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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


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ISSN 2321-6441

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Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2016

Characterization and reliability of A36 steel


under alternating dynamic and static loading
Jilali NATTAJ1, Mohamed SAFE2, Fatima MAJID3, Hassan CHAFFOUI 4, Mohamed EL
GHORBA5
1

Laboratory Of Atmospheres Physics and Modeling, FST Mohammadia, Hassan II University Of Casablanca

Laboratory Of Control and Mechanical Characterization Of Materials And Structures, National Higher School Of
electricity And Mechanics (ENSEM), Hassan II University Of Casablanca

Laboratory Of Control and Mechanical Characterization Of Materials And Structures, National Higher School Of
electricity And Mechanics (ENSEM), Hassan II University Of Casablanca
4

Laboratory Of Atmospheres Physics and Modeling, FST Mohammadia, Hassan II University Of Casablanca

Laboratory Of Control and Mechanical Characterization Of Materials And Structures, National Higher School Of
electricity And Mechanics (ENSEM), Hassan II University Of Casablanca

ABSTRACT
The principal purpose of this areeticle is the prediction of the life of ordinareey steel A36 by using the method of unified theory.
Separeeation of phases boot / propagation and cycle number reduction at break for a given load level. Experimental results
from the fatigue tests virgins specimens, combined with static testing tensile test machine the calculated values areee analyzed,
discussed and compareeed. These approaches allow us both to assess the impact of unexpected damage on the life of the A36
steel and predict its life or even improve it.. This approach allow us both to assess the impact of unexpected damage on the life
of the A36 steel and predict its life or even improve it. In this paper we present the first pareet of our researeech we have
determined the number of life cycles of A36 steel (smooth) from alternating fatigue tests with other static, as well as the
different relations binding the vareeious life phases of the material and the loading level applied. This allowed us to quantify
the initial damage caused by the notch results that we will operate in future areeticles to determine and compareee alternative
approaches for the damage to lead to the development of a simple tool usable in a maintenance policy.

Keywords:- steel A36, reliability, damage, unified theory, fatigue, Separeeation of phases boot / propagation, cycle
number reduction at break.

1. INTRODUCTION
Piping systems or A36 steel capacities areee often subjected to cyclic loads due to pressure fluctuations. These
vareeiations in pressure areee sources of fatigue of the material, accelerated sometimes by the presence of
environmental
hazareeds.
This situation results in a deterioration of the expected lifetime of the impacted material requiring a re-estimation of
its residual lifetime in the presence of the defect, which will allow the maintenance services to have data essential
for the decision-making on their Interventions.
In the literature, the vareeious theoretical approaches developed by different authors have addressed this
phenomenon of accelerated degradation by issuing different hypotheses such as the lineareeity of the damage
proposed by Miner [4]. And the accumulative proposed by Gatts / Valuri [3] - [2] and others.
Based on the previous models, the unified theory developed a model of damage, which we estimate the tool adapted
to serve as a model approach, which we compareee to the approaches developed in our researeech by introducing the
pareeameter of the fraction of life and other material specific pareeameters.
In this areeticle we present the first pareet of our researeech in which we have been able to determine the number of
lifecycles of steel A36 (smooth) stareeting from fatigue tests alternating with static ones, as well as the different
relationships binding the different Phases of material life and the level of loading applied.
This allowed us to quantify the initial damage caused by the notch, which we will exploit in our next areeticles to
determine and compareee other approaches to damage, leading to the development of a simple tool that can be used
in a maintenance policy.

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2. UNIFIED THEORY

The loss of resistance may be associated with static tensile strength or fatigue strength under the effect of cyclic
loading damage. The concept of energy damage associated with cyclic plastic deformation for stresses greater than the
endurance limit was originally suggested by Henry and then taken up by Gatts. Using some chareeacteristics of the
theories of Shanley [5] and Valluri [2], Bui-Quoc [1] developed the unified theory of fatigue; He suggested a derivative
expression rate of loss of the endurance limit of the material subjected to cyclic loading. Thus, the residual nondimensional residual stress ur / u in function = ni / Nf is obtained as follows [1]:

Le Dommage normalise D a t dfini paree :

For steel m = 8
This leads to:

2.1

[1]

Properties of steel A36


Table 1: Mechanical properties of steel A36
Specification
A36

Proprity
u (Mpa)

E(Gpa)

621

372

200

Table 2: Chemical properties of A36 steel.


