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# ANALOGUE

ELECTRONICS

Frequency Response of
BJT Amplifiers (Part 1)
The Decibel (dB)
 A logarithmic measurement of the ration of power or voltage
 Power gain is expressed in dB by the formula:

AP  10 log aP
where ap is the actual power gain, Pout/Pin

## Voltage gain is expressed by:

AV ( dB)  20 log av
 If av is greater than 1, the dB is +ve, and if av is less than 1, the
dB gain is –ve value & usually called attenuation
Amplifier gain vs frequency

Midband range

## Gain falls of due to the effects

of stray capacitance and
transistor capacitance effects

## Gain falls of due to the

effects of CC and CE

f BW  f H  f L
Definition
 Frequency response of an amplifier is the graph of its gain versus
the frequency.
 Cutoff frequencies : the frequencies at which the voltage gain
equals 0.707 of its maximum value.
 Midband : the band of frequencies between 10fL and 0.1fH where
the voltage gain is maximum. The region where coupling &
bypass capacitors act as short circuits and the stray capacitance
and transistor capacitance effects act as open circuits.
 Bandwidth : the band between upper and lower cutoff frequencies
 Outside the midband, the voltage gain can be determined by
these equations:
Amid Amid
A A
1   f1 / f 2 1  f / f2 
2

## Below midband Above midband

Lower & Upper Critical
frequency
 Critical frequency a.k.a the cutoff frequency
 The frequency at which output power drops by 3
dB. [in real number, 0.5 of it’s midrange value.
 An output voltage drop of 3dB represents about a
0.707 drop from the midrange value in real
number.
 Power is often measured in units of dBm. This is
decibels with reference to 1mW of power. [0 dBm
= 1mW], where;
 1mW 
10 log   0dBm.
 1mW 
Gain & frequencies
 Gain-bandwidth product : constant value
of the product of the voltage gain and
the bandwidth.
 Unity-gain frequency : the frequency at
which the amplifier’s gain is 1

fT  Amid BW
LOW FREQUENCY

##  At low frequency range, the gain falloff due to

coupling capacitors and bypass capacitors.
 As signal frequency  , the reactance of the
coupling capacitor, XC  - no longer behave
as short circuits.
Short-circuit time-constant method
(SCTC)

##  To determine the lower-cutoff frequency having n

coupling and bypass capacitors:

n
1
L  
i 1 RiS Ci

## RiS = resistance at the terminals of the ith capacitor Ci with all

the other capacitors replaced by short circuits.
Common-emitter Amplifier
VCC = 12V

Given :
R1
Q-point values : RC C2
30 k
1.73 mA, 2.32 V 4.3 k vO
RS C1 0.1 F
 = 100, VA = 75 V
RL
1 k 2 F
100 k
vS R2
Therefore, RE C3
10 k 10 F
1.3 k
r = 1.45 k,
ro =44.7 k
Common-emitter Amplifier
- Low-frequency ac equivalent circuit
C2
vo
RS C1

RC RL
vs RB
RE C3

## In the above circuit, there are 3 capacitors (coupling plus bypass

capacitors). Hence we need to find 3 resistances at the terminals of the
3 capacitors in order to find the lower cut-off frequency of the amplifier
circuit.
Circuit for finding R1S
RinCE

RS R1S

Replacing C2
RC RL
and C3 by
short circuits
RB

## R1S  RS  RB RinCE   RS  RB r   1000  7500 1450  2220 

where RB  R1 R2  7500 

1 1
  225 rad / s
R1S C1 2.22 k2.00F 
Circuit for finding R2S
RoutCE

Replacing C1
and C3 by R2S
short circuits RC
RL
RS RB

## R2 S  RL  RC RoutCE   RL  RC ro   100 k  4.3 k 44.7k   104 k

where r0  44.7k

1 1
  96.1 rad / s
R2 S C2 104 k0.100F 
Circuit for finding R3S
RTH

Replacing C1
and C2 by
RC||RL
short circuits
RS RB
RE R3S

RoutCC

## r  RTH 1450  882

R3S  RE RoutCC  RE  1300  22.7 
 1 101
RTH  RS RB  882 
1 1
  4410 rad / s
R3S C3 22.710F 
Estimation of L
3
1
L    225  96.1  4410  4730 rad / s
i 1 RiS Ci

