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PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF TOURISM IN COX BAZAR, BANGLADESH

PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS


OF
TOURISM IN COXS BAZAR
BANGLADESH

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PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF TOURISM IN COX BAZAR, BANGLADESH

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF TOURISM IN COX BAZAR, BANGLADESH

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

As a requirement of practical fulfillment of MBA program, we were assigned to analyze


the problems & prospects of tourism industry in Bangladesh. In the short span of time the
factors in practical perspective has been tried to analyze to reduce some conclusion. I
have made a small effort to recommend some steps/measures which could positively
contribute to overcome flows, anomaly & dissatisfaction.
The major objectives of the study are to highlight the real picture and description of the
different tourist spot in Bangladesh specialy Coxs Bazar and to identity the present
situation, where we like reach in future and also aim to identify the major problem of the
tourism industry in Coxs Bazar, Bangladesh. Among them the following objectives are
given below:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

To give a conceptual idea of tourism industry.


To highlight an overview of different tourist spot in Bangladesh.
To show the opinion of local & foreign tourist.
To analyze the problem and give a suggestion.
Finally, based on the findings, some suggestions have been put forwarded to
the policy makers of the concerned authority.

METHOD OF THE STUDY


In how many ways the work is done is called methodology. It includes some chronological
steps , which needed to complete the study . However-

This field study report is based on primary and secondary data.


The present research is a combination of both theoretical and empirical.
For the theoretical foundation and analysis, the existing literatures were investigated.
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The existing literature includes published journals, periodicals, newspapers, related


magazines, Internet etc.
Most of the statistical data have been collected from the related web pages.
To collect the primary data from the selected tour operators, a survey questionnaire
has been used.
To analyse the collected data, different quantitative and qualitative measures have
been taken.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


"To manage a business well is to manage its future ; and to manage the future is to
manage information" So act of collecting this information is too difficult to manage
because various restrictions and barriers .Despite of this, best effort and sincerest
endeavor in preparing a perfect report the limitations are inescapable. These are in the
bellow:

1. Time constraints is one of the limitations for the study to prepare the report
2. The data of tourism industry are not available
3. BPC and other tourism organizations do not like to provide real data because
of its secrecy
4. As field level operation, this study is very expensive and time consuming
5. All of the data inherent may not be of recent
6. Some of key persons of BPC and other organizations are so much busy in their duties
that they could seldom manage time to respond to the questions.

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FINDINGS
It is revealed that promotional activities has to be initiated immediately as it
plays a pivotal role in developing the tourism industry in any specific destination as the tourists
wants to know in advance about the tourism attractions and facilities at the destination.
Promotional measures are intended to provide the information as required by the potential
tourists and acts as vital force to draw the attention and grow interest to select that particular
destination to visit.

The country suffers from the image problem and the international media most often highlight the
country in a negative way which causes potential visitors not to select Bangladesh as a tourist
destination. The real situation is different. To overcome this negative image, international media
coverage in a positive way can play an important role. As it is now the country does not have
enough funds, it cannot launch effective steps in correcting the same. The government initiative
in this regard is also insufficient. All these cause the country to attracting insignificant number of
tourists and resultant effect is the failure of earning sufficient amount of foreign currency.
Therefore, the initiatives concern authority of the government along with the tourism authority is
a must for correcting the image of the country to the potential tourists in order to draw their
attention and grow interest to choose Bangladesh as a tourist destination and visit the same.
Though Bangladesh has some attractive attractions to its destination, it fails to attract the
significant number of tourists partly because of insufficient promotional activities. As the
country lacks sufficient funds for this purpose, it cannot take the necessary promotional activities
for this industry. To promote the tourism of any destination one needs to launch the promotional
activities through e.g. international media like cable TV, world renowned newspapers, magazines
and other world coverage media. Due to resource constraint, the country cannot use the
international media. As a result, the country has to depend on the local media to advertise the
same which is not effective measure for attracting foreign tourists.

Bangladesh also lacks the infrastructural facilities to the standard of international levels to its
destination places. This important issue needs to be considered immediately and in the priority
basis before going to promoting the same sector in order to develop the industry. Again it
requires more investment for the same. The participation of the private sector in the same
industry is not also at expected levels and even most of the private tour operators are new in this
area. They also have the resource constraint to play the active role for the development of the
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PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF TOURISM IN COX BAZAR, BANGLADESH

industry. The effective steps to encourage the private sector investment from the local as well as
from the foreign investors can contribute to develop the industry.
The country also lacks the coordinated efforts among different ministries related to tourism like
Ministries of Home, Civil Aviation, Communication, Health, Planning etc. which need to
overcome for the overall development of the industry. The coordinated efforts can make the visit
more safe, comfortable and enjoyable and can fulfil the needs of the tourists.
The promotional activities of Bangladesh tourism are inadequate to promote the industry in the
world competitive market as it has to depend on only local media and some printed materials like
brochures, folders, souvenirs, tourists maps, tourist guides etc. to promote the same. At the same
time the quality of those printed material is not up to the mark. In addition, the use of
information technology is very negligible. The web page used by BPC needs to well-designed
and updated. The ultimate effects of all these insufficient promotional steps lead to no significant
growth of tourism industry in Bangladesh though the industry and its market have grown
phenomenally in worldwide. It is expected that Bangladesh can enjoy a positive growth of this
industry if proper steps can be taken.

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Chapter- 2

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

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2.1 Defining Tourism and its Related Terms


There are some conceptual terms related to tourism industry which need to be described
here for a clear understanding. Among these terms, the most important ones are tourism
& tourists which can be stated briefly as:

Tourism Meanings and Scope

Tourism is an important field of discussion which covers many interrelated areas. As a


result, important elements based on which tourism is built required special attention to
define tourism itself. It was observed from the World Conference on Travel and Tourism
in Rome in 1963 that tourism has both the positive and negative impacts on economy,
socio-cultural, political and environmental. For many nations especially for the
developing countries, tourism brings economic benefits by generating employment
opportunities in tourism related different sub-sectors, earning foreign currency, while
United Nations for example consider it as a strong way of contributing to peace and
understanding.
In the old days tourism didnt exist. But it was started to be known from the very
beginning of human civilization. But most popularly and widely tourism is an invention
of the 19th century- a period of history which sometimes seems to have stretched out to
unnatural length. It is important to define tourism itself for a clear understanding of the
term itself. But the fact is that there is no single definition of the term tourism which is
universally accepted. Academicians and practitioners feel that defining tourism is not an
easy task. Even there are some differences of the outlook among them. For example,
some prefer to consider tourism as an industry, others especially scholars take a different
approach. In addition, terms like tourist, visitors and excursionist are used to describe
people involve in tourism covering the various purposes of travel; leisure, business and
short stays. The Ottawa Conference on tourism held in 1991 organized by the World
Tourism Organization (WTO) put forwarded some fundamental recommendations for a
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meaningful and acceptable definition of tourism. Based on the recommendations, the


definition of tourism which one was endorsed by the WTO in 1992 and adopted by the
United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) in 1993 is as - Tourism comprises the
activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year of leisure, business and other
purpose.
Another popular definition was quoted by Goeldner as:
Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising
from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host
governments and host communities in the process of attracting
and hosting these tourists and other visitors.
The authors also stated that tourism is a composite of activities, services and industries
that delivers a travel experience: transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking
establishments, shops, entertainment, activity facilities and other hospitality services
available of individuals or groups that are traveling away from home. This definition
describes the full scope and covers the various groups participating and affecting the
tourism.
Wikipedia defined tourism as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and business,
and the provision of services for this act. It also included a more comprehensive
definition which would be that tourism is service industry comprising a number of
tangible and intangible components. According to this definition, the tangible elements
include transport systems- air, rail, road, water and now space; hospitality servicesaccommodation, foods and beverage, tours, souvenirs; and related services such as
banking, insurance and safety and security and the intangible elements in include rest and
relaxation, culture, escape, adventure, new and different experiences. Basically, tourism
is a whole interrelated and interdependent industry. Sometimes tourism is also used
pejoratively which implies a shallow interest in the societies and place that the tourist
visits.

