolish

the

on

Then

the

hunter

deer, made
charcoal,

like the

blood

with
children

the

of that

Bodisat
When

wood.

in that

the

from

and

diately
imme-

behind

as

there."
back

kept

his bow

roe,

his

felled

soon

the

she

as

saw

flesh in the

sweet

and

skinned

ambush,

carried

gore,

man,

ofi" the

rest

home

to

went

that

glowing
all

ping
drop-

give

his

treat.

Now

and

wind.
of

out

drank, and

and

ate

certain

first,and

on

the

; but

fire,cooked

stood

hunter

shot

one

came

of

some

stag go

spot

hit, fled away

was

be

with

hunter

smell

the

There'll

"

let the

herself.

there

on,

thicket.

thought,
And

coming

were

young

JATAKA,

he

time

was

had

what

saw

fairy,dwelling

tree

he

happened,

said

himself,

to

"

through father, not through mother,

Not

of

the

dawn

but

they

the

grief of

end

where

What

What

more

made

the

he

and

brought

whole

wood

barbed

dreadful

foolish

stupidmen,

that

the

ring as

blows.

land

than

the

?"

And

of love, that

fall 'neath

bliss,

tasting
more

harem

give

then, whilst
him

tears

woman's

country

who

men

the

the

the

and

under

into

uttered

bears

In

brings sorrow

rebukes

woman

in

What

despicablethan

he

death.

misery, or

bouquets before

three

dart

in

which

teach,

through

themselves

and

control

cast

land, where
who

limbs

wretched

to women's

up

the fairies of the wood


on,

more

to his

come

think

bonds

than

administer

themselves

him

of

all kinds

women

rule ?

losingtheir

in

to others

death

deer

passion creatures

in this world

shameful

of

fool

this poor

lust, has

but

and

one

men's

and

"

hearts !

rule !
power

cheered

verse,

stanza

all

n.

LOVE.

OF

DART

THE

213

"

tlie

When
the

the

And

the

who

the

preached

his

was

roe

Master

the

time

that

former

wife,

showing

sermon

the

made

saying,

by

Jataka

love-sick

the

was

and

the

evil

of

claimed
pro-

thereof

up

of

mountain-deer

brother,

And
the

summed

he

story,

conclusion

the

at

converted.

was

and

connexion,

*'The

monk

this

them

taught

Truths.

Four

love-sick

that

had

Master

tree

passion,

fairy,
was

myself."

END

comment.

The

two

OF

previous

OF

STORY

THE

lines

should

THE

belong,

LOVE.

OF

DART

think,

to

the

explanatory

No.

14.

JATAKA.

YATA-MIGA

The

There

"

nothing

is

Greedy

Antelope.

than

worse

This

sayT

they

greed

tlie

"

Master

told

Elder

when

named

Tissa

when

Bambu-

heard

the

he

to

The

then

So

There
his

the

story

of

by Gogerly,

J.

C.

Sudinna

related

The

1876-1877,

as

him

p.

Eatthapala
A.

187.

by
of

name

The

is

given

the

p.

Parajikar),

95.

of

the

and

the

for

as

days.^

seven

and

of
same

translated

then

family

that

plan

by

his

passed

all

quelled.

are

who

the

keeps

translated

name,
was

Coles,

went

observing

passions

Sutta

half

about
and

Tissa

The

manner

grove

Young
in

consent,

Master.

Savatthi,

which

asking

their

Order,

man

in

''

S., 1847-1848,
in

the

young

food

the

had

devote

his

same

eat

Bambu-

into

this

daily

the

the
to

very

he
to

on

refused

it, in

under
at

when

when,

parents

Tissa,

desirous

became

refusing

by
vows

Practices

Thirteen
under

the

receiving

life, begging
the

done,

and

the

at

Prince

name

And

grant

remained

Master

Jetavana.

to

law

the

of

man

young

by

he

his

to

took

life.

Order,

them
had

after

month

of

residing

was

grove,

discourse,

the

Eattha-pala
he

the

about

keeper

told,

are

Bambu-

religious

compelled

And

we

the

to

enter

to

the

distinction,

Teacher's

himself

leave

of

day

one

Jetavana

at

younger,

Rajagaha,

near

family

went

the

Master,

the

grove,

wealthy

living

was

food.

concerning
For

lie

followed
J.

C.

by
A.

S.,

l^."

law

concerning food,"

famous

in

ANTELOPE.

GREEDY

THE

lie became

Buddhadom

distinguishedand

as

the

as

215

in

moon

of

vault

the

heaven.
At

time

that

and

the

which

of

parents

had

into

they

monk

the

to him

belonged

silver casket

holding

were

; and

the

in

Mendicant

And

Savatthi

know

we

this.
our

used

keep

to

the

And

now

Gotama

only

son,

away

fate

what

not

to

boy

our

him, him

taken

has

of

days

the matter

took

"

the

Rajagaha,
all the jewelry
his laymanship
heart, weeping,

put away

saying, At other festivals


feast wearing this ornament
or
and

festival in

is

fallingto

to

him

there."

Now
wife

And

?"

girlcoming

lord

of the

weep
"

slave-

asked

weeping,

told her

she

house, and

seeing the
her,
Why, Lady ! do you
had happened.
"

what

dish

Well, Lady, what

the

to

was

fond

most

son

your

of ?

"

said she.
"

"

Such
If you

bring

grant

Lady

"

Go

took
to

up

beg.

her

thus

your

And
the

he

when

him

bound

got him

to

she

with

her

forth

will

to

all her

pay

great retinue, saying,


back

Savatthi

in

in which

son."

my

palankeen, and

the monk

wont

was

the

people who had


house, but surrounding herself with
she from
the very first provided the
there with food and
drink.
Having
the

of

lust

him

eat

shammed

bring

street

in her

to

wherewith

with

power
to

she.

lettinghim

lord's

came

reply.
authority in this house,

gave

in the

own,

the

was

said

sit down

by giving
power,

"

went

without

of her

servants

Elder

by

abode

from

come

her

girl then

So the

sent

and

now,

full

me

agreed,

and

expenses,

one,"

back

son

your

The

such

and

house

she

had

sickness, and

see

taste, she
; and

in

when

brought
lay down

due
she

him

course
saw

into

in

her

that
her

inner

chamber.
Then

the
1

monk,
This

is the

when
third

his
of the

begging

Thirteen

time

justalluded

had
to.

come,

l^."

