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#Ambulance!

Casestudyassignment
Yourcasestudyisyourstory
Thinkabouthowyousharestorieswithatrustedcolleague.Youfirstexplainwhathappened.Youthenshare
whatyouthinkofit.Youmayaskquestions,discusswhyorhowithappened,exploreconsequences,andshare
lessonslearned.Ifitisastoryworthtelling,thereisareasonwhy.Whatisthereason?
Foryourcasestudy,youwillselectanincidentofviolence(orariskofviolence)thatyoufaced.Thecasestudy
willbesimilartoastoryyoushareprivatelywithacolleague.
However,unlikeyourcolleague,otherparticipantsinthecourseprobablydonotknowyou.Theymayknow
littleornothingaboutyourcommunityorcountry.Soyouwillhavetomakeanextraefforttoexplainwhoyou
areandwhereyouwork.
Yourcasestudyshouldbeapersonalnarrative
Yourcasestudyisapersonalnarrative,writteninthecontextofacourse.Wewantthiscoursetobeasafe
spacewhereeveryonecansharetheirexperiencecandidly.Theincidentyouchooseprobablyhappenedwhen
youwereworkingforanorganisation.Youarenotexpectedtowriteyourcasestudyasarepresentativeofthis
organisation.Youareresponsibleforrespectingtheprinciplesofprofessionalethicsthatbindyou.Ifaspectsof
yourcasestudyaresensitive,youwillneedtofindtherightbalancetoshareenoughforsomeoneelseto
understandit.Whatyouwriteinyourcasestudyshouldhavenoeffectonyourpresentorfuturerelationship
withanyoftheorganisationsinvolved.Pleasecontactthecourseteamiftherearesensitiveissues(foryouor
foryourorganisation)thatyouwishtodiscussinyourcasestudy.
Confidentialityofyourcasestudy
Duringthecourse:Youwillprepareyourcasestudyinaprivatespace(calledCreatorinScholar).Onlythe
courseteammaygiveyoufeedbackonyourworkbeforeyousubmitit.Othercourseparticipantswillnothave
accesstoituntilpeerreview.Whenpeerreviewstarts(Week2),threeparticipantswillreceiveyourcasestudy.
TheywillnotseetheAuthorsname(unlessyouhaveuseditinthecasestudyitself).Theirfeedbackwillalso
beanonymous.
Afterthecourse:Yourcasestudywillbeyourstodownloadandkeep.Thecourseteamwillreviewthecase
studiesandmayconsidersomeofthemforuseintheCommunityofActionsfuturework.Wemayaskyouto
givetheNorwegianRedCrossandtheIFRCtherighttouseyourcasestudy.Ifnecessary,wewillensurethat
anysensitiveissuesareaddressed,sothatnoharmisdonetoyouortoyourorganisation.
Howtousethecasestudyassignment
Belowyouwillfindtheassignmentforyourcasestudy.Theassignmenthasseveralsectionswithguidanceand
questions.Eachsectionislikeachecklist.Youwillusethisassignmenttowriteandtoperformpeerreview.
RefertotheassignmenttoguideyourdraftcasestudyinWeeks12ofthecourse.
Duringpeerreview(Week3),youwillrefertotheassignmentasyoureviewthedraftcasestudiesofyour
colleagues.Foreachsection,youwillneedtoassignaratingthatreflectthecurrentlevelofwork.Thisisnota
grade.Youhavetoexplaintheratingyougive.Pleaseprovideusefulsuggestions,shareexperience,orask
questionstoclarify.
Duringrevision(Week4),youwillreceivetheratingsandexplanationsfromeachofyourreviewers.Youwill
needtocarefullyreadthesecomments.Thenyouwilldecidehowyouaregoingtoimproveyourdraft.Referto
theassignmentasyoufinalizeyourcasestudy,toseeifthereareareasthatcanbenefitfromfurther
improvement.
Eachsectionoftheassignmenthasmanyquestions
Therearemanyquestions.Youdonotneedtoanswerallofthem.Readthroughthemtofindtheonesthatare
importanttoyourcasestudy.Keepinmindwhatyourreviewerneedstoknow.Forexample,heorsheprobably
doesnotknowyouorwhereyouwork.