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On the other hand, in simple world, tourists are persons who travel from one place to
another. The United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism of 1963
provided the generally accepted definition of the term tourist as:
Temporary visitors who spend more than 24 hours in destinations other
than their normal place of residence, whose journey is for the purpose of
holiday- making, recreation, health, study, religion, sport, visiting family
or friends, business or meetings and those who spend less than 24 hours in
their destinations are defined as excursionists.
According to United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the official
definition is as :
Tourists are persons who are travelling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for
leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an
activity remunerated from within the place visited. The distance between
these two places is of no significance.
The word tourist was coined in the late eighteen century with the literal meaning of one
who tours which was very quickly this gained the related sense of one who tours for
pleasure or recreation that has dominated in the two centuries since.
Tours then were for the wealthy, and were generally quite lengthy, in part because it took
so long to get anywhere interesting.
World Tourism Organization (WTO) defined the term tourism and classified the various
types of visitors as follows:
i. Tourism - The activities of persons travelling to and staying in places
outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year
for leisure, business and other purposes.
ii. Tourist (overnight visitor)- Visitor staying at least one night in a
collective or private accommodation in the place visited.
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iii. Same Day Visitor (excursionist)- Visitor who does not spend the night
in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.
iv. Visitor - Any person travelling to a place other than that of his/ her usual
environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main
purpose of travel is not to work for pay in the place visited.
v. Traveller - Any person on a trip between two or more locations.
The League of Nations in 1937 recommended the use of the term tourist to explain a
person who travels for a period of at least 24 hours in a country other than his residential
country. The purpose of the visit may be either for pleasure, health, business or visiting a
country on a cruise vessel even if being on board for less than 24 hours. Again, in 1963
The United Nation Conference on International Travel and Tourism approved to use the
term visitor recommended by The World Tourism Organisation which covers people who
visit a country other than his usual place of residence, for any reason other than paying
occupation. According to this recommendation, it covers:
i.

Tourists, who are classified as temporary visitors staying at least 24


hours, whose purpose could be categorised as leisure (whether for
recreation, health, sport, holiday, study or religion) or business, family,
mission or meeting.

ii. Excursionists, who are classified as temporary visitors who are staying
less than 24 hours, including cruise travellers but excluding travellers
in transit.
It is noteworthy to mention here, that the above definition does not cover the domestic
tourist which was long been acknowledged by scholars as the major part of the total
tourist traffic and contributor of this sector. Domestic tourism includes those trips
undertaken by residents of a country within the national territory of that country.
It was further attempted by The Tourism Society in 1976 to define the term Tourism
which includes domestic tourist as:
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The temporary short term movement of people to destinations outside


the places where they normally live and work, and activities during their
stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes, as well as
day visits or excursions.

The WTO recommends the following definition of domestic visitors:


The term domestic visitor describes any person residing in a country,
who travels to a place within the country, outside his/ her usual
environment for a period not exceeding 12 months, and whose main
purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from
within the place visited.
The authors also mentioned that the above definition covers domestic tourists, where an
overnight stay is involved, and domestic excursionists where the stay in the place
visited is less than 24 hours and no overnight stay is involved.
Following an International Government Conference held in Ottawa, Canada in 1991, the
WTO formularised a new definition in 1993 which was endorsed by the UN Statistical
Commission. The Organisation defines tourism as:
Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in
places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive
year for leisure, business or other purposes.
Information is increasingly important component in the tourism system but it is important
to distinguish the difference between information and promotion. Promotion includes
advertising, personal selling, publicity and public relation. Advertising can play an
important role in promotion to attract tourists to the specific destination. In this regard
maps, guidebooks, videos, tour guides, magazines articles, brochure and internet can be
used to provide the information about the destinations and attractions to the potential
tourists. In addition to that modern technology in the communication like information
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communication technology especially, internet and e-business can be used to promote


tourism and its related products and services.

2.2 Different Types of Tourism


Tourism can be classified in a number of ways based on the nature of activity, location
type or duration of stay. Here, a brief description on major types of tourism can be
presented as:
2.2.0 Adventure Tourism
Adventure Tourism is a type of niche tourism involving exploration or travel to remote
areas, where the traveller should expect the unexpected. C. M. Hall defined adventure
tourism as a broad spectrum of outdoor tourist activities, often commercialized and
involving an interaction with the natural environment away from the participants home
range and containing elements of risks in which the outcome is influenced by the
participant, setting, and management of the tourists experience. Sung considered the
above definition as an incomplete one based on own research findings and gave a new
definition of adventure tourism as a complete one like, A trip or travel with the specific
purpose of activity participation to explore a new experience, often involving perceived
risk or controlled danger associated with personal challenges, in a natural environment or
exotic outdoor setting .
It is rapidly growing in popularity as tourists seek unusual holidays, different from the
typical beach vacation and typically involves traveling into remote, inaccessible and
possibly hostile areas. It may include the performance of acts that require significant
effort and grit and may also involve some degree of risk. Marketers need to formulate the
proper strategies to cater to their target segments effectively.

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2.2.1 Agro-tourism
A style of vacation in which hospitality is offered on firms which may include the
opportunity to assist with farming tasks during the visit where the tourists have the
opportunity to pick up fruits and vegetables, ride horses, taste honey, learn about wine,
shop in gift shops and farms stands for local and regional produce or hand-crafted gifts,
and much more. Each farm generally offers a unique and memorable experience suitable
for the entire family. Some scholars defined the term as any tourism or recreation
enterprise on a working farm or form of rural tourism whereby paying
guests can share in farming life either as staying guests or day visitors
on working farms. They also recognised it as a new income source for
agricultural societies. People are more interested in how their food is produced and
want to meet the producers and talk with them about what goes into food production and
children who visit the farms often have not seen a live duck, or goat, and have not picked
an apple right off the tree.

2.2.2 Ecotourism
Ecotourism essentially means ecological tourism; where ecological has both
environmental and social connotations. The International Ecotourism Society defines
ecotourism as responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and
improves the well-being of local people. Ecotourism refers to tourism that is based on the
natural environment but that seeks to minimise the harmful impacts and better still, seeks
to promote conservation. It focuses on local cultures, wilderness adventures,
volunteering, personal growth and learning new ways to live on our vulnerable planet.
Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the adverse effects of
traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local
people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, initiatives
by hospitality providers to promote recycling, energy efficiency, water re-use, and the
creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an integral part of
ecotourism.

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The concept of ecotourism is widely misunderstood and, in practice, is often simply used
as a marketing tool to promote tourism that is related to nature. Critics claim that
ecotourism as practiced and abused often consists in placing a hotel in a splendid
landscape, to the detriment of the ecotourism. According to them, ecotourism must above
all sensitize with the beauty and the fragility of nature.