2l6

arrived

his

on

attendant

house.
is the

No

the

his

is

devotee

And

observance

his vow,

him

him

into

her

returned

And

this

bound

him

by

to leave

the

Order.

monks,

Tissa,

the

keeper

bound

him

with

Then

asked,

of

of

place

where

had

come,

she
of

And
in her

him

the

hall

the

taste, broke

On

said,

talking?"
And
they

told him

Once

**

had

when

it had

the

pluck
take

come

garden.
the

them

the

instruction, began

various
away

to

say

down
seated

Sanjaya.

garden

took

did

not

day by day

fruits and

king.

he

the

Now

again and again

to the

here

has

"

And

same."

Sanjaya

And

his

on

news.

Brahma-datta,

named

But

the

And

talk.

common

chapel,sat
subject are you

what

the

to the

come

Sanjaya.

saw

in

gardener

had

who

did

time

upon

she

retinue.

"

he

and

having brought
palankeen, and

now

formerly also

she

taste, that

!
said he,
only, 0 mendicants
monk, caught by the lust of taste, fallen into her
Not

his

lust of taste."

the

throne, and

"

How

"

you," was

see

Master, entering the

the

the

in

slave-girlhas brought back Young


law
the
concerning food, having

another, "A

to

one

in the

of

lust

the

all her

with

became

assembled

lust

why

she seated

news

to

to

him

Rajagaha

to

wishes

went

told

power,

he

the

by

and

she

lying. Then
alluringhim, so
was

An

house.

sit down

than

so,

Sir, and

he, bound

and

him

made

done

the

"

sick, reverend

reply.

persuaded

he

had

of

door

the

at

bowl, and

sooner

lady

She

"

rounds

took

JATAKA.

VATA-MIGA

to

told

flightas

began

the

flowers

in

of

to

antelope
soon

as

away
walk

gardener
the

Benares,

swift

frightenit
it

power

story.

king

this

it

; and

about
used

garden,

to

and

of

nature

to

with

such

just

jungle,
such

has

than
this

of

stanza

Whether

he

When

has

connexion,
who
was

was

the

END

he

wards
after-

life

Yet

in

summed

one,

the

to

just

to

come

worse

long

this

only

taste,

up

the

world

the

lesson

he

said

('*Not

and
then

monk,

OF

back

go

finished

he

summed
San
but

THE

the

by

also

the

STORY

of

one

the

OF

forest.

woods.

in

only

taste,

fallen

slave-

Benares

SWIFT

as

he

tion
illustra!

into

the

the
"

He

antelope

myself."

ANTELOPE.

her

made

follows

girl,
was

of

mendicants

"),

same

Jataka

THE

danger

discourse

of

the

this
of

the

now

the

king

the

to

lust

was

shown

this

did
up

jay

wild

had

had

formerly

friends.

one's

he

Master

caught

say,

control."

words

had

they

greed,

the

deer,

antelope

the

monk,
;

power

other

let

what

this

of

nothing

with

Sanjaya's

in

the

of

lust

than

or

the

taste

under

when

greed,

its

accustomed

And

worse

home,

at

Through

And

week

nor

men,

and

is

"

taste

for

go

frightened.

the

there

nothing

Fell

seen

not

There's

"

has

by

Verily

lust

will

been

bound

now,

this

has

it

disposition,

place.

it

where

place

it

where

place

JATAKA.

that

antelope,

an

to

in

VATA-M/GA

U."

2l8

No.

15.

KHAHADIYA

JATAKA.

The

^^

Though

mouthed

when

the

Now
0

"

It

that

Master

refusing

you

were

caught

And

he

Once

forest,

son,

this

and
is

And
time

he
to

in

abusive,

was

what

true

and

said

they

will

say,

take

no

he.

also,

by

surliness

your

admonition

of
to

came

to

Brahma-datta

became
his

the

wise,

destruction."

in

his

reigning

was

lived

and

stag,

in

in
the

retinue.

(Kharadiya)

roe

nephew.

learn."

it

and

snare

when

for

herd

him

said

"

the

accept
a

time,

sister-

gave
your

to

One

Formerly

"

Bodisat
a

his

Now

the
with

foul-

story.

upon

Benares,

told,

abusive,

are

you

said,

told

certain

are

"Is

him,

Blessed

your

and

we

the

"

"

is true,

The

This

Kharddiyd."

concerning

monk,

asked

admonition

swift, 0

that

learn.

not

admonition.

no

Master

mendicant

would

most

For

take

who

Jetavana,

at

monk.

would

and

he

deer

told

Master

Deer

charge
Teach

nephew,

to

him
"

pointed
him,
the

Come

out

to

saying,
devices
at

such

her

Brother

"

of

him

the

and

deer."
such

JATAKA.

Ib."KHARADIYA

220

At
lie

the

given

on

as

caught

was

his mother

Then

brother

now,

days, and

many

deer, he

And

go.

in

brother, and

asked,
in

instructed

nephew

your

devices

of

snare.

to her

went

was

as

admonitions

learning the

not

day

one

the

"

How

devices

deer?"

of the

Think

"

not

wandering about, disregarding seven

was

the

lie did

appointed time

no

Bodisat.

of that

more

Your

"

fellow
incorrigible

did

son

learn

not

"

said

the

of

the

devices

the

deer.''
And

then,

further

anything

Though

"

And

not

of

having
he

what
and

surliness

swift,^ 0 Kharadiya !

risingpoint o'er point,

to teach

time,

him

that

more

wilful

wise, you

deer

"

in

caught

the

"The

nephew

the

sister

was

"""

(" Formerly

connexion, and
of

deer

that

summed

time

Uppala-vanna,

was

tion
discourse, in illustra-

also, by

your

was

but

the

up
the

the

abusive

Jataka

monk,

admonishing

deer

myself."
THE

OF

See note

said

this

of
refusing to accept the admonition
tion"),
to destruccaught in a snare, and came

were

the

finished

had

your

made

this stanza

him, he uttered

most

killed

hunter

Master

The

END

try

have

and, taking his flesh,departed.

snare,

the

be

unwillingness to

own

transgress the seventh

I would
the

deer

his

with

do

to

antlers

have

If he

But

explain

to

STORY

Eight-hoofed,'two
on

p. 223.

