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Introduction to Quadratic Functions Touchlines ACTIVITY 5.1 SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Self/Peer Revision,
Introduction to Quadratic Functions
Touchlines
ACTIVITY
5.1
SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Self/Peer Revision,
Marking the Text, Activating Prior Knowledge
My
Notes
Coach Wentworth coaches girls’ soccer and teaches algebra. Soccer
season is starting, and she needs to mark the touchlines and goal
lines for the soccer field. Coach Wentworth can mark 320 yards for
the total length of all the touchlines and goal lines. She would like
to mark the field with the largest possible area.
Touchlines
Goal lines
FIFA regulations require that all soccer fields be rectangular
in shape.
CONNECT TO SPORTSSPORTS
FIFA stands for Fédération
1. How is the perimeter of a rectangle determined? How is the
area of a rectangle determined?
Internationale de Football
Association (International
Federation of Association Football)
The perimeter of a rectangle is found by adding the lengths
of the 4 sides. The area is found by multiplying the length
times the width.
and is the international
governing
body
of soccer.
Unit 5 • Quadratic Functions
283
Goal
© 2010 College Board. All rights reserved.
Goal

ACTIVITY 5.1

Introduction to Quadratic Functions

Activity Focus

• Introduction to quadratic functions

• Multiple representations of quadratic data

Materials

• Graph paper (optional)

• Graphing calculator (optional)

Chunking the Activity

#1–2

#10–13

#3–5

#14

#6–9

Introduction Self/Peer Revision, Marking the Text Be sure that they understand the drawing and the different elements within the drawing.

1 Activating Prior Knowledge The purpose of this Item is to activate prior knowledge regarding rectangles. Without the correct perimeter and area relationships, the activity is inaccessible. Review perimeter and area of a rectangle if needed.

Unit 5 • Quadratic Functions

283

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ACTIVITY 5.1 Continued

2 Create Representations,

Debriefing Verify that area computations in the table are correct. It is essential that students understand that length + width = 160. Twice this length is the perimeter, 320. The numerical answers in the first eight rows of the table may be easier for students than the last row. Students sometimes struggle with the abstraction of including

a variable, so careful attention is needed to this response.

3 Look for a Pattern, Self/

Peer Revision Patterns will vary, but focus should be on the fact that while the length constantly increases, the areas increase, reach a maximum, and then decrease. Additionally, students should notice the symmetry in the area values about the value l = 80. For example, the area of a rectangle with length of 10 yd is 1500 yd 2 , the same as a rectangle whose length is 150 yd.

4 Quickwrite Some students

may insist that the length of a rectangle is greater than its width. Take care to mention that there are no such limitations inherent in this investigation.

Differentiating

Instruction

If students have a difficult time

understanding that rectangles with a fixed perimeter can have different areas, you can use a piece of string to help make the connection for visual and kinesthetic learners. Just tie the string into a loop—a fixed perimeter—and have students make different rectangles using the loop. If done on top of graph paper, students then can determine the areas of the rectangles and see that they are different even though the perimeter for each rectangle is the same.

ACTIVITY 5.1 Introduction to Quadratic Functions continued TouchlinesTouchlines SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Create
ACTIVITY
5.1
Introduction to Quadratic Functions
continued
TouchlinesTouchlines
SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Create Representations,
Quickwrite, Self/Peer Revision, Look for a Pattern
My
Notes
2. Complete the table below for rectangles with the given side
lengths. The first row has been completed for you.
Length
Width
Perimeter
Area
(yards)
(yards)
(yards)
(square yards)
10
150
320
1500
20
140
320
2800
40
120
320
4800
60
100
320
6000
80
80
320
6400
100
60
320
6000
120
40
320
4800
140
20
320
2800
150
10
320
1500
l
160 - l
320
l (160 - l )
3. Describe any patterns that you notice in the table above.
Answers may vary. Sample answers:
• As length increases, width decreases.
• As length increases, area increases, reaches a maximum,
then decreases.
• The greatest area is when the length and width are 80 yards.
4. Is a 70-yd by 90-yd rectangle the same as a 90-yd by 70-yd
rectangle? Explain your reasoning.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: The two rectangles
are congruent. They are the same rectangle, just in
different orientations.
284
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Introduction to Quadratic Functions ACTIVITY 5.1 TouchlinesTouchlines continued SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Create
Introduction to Quadratic Functions
ACTIVITY
5.1
TouchlinesTouchlines
continued
SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Create Representations,
Quickwrite, Self/Peer Revision, Look for a Pattern
My Notes
5. Graph the data from the table in Item 2 as ordered pairs.
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
20
40
60
80
100 120 140 160
Length of Rectangle (yd)
6. Are the data in Items 2 and 5 linear? Explain why or why not.
Answers may vary. Sample answers: The data in the table are
not linear because there is no constant rate of change. Values
increase and then decrease. The data on the graph are not
linear because the points do not lie on a straight line.
7. Describe any patterns you see in the graph above.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: As lengths increase,
areas increase, reach a maximum, then decrease. There
is symmetry about the line l = 80.
8. What appears to be the largest area from the data in Items 2
and 5?
6400 square yards appears to be the largest area, occurring
when the length is 80 yards.
Unit 5 • Quadratic Functions
285
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Area of Rectangle (yd 2 )

ACTIVITY 5.1 Continued

5 Create Representations At

this point in the activity, the graph that represents the data should consist of only the points represented by the entries in the table. Some students may wish to “connect” the points into a continuous graph.