2.2.3 Heritage Tourism


The most hottest or recent trend in todays tourism industry is heritage tourism or visiting
historical sites of an area. Now a day, people want to enrich their lives through travelling
not to escape rather than visiting a park or a mountain range. They want to experience
unique places, traditions and history and learn about their cultural roots. Heritage tourism
involves visiting historical or industrial sites that may include old canals, railways,
battleground etc with the purpose of gaining an appreciation of the past. In addition to
that education, fun, marriage, employment, etc can also be the purpose of heritage
tourism. It can also be attributed to historical events that have been dramatized to make
them more entertaining. Heritage tourism is distinct from visiting a family member in a
faraway place because the connection to the original homeland is removed.

2.2.4 Cultural Tourism


The cultural tourism has been around for a long time and is the oldest of the new
tourism phenomena. Cultural/culture tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a
country or regions culture, especially its arts and includes tourism in urban areas,
particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and
theatres. Ingram, Hadyn, suggested from the book review on The Partnership between
Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management by McKercher, Bob and Cros, du Hilary
that cultural tourism represents tourism which is derived (from special interests),
motivational (aspirational) and operational (participation in visiting cultural destinations)
and cultural destinations can be very diverse, including historical, artistic, scientific,
lifestyle, heritage and social offerings The reviewer also described that since 1970s,
cultural tourism has begun to be recognized as a tourism product category with potential,
rather than a niche and specialized activity and cited that the original authors venture to
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suggest that between 35 and 70 percent of international travellers are now considered
cultural tourists, and this has started a tourism bandwagon on to which many destinations
would like to climb. It can also, less often, include tourism to rural areas; for outdoor
festivals, the houses of famous writers and artists, sculpture parks and landscapes made
famous in literature and is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more
than standard tourists do.

2.2.5 Alternative Tourism


Travellers rarely request "alternative tourism" by that specific name; instead, they ask for
what they are seeking - adventure, education, sports, religion, gay and lesbian events,
experiences with communities, etc. He also added that the problem with 'alternative
tourism' is that it defines itself by what it is not and travellers rarely describe themselves
or their interests as 'alternative.' And the services or destinations they choose are those
that motivate and engage, not the 'other choice.' What is an alternative to some is a
priority for others.
Some researchers have tried to define alternative tourism as a tourism that gives
emphasis to the contact and understanding between the hosts and the tourist, as well as
the environment. The authors also cited that tourism which is consistent with the natural,
social and community values and that allows a positive relationship among locals and
tourists.

2.2.6 Geo-tourism
Geo-tourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of
a place its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents.
As such, Geo-tourism supports these principles. World watch Institute reports that
ecotourism, Geo-tourism, and pro-poor tourism are among the increasingly popular
niches in the travel industry that aim to address consumers ethical concerns. Wagner also
mentioned that a growing trend in travel is the desire of many tourists for non-typical
tourist experiences, such as ethical adventures and defined the term Geo-tourism as
the travel that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place, including its
environment, heritage, aesthetics, and culture.
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2.2.7 Benefit Tourism


The British government has been troubled in recent years by what it calls benefit
tourism, in which individuals travel to Britain from other countries, usually from
elsewhere in the European Union, to obtain free medical attention or to take advantage of
the British welfare system to obtain what was until recently called unemployment
benefit. More benign term is health tourism, in which people travel to obtain medical
attention not available in their own countries, or which is obtainable more cheaply, or
accompanied by greater privacy which is a thriving business, with some hospitals having
links with hotels so that patients can have good attention and facilities during
convalescence.

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CHAPTER 3

GLOBAL SCENARIO OF TOURISM

Asia and the Pacific welcomed 279 million international tourist arrivals in 2015, 15
million more than in 2014, corresponding to a 6% growth. The region earned US$ 418
billion in international tourism receipts, an increase of 4% in real terms. Asia and the
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Pacific accounts for 24% of the worlds arrivals and 33% of receipts. By sub region,
South-East Asia (+8% in arrivals) and Oceania (+7%) recorded the strongest growth.
South-East Asias top destination, Thailand (+20%) rebounded strongly in 2015,
welcoming 5 million more international tourists. Myanmar (+52%) also saw a surge in
arrivals last year, although from a lower base. Laos (+12%), the Philippines (+11%) and
Indonesia (+10%) also enjoyed double-digit growth. Cambodia received 6% more
arrivals, while Singapore (+2%) and Vietnam (+1%) reported more moderate results.
Oceania enjoyed a solid 7% increase in arrivals in 2015, boosted by the sub-regions top
destinations New Zealand (+10%) and Australia (+8%). Among Pacific island
destinations, Palau (+15%), Samoa (+11%), Fiji (+9%), New Caledonia (+6%),
Guam (+5%) and the Northern Mariana Islands (+4%) all turned in good results.
Results were more uneven in North-East Asia (+4%) with strong growth in a few
destinations and declines in others. Japan reported an exceptional 47% increase, receiving
6 million more international arrivals to hit the 20 million mark. Taiwan (pr. Of China)
recorded 5% more arrivals in 2015, while Asias top destination, China, reported a 2%
increase. By contrast, the Chinese Special Administrative Regions (SARs), Hong Kong
and Macao, both reported declines, mostly due to their strong currencies, while the
Republic of Korea struggled with the impact of the MERS outbreak.
International arrivals in South Asia increased by 4%, driven by the sub-regions top
destination India (+5%). Sri Lanka enjoyed an increase of 18% in its sixth straight year of
double-digit growth, while the Maldives reported a more modest 2% growth. Arrivals
in Nepal declined last year following the earthquake in April.

World Tourists Arrivals & Receipts (1990-2015)


Year

Arrivals

Change (%)

Receipts

Change (%)
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1990
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015*

(billion US$)
435
674
809
928
892
950
994
1040
1088
1134
1184*

(billion US$)
271
495
706
967
905
966
1104
1146
1236
1295
1232*

3.14
4.61
4.5
2.80
-3.9
6.5
4.6
4.7
4.6
4.2
4.4*

3.17
4.57
7.69
5.37
-8.0
7.2
8.6
1.6
6.3
3.1
-5.00

Source: World Tourism Organization, 2016

Worlds Top 10 Tourist Destination & Tourists Earners


(Year-2014)
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Country
France
USA
Spain
China
Italy
Turkey
Germany
UK
Rusia
Mexico

Arrivals
(billion US$)
83.7
74.8
65
55.7
48.6
39.8
33
32.6
29.8
29.1

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Country

Receipts

USA
Spain
Chaina
France
Macao
Italy
UK
Germany
Thailand
Hong Kong

(billion US$)
177.2
65.2
56.9
55.4
50.8
45.5
45.3
43.3
39.4
38.4

Source: World Tourism Organization, 2016

International Tourists Arrivals in South Asian Countries (Thousands)


(2010-2015*)

International tourist arrivals


(US$ million)

(1000)

Change (%)

Share (%)

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Destination

Series

South Asia
Afghanista
n

15*/1

2010

2013

2014

2015*

13/12

14/13

2015*

12,137

15,966

17,495

18,269

12.1

9.6

4.4

6.5

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Bangladesh

TF

303

148

125

..

18.4

-15.5

..

..