OF

DEER

THE

hoofs

on

each

WHO

WOULD

NOT

foot," explainsthe

LEARN.

commentator.

16.

No.

JATAKA.

TIPALLATTHA-MiaA

The

**rve

told

Master

his

about

over-anxious

the

time

forest,

the

of

king

was

that

in

lived

and

stag,

At

Rajagaha.

in

as

there

time

upon

in

monastery

was

the

"

Kosambi,
observe

to

Order.^

the

of

Once

who

This

sldlled.^^

posture

Badarika

the

at

E-ahula,

son

Rules

the

when

in

deer

the

taught

Deer.

Cunning

Magadha

Bodisat

ing
reign-

came

attended

by

to

life

herd

of

deer.
Now
"

sister

instruct

Brother

"

his

this

"

nephew,
such

and

And

One

Go

to

day

not

him
as

and
he

was

snare.

caught

in

This

amusing

the

thy

him,

to

son

the

in

nephew

Bodisat,
dear,

now,

away
time

failed

he

went

said

well,"

Yery

such

but

her

brought

saying,
of

devices

deer."

the

was

his

you
at

time

and

on

directed

and

return

your

at

instruction."

by

appointed

his

uncle,

instruction.

received

about

wandering

Introductory

assent,

receive

may
the

in

And

Story

he

will

uttered

scarcely

in
a

bear

the

cry

"

wood,

he

the

cry

translating.

IQ."

22

of

mother

know

Brother

of the

"

He

he

took

herd

her

had

son

was

been

asked

in

caught

him,

snare.

"

instructed

nephew

your

let the

flight,and

to

in

the

devices

deer?"

has

will

And

JATAKA.

brother, and

Suspect not

"

the

that

to her

went

"

Then

captive.

She

TIPALLATTHA-MIGA

your

son

well learnt

the

back

come

he

to

of

of

devices
and

us

this stanza

uttered

said
fault,'*

any

the

make

deer.

Even

To

drink

midnight only, and, abounding

To

keep

yet

Thus

the

nostril

one

in

disguise.

at his

pointing

Bodisat,
learnt

hid

the

upon

ground,

command

foe !

the

outdo

had

nephew

swift,

most

six tricks

nephew, by

Will

to be

posture that he likes.

in any

Breathing through
My

joy."

the

at

now

for

laugh

you

I've trained

deer

Bodisat.

the

thoroughly

deer, comforted

of the

devices

the

how

out

his
his

sister.
the

But

struggled
best

feet

his

and

grass

his

body

drawing

with

wet

with

in his breath

stiff and
Even

corpse.

and

there

stomach

the
;

He
out

head

down

his

legs;

so

; breathed

with

stark, and

struck

his

out

upper

as

ground
earth

up

; made

belly by

lower

made

nostril

his

whole

the

appearance

flew round

him, and

presented

bluebottles

the

his

the

trap,

ground

tongue

out

through
the

the

throw

to

as

put

the

on

swelled

spittle
;

breath

the

lay

hoofs,

in

caught

was

of
here

settled !

crows

When

his

let fall his

only,holding his
frame

all.

at

; stretched

could

he

near

not

he

stag, when

young

hunter

and

came

saying

up,
to

he

gave

himself,

"

him
He

must

blow
have

on

the
been

IQ."

caught
loosed

the

nothing,

he

himself,

to

and

by

to

Rahula

devoted

At

wind,

he

apprehending
branches,

here

once,

saying
the

on

returned

to

finished

this

spot,

and

in

also

tion
illustra-

he

stag,

but

so,"

Jiitaka

Rahula,

was

the

was

was

the

up

young

cloud

mendicants,

summed

the

as

mother

discourse,

Uppala-vanna,

was

his

formerly

feet, shook

swiftly

only,

now

nephew,

his

on

and,

instruction

the

mother

and

neck,

connexion,

time

And

stood

(" Not

to

the

that

at

arose,

his

out

words

etc.), made

him

stag

having

his

of

already putrid,"

him.

leaves

collect

223

flesh."

mighty

is

lie

tied

dress

young

Teacher

The

the

began
I will

DEER.

morning,

which

stretched

himself,

CUNNING

bands

"

the

driven

tlie

off the

carry
But

"

in

early

THE

uncle

was

myself."

END

The

clearer.

To

*'

postures

is

verse

thinks,
learner

can

send

me

counterfeit
the

three

means

line

in

be
the

the
text

contradictory
kalahati

chavarj
a
corpse."

following

Most

suggested

and

bhoti,
Mr.

does

commentary

likes"

with

"

would

last

long
he

DEER.^

CUNNING

is

swift"

is in

hoofs

two

the
each

on

peculiarity
is

so

so

might

Trenckner

has

translation,

"The

creditable
the

midnight

to

render,

My

"

good

deer,

the

tator
commen-

explanations.
been

it

three

original "eightfoot," as the

that

corrupt

improbable
one

make

not

literally "having

If

one

nephew,

enough

the

(?) fertile in expedients, the cloven-footed, who


goes
(! ?) (don't fear for him), lying on one
panting on
ear,
will dodge
(the hunter)."
nephew, by the six tricks he knows

cunning

ray

to

read

the

"

where
The

only suggest

venture

lady,

and

THE

posture that
postures."

"eight-hoofed"

commentator

could

any

of three

master

If

can

in

keep

OF

obscure,

very

"

hoofed."

obedient

STORY

THE

OF

to

the

to

threefold
drink

at

ground,

17.

No.

MALUTA

JATAKA.

The

"Whenever
when

the

told,

Kosala

and

Light.