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Theremayalsobeissuesthatwehavenotincluded.Youarenotlimitedtothequestionsandguidanceinthe
assignment.Pleaseincludeanythingelsethatyouconsiderimportanttotellyoustory.
Yourcasestudywillhavethreeparts:
InPart1,youwilldescribewhoyouareandwhereyouwork.
InPart2,youwilldescribeanincidentofviolence.
InPart3,youwillanalysethisincident.
Generalformatandpresentation
Giveyourcasestudyalogicalstructure.Ensurethatitisbothcompleteandconcise.
Isenoughinformationprovidedinthecasestudyaboutbackgroundandcontexttobeabletointerpretthe
effectsandvalueofthecase?
Ifyouneedtoprotectyourconfidentiality,pleasestatethisbriefly,especiallyifrelevantinformationismissing.
Authors&Reviewers:Isthenarrativeclearandwellorganized?Isthereonlyrelevant,specificinformation
clearlyrelatedtothecasestudyincluded?
Reviewers:Ifyoufindthenarrativetoolong,pleaseprovideadviceonhowtheauthormayshortenit.Ifitis
incomplete,pleaseadviseonwhatismissing.Bespecificinyourfeedback.YoumayalsouseAnnotationsto
shareyoursuggestions.
Currentlevelofwork
0.Theformatandpresentationrequirescomprehensiveediting.
1.Theformatandpresentationrequirealotofediting.
2.Theformatandpresentationrequiresomeediting.
3.Theformatandpresentationrequireminimalediting.
4.Theformatandpresentationareexcellent.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)

Part1.Whoyouareandwhereyouwork
Tellusaboutyourself.
Focusoninformationaboutyourselfthatisrelevanttotheincidentitself.
Wheredoyouliveandwork?Whatisyourcurrentrole?Whatisyourlevelofexperience?Whatisyour
expertise?
Reviewers:Isthereenoughabouttheauthor?Whatelsewouldyouneedtoknowaboutthemandwhy?
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Noinformationabouttheauthor.
1.Informationabouttheauthorisincompleteand/orirrelevant.
2.Somerelevantinformationabouttheauthor,butveryincompleteand/ortoogeneral.
3.Specific,relevantinformationabouttheauthor,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentinformationabouttheauthor.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)
Tellusaboutyourwork.
Tellusaboutyourwork.Limityourselftowhatisstrictlyrelevanttotheincident,andwhatoneneedstoknow
tounderstandit.

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Whatdoweneedtoknowaboutthecommunityinwhichyouoperate?
Ifyouarepartofateam,tellusaboutthem.Relevantaspectsmayincludecodeofconductandbehaviour,
training,equipment(uniform,ambulances,etc.),communicationandcoordinationinthefield,relationswith
otheractors(includingarmedgroups,ifany),reportingandmonitoringofsecurityincidents.
Reviewers:Doyougetagoodfeelforthework?Ifnot,whatismissing?Whatadditionalquestionswouldyou
liketoseeanswered?
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Noinformationaboutthecontextofwork.
1.Contextofworkisincompleteand/orirrelevant.
2.Somerelevantcontextofwork,butveryincompleteand/ortoogeneral.
3.Specific,relevantcontextofwork,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentcontextofwork.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)
Securityandviolenceingeneral
Tellusingeneralabouttheacts(orrisk)ofviolenceandsecurityissuesthatyouface.
Whatisconsideredacceptableriskforyourteam?Whatdoesyourorganisationdo(ifanything)tomonitorthe
levelofriskinthefield?
Doyouoperateinacontextofarmedconflict,socialunrest,urbanviolence,orapeacefulcontext?Ifyouarein
apeacefulcontext,haveyouobservedachangeintheclimateorbehaviour?
Whataretheactsofviolenceexperiencedbyyourambulanceorotheremergencyprehospitalserviceduring
thelasttwoyears?Examplesinclude:obstructionofpassage,threats,insults,directphysicalattack,misuseor
abuseoftheambulance,underweaponfire,IED/explosive,robbery/delinquency/banditry.
Whohavebeentheperpetratorsofviolenceorobstructioninthepast?Examples:patients,relativesorfriendsof
thepatient/victim,aggressivecrowd,police,military,criminalgangs,orotherarmedgroups.
Reviewers:Isthereagoodoverviewofthesecuritysituation?Ifnot,whatarethequestionsyouwouldliketo
seeanswered?
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Noinformationaboutthesecuritysituation.
1.Securitysituationisincompleteand/orirrelevant.
2.Somerelevantsecuritysituation,butveryincompleteand/ortoogeneral.
3.Specific,relevantsecuritysituation,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentsummaryofthesecuritysituation.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)