Bhutan

TF

41

116

133

155

10.2

14.9

16.2

0.1

India

TF

5,776

6,968

7,679

8,027

5.9

10.2

4.5

2.9

Iran

VF

2,938

4,769

4,967

5,237

24.4

4.2

5.4

1.9

Maldives

TF

792

1,125

1,205

1,234

17,4

7.1

2.4

0.4

Nepal

TF

603

798

790

555

-0.7

-0.9

-29.8

0.2

Pakistan

TF

907

565

965

..

-14.9

70.8

..

..

Srilanka

TF

654

1,275

1,527

1,798

26.7

19.8

17.8

0.6

Source: World Tourism Organization, 2016

International Tourists Receipts in South Asian Countries (Thousands)


(2010-2015*)

International tourist receipts


(US$ million) (1000)
Destination

Series

Share (%)

2010

2013

2014

2015*

2015*

South Asia

20,072

26,593

29,390

31,423

7.5

Afghanistan

86

151

84

..

..
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Bangladesh

TF

87

129

153

148

0.0

Bhutan

TF

35

63

73

71

0.0

India

TF

14,490

18,397

19,700

21,013

5.0

Iran

VF

2,438

3,076

3,483

..

..

Maldives

TF

1,713

2,335

2,696

2,567

0.6

Nepal

TF

343

438

487

481

0.1

Pakistan

TF

305

288

283

315

0.1

Srilanka

TF

576

1,715

2,431

2,981

0.7

Source: World Tourism Organization, 2016

Series of International tourist arrivals and departures:


TF = International tourist arrivals at frontiers (overnight visitors, i.e. excluding same-day
visitors)
VF = International visitors arrivals at frontiers (tourists and same-day visitors)
* = Provisional figure or data
.. = Figure or data not (yet) available
I = Change of series
n/a = Not applicable
. = Decimal separator
, = Thousands separator

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Chapter 4

Tourism industry in Bangladesh

Tourism in Bangladesh is a slowly developing foreign currency earner. The country has
everything to attract international and domestic tourists.
In the northern part, comprising of the Rajshahi division, there are archaeological sites,
including the temple city Puthia in Rajshahi; the largest and most ancient archaeological
site, Mahasthangarh in Bogra; the single largest Buddhist monastery, Paharpur in
Naogaon; the most ornamental terracota Hindu temple in Bangladesh Kantaji Temple,
and many rajbaris or palaces of old zamindars.
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In the south-western part, mainly the Khulna Division, there is the Sundarbans, the
largest mangrove forest of the world with Royal Bengal Tiger and spotted deer. The
historically and architecturally important sixty domed mosque in Bagerhat is a notable
site.
In the south-eastern part, which is the Chittagong division, there are mainly natural and
hilly scenarios along with sandy sea beaches. The most notable beach is the longest
unbroken sandy sea beach in the world in Cox's Bazaar.
In the north-eastern part, Sylhet division, there is a green carpet of tea plants on small
hillocks. Natural reserved forests are great attractions. Migratory birds in winter,
particularly in the haor areas, are also very attractive in this area.

4.1 Geographical Location of Bangladesh


Bangladesh is a developing country in South Asia located between 2034 to 2638
north latitude and 8801 to 9242 east longitude, with an area of 147,570 square km
and with the boarder on the west, north, and east with India, on the southeast with
Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal is to the south. The territorial waters of Bangladesh
extend 12 nautical miles, and the exclusive economic zone of the country is 200 nautical
miles. There is a large marshy jungle coastline on the Bay of Bengal and popularly
known as the Sundarbans - one of the largest mangrove forests in the world, the home of
Royal Bengal Tiger. Bangladesh located in the Ganges Delta- the largest delta in the
world having densely vegetated lands often called the Green Delta. The densely
populated delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra
(Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their tributaries as they flow down from the Himalaya
situated near the north-western frontier of the country, creating the largest riverine delta
in the world. On the south is a highly irregular deltaic coastline of about 600 km, fissured
by many rivers and streams flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Standard Time in Bangladesh
is GMT + 6 hours. Due to the countrys geographical position, the country is remote
from the major tourist generating countries of Europe, North America and Japan, but at
the heart of some of the worlds major tourism destinations of the South East Asia .

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4.2 Seasons and Climate


Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate characterized by wide seasonal variations
in rainfall, moderately warm temperatures, and high humidity. The warmest month is
April and January is the coldest month in the country. Heavy rainfall is characteristic of
Bangladesh with only the exception of the relatively dry western region of Rajshahi,
where the annual rainfall is about 160 centimetres and the other regions have at least
average rainfall of 200 centimetres.
Season climatic type, at any place, associated with a particular time of the year and
which is changed mainly due to the change in attitude of the earth's axis in relation to the
position of the sun at a particular place. Bangladesh is known as the land of six seasons
namely summer, rainy, autumn, late autumn, winter and spring. The duration of each
season is expected to be two months but some seasons flow into other seasons, while
others are short. As a result, three distinct seasons can be clearly identified which are
summer season lasting from March to May with maximum temperatures range between
32C and 38C, rainy reason from June to October and winter season continues from
November to February when the average temperature for most of the country is 10C and
lingering around the 30C mark for most of the year. The best period for foreign tourists
to visit Bangladesh is the rainless dry season lasting from November to March, when the
temperature ranges between 13.3 and 26.5 C

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4.3 Tourism Attractions/Spots of Bangladesh


The world thinks of Bangladesh as poor, flood-ravaged, and more of a disaster zone than
a travel destination. In some respects, the world is right but hiding behind these images is
a country with a rich history, a strange beauty, and some interesting attractions and it is
not, however, a destination for everyone. Bangladesh is a country which has a rich
tradition, history and architecture. Incredible greenery, mighty rivers and attractive river
cruises, sunny beaches, colourful tribal life and attractive cultural functions offer great
tourist attractions.
Bangladesh can offer to the foreign tourists to satisfy their unquenchable needs by the
artistic with bounty of tourism resources like natural beauty, sea beaches, forests, lakes,
hills, wild lives, archaeological attractions, monuments, handicrafts, sanctuaries, religious
festivals, folklore, cultural heritage, way of life, tribal culture etc. The Moorish traveller
Ibn Batuta who visited Bengal in the fourteenth century described Bengal as the
wealthiest and cheapest land of the world and stated that it was known as a hell full of
bounties and in seventeenth century French traveller Francois Bernie observed and stated
Egypt has been represented in every age as the finest and most fruitful country in the
world, and even our modern writers deny that there is any other land of peculiarly
favoured by nature; but the knowledge I have acquired of Bengal during two visits paid
to that kingdom inclines me to believe that pre-eminence ascribed to Egypt is rather due
to Bengal.
With the passage of time, Bangladesh has lost its glory and foreign tourists have lost their
interest to visit Bangladesh as a major attractive destination. Till the liberation of
Bangladesh in 1971, most tourists kept their visits to, Dhaka and Agrabad, however with
limited satisfactory accommodation in the rest of Bangladesh at that time, saw
neighbouring Kolkata in West Bengal of India, who were well ahead with their facilities,
soar in popularity and which took until the middle of the nineteen nineties for the
improvement in accommodation started to show increased numbers of tourist flow.