In

the

But

"

In

And

asked

When

the

you

driven

it out

Once

living
time

the

but

upon
in
the

him,

"

your

time

certain

Bodisat,

arising
minds."

two

cave

who

from

at

had

the

Sir, is the

devoted

cold
he

story,
this

he

told

lion

and

foot

of

at

knotty

paying

question
of

change

And

friends,

the

after

solved

"

he.

their
I

on

Light

solve

to

time.

come

at

"

said

and

heard

mendicants

confusion
of

what

had

Master

"

able

Master,

it,

he.

on

Brother

Brother

"

come

being

At

call

of

called

other
"

said

Light,

month

the

"

of

to

Dark,

we

country

the

people

cold

told

They,

the

and

month

the

in

asked

so-called

two

also, 0

Formerly

the

the

went

life

some

as

asked

half

of

they

reverence,

"

Dark

light

neither

point,

of

the

does

the

cold,

Master

monks.

Dark

Light

the

"

forest

called

half

day

time

what

Buddhist

day

the

dark

one

two

was

one

does

time

"

one

Now

what

etc.

living

were

This

blows,"

about

Jetavana,

at

are

wind

Wind.

himself

birth

him
?

'*

said,
for
has

tale.

tiger,

hill.
to

were

At

that

the

reli-

No.

18.

MATAKA-BHATTA

JATAKA.

"jy
told

when

For

the

in
"

Dead

the

monks

of

Feast

preached

now

since

And

he

Once

change

told

upon

Benares,
in

the

Teacher

When

the

Teacher,

the

provide

there

Feast

destruction

bring
to

The

"

in

goats

relatives.
asked

they

dead.

and

is called

here

Let
:

not

for

possibly.

of

birth

us,

what

on

so-called

Sir,

mendicants

evils

give

up

set

is
in

seated

the

has

advantage

sages

showing

be

any

of

it, and

this

provide
there
the
made

practice.

in, it has

arisen

in

sky
all
But

again."

tale.

time,

Brahman,

the

to

sheep

deceased

so,

Jambu-dlpa

in

dwellers

their

Formerly

discourse

"

Dead

the

life

destroying

tlie

"

said,

Teacher

The

the

that

in

advantage

what

Can

Dead.'

the

offer

order

in

kill

to

people

creatures

oflPered

used

doing

men

^This

food

of

the

living
of

to

honour

in

"Lord!

'Feast

the

order

saw

saying,
many

people

time

numbers

large
of

that

at

Dead.

"

about

Jetavana,

at

the

to

understand.^'

hut

would

people

Food

Offering

On

Three

when
a

Yedas,

Brahma-datta
world-famous
had

goat

was

reigning

teacher,

brought,

in

plished
accom-

with

the

18."

intention

of

TO

FOOD

OFFERING

ON

giving the

Feast

this

goat

THE

DEAD.

and

of the Dead,

227

said

his

to

pupils:
lads!

"My
hang

river

; and

it stand

The

when
the

on

conduct, thought

mighty laugh, in

take

felt

he

"

of

measure

it to

the

it, let

decorated

To-day

"

like the
This

"

like

the

his

I shall be

crashing of

that

former

bad

free

heart, he

at

Brahman,

misery to

for

compassion

effect of

and, glad

sound

himself

upon

it,and

it back."

it and

this the

in

himself,

to

accordinglytook

bathed

himself,

to

great misery

thinking

it

give

bathe

bank.

goat, seeing

that

had

they

river, and

bring

they, and

said

Yery well,"

"

then

it out, and

deck

to the

neck, and

its

garland round

and

corn,

take

from

laughed

jar. Then,

will

by killingme,
which

I had

and

Brahman,

earned,"
with

wept

loud voice.
the

Then
have

you

Brahman

young

both

and

laugh,

you

Friend

goat !

heartilycried.

Pray,

him,

laughed heartilyand

is it makes

what

asked

what

"

is it makes

you

cry?"
"Ask

it in

about

me

teacher's

your

presence," said

he.

took

They

And

matter.

the

goat,

"

when

he

did

Why

told

back, and

him

had

you

their

their

heard

laugh, goat,

of

teacher

story, he

and

why

this

asked

did

you

cry?"
Then

goat, by his

the

births, called
the

just

Brahman,
such

verses

of the

mind

to
"

another

of the

Dead,

Yedas
I

the

deeds

Formerly,
Brahman,
; and

killed

of

power

he

had

done,

Brahman,
"

student

I
of

and

said

had

become

the

determining to provide
goat,

and

former

remembering

gave

the

to

mystic
a

Feast.

Feast

By

IZ."MATAKA-BHATTA

228

having

killed that

in

hundred

five

births, less

have

glad

heard.

five hundred
from

will, like
^NQ

times

misery

me,

incur

hundred

"

Fear

"

Brahman

me

or

don't
and

be

walk

Brahman

'*

The

allow
walked

one

you

afraid

about

close

is

released

with

about

it.

kill

bush

growing

the

death."

to

piece of

the

neck, and

kill

you

my

protection;

powerful !

goat

and

tection,
pro-

of

his
the

was

to
a

hit

the

eat

us

leaves

That

goat

And

Let

liberty,

at

goat

rock.

the

"

and
disciples,

top of the

the

while

"

saying,

took

off his head.

tore

off

cut

under

you

is your

splitoff, and

rock

day
to-

you."

ridge
on

I who

said he.

from

sooner

fell

thunderbolt

moment

his head

Whether

goat,"he

the

by killingme,

saying ?

I will take

No

near

manner

released

be

you,"

than, stretchingout its neck, it began


a

the

wept."

great and

to kill this

in

misery of having

having

to-day escape

done

Brahman
no

of

of little worth

the evil I have

so

the

the

at

was

great misery,'

Brahman,

misery

are

cannot

that

laughed

! I will not

goat

dredth
five hun-

it

off, shall

this

and

! what

not, I

But

"

'

from

cut

; but

the

times

not, 0

free

head

my

the

series; and

goat incurred

is my

off

cut

again, I wept, thinking,

Then,

killed

just by having

head

my

This

heart, and

at

had

one.

the

I shall be

'

you

of

last

thought, To-day
I became

goat, I have

one

birth, the

that

JATAKA.

of

very

rock, and
on

his

stretched
out-

people crowded

round.
At

of

power
the

time

tree

growing

he

sight of

these

seated

now

the

had

the Bodisat

that

that

on

himself

multitude

people,seeing thus

the

been

spot.