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Part2.Theincident
Relevance
Selectoneincident.Ifitmatters,brieflyexplainwhyyouchosethisincident.
Forexample,youmayselect:

thescariestincidentthatyouhaveexperienced
theincidentwiththemostdifficultethicaldilemma(example:youhadtomakedecisionsbetweenthehealth
ofthepatientandyoursecurity)
theincident(largeorsmall)forwhichyoufeltleastpreparedorthatcaughtyouoffguard
theincidentthatcausedthemostdamageorhadthegreatestconsequencestoindividual,team,organisation,
orcommunity

Whatarethefacts?
Youwilldescribethisincident.Youmayhavedifficultyrememberingwhatyoudid.Takeyoutimetorecall
whathappened.
Whathappened?Canyoubreakdownwhathappenedintoaseriesofeventsoractions?
Wheredidithappen?
Whendidithappen?
Whatkindofsituationwasit?Possiblesituationsinclude:obstructionofpassage,explosion,misuseofemblem,
threats,directattack,weaponfire,aggressive,robbery,lawenforcement,military,armedgroups,armed
conflict,gangviolence/delinquency,socialunrest,peacefulcontext
Whowasinvolved?Whoweretheperpetratorsintheincident?Examples:patient,patientrelativesorfriends,
community(ex:aggressivecrowd),police,military,violentstreetprotest,criminalgang,armedgroup.
Didanyoneprotectorhelptheambulanceteamwhenitwasunderthreat?
Reviewers:Isthesequenceofeventsclearandsufficientlycompletetomakesenseofwhathappened?Isthere
anymissinginformationthatwouldhelpyouunderstandtheincident?Dothefactsofferabalanced
perspective?What else would you like to know?
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Thereisnospecificincident.
1.Anincidentisidentified,buttherearenofactsaboutwhathappened.
2.Thefactsabouttheincidentareincomplete,notrelevant,orunbalanced.
3.Thefactsabouttheincidentarespecific,relevant,andbalanced,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentsummaryoftheincident.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)