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Presently, Bangladesh has got improvement and has overcome some of the limitations
regarding the facilities of accommodation, transportation and other benefits required to
attract foreign tourists and swelling in numbers. Foreign tourists as well as the local
nationals are visiting some unique sights and places like Cox' Bazaar, Teknaf, the
Sundarbans, Kuakata, Paharpur and Tetulia etc. a large number of Bangladeshi
expatriates is coming to Bangladesh not only to visit their families, but for a holiday and
to experience the vibrant and culturally rich country of their forbearers. All of these
tourists require appropriate accommodation and the demand in hotel beds and restaurants
are now possible to meet for every taste and every budget successfully. Bangladesh has
many tourist attractions including beaches, archaeological sites, historic mosques and
monuments, resorts, forest and wildlife. The major tourist attractions of Bangladesh can
be presented in following sub sections:

4.3.1 Sea Beaches as the Tourism Attractions in Bangladesh


Bangladesh has the world longest 120 km unbroken sea beach sloping here down to the
blue water of the Bay of Bengal in Coxs Bazar. Such a longest sea beach covering miles
of golden sands, soaring cliffs, surfing waves, rare conch shells, Buddist Temples,
Pagodas and enjoyable sea-food all of these make Coxs Bazar today, the tourist capital
of Bangladesh which is almost impossible to be found in anywhere of the other tourist
destination of the world. The warm shark free water is most suited for bathing and
swimming along with the opportunities for sun-bathing offered by the sandy beaches. In
addition to that the tourists can enjoy the charming beauty of the sun-setting behind the
waves of the sea. Its uniqueness also lies in the natural beauty having an uninterrupted
smooth-sandy sea shore along with silvery waves and high tides on the one side and a
chain of green deep forested hills, artful pagodas, colourful tribal people, etc. running
parallel to the beach and making a picturesque background on the back side. All these
appeals made Coxs Bazar as one of the most attractive tourist spots in the world.
Kuakata is the second longest beaches in Bangladesh which is approximately 18 km long
and 2 km wide and is situated at a distance of 70 km from the district headquarter of
Pautuakhali. The opportunities of observing the scenic beauty of both sunrise and sunset
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in a calm environment from the sea shore has made it a rare and magnificent sea beach in
the world. This beach slopping quietly to the Bay of Bengal provides the pleasant
opportunity of bathing. The sound and glittering breaks of rolling water in the sea seem to
sparkle like diamond crowns at the tops of the gentle waves in the moonlight nights. In
addition, the blue sky, line by coconut trees, natural beauty, green forest, migratory winter
birds, the colourful sail boats, surfing, fishing or walking on the beach etc have
contributed to make the beach as an excellent and unique spot for tourists.
Parki beach is another attractive tourist spot in Bangladesh located at Gahira and lies at
Karnafuli river channel. This beach is about 15 km long and 300 feet to 35o feet wide
with 20km tamarisk forest. The visitors can enjoy to view the Karnafuli river and the Bay
of Bengal together and can observe the big ships anchored at the outer dock, fishermen
catching fish in sea, sunset, various coloured crabs at the beach, and calm surroundings.
In addition to that, there are some other beaches like Inani beach in Ukhia, Coxs Bazar,
St. Martin Island also known as Naikel Jinjira (Coconut Island), Patenga beach which are
also attractive to the foreign tourists as well as the local tourists of the country.

4.3.2 Archaeological Sites


Bangladesh is a country which is significantly rich in archaeological wealth from the preMuslim as well as during the Muslim rules. The major archaeological sites of Bangladesh
include Mainamati, Mahasthangarh, Buddhist relics of Paharpur and Sitakunda. A brief
description of these sites can be presented as:
Mainamati - The low hills known as Mainamati Lalmai ridge -a wide-ranging centre of
Buddhist culture which is located about 114 km south-east of Dhaka and 8 km to the west
of Comilla town. The remnants of the enormous Buddhist stupas and monastery disclose
the information of previous glorious history Buddhist civilization of the 8 th to 12th
centuries A.D. of this region. A site museum housed the archaeological finds which
include terracotta plaques, bronze statues and casket, coins, jewellery, utensils pottery
and votive stupas stamped with Buddhist inscription. All these have made Mainamati
renowned and capable to attract the tourists.

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Paharpur - The largest Buddhist seat of learning located at Rajshahi. The most important
and the largest known monastery, help to recollect the glorious past of the then Bengal
under the Pala dynasty of 8th century A.D. and had been declared as a World Heritage Site
by UNESCO. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation makes the arrangements of package tours
for the interested tourists to visit Bangladesh.
Mahasthangarh The oldest archaeological site of Bangladesh situated at a distance of
18 km to the North Bogra town and is famous for its size and height of the tower and
pavilion. There are several isolated mounds which are locally well-known as Govinda
Bhita Temple, Khodai Pathar Mound, Mankalir Kunda, Parsuramer Bedi; Jiyat Kunda
etc. surround the fortified city. It is an archaeological site of the 3 rd century B.C. and till
today held to be of immense holiness by the Hindus. It is also to be mentioned here that
the shrine of Shah Sultan Bulkhi Mahisawary and Gokul Medh in the neighbourhood of
Mahasthangarh.
Sitakunda One of the oldest temples in the Indian subcontinent which is famous for
Chandranath Hindu Temple and is located about 37 km far away from Chittagong, the 2 nd
largest city of Bangladesh. In addition to that in Sitakunda, there is also Buddhist Temple
with a footprint of Lord Buddha and the places are considered as very scared by the
Hindus and Buddhist and attractive for both the local and foreign tourists

4.3.3 Historical Places and Cultural Heritage


Bangladesh is a country which has an ancient land full of historical events and cultural
traditions. Its ancient cultures, age-old customs, wonderful traditions, religious vales, etc
spiced and added to by conquerors, adventures and powerful dynasties now represent a
great wealth for historical and cultural tourism . During more than five centuries (1202
A.D. to 1757 A.D.) of the Muslim rule in Bengal, many new cities were built and she was
adorned with innumerable places, forts, free-standing victory towers, mosques,
madrashas, mausoleums, roads and bridges (BPC, as cited in. The Bengal region has a
multifaceted folk heritage, enriched by its ancient animist, Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim

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roots. Weaving, pottery and terracotta sculpture are some of the earliest forms of artistic
expression.
Bangladesh has a rich and diverse culture and her deep rooted heritage is amply reflected
in her architecture, literature, dance, drama, music and painting. Bangladeshi culture is
influenced by three great religions- Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam in successive order,
with Islam having the most pervading and lasting impact. The traditional music, tribal
dances, drama and theatre are old traditions and very popular in Bangladesh. A brief
description of which can be presented as:
Historical Places
There are some places in Bangladesh which are historically important in the South Asia
and many tourists are attracted to these places. Sonargaon is one of them and is away
about 30 km from Dhaka. It is one of the oldest capitals of Bengal. This place is also
famous for folk-arts and craft museum, the shrines of Panjpirs and Shah Alia and the
tomb of Sultan Giasuddin (1399-1499 A.D.) one of the ancient monuments still intact of
that region. Another one is Natore, an old seat of the Maharajah of Dighapatiya presently
known as the Uttara Ganabhaban - the official residence of the President of the Republic
of Bangladesh in Northern region, Sagordari, Jessore, the birth place of poet Michael
Modhusudan Dutta - the first modern poet of Bangla Literature. Mujibnagar Memorial,
Meherpur - the beautiful memorial dedicated to the first revolutionary government of
Bangladesh that was declared here on 14 April, 1971 during the liberation war of
Bangladesh. Trishal, Mymensingh - the place where innumerable boyhood memories of
our national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam are found around and bears the memory of the Rebel
poet Kazi Nazrul, the Shelley of Bangladesh. Gandhi Asram at Jayag in Noakhali was
built in the memory of historic visit of the Mahatma Gandhi to that place in 1946-47 and
devoted to his ideology and deep respect to the unique memories of the great soul.