born

By

as

his

thinking,

fruit

of

Genius

supernatural

cross-leggedin
and

the

"

the
Would

sin, would

sky

in

that

abstain

IB."OJV

from

them,

If

would

cause

he

the

heard

had

people
of

preaching

to

Precepts,

gifts,
the

the

passed

attending

too,

and

left

and

death,

did

other

surely

off

according

establishing

them

deeds.

of
and

deeds,

the

the

Bodisat,
in

The

the

people,

Bodisat,

filled

so

the

with
the

exhortations

good

trembled

his

Truth,

when

And

to

''

the

And

life.

and

grieve

hell.

they

taking

them

to

of

discourse,

the

upon

shall

fear

people,
away

taught

woe,

living

preached

the

his

in

the

slay

life

Being
with

229

voice

sweet

birth

not

taketh

Great
them

terrifying

would

who

in

he

DEAD.

understand

this

For

THE

but

living

Thus

stanza

would

The

TO

life/'

people

That

fear

this

uttering
"

of

destruction

such

FOOD

OFFERING

the

gave

city

of

gods.^

The

Teacher
and

connexion,

Genius

the

was

END

Karma.

OF

That

THE

is, by

finished

having
summed
of

the

STORY

the

production

this
Jataka

the

up

discourse,

made

"I

that

at

the
time

tree.'*

ON

FOOD

at

their

OFFERED

death

of

TO

angels

as

THE

the

DEAD.

result

of

their

19.

No.

JATAKA.

AYACITA-BHATTA

On

"

at

Would

Offerings

Jetavana,

about

the

while

told

Teacher

"

under

offerings

making

Vow.

This

saved.,^^ etc.

he

you

under

given

the

to

vow

gods.
At

that

journey
the

time,
used

gods,
in

you,*'

release

! is
a

Genius

now

when
has

This

the

When

"

turned
re-

offering

an

safe

returned
the

by

made

before

have

we

make

they

and

trading

offering

an

happened

animals,

the

to

and

of

power

offering

to

vow.

asked

mendicants
any

And
of

free

time,

of

village.

tree.

there

upon
in

myself

Then

on

go

this

in

advantage

Blessed

the

"

One,
And

he

tale.

Once

number

we

to

lay

will

success,

from
the

and

saying,

vow,

"

killed

seeing this,

Lord

told

thinking,

themselves

On
"

and

they

about

men

animals,

depart.

so

God,

make

safety

and

told,

are

kill

to

and

successful,
the

we

certain

in

the

he

when

from

of

village promised

Banyan-tree

animals

land

my

and

standing
had

returned

saying
vow,"

he

to

Kasi,

offering

an

the

by

gate

safely,

himself,

went

landed

to

"

the

he

will
foot

prietor
proto

the

of

the

slew

make
of

the

19."

But

the

this

OFFERINGS

ON

Not

for

Salvation

of

the

VOW.

231

uttered

tree,

is

the

and

of

bond

life

of

the

fools

bound

being

are

refrained

men

living

these

as

die

must

is

thus,

deeds

Thenceforward

wise

free

made

"^

from

such

lifefilled

righteousness

destroying
the

of

city

gods.

Teacher,

The

was

having

and

connexion,
the

Genius

END

OF

finished

summed

of

THE

the

of

spiritual
salvation.

in

is,

That

wrath

fools
Death

bonds.
The

salvation,

whole
and

after

ON

parable
the

Jataka

"I

OFFERINGS

made

the

that

at

time

is

performance

think

they
rites

oneself,
a

GIVEN

UNDER

vow.

what

practise
to

discourse,

Tree."

STORY

seeking

god),

this

the

up

both

fork

first

you

freedom

such

by

free,

be

you

Seeking

the

Would

deeds,

in

standing

tree-god,

stanza

UNDER

GIVEN

and
and

play
of,

is

salvation

harbour

rebirth,

spiritual
on

the

the

being

(safety

delusions

word

"

delivered

from

which
is

the

Mutti"

only

which

from,

the

become

true

means

vow.

No.

20.

NALAPANA

The

'^He
about

the
hard

wood,

^^

the

living

was

of

of

village

This

etc.

he

Lake

Demon.

Teacher

told

"

when

the

by

the

to

come

of feet,

Nala-canes,

the

and

Monkeys

marks

the

saw

JATAKA.

at

after

Nalaka-pana,

that

name

on

after

they

Ketaka

the

his

he

had

through

tour

Kosala.
At

that

time

them

by

the

hollow

them
asked

They

This,

And

in

And

was

in

harm.

in

Nala-plant

brought

And
the

to

finding

Teacher,

and
for

brought
from

throughout,

the

root

to

"

he,

is

"

former

of

command

tale.

they

say,
a

was

into

monkey-king,

number,

bathed

Nala-canes

hollow

down

attended

and

from

the

went

had

said

there

went

thousand
them

told

he

its lake

whomsoever

Bodisat

this

had

needle-cases.

they

are

formerly,

was

for

we

mendicants,"

mine."

deer

is

How

This

of

canes

novices,

Lord

"

needle-cases.

"

the

throughout,

him,

point.

monks,

lake, had

Nalaka-pana
to

the

by
he

densely-

who

water-demon,
the
in

troop
lived

water.

size
of

in

like

used

to

At

that

time

the

fawn

of

monkeys
that

forest.

wooded

about

eat

the

red

eighty

forest, preserving

."NALAPANA

234

Have

"

the

received

you

JATAKA.

all who

over

power

into

down

go

pool?"
indeed

Yes,

"

and

down,
and

all !
"We

"

I let

then

"You

from

to

when

will

it

comes

devour,

one

us."

eat

!"

the water

too, but

suppose,

that

shall not

we

of

stem

to

the

"

water

must

we

Each

of

one

drink

and

eat

U8

Teacher

that

he

marks

water-plant.

eighty

us

the

to

water
one

And

of

would
so

you

"

had

Buddha

as

uttered

down

go

entering it,as easilyas

ever

power

Nala-cane

hollow

the
no

at the

wrong

take

when

was

the

recalled

first half of the

this

following

"

saw

the

saw

no

then
"

he

We'll

"

And

drink

the

to the

monkeys)

demon,

in

he

become

Bodisat

had

had

down,

returned."