6 Self/Peer Revision Students

are likely to focus on the graph when explaining that it is not linear. Refer students to the table in Item 2 to confirm this result numerically.

7 Look for a Pattern The

graphic patterns should align to the numeric patterns recognized in Item 3, especially in terms of increase, decrease and symmetry

about l = 80.

8 Quickwrite The maximum

area, not only from the graph but also from the table, appears to be 6400 square yards when the length is 80 yards. Some students may recognize that this is unacceptable for a soccer field, but emphasize that, at this point, the focus is on rectangles in general, not just rectangles that can be used for soccer fields.

Suggested Assignment

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING p. 288, #1–2

Unit 5 • Quadratic Functions

285

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ACTIVITY 5.1 Continued

9 Create Representations To

help with writing the function A(l ), students may wish to refer to the last row of the table in Item 2. This Item also provides an opportunity to revisit function notation.

0 Create Representations If a

graphing calculator is not available for students, additional points may be introduced for students to get an accurate representation of the continuous graph.

Paragraph and a Marking the Text, Summarize/Paraphrase/ Retell If students have trouble with understanding what a quadratic function is, give them practice using the Mini-Lesson below.

MINI-LESSON: Answers

1. The function is in the standard form of a quadratic function.

2. The function is not a quadratic function because the first term has a negative exponent.

3. The function is not a quadratic function because a = 0 for the x 2 term.

4. The function is quadratic. In this function, b = 0.

5. The function is not a quadratic function because the first term has a negative exponent.

6. The function is in the standard form of a quadratic function.

ACTIVITY 5.1 Introduction to Quadratic Functions continued TouchlinesTouchlines SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Create
ACTIVITY
5.1
Introduction to Quadratic Functions
continued
TouchlinesTouchlines
SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Create Representations,
Marking the Text, Summarize/Paraphrase/Retell
My
Notes
9. Write a function A(l ) that represents the area of a rectangle
whose length is l and whose perimeter is 320.
A(l ) = l (160 - l )
TECHNOLOGY
10.Use a graphing calculator to graph A(l ). Sketch the graph on
the grid below.
Be
sure that the RANGE
A
on
your calculator’s graph
7000
matches the ranges shown
6000
in the
grid at the right.
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
I
20
40
60
80
100 120 140 160
The function A(l ) is called a
quadratic function
because it contains
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
quadratic function
a term to the second degree (an x 2 term). The standard form
of a quadratic function is y = ax 2 + bx + c or f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c,
where a, b, and c are real numbers and a ≠ 0.
11.Write the function A(l ) in standard form. What are the values
of a, b, and c?
A(l) = -l 2 + 160l; a = -1, b = 160, c = 0
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MINI-LESSON: Identifying Quadratic Functions

Is each function a quadratic function? Explain why or why not.

1. f(x) = 4x 2 - 3x + 2

2. g(x) = 3x -2 + 2x - 1

3. f(x) = 4 2 x - 3

4. g(x) = 5 - 2x 2

5. f(x) = x 2 - 3x + 2

6. g(x) = 2x - 8 + x 2

4

© 2010 College Board. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Quadratic Functions ACTIVITY 5.1 TouchlinesTouchlines continued SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES:
Introduction to Quadratic Functions
ACTIVITY
5.1
TouchlinesTouchlines
continued
SUGGESTED LEARNING STRATEGIES: Graphic Organizer, Guess
and Check, Marking the Text, Summarize/Paraphrase/Retell
My Notes
The graph of a quadratic function is a curve called a
parabola
. A
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
parabola has a point at which a maximum or minimum value of
the function occurs. That point is called the vertex of a parabola.
The y-value of the vertex is the maximum or minimum of
the function.
parabola
vertex of a
parabola
12.What is the vertex of the graph of A(l ) in Item 10? Does the
vertex represent a maximum or a minimum of the function?
The vertex of the graph of A(l ) Is (80, 6400). The vertex
represents a maximum of the function.
FIFA regulations state that the length of the touchline of a soccer
field must be greater than the length of the goal line.
13.Can Coach Wentworth use the rectangle that represents the
largest area of A(l ) for her soccer field? Why or why not?
Answers may vary. Sample answer: The rectangle that
represents the largest area cannot be used for the soccer field
since it is an 80 yard by 80 yard rectangle, or a square. It does
not meet FIFA regulation that states that the length of the
touchline be greater than the length of the goal line.
FIFA regulations also state that the length of the touchlines of
a soccer field must be at least 100 yd but no more than 130 yd.
The goal lines must be at least 50 yd but no more than 100 yd.
14.Find the dimensions of the FIFA regulation soccer field
with largest area. Support your reasoning with multiple
representations.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: The maximum area
of the FIFA regulation soccer field is 6000 square yards,
with a touchline length of 100 yards and a goal line length
of 60 yards. This is supported using the data table where
the length is 100 and the width is 60, the graph at the
point (100, 6000), and the equation, A(l ) = -l 2 + 160l;
6000 = -(100) 2 + 160(100) = -10,000 + 16,000 = 6000.
Unit 5 • Quadratic Functions
287
© 2010 College Board. All rights reserved.