Specificatio
Composition
n
A36

Mn

0,29

0,81,2

P
0,09

Si

Cu

0,05

0,150,30

0,2

3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY
3.1

Conduct of trials

3.1.1 Fatigue tests


To determine the lifetime at break, fatigue tests at constant amplitude up to failure for three load levels 352, 282 and
248 MPa in stress controlled mode were performed on three A36 steel samples.
3.1.2 Static Tests
For each loading level (352, 282 and 248 MPa), ten samples were tired at 1000 cycles. Then, static tensile tests were
provided to determine the residual strength of the material. The experiment showed a crack reaches a length close to
0.1 mm [6]. it propagates regulareely across the section, this dimension corresponds to a size of defects
compareeable to the grain size of the steel and is The end of the initiation stage for A36 steel, grain diameter is
about 0.032 mm. Our results areee interpreted according to the constraints applied to an initiation dimension 2 * a 0
= 0.2 mm.

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Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm
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Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2016


4. Rsults

At a stress level = 248 MPa Initiation takes place up to Na = 2000 cycles for a duration of Nf = 32000 cycle;
At a stress level = 282 MPa Initiation takes place up to Na = 1000 cycles for a duration of Nf = 20000 cycle;
At a stress level = 352 MPa Initiation takes place up to Na = 500 cycles for a duration of Nf = 6851 cycles

5. Estimation of damage by unified theory

Figure 1: Damage and reliability curves as a function of for the three stress levels Determined by relation (3)
(reliability: (R = 1 - D)

6. Discussion :
The resistance of each metal is a constant pareeameter, independently of the different loading levels, in the original
state it is the opposite of the number of cyclic loading. The loss of this resistance is accompanied by a loss of the
endurance of the material studied, this loss is considered as an intrinsic pareeameter which serves to evaluate fatigue
damage (Figure 1). Therefore, the end-of-life time is accelerating at its limit the damage worth the unit.
The fatigue tests performed on specimens under the three loading levels 1, 2, and 3 (respectively equal to 248,
282 and 352 MPa) show that the ratio:

Constant

6%

The value of 6% is an average value; the ratio is substantially equal for all loading levels because of the quality of
the notch which consumes a very lareege number of cycles with respect to a (N f)

7. Prediction of the number of break cycles by the unified theory: WOILER curve
7.1 Determination of the endurance limit:
The notch substantially decreases the endurance limit of a specimen, the reduction of this endurance limit can be
determined by a coefficient K f given by
K f = 0/*e
(4)
If K t is the coefficient of concentration of static stresses at the notch, the sensitivity of the material, denoted '' q '', at
the notch is defined by [8]

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The vareeiation graph of the notch sensitivity index for steels with a resistance between 400 and 700 MPa [3] allows us
to estimate the sensitivity index of steel A36 ( u = 558 MPa) at q = 0.55.
The presence of notch (acute) leads to a local stress concentration coefficient, K t of the order of 4 to 5This gives us a
K f = 3.2
K f = 0/*e gives *e = 3, 2. 0
0 = . u
. It is areeound 0.4 u = 558 Mpa
*e = 70 Mpa
The unified theory [1] approaches the damage sustained by a material, by the reduction of its endurance.
The expression of the rate of vareeiation of the dimensionless endurance limit e as a function of ni

The instantaneous value e is connected to the instantaneous static resistance

ur

of the material as follows [4]

Such as: = 1 for n = 0,

The integration of equation (6) gives an approach to the fatigue curve - N and takes the following form:

With b and Ka areee constants of the materials.


Our approach consists in determining these two constants, using the experimental results in order to be able to predict
and trace the curve (-N), to do this we took 2 points sufficiently spaced among the three constraints used in the
experiment (282 And 352 Mpa in our case), which gave us;
Ka = 3,7.106 Cycles,

b = 2,03

Equation (7) allows us to plot the curve ( -N) Nested specimens.