"

reed,"

added)
"

your

gone

had

through

water

yet I'll not

appealing

perseverance,

of feet that

marks

saying,the

Perfections

of feet that

said to the

(And turning

and

too

get

are

without

pond

circumstance

So

you

shall

will have

(But

bird

hands."

But

stanza

even

You

away

then, will you

thousand

It

you

drink

imagine,

drink.

drink

off

off.

allow

shall

we

How,

your

one

! drink

fall into your


"

no

shall not

Yes

"

I carry

"

Well,

''

prey

Nala-cane

great solemnity

to

!"

brought
the

Ten

him,

to

Great

(generosity,morality, self-denial, wisdom,


patience, truth, resolution, kindness,

resignation)exercised

by

him

in this and

and

previous births,

TXi.-THE

he

blew

into

MONKEYS

tlie cane.^

throughout, not
he

manner

blew

into

and
be

had

the

Then

the

saying,

perforated throughout."

their

the

commands

in that

pond

There

became

world

Kalpa

the

and
"

whole

remain
round

These

four

After
and

the

This

let fire

grew

(theperiod which

Kalpa
of

the

the

hare

will

out
through-

endure

fire

guished
extin-

was

take

not

last

will

moon

the

of

formation

the

the

in

place where

this

fire

again

them,
And

appeal
a

the

to

at

fire from

and

moment

same

is called

consumed

"

thee
him

be

it be

and
and

man

thy
his

keys
mon-

he

as

saccakiriya,
If

cane

themselves

seated

good action, if

former

miracle, and

heaven

and

cane,

the

took

Bodisat

eighty thousand

So, too, those

of

pond.

the

command,

himself.

solemn

2 Kings i. 10
properly compares
down
from
come
heaven, and consume

down

which

place where the potter lived


arid through all the Kalpa : the canes
ing
growthis pond will be hollow
through all the Kalpa.
called the Kalpa-lastingWonders.
are

representedas working
Childers

Kalpa

took, each
round

since

Bodisats

the

canes

which
destruction)

Quail-birth

giving

seated

in this

sign of

the

all the

through

of

goodness

commencement

its final

Kalpa
in

will

the

the

here

growing

canes

perforatedthroughout.

four miracles

are

pond,

the

thenceforward,

And

the

this

In

it.

round

walked

fulfilled,all the

are

elapses between
the

of

greatness

left in

all the

Let

"

hollow

another, brought, and

then

Bodisat

235

became

cane

being

another, and

it.^

DEMON

THE

And

single knot

commanded,

through

came

AND

drew

true, is

i.e.

"

of

often

truth-act."

God,

fifty. And
fifty." But

then
there
the

miracle, said in the Buddhist


scripturesto follow on an appeal of this kind, is
tions,
On the Perfecin distress.
usually,as in this case, an assistance to some
one
see
above, pp. 54 to 08.
2 This
to be a gloss,as the writer
seems
adds, He could not have stopped
at that point ; so it should
not thus be understood."
3
On this story,see the translator's
Buddhism," pp. 196-198.
*
On this story,see below, Jiitaka No.
35.
"

"

20."

236

the

water

safe

the

on

Thus

on

to

sorrow

back

When

his

was

thousand

monkey

then

the

to

Teacher,
of
is

his

and

words

former

king,

END

But

("

in

THE

into

them

he

and

Bodisat

his

in

returned

his

and

troop

The

"),

saying

Buddha's

was

OF

retinue
I

NALA-PANA.

myself."

in

these
he

canes,

the

made
''

the

Devadatta;

resource,

STORY

mine

Jataka,

was

the

of

hoUowness
of

discourse

this

finished

the

up

clever

of

one

the

command

were

OF

sat

forest.

water-demon

monkeys

all

they

too,

so,

water,

haying

summed

the

not

the

place.

again

drank,

got

drinking
own

mendicants,
connexion,

and

drank.

and

their

JA7AKA,

JVA

cane

water-demon

the

illustration

his

bank,

the

power

went

into

up

PA

LA

JVA

He

who

eighty
but

the

No.

21.

jataka.

KUEUisraA-MiaA

The

The

"

told
For

when

once

hall, they

every
The

for

possible
Teacher

him,

here

sitting

are
"

Lord

has

Devadatta

did

the

And

he

Once

upon

Benares,
lived

told

in

the
his

about

going

and
a

about

elephant

the

Sage."

seat

reserved

Mendicants,

you

of

wickedness

the

to

only,

now

slay

me

in

unsuccessful

was

hurled

"

Not

"

about

gone

saying,

slay you."

to

answered,

same,

about

lecture

and

the

on

it, then,

is

the

the

slay

to

down

sat

talking

were

Teacher

about

What

"

talking

we

in

Devadatta
The

asked,

and

archers,

Dhanapalaka

goes

and

came,

teacher

wickedness,

suborned

he

way

in

assembled

had

forth

sent

the

"

Devadatta's

of

This

etc.

Devadatta.

has

and

rock,

well^^^

monks

the

Devadatta

down

full
about

talking

sat

"Brother

in

Jetavana

at

Antelope.

knows

Kurunga

while

Wily

mendicants,

formerly,
his

too,

he

endeavour."

tale.

time,

Bodisat
forest

when
became

home,

Brahmadatta
a

feeding

was

on

and

antelope

kurunga

fruits.

in

reigning

And

at

one

21."

238
time

lie

KURUNGA-MIGA

the

eating

was

JATAKA.

fruit

Sepanni

heavily-laden

on

Sepanni-tree.
Now,

of the

tracks

with

wound

make

On

of

the

it,and

with

him,

his

seat

came

the

to

up

the

the

of the

he

on,

stopped

front
said

Bodisat

coming

this

way,

and

up

there

!"

hunter

discerned

the

of
foot of

some

at

platform

took
the

up

but

his

javelin
took

tree, and

make
be

that

saw

without

going

thought

distance

quiet,

himself,

to

of that

reconnoitre.
Bodisat

threw

and

platforms

danger

any

too

himself^

to

their

the

"

Why,

fallingbefore
And

not

was

fruit

down

Hallo, 0

"

straightdown,

root

So

as

but
you

! You
as

to-day
have

so

tree."

and

So

have

if you
you

to

and

seek

saying, he

be

again, he
have
been

seen

wont

putting

were

have

are

must

given

surrendered

tree-nature, I shall go
other

There

me.

pretending not
tree

fruits

these

looking up again

Then

fall

hanging

tree-nature.

out,

fruit

let your

to

hunter.

him, he called

stanza

early"he

at the

of him.