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Part3.Analyzewhyithappenedandhowyou
facedthechallenge
Reviewwhatyouhavewrittentodescribetheincident.Inthissection,youwillexplorewhyithappened.On
thesequestions,onceyouhaveanswered,keepaskingwhy.Thismayleadtomorequestions.Itmayalso
revealdeepercausesandinsights.
Response:howwererisksmitigated?
Whatdidyoudo?Werethereotheractionsthatyouconsidered?
Whatwerethedilemmasthatyoufaced?Whatdecisionsdidyouhavetomake?
Wereyoupreparedforwhathappened?Howdidyoudeviatefromstandardoperatingprocedureand,ifso,
how?
Howdidyourresponsetakeintoaccountthelocalculture?Didyoufindanyunusualorcreativesolutions?
Behaviour:Whatwastheconductofpersonnelduringtheincident?Howdoesthisrelatetoyourorganisations
existingcodeofconductorotherguidanceforbehaviour?
Weretherespondersawareoftheirimmediatesurroundingsatalltimes?
Weretherespondersoperatingaccordingtoinformedandpredefinedthresholdsofacceptablerisk?
Didyourorganisationhaveupdatedinformationreadilyavailableatalltimes?
Whatmeasuresweretakenbefore,during,andaftertheincidenttomanageandpreventpersonalpsychological
trauma?
Didanyincidentshappenpreviouslyinthesamearea?Ifyes,werepreviousincidentssimilartothisone?
Pleasedescribewhatwasthesameandwhatwasdifferent.
Didyourtrainingprepareyoufortheincident?Howso?
Reviewers:Howdoesthecasestudyprovideaclearanalysisofcausesandeffects?Isitcleartoyouwhatthe
authorandothersdidtomitigatetheriskstheyfaced?Ifnot,canyousuggestwhatquestionstheauthorshould
answer?Suggestwaysinwhichthereasoningofthecasestudycouldbestrengthened.
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Noinformationabouttheactionstakentorespondtotheincident.
1.Actionstakentorespondtotheincidentareidentified,butarenotexplained.
2.Actionstakentorespondtotheincidentareidentified,buttheexplanationisinadequate,illogical,and/or
irrelevant.
3.Actionstakentorespondtotheincidentareidentifiedandexplained,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentsummaryoftheresponse.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)
Potentialfutureconsequencesoftheincidentforaccessandsecurity
Delay:Howmuchdelaywouldyousaythatyourincidentcausedyourambulanceorprehospitalservice?
Quality:Howdidtheincidentaffectthequalityoftheserviceprovided?Didpeopleleavetheorganisation
(turnover)?Whatwastheeffectonwellbeingormotivation?Diditlimitaccesstothepersonsinneed?Didit
affecttherelationswithotheractors?Ifso,whichones?
Arethereotherwaysinwhichtheincidentaffectedyou,yourcrew,oryourorganisation?
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Noinformationaboutpotentialfutureconsequences.

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1.Potentialfutureconsequencesareidentified,butnotexplained.
2.Potentialfutureconsequencesareidentified,buttheexplanationisinadequate,illogical,and/orirrelevant.
3.Potentialfutureconsequencesareidentifiedandexplained,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentsummaryofpotentialfutureconsequences.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)
Additionallessonslearned(goodandbad)
Howdiditturnout?Whatwerethekeylessonslearnedfromthisexperience?Whatdoyouthinkwasdone
well?Whatdoyouthinkshouldhavebeendonedifferently?Whatsurprisedyou?
Eurekamoment:Didtheincidentleadtoanewinsightoraleapinyourunderstandingofthesituation,either
duringoraftertheincident?
Arethereaspectsofthefollowingthatcontributedtoorhelpedtomitigate(face)theincident?
Training:Consideryourtrainingandcodeofconductonrightsandresponsibilities,securityassessments,
situationalawarenessandproceduresrelatedtothepassingofcheckpointsandroadblocks.
Equipment:Werethereanyissuesrelatedtotheserviceuniformortheambulance(includingmisuse)?
Communicationandcoordinationinthefield:Didyourambulanceservicecoordinatewithand
communicatewiththerelevantauthorities?Arethereatrustandastrategicdialoguewithactorsinvolvedin
theincident,includingregularcommunicationandcoordination?
Wasmisuseofambulancesrelatedtotheincidentinanyway?

Wastherepersonalpsychologicaltraumarelatedtotheincident?Howdidyoudealwithit?
Didpreviousreportingonrelatedincidents(ifany)helptofacethisincident?
Reviewers:Dolessonslearnedfollowfromtheinformationandreasoningprovidedinthecasestudy?Provide
commentsandsuggestionsaboutpossibleareasfortransferoflessonslearned.
Currentlevelofeffort
0.Nolessonslearnedidentified.
1.Lessonslearnedidentified,butnotjustified.
2.Lessonslearnedidentified,butthejustificationisinadequate,illogical,and/orirrelevant.
3.Lessonslearnedidentifiedandjustified,butcanbeimproved.
4.Excellentsummaryoflessonslearned.(Minorreviewersuggestionsonly.)