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Monuments
National Memorial - Located at Savar, Dhaka , dedicated to the sacred memory of
millions of unknown martyrs of liberation war of 1971 that brought Bangladesh into
being an independent country
Central Shahid Minar - Bears the symbol of Bengali nationalism and is
dedicated to the honour of martyrs of the historical language movement of 1952
to establish the right of Bengali as the state language
Lalbagh Fort - The scene of bloody battle during the first war of independence
and the fort also includes the Tomb of Pari Bibi ( Fait lady daughter of Nawab
Shaista Khan who succeeded Prince Mohammad Azam), mosque, Hammam
Khana (bathing place) of Nawab Shaista Khan presently housing a museum

Monuments of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib -Located at Tungi Para,


Gopalgonj in the memory of our great national leader and the father of the nation

Martyred Intellectual Memorial- To commemorate the intellectuals killed in


1971;
National Poets Graveyard - In the memory of revolutionary poet Kazi Nazrul
Islam; World War II Cemetery, Chittagong where over 700 soldiers burried from
Commonwealth countries and Japan, who died during the Second World War;
Museums
Among the different museums in Bangladesh, the major ones include National Museum
established in 1913 and which has four main departments, namely: National History,
History and cultural art, Ethnography and Decorative art, and Contemporary art and
Civilization each of which departments is enriched with rare collections; Bangabandhu
Memorial Museum in the memory of the father of the Nation who was killed by few
misled army personnel and anti-freedom force on the night of 15 August, 1975 with most
of his family members; Mukti Juddho (Liberation War) with rare photographs of our
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liberation war and items used by the freedom fighters and martyrs of our glorious war;
Zia Memorial Museum in Chittagong; Ahsan Manzil Museum, Dhaka - today's
renovated Ahsan Manzil a monument of immense historical beauty and displaying of
traits, furniture and household articles and utensils used by the Nawab; Folk Art
Museum established in 1975 to fulfill the dream of the celebrate painter Shilpacharya
Zainul Abedin with a rich collection of different folk objects of aesthetic and utilitarian
values reflecting the temperaments, skills and expertises of the artists and artisans who
made them; Science Museum located at Agargaon, Dhaka a museum of modern
learning centre related to the latest scientific discoveries; Shilaidaha Kuthibari
Museum, Kustia which carries memories of Nobel Laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore
(1861-1941) and preserves many of his short stories songs and poem in this house, and
some special and rare attractions like: Rabindranath Tagores photographs of childhood,
youth and old age are exhibited here. Some paintings painted by Tagore display here. The
paintings named Nisorgo (Nature), Nissobdo (Silence), Sonali Sondya (Golden Evening)
etc. are available here; Ethnological Museum at Chittagong with full of extensive
facilities for ethnological research of objects associated with the ethnic tribes of
Bangladesh, tribes of Australia, India and Pakistan; Court Building Museum located on
the Fairy Hill in Chittagong with the commands of magnificent view of the port city and
witness to many activities and during the war of liberation in 1971; Tribal Museum
established a tribal cultural museum located at Rangamati and established in 1978 for
the preservation of valuable objects and articles of different tribes depicting their socioeconomic, cultural and historical traditions which include typical tribal dresses,
ornaments, arms, ammunitions, coins, statues made of gold, bronze and other metals,
musical instruments, ivory products, handicrafts and paintings on tribal life, etc;
Varendra Research Museum at Rajshahi, this museum has a rich collection of objects
from Mohenjodaro and also from 16th to 19th centuries with a rich collection of
interesting objects of Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim heritage; Mainamati Site Museum,
Paharpur Site Museum and Mahasthangarh Site Museum.

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4.3.4 Forest, Gardens and Parks


Forest, gardens and parks can be the suitable sites for the marvellous potentialities of ecotourism development in the country, as there are numerous sites for the same and can be
attracted numerous tourists. The brief description of the major forests, gardens and parks
of the country can be presented in the following sections:
Forests
Forest is considered as renewable resource in every country. Bangladesh is no exception
from this. The major forest of Bangladesh includes:
Sundarban The worlds largest mangrove forests is formed at the delta of the
Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. Total area of the
entire Sundarbans is about one million ha, 60% of which is found in Bangladesh
and the rest in India. This mangrove forest is a cluster of islands with an
approximate area of 6216 Sq. kms within the Bangladesh territory and further
extended to the south-west in the Indian Territory which includes as area of 4800
sq kms. The Sundarbans - the home of world famous Royal Bengal tiger inhabited
by varieties of beautiful trees and is criss-crossed by a network of rivers and
creeks. It is named as Sundarban due to the Sundari tree is a common species of
this forest. Considering the exceptional natural value of Sundarban mangrove
forest, the World Heritage committee of UNESCO acknowledged the Sundarban
of Bangladesh in the World Heritage list by their 21st session in 1997 and
Bangladesh government declared the Sundarban as World Heritage Site in 1999
that it offers fabulous opportunities for tourism. For foreign visitors and for the
expatriate community there are two principal attractions: firstly, the peace and
tranquillity of an unspoiled wilderness which is free from noise and commercial
exploitation and also which is very often in immediate contrast with the cities they
inhabit; and secondly, a relatively unknown and unexplored destination with a
reputation for wildlife to be able to indulge in recreational activities such as
wildlife watching, jungle walks and exploration. There are three wildlife
sanctuaries in Sundarbans heritage site like Sundarban East Wildlife Sanctuary,
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Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary and Sundarban West Wildlife Sanctuary. A


complex network of tidal waterways, mud flats and small islands of salt tolerant
mangrove forests has interconnected these three sanctuaries. In addition to that,
the region also includes the wildlife of cheetahs, spotted deer, crocodiles,
monkeys, pythons, wild bears and hyenas. Sundarban is the forest of endless
mystery. The Royal Bengal Tiger, spotted deer, monkeys, birds, beehives,
imaginary gods, and demons have made the forest mysterious . Tourists have the
opportunities to observe the tides flowing in two directions in the same creek and
often tigers swimming across a river or huge crocodiles basking in the sun. Hiron
Point known as Nilkamal, Katka and Tri Kona Island provide the best vantage
points for watching tigers, deer, monkeys, crocodiles and birds. Dublachar of
Sundarban is a major point of a fishing village and where groups of spotted deer
often come to graze there. Sundarbans have much potentials of being the most
attractive and resourceful attraction in the world and can be one of the most highly
visited tourist-spots for the eco-tourists in the world if suitable accommodation,
proper facilities and necessary transport networks are developed. He also added
that by ensuring these arrangements , the unspoiled wilderness of the mysterious
Sundarbans will attract a huge number of local and foreign tourists for seeing
sights, watching wild lives and birds, seeing colourful forests, walking in the
jungles, enjoying short-day excursions, meeting special interests and doing other
activities.
There are some other forests like Sal forest in Mymensingh, Gazipur, Comilla region
and lush green forest of Sylhet, Mymensingh and Chittagong Hill-tracts have the
capabilities of attracting tourists from all over the world.