The

the

Bodisat

himself

there

he

himself

kept

it fell in

your

made

tree, he

can

hunter, when

the

coming

forth

of the

wood, climbed

I wonder

And

But

to

fruit,

the

eat

flesh.

Sepanni-fruits
;

foot

the

trees.

kind."

to

came

platform-hunters sometimes

Those

that

self
him-

platform.

eat

hastily to

on

who

breakfasted

to the

the

note

Bodisat, too, left his lair early in the morning, and

The

"

Sepanni-tree, he
having

to

seatinghimself there,

foot-marks

day, the

went

on

deer

livingby sellingtheir

upon

village used

above, and

javelin the

that

foot of the fruit-trees,build

the tree

seeing,one

foot

of

at the

deer

platform on

and

deerstalker

the
my

up

racteristi
cha-

food

uttered

at

this

21.

The

Kurunga

What

kind

"

Your

his

the

this

The
tell

time

time, the

conduct

of

up

the

the

Jataka

END

at

This

The

the

enemy
has

of
"
"

he

on

story
who

that
exceeds

might desire, (dragging


covered."

"

lost

He

"

lost

"

the

Hells,

result

And

of

hunter,

this

too,

discourse

me

in
himself

he

got

and

then

was

Antelope

cants,
mendi-

summed
the

was

KURUNGA

hunter

down)

the
makes

as

myself."

ANTELOPE.

uttered

wickedness

tration
illus-

formerly, also,

connexion,
who

in

only,

now

slay

THE

Buddha

your

saying,

so

Fausboll,
Commentator,
Dharamapada
Verses"
(p. 331), says that
Scripture

the

this

me

Ussada

"

out,

cry

pleased.

to

Kurunga

the

to

the

"

the

OF

the

sixteen

(" Not

about

STORY

the

finished

made

the

quoted by

this
He

go

but

THE

is

verse

I've

you!

have

may

he

said

follows

as

Commentator

Collection

had

"),

same

OF

end

had

he

Devadatta,

was

with

you

And

desired.

Devadatta

did

hurled

platform,

stopped

lost

not

whithersoever

what

does
he

he

Teacher

the

not."

the

torment

have

you

went

"When

me

on

and

and

and

bondage

whither

and

down,

was

much

Hells

Great

these

escaped

he

down.

throw

myself

round,

however

man,

eight

"

betake

as

turned

fivefold

thus

you

"

Bodisat

you,

and

well, Sepanni,

calling out, '^Away

him,

at

239

friend, belikes

seated

hunter,

full

fruit

I shall

ANTELOPE.

knows

fruit, my

javelin

you

WIL

of

Elsewhere

Then

THE

the

162nd
himself

creeper

the

verse

such
tree

p.
it
of
as

which

147.
was

that
his
it

22.

No.

JATAKA.

KUKKUEA

The

The

"

dogs

Teacher

up

while

at

told,
This

relations.
Jataka

in

Once

will

great

the

one's

Bhadda-sala

the

Brahmadatta

in

of

is

what

to

came

by

life

reigning

was

of

consequence

attended

cemetery

in

confirmation

In

when

effect,

that

This
"

benefiting

about

explained

etc.

tale.

Bodisat,

the
have

would

Jetavana,

Book.

time,

king's hotise,"

the

be

told

he

upon

Benares,

in

Twelfth

the

related,

there

brought

Preacher.

turned

who

Dog

as

lived

and

dog,

several

of

troop

which

act

an

in

in

hundred

dogs.
Now,

milk-white

by

the

there

been

There
The

rest

of

was

in

and

mounted

went

day,

to

and

the

put

his
his

amused

park,

after

chariot,

state-

himself

returned

sunset

carriage

drawn

just

harness,

to

the

it had

as

courtyard.

the

in

rain

royal dogs,

palace,

the

they

used,

king

steeds,

And

city.

the

day

one

too,

gnawed

the

down

came

at

night,

the

leather

and

the

from

work

the

harness
flat
and

got
roof

straps.

of

wet.

the
The

forwards,

king's attendants

the

king stopped

; it is

"

Yes

"

What

"

They

obeisance

who

I,"

the

the

the

slain ?

"

men

"

straps of

coverings and

leathern

the

asked

and

king,

dogs

under

reply.

fault, 0 king of

eaten

from

out

came

to

having

are

was

is their
have

but

away,

chariot."

my

Do

"

*'

That

*'

To

don't

we

Kill

had

for certain

the

not

for the

culpritsthat gnawed

the

are

out
found, with-

be

may

!"

of the

destruction

found,' because

be

they may

dogs, saying,
dogs

carriageleather."
! Do

punished

"There

they

just,0 king

not

then

What

some

who

all wherever

them

eaten
"

know."

orders

I gave

"

"

it ?

did

ones

all killed wherever

have

leather, is

the

which

know

you

knowing

'

made

Is it you

"

him,

drive him

to

awhile, he

rested

throne, and

the

Thereupon

them.

had

he

about

were

throne.

king's

the

underneatli

ran

the

After

JATAKA,

22."KUKKURA

242

with

death
The

some.

are

kill all

men

your

dogs,

or

there

are

"

in

royal dogs

house

are

saying you

had

our

exempt."
king

Great

"

given
dogs
that

orders
had

the

to

eaten

you

kill

all

wherever

the

carriage-leather
; and

the

guilty of

dogs,

dogs
this

Now

and
partiality
be

only just now

well-bred

exempted.

to

your

being

other

such

in

so,

were

found,

house

own

you

is neither

have

been

of

judge.^ Now,

and
in

say

guilty

right,nor

of the Agatis (thingsof which


a judge,
Literally,
be
to
four
not
are
ought
guilty)
they
;
sittingas judge,
and
fear.
ill-will,
ignorance,
1

you

become

shortcomings of

thing

now

because

kingly.

a
especially
king,

number, partiality,

.-THE

It behoves
with

as

with

DOG

him

who

balance.