ACTIVITY 5.1 Continued

b Graphic Organizer,

Summarize/Paraphrase/Retell It is important to recognize that the point (80, 6400) refers to a maximum value of 6400 for A(l ) that occurs when l = 80. The value l = 80 is not a maximum.

AP Connection AP Calculus students find these same maximum or minimum values of functions in
AP Connection
AP Calculus students find these
same maximum or minimum
values of functions in optimization
problems.
c Marking the text,

Summarize/Paraphrase/ Retell Since FIFA regulations indicate that the touchline must have a length greater than that of the goal line, the 80-yd by

80-yd rectangle would not be an appropriate choice.

d Guess and Check, Marking

the Text, Debriefing The additional FIFA regulations indicate that the length of the rectangle must be at least 100 yd. The 320-yd perimeter constraint in the original problem restricts the length to a maximum of 110 yd.

AP Connection
AP Connection

AP Calculus students use the Extreme Value Theorem to find the maximum value of a quadratic function on a closed interval.

Suggested Assignment

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

p. 288, #3–7

UNIT 5 PRACTICE

p. 329, #1–8

Unit 5 • Quadratic Functions

287

© 2010 College Board. All rights reserved.

ACTIVITY 5.1 Continued

College Board. All rights reserved. ACTIVITY 5.1 Continued 1a. The data are linear because there is

1a. The data are linear because there is a constant rate of change.

b. The data are not linear because the rate of change is not constant. y
b.
The data are not linear
because the rate of change is
not constant.
y
2.
6
4
2
x
2
2
4
6
2

3a. not quadratic

b. quadratic c. not quadratic 4a. f(x) = x 2 - 2x + 5 b.
b.
quadratic
c.
not quadratic
4a.
f(x) = x 2 - 2x + 5
b.
g(x) = 3x 2 - 9x +8
c.
h(x) = −2x 2 + 4x + 7
5
1
d.
l(x) =
x 2 + x +
2
2
5a.
x
f(x)
-3
6
-2
3
-1
2
0
3
1
6
y
8
6
4
2
x
4
2
2
4
b.
x
f(x)
-4
-3
-3
0
-2
1
-1
0
0
-3

See graph right

ACTIVITY 5.1 Introduction to Quadratic Functions continued TouchlinesTouchlines CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Use
ACTIVITY
5.1
Introduction to Quadratic Functions
continued
TouchlinesTouchlines
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
Use notebook paper or grid
paper to write
your answers. Show your
work.
5. Complete the tables. Then graph the
quadratic functions.
1.
State whether the data in
each table are
a. f (x) = x 2 + 2x + 3
linear. Explain why
or why not.
x
f(x)
a.
b.
x
y
x
y
-3
0
5
0
5
-2
1
2
1
2
-1
2 -1
2
1
0
3 -4
3
2
1
4
-7
4
5
b. f (x) = -x 2 - 4x - 3
2.
Graph the data
in the table in Item 1(b)
x
f(x)
above. What is the
least value of the data
-4
on the graph?
-3
3.
Identify whether each function is quadratic.
-2
a. f (x
)
=
6x
+
12
-1
b. g(x) =
6x 2 +
12
0
6
c. h(x) =
+
12
x
2
4.
Write
each quadratic function in standard
form.
6. Identify the maximum or minimum
values of the quadratic functions in
Item 5.
a.
f (x
)
=
5 - 2x +
x
2
What characteristics of
7. MATHEMATICAL
REFLECTION
b.
g(x) =
3x 2 +
8
- 9x
the graph of a quadratic
function distinguish it from that of a
c.
h(x) = 4x +
7
- 2x 2
linear function?
2x
+
5x 2
d.
l(x) =
2
288
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© 2010 College Board. All rights reserved.

y 6a. a minimum of 3 when x =

-1

4 2 – 4 – 2 2 4 – 2 – 4
4
2
4
2
2
4
– 2
– 4
 

b.

a maximum of 1 when x =

 

-2

x

7.

Answers may vary. Sample

answer: The graph of a

linear function is a line.

The graph of a quadratic

function is a curve called a parabola.