3.3.5 Sanctuaries
In Bangladesh, there are some beautiful and ancient sanctuaries which have special
appeal to attract tourist in Bangladesh. Visitors from the Mid

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[-[;[;dle East, Pakistan, India, Korea, Thailand and Japan can be attracted to the
historically important sanctuaries like mosque, shrines, tombs, temples, churches and
Buddhist monasteries.

Mosques
In Bangladesh there are so many ancient and beautiful mosques which have the
capabilities to attract tourists especially for religious tourism because of their arts,
designs, and historical importance. Specially, Dhaka has several hundred historic
mosques and is known as the city of mosques. Some of the major notable mosques in the
country includes Seven Domed Mosque built in 17th century, Baitul Mukarram National mosque of the country which was built after the pattern of the Kaba Sharif, Star
Mosque (a five-dome mosque) built in 18th century, Chawkbazar Mosque, Huseni
Dalan Mosque, Shait-Gambuj Mosque (160x108), Bagerhat built by Ulugh Khan
Jahan - the earliest torchbearer of Islam in the South who laid the nucleus of an affluent
city during the reign of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah (1442-59), Chota Sona
Mosque at Chapai Nababgonj - one of the most graceful monuments of the Sultanate
period, Small Golden Mosque at Gaur in Rajshahi built in Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah
(1493-1519), Bagha Mosque and Kusumba Mosque at Rajshahi, Mosque of Baba
Adam in Rampal near Dhaka a six domed mosque erected by one Malik Kafur during
the reign of the last llyas Shahi Sultan in 1483 A.D., the Shahi Jama-e-Masjid and
Qadam Mubarak Mosque in Chittagong, Begum Bazar Mosque- a five domed mosque
built by Nawab Murshid Kuli Khan, Khan Muhammad Mirdha Mosque, Mosque and
Tomb of Hazi Khawaja Shahab near High court, mosque of Rasti Khan at Hathazari,
Saat Gambuj Mosque - a seven domed mosque at Mohammadpur, etc.

4.3.5 Hills, Rivers, Lakes and Island


In Bangladesh there are some attractive hilly regions which are considered as the
beautiful tourism spots and attract a large number of tourists. These hilly regions keep
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significant differences from the rest of the country on a number of points because of its
indigenous inhabitants belong to different ethnic indigenous minorities who have a
distinctive lifestyle from the majority of the population. The most of the hilly regions are
located in greater Chittagong district among which Khagrachari (known as the hilltop
town), Bandarban (known as the roof of Bangladesh) and Rangamati (also known as the
Lake District) are famous ones. There are some other attractive hills in Khasia and Jaintia
in Sylhet territory.
Bangladesh is a land of rivers that crisscrossed throughout the mostly flat territories of
the country. Rivers are the most important geographical features in Bangladesh. The
Padma, Jamuna, Brahmaputra etc, the most important rivers along with other hundreds of
rivers have created breath-taking riverine beauty for the tourists.
In addition to that there are also some attractive islands and lake which can draw the
attention of the recreationists and are considered as the tourism products for the tourists.
Moheshkhali- an island off the coast of Cox's Bazar with an area of 268 square km. In
this island there is a low hill of about 300 feet high. Here the mangrove forest Atop
Moinak Hill lays the old temple of Adinath, dedicated to Shiva, Sonadia Island - another
small island with an area of only 9 square km near Coxs Bazar, Kaptai Lake- the largest
Man-made lake in the world provides the numerous opportunities for the visitors like:
rowing, boat cruising, swimming etc., Rangamati is popularly known as the Lake
District. Its scenic beauty, lakeside location, colourful tribes, homespun textile products,
ivory and jewellery, speed boat cruising, water skiing, bathing or merely enjoying nature
have attracted the eyes of adventurous tourists, Foys Lake - surrounded by small hills
and green deep forests in the suburbs of Chittagong, an ideal spot for outing and picnics,
swimming and boating for hundreds of visitors every day.

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CHAPTER-4
THE COXS BAZAR & SAINT MARTIN
STUDY

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Map : Study Area (Coxs Bazar and St. Martin)

COX'S BAZAR
World's largest sea beach and combination of 21 various islands. Cox's Bazar is the most
Glamarious and most beautiful tourist spot in Bangladesh. It is the last conner of southeast side of Bangladesh according to its location. The Bay of Bengal surrounded hills in
the east comer of the east of Myanmar and rest part of the river Not separated Bangladesh
from the rohinga muslim are Arkan. Cox's Bazar is surrounded by the sea,, river and
hills. Some parts of the districts are plainland and others high low areas make Cox's
Bazar most attractive. As a tourist spot the fame of Coxs Bazar is world known. But the
history of Cox's Bazar is not so old. By the name of hiramcoxs, the soilder of British
Bangla, the name Cox's Bazar had come. Before this name once its name was Pang
wangh. The word meaning of Raklialli Pangwaugh is 'Yellow Flower'. In the middle of
7th century Cox's Bazar and its besides areas were known as Pangwangh. For internal
Querral the then king mongwanghing attaked the independent Arakan in early 1784 and
killed the elected king Thamadho and took possession of Arakan. Most of the people of
Cox' Bazar left it for the torturement of mongwanghing and took shatter on British ruled
Chittagong. Chittagong
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Hill-tracts and Patuakliali. To rehibitate those refugees east India company sent captain
Hiram Cox as the chief adninistrat or of these area in 1799. Mr. Cox did a lot of public
welfar work in this area. One of which is the set up a bazar. The local name of this bazar
of 'Cox's Shaheber Bazar'. Mr. Cox was died in 1799, attracketed by Malaria. From that
time, Pangwangh was known as Cox's Bazar.
Tourist attractions of Coxs Bazar
Total area of about 2260 square kin, total population of about 14 laks and with the
combination of & thans Cox's Bazar distinct is one of the best tourist spots ofBangladesh.
The main tourist attractious that attracts the tourist and the and the foreigliers are the
world's larhest sea-beach, sealaby Kutubdia, is hand upazilla Mohadidkhali, and the
natural beautiy of at the heart of the Bay of Bengal, the Saintmartin, the probal sand
island.
Otherwise, very recently Mohsishkhali and at the west of Sonadia 7 islands have been
raising one of its name is 'Harisdia'. The antural scenery of Himchari, 15 km far from
Coxs Bazar will naust wonder and astonish the visitors. The Innani and their uatural
beauties make Cox s Bazar economically highly prospectful.
Sea-Beach
The Beach city Cox's Bazar is situated at the band of bay of Bengal which is the at the
southeast side of Bangladesh. The best tourist attraction of Cox's Bazar as well as
Bangladesh is the largest sea beach of Cox's Bazar. Miles of sandy beach, rare ouster,
attractive Pagoddas, and the varity of lifestyles of tribals are the most attractive elements
for the tourists of different countries. The length of Cox's Bazar sea beach is 155 km.
Roaring of water around the beach, the river Naf, different hills and the plain lands make
Cox's Bazar illusive to the tourists.
It may get much pleasure by visiting Cox's Bazar Sea Beach. Peace and pleasure may
found by visiting in beach at the morning and also in the evening. The f country's biggest
beach resort is disappointing if anybody expecting another Goa. The center of town is a
grubby mess, the area is being carelessly overdeveloped, the sea is murky, there are
erinial elements to watch out for and went the vast and magnificent beach can become
crowded. On the other hand, there's on better way to escape the crowds than taking a
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swim. There's a good range of hotels, alcohol is available both legal and smuggled but
always expensive. Welcome to beach life, Bangladeshi Style. If a visitor comes to
Bangladesh lie has to obviously come to the Cox's Bazar Sea Beach for its natural beauty.
During the winter, from November through march, Cox's Bazar gets crowded especially
on week ends and accommodation can be scarce.
The surrounding area, adjacent to the Chittagong hill tracts, runs south down the coastline
to the Myanmar border. This is still a relatively sparsely populated pant of country. The
population of the region is about one million and is a mix of Muslims, Hindus and
Buddhists. The culture here is less overtly Muslim, or even Hindu for that matter, having
a more Burmese- Buddhist atmosphere.
The main reason to come to Cox's Bazar is the 'beach. The route to the beach along sea.
Beach road is quite filthy, buses dump litter here at night it serves as a public toilet.
The nicest place is in front of the Shaibal Hotel, where there is a friendly uniformed
guard and umbrellas and sun lounges for hire. There is a path leading from the Shaibal
through the golf course' to the are. A hawker with a cartload of snacks, soft drinks and
even deer works here too.
Full of Beauty The Delightful Ramu
One of the best tourist places at Cox's Bazar, at the bank of the Naf and very beautiful
and delightful place Is Ramu. Ramu is and undistinguished market town 14 km east of
Cox's Bazar just off the Chittagong road. Some of-' the hills in this area are topped with
Pagodas.