death, whilst

of death

all

on

Then

the

voice, and
is not

"

the

name

Since

the

royal dogs

of

dogs

poor

king

Great

and

he

taught

is

sentence

no

his

up

which

the

punished

weak."

lifted

! That

king

motives

try

not

are

the

243

to

this

are,

further

Being

''

"

doing

are

you

the

king

pleasant

Truth

in this

The

dogs brought

The

thoroughbreds in

Not

these, but
is

"When

the
Wise

in the

up

birth

and

heard

do

One,

"

; this

is

slaughter

! ''

weak

king

strength

killed.

to be

are

we,

king's house.

righteousvengeance

no

of the

PREACHER.

dogs, but slaughterof

said,

This

"

TURNED

bears

the

Great

justice\

stanza

WHO

what
then

you

the

Bodisat

know

who

said, he

asked,

it is has

eaten

own

house."

the

carriageleather?'^
"

Yes

^^

Who

"

thoroughbreds livingin

It is the
But

how

'*

I will prove

"

Prove
Send
and

The
grass

*'

then?

they

are

"

"

it," said he.

; I know

can

it

it to

then, 0

for the

so

in

crushed

the

are

guilty ones

"

you."
sage

grass

did

they

"

thoroughbreds, and

Dabba

king

know

we

your

brought
the

; and

have

in."

Great

Being said,

buttermilk, and

the

little buttermilk

give

"

Have

the

the

dogs

to

drink."
The

vomited
Then

all-wise

king

did

it up,
the

"

so

and

king

Buddha

; and

was

each

of the

dogs,as they

bits of leather

with

it.

delightedas

with

himself

; and

gave

up

drank

decision

his

by

sceptre

it,

the

to the

22."KUKKURA

244

But

Bodisat.
in

the

ten

Three

the

the

him

exhorting

returned

to

And

the

king

listened

all

the

of

teaching

other
the

world

Now

the

in

and

of

illustration
did

the

formerly
summed

king

the

the

was

Ananda,

but

the

END

(in well

unweary

sceptre.
and

he

for

after

stant
con-

all the

of

dogs

firm

remained

works

did

and

granted

commanded

and

and

the
the

charity

death

in
and

reborn

was

Dog

flourished

Bodisat

lived

saying ("
for

act

did

so"),

Not
the
he

others
I

was

THE

to

good

old

only, 0

mendicants,

of
the

made
"He

the

OF

discourse, in

his

THE

relatives,

connexion,

who

was

Buddha's

myself."

STORY

of

this

benefit

were

tens

for

deeds.

now

by saying,

the

OF

his

to

concluded

had

Jataka

Dog

exhortation,

according

Tathagata

up

be

And

of

away

he

king

Commandments,

royal food,

long,

But

his

also

story of the

tlie

gods.

Teacher

the

When

the

life

his

of years.

passed

his

to

Exhortation

thousands
age

of

his

king

Bodisat,

the

the

Five
to

downwards.

deeds

good

the

food, like

Bodisat

the

from

the

living creatures;

of

supply

in

thenceforward

he

to

from

great king !

king

doing),

security

to

"

righteously,

confirming

law

tlie

preaclied

righteousness,

on

Birds, beginning

And
and

Bodisat

verses

Walk

JATAKA.

DOG.

then

and
the

ants,
attend-

No.

23.

BHOJAJANIYA

JATAKA.

The

"Though
when
the

the

the

wise

and

did

he

to

Bodisat

and

perfumed

into

became

fed

He

delicious

stars,

the

told

lost

heart

Master
0

themselves

then

mendicants,

unremittingly,

received

they

Teacher
had

Formerly,

Brahma-datta
born

was

horse,

Benares.

with

For
"

exert

when

up

when

ago,

Bhoja

wont

said,

the

who

monk

holiness.

and

give

This
"

And

check.*'

tale.

Long

most

after

monk,

were

not

told

the

concerning

struggle

addressed

Thoroughbred.

sidey'*etc.

his

on

Jetavana,

at

in

fallen

Bhoja

fine

of

old

stall, hung

flowers,
decked

furnished

covered
with

with

the
the

out

rice;

and

round

lamp

of

charger

he

of

the

of

smelling

sweet-

oil

fragrant

the

on

fragrant

embroidered

painted

canopy

of

in

stood

of

king

dish

curtains

with

in Benares,

thoroughbred

priceless golden

garlands
a

family
state

with

reigning

was

with

golden

flowers,

that

was

and

never

extinguished.
Now
of

there

Benares.

was

no

On

one

king

who

occasion

did

seven

not

covet

kings

the

kingdom

surrounded

the

2Z."BH0yAjANIYA

246

city,and

sent

Either

give us

"

The

asked

this, and
You

"

ought

once,"

battle

give

what

them

reply.

his

such

battle

!"

told

done.
to battle

out

go

and

shall

fails,we

saying,

ministers, and
to be

was

Send

"

if he

; and

of

Benares,

give us

or

yourself,0 king, to

not

the

was

kingdom,
council

of

king

the

to

the

up

called

king

them

letter

JATAKA.

such

knight

know

at
to

to do

what

afterwards."
The

king

for him, and

sent

well beloved, to these


0

"

said

king,"

Bhoja charger,I
kings, but

the

Take

"

"Yery
and

all

his

from

issued
first

girt
the

galloped back,
Then
the

he

third, and

through

the

prisoner,when
and

so

sixth, and
the

him

on

horse,

king alive,

one

to the

cityguard.

the

taken

Bhoja thoroughbred
he

put

the

second, then

alive ; and

just

Bhoja

himseK

mounted

through

and

the

lightning againstthe

over

kings

had

gushed forth,

blood

And

leave,

his

had

through it,took

five

took

seven

like, my

you

took

he, and

like

again,broke

started

charger

sword,

delivered

and

the

of India."

continent

in mail.

his

broke

thoroughbred

fight,not only

to

city,charged

entrenchment,

the

palace, and

the

on

give battle,

you

battle," said the king.

carefullyclad

armour,

Can

"

other

any

from

*'

have

lord," said

my

down

brought, and

or

give them

and

good,

went

able

of all the

Bhoja

trusty