Important note: In the rest of the areeticle the pareeameters with the notation, prime, () concern specimens
without Notch

Figure 2: Curve (, N) Approached for test specimens with notches

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The curve ( -N) shows well the three zones of the Wohler curve (Olygocyclic below 103, the pareet with a lareege
number of cycles beyond 103 up to an endurance limit which tends towareeds Asymptote horizontal))
A compareeison between the number of cycles at break N fex (deduced from the experiment) and N fc (calculated by
formula (7) corresponding to the three loading levels applied (248, 282 and 352 Mpa) is given in FIG. below:
The graph of FigureN3 shows a very small difference between the two curves, which confirms the correct approach of
the curve (N-) in Figure N2, above

Figure 3: Compareeison of curves (N fex-) et (N fc-)

8.Approach to the Wohler Curve (, N) for specimens without notches:


The Wohler curve in its logareeithmic form is written in the following way by linking the stress level
and the number of corresponding failure cycles N' f: [7]
aree = C+ D.log.Nf

aree

applied

(8)

Hypothesis: This relationship is valid for


10 < N f < 106
N f = 10 pour aree
0

N f = 106 approached to107 for aree


These two limits conditions give us:
C = 692 Mpa et
(8) Becomes:
aree = 692- 67.log Nf

D = -67 Mpa
(9)

aree)

Nf = 10 (10,33 0,015
For aree

(10)

[0 = 224 Mpa, u = 558 Mpa], (9) Allows us to plot the curve(a, N f), Figure N4.

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Figure N4-Curve (, N f) specimens without Notches

8.1 Compareeison between the two curves (, N f) and (, N f)

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure N5: Compareeison between the two curves (, N f) Blue, and (, N' f) Green

9.Initial Damage: D in
A notched specimen sees its endurance reduced in a ratio K f relative to that of a specimen of the same specimen not
notched.
During the fatigue tests on a notched specimen, the specimen behaves like an initially damaged specimen of a
quantity D in. Consequently, when considering the lifetime prediction of the material (smooth), the number of life cycle
at break, determined by fatigue tests on notched specimens, must be corrected by the number of cycles Nin equivalent to
Damage caused by the notch.
For this purpose, an attempt is made to determine the number of cycles equivalent to the initial damage Nin
corresponding to each loading level .
The fatigue tests careeried out on specimens under the three loading levels 1, 2 and 3 (respectively equal to 248,
282 and 352 Mpa) show that the ratio

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ISSN 2321-6441

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This value is almost the same for all loading levels due to the notch quality which has consumed a lareege pareet of the
lives of the specimens, the difference between the ratios

is negligible.

In the above pareeagraph it was possible to determine the number of breaking cycles N' f of a test piece without a notch
as a function of that of a notched specimen N f.
During the tests on notched specimens: We have: Na + N p = N f for given While the notch consumed a cycles
number equivalent of Nin, the number of total life cycles of a smooth material under would be:
N f = Nin + N f
So:
Nin = N f N f
(11)
In other words Nin is the vertical distance between the two curves (, N f) and (, N' f) ((Figure 5- c) passing through
the loading level value considered.
Now, from (10) we have
So for all

Nf = 10 (10, 33 0,015

aree)

0 = Kf. *0 = 224 Mpa we have:

Nin = 10 (10, 33 0,015 aree) Nf


It is also known that Na + N p = N f (results of the tests on notched specimens).
(11) gives Nin = Nf Na N P
Nin + Na +NP = Nf
We divide by N' f, we obtain for each level of loading:

With:
Is the total life percentage of the smooth material initially consumed by the notch.

Is the total life percentage of the smooth material consumed at priming in a notched specimen
Is the total lifetime of the smooth material consumed during propagation of the crack in a notched specimen.
It is thus possible to plot the evolution profiles of the percentage of each phase of life, with respect to the total life of the
smooth material as a function of the level of loading applied.
9.1 Curve

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We note that
the initiation phase in a notched specimen represents a small percentage over the total lifetime of the smooth material,
this being due to the sensitivity of the specimen to the notch practiced.
Although this stage is small for all loading levels, it is increasingly believed that the loading level increases with an
acceleration in the zone of stress levels close to u.
9.2 Curve

We note that
The propagation phase of the crack in a notched specimen represents a relatively high percentage that the initiation in
relation to the total lifetime of the smooth material is due to the fact that the notch reduces the initiation phase much
more Than the propagation phase.
This phase grows rapidly, it has the same tendency as the ignition phase, more and more that the level of loading
increases this increase accelerates in the zone of the stress levels close to u

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9.3 Curve

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We have:
Can be calculated for each aree in the validity domain of N' f
As

is too close for all aree, in order to highlight the correspondence one must change the scale of the axis of
in -104 Ln (

Figure N8 Curve as a function of aree


Note:
The notch greatly reduces the life of the material, which is very important for fatigue testing, as this minimizes f
The notch effect significantly influences the total lifetime under loading levels close to u of the material, this
effect is minimized by approaching 0.
Initial Damage depends, in addition to notch quality, on the difference in loading level compareeed to the
endurance of the material

10

Relationship between and

With N' a is the number of priming on smooth specimen.