L
fL   753 Hz
2
Common-base Amplifier

RS 4.7 F 1 F
vO
100  C1 C2
RE RC RL
vS 43 k 22 k 75 k

-VEE +VCC

Given :
Q-point values : 0.1 Therefore,
mA, 5 V gm = 3.85 mS, ro = 700 k
 = 100, VA = 70 V r = 26 
Common-base Amplifier
- Low-frequency ac equivalent circuit

vo
RS C2
C1
RC RL
RE
vs
Circuit for finding R1S
RS R1S Replacing C2
by short
circuit
RE RC || RL

RinCB

 r 
R1S  RS  RE RinCB   RS   RE   100  4300 0.26  100 
 1   
1 1
  2.13 103 rad / s
R1S C1 100 4.7 F 
Circuit for finding R2S
RoutCB R2S
Replacing C1
by short circuit
RS || RE RC RL

R2 S  RL  RC RoutCB   RL  RC  75 k  22 k  97 k

1 1
  10.309 rad / s
R2 S C2 97 k1F 
Estimation of L

2
1
L    2.13 103  10.309  10.309 rad / s
i 1 RiS Ci

L
fL   1.64 Hz
2
Common-collector Amplifier
+VCC

RS C1

1 k 0.1 F C2
RB vO
vS
100 k 100 F
RL
RE
47 k
3 k

-VEE

Given :
Q-point values : 1 mA, 5 V Therefore,
 = 100, VA = 70 V r = 2.6 k, ro =70 k
Common-collector Amplifier
- Low-frequency ac equivalent circuit

RS C1

C2

vs vo
RB
RE RL
Circuit for finding R1S
RinCC
RS R1S Replacing C2
by short circuit

RB
RE || RL

 
R1S  RS  RB RinCC   RS  RB r    1ro RE RL 

 74.43 k
1 1
  136.18 rad / s
R1S C1 74.43 k0.1F 
Circuit for finding R2S
Replacing C1
by short circuit RoutCC
R2S

RTH = RS || RB
RE RL

 RTH  r 
R2 S  RL  RE RoutCC   RL   RE ro 
  1 
 47.038 k
1 1
  0.213 rad / s
R2 S C2 47.038 k100F 
Estimation of L

2
1
L    136.18  0.213  136.393 rad / s
i 1 RiS Ci

L
fL   21.7 Hz
2
Example
Given :
Q-point values : 1.6 VCC = 10V
mA, 4.86 V
 = 100, VA = 70 V

Therefore, R1 RC
62 k C2
2.2 k vO
r = 1.62 k, ro = 43.75 k, gm
= 61.54 mS
RS C1 0.1 F
RL
600 0.1 F
vS 10 k
R2
RE C3
Determine the total low- 22 k 10 F
1.0 k
frequency response of the
amplifier.
Low frequency due to C1 and
C2 C3
Low frequency due to C1

## R1S  RS  RB r   600  16.24k 1.62k   2.07 k

RB  R1 R2  16.24 k
1 1
f C1    768.86 Hz  769 Hz
2R1S C1 2 2.07 k0.1F 

## R2 S  RL  RC ro   10 k  2.2k 43.75k   12.09 k

1 1
f C2    131.64 Hz  132 Hz
2R2 S C2 2 12.09 k0.1F 
Low frequency due to C3

## r  RTH 1.62 k  0.58 k

R3S  RE  1k  21.32 
 1 101

RTH  RS RB  0.58 k
1 1
f C3    746.5 Hz  747 Hz
2R3S C3 2 21.3210F 