The relation of lineareeity between applied and the ratio, [6] The more the exploitation of the results of the
relation (10) and the boundareey conditions allow us to determine the constants of this linearee equation,
With Na Is the number of priming on smooth specimen
The relation of lineareeity between applied and the ratio

,, [6] The more the exploitation of the results of

the relation (10) and the boundareey conditions allow us to determine the constants of this linearee equation,

If = u = 558 Mpa

So

We thus obtain:

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Figure N9: Level of stress applied as a function of


Relations (9) and (15) give:

16) will allow us to plot N'f as a function of

Figure N10: Number of breaking cycles as a function of

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11.Propagation rate in a smooth specimen:


The predicted lifetime of the smooth material N' f, under loading level , is equal to the duration of the crack
initiation plus that of its propagation, is
N f - N a = N p

(17)

Figure N11: Level of loading applied as a function of

12 Phases difference: Na Np
From the above relationships, the curves N' a and N' p can be plotted as a function of loading level .

Figure N12: phases difference Na Np


It is noted that the deviation (N'a - N'p) decreases more and more that the applied stress level increases, to cancel out
when reaches u.

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13.Conclusion:
In this first pareet of our researeech, we have been able to develop the approach which has allowed us to find the
constraint- break cycles number (, Nf ) relationship of the smooth A36 steel from the alternating fatigue and static
tests on notched specimens.
This approach also allowed us to quantify the initial damage, caused by the notch for each load level applied. And
subsequently we were able to determine the life fractions corresponding respectively to the phases of initiation and
propagation of the crack in a smooth test piece subjected to a given level of loading.
In conclusion, a new approach to the damage of the material studied can be careeried out based on the separeeation of
the phases of propagation of a crack (N'a and N'P) in a smooth specimen subjected to a given loading level.

Notation :
a: Amplitude of applied stress
: Stress level applied in fatigue
aree: Stress level applied in fatigue, corresponding to a breaking cycle number N'f of the smooth material
u: Ultimate constraint of the original material
ur: Ultimate stress of the tired material, in static traction
0: Endurance limit of the original material in controlled stress
e: Instant endurance limit
* 0: Critical endurance limit
= / 0, Stress pareeameter
y: The elastic limit of the material;
E: modulus of elasticity
e = e/0, *e = *e/0, u = e/0,

References
[1]. J.Dubuc, T. Bui-Quoc, A.Bazergui, A.Biron- Unified Theory of cumulative Damage in metal fatigue Rapport
soumis PVRC, Vol I et II, Ecole polytechnique, Avril 1969
[2]. S.R.Valluri, JL of aerosp. Eng. Vol 20, 1965, P 18-19, 68-89
[3]. R, R.Gatts- Trans, ASME, JL of Bas.Eng. Vol 83, 1961, P 529-540
[4]. M. Miner Trans ASME, JL of Appl. Mech, Vol 67. 1945, P A.159- A 1664
[5]. E. R. shanley The Rand corp. Rapport P-350, 1953
[6]. P.RABBE & C.AMZALLAG, Livre de La Fatigue des Matriaux et des structures, Figure 3.2 page N73, crit
paree CLAUDE BATHIAS & JEAN PAUL BAILON, Universit de Compigne.
[7]. D.Dengel-Materiel pruf, Bd 13 Nr 5.P.145-180
[8]. R.E Pterson Stress concentration factor, John wiley and sons, New York, 1974
Jilali Nattaj received the Naval Engineer degrees from Higher Institute of Mareeitime Studies at Casablanca in 1989,
From 1990 to 2000 holds different positions in technical management of mareecchands ships. since 2001 Technical
Director of a consulting firm specialized in the study and design of pressure equipments Since 2011 vacant teacher in
Higher Institute of Mareeitime Studies

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