Attractive artful oldest artistry based wood made Buddhist Bihar,

archaeological monument on the top of the hills Jadi Ramcourt, and Aundher Manik
of Ramu remembered about the past history of it. The relationship between Muslim,
Hindu, Buddhist and Rakliain in this area is the example of different communitical amity.
Various entertainment centers, Rudder Garden, Cocunut Garden, Khying temple
Buddhists, JhogatJhoti Child Care, Tliii-tlio Dhuiii, Buddhist Jacti, Andher-Manik,
Emperor Sha Suja road, quite forest and many other Buddhists temples are the mi/aim
attractions of Ramu. The ever first Rubber garden in Bangladesh firstly started at

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unplainned 2600 acres of.' land at III 1961-62 at Jhoaria drain at Cox's Bazar highway. A
few far of 15km Ramus beauty really attracts to the tourists.
Marangloa Central Shima Bihar
About three centuries old wood made the two stoyred this dhiar's constriction is very
artful and excellent. The grand floor of the bihar have arrangement for sitting for the
Buddhist mendicant friar and at the first floor there is well decorated corrup of Buddu.
The largest Buddhu corrup 'Vhikku shima' is lying here at north south way. The main
pandit of this bihar is Shattapriya Mohatero. He is the main organizer of Buddhists at
South Chittagong region.

Ramcourt Banashram Buddha Bihar


It is one of most holy place for the Buddhists. It was bult by Emperor Ashik about 308
B.c. There is a large Buddhu corrup, which is mostly worshipable. Otherwise there are
some archaeological and historical monuments are available. The lines of Jhowban ang
flower garden increases the beauty of the Bhihar. The 'Jhagatijhiti child care' is situated
at the beside of this bhiar.
Srikul Moyttri Bihar
Srikul Myttri Bihar is situated at the well decorated quite environment with a beautiful
flower garden and also furnish shed with some big Buddhu corrcps made of bress. There
is a gardens of various colorful flowers around the bihar which was built about I 00 years
ago, which can be attracted the visitors very easily.
Rakhain Bihar
Srikul Myttri Bihar. There are some large brass made Baddhu corrups at this wood made
Buddha bihar.
Pagodda

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The upward directed large pagoda is situated at the highest mountain of hills surrounded
by the green trees at the north-east side of the Ramu. Many people called it as it is
chatopa chyttaor Jadi. If anybody can able to climbedup rideup to the hill he will be
astronished to see the beauties of the Pagoddo, for which sometimes offer the raining bell
of the get down it is not possible the visitors to get down.
Lama Para Kang
The name of the kang originated as the kang is situated at the Lamapara, for which its
name is Lamapara kang. It was built up by a landlord named Thoigga Chowdhury. The
two biggest bras made Bell of this kang attracted the visitors and tourists. Once it was
the main Center for practicing culture of Buddhists.

But Lack of proper acre and

development its traditions are going downward.

Coconut Garden
The vast coconut garden of Ramu is situated at the 3-4 km south from chowmuhuny in a
natural environment. There are villages at the boto sides of garden and the road of
middle of garden is like the high-low hills area. The garden was started planting 34
coconut plants. It present the total number of coconut tree is about 9 lake. According to
many people, it is the largest garden with 200 acre area in south Asia in case of coconut
garden.
Rubber Garden
The famous Rudder garden is situated at one km north of chowmuhuny of Ramu. The
garden was started at 1961 planting 52800 plants on 330 acre of lands. At present the
total quantity, of plants are about I Lack and 40 thousands, which is located about 2130
acre of sands. High4ow small hills insides of the garden, lines of plants, green plants, the
low sweet murmur of birds and beautiful rest house of Rubber Garden makes the garden
attractive of the visitors.
Maheskhali Island

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One of the most beautiful tourist spot of cox's Bazar is the Island Upazilla Maheshkhali.
Some 6 km northwest of Cox's Bazar, Maheskhali (Moshkhal-ee) Island makes a pleasant
day trip. It's a large Island, mostly flat and barren but with a pleasant hilly area on its
eastern side. The specialists have given their opinion that it was once Connected with the
Cox's Bazar's main land. The maheskhali upazilla, with 8 union and I municipality is a
land of 3 laks inhabitants. It attracts the jourist very much by its beauty and natural
resources.
On maheskhali betel trees will be seen every where. This island is one of the major
sauces of nuts, which are sold at strut stands all over the country. Walking along the Jetty
into town, you 11 see a hill to north, about a 20 minute rickshaw ride away. The holy
spot is the principal tourist attraction, with a famous. Stupa on top. The dimb takes only
five minutes. From the top one can get a good view of most of the island.
A few hundred meters away is the sole remaining wooded area in the island somewhat
hadden therein a Adinath, a Shlvmandir (Ashram) dedicated to Shiva. It's a delightfully
serene place set in a beautiful garden, and the priest is very friendly. It's a definitely
worth the effort.
If it's the dry season and you have the time you might consider some hiking. There are
paths along the top of the cliff that lines the eastern side of the islands.

ST. MARTIN
St. Martins Island, which is the only coral island in the country, is unique in its habitat
that is congenial for the growth of coral and benthic seaweeds and a variety of marine
fauna and it was the most attractive zone of tourist in Bangladesh.
The St. Martins Island lying between 20o34/ and 20o39/ North latitude and 90o18/ - 92o21/
East longitude is separated from the southern most extremity of mainland BangladeshBadarmokam by a channel about 8 km wide. East of the channel lies the Arakan coast of
Myanmar with the Arakan ranges of hills in the background.
The island is situated in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal about 100 miles both
of Coxs Bazaar and is approximately 11 miles away from Badarmokam, the southern
most point of the main land and about 12 miles south of Teknaf.

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ST. Martins Island is one of the best places in Bangladesh, especially in winter, to get
away from at all.Forty eight K.M from Teknaf St. martin is the countrys only coral island
and unspoiled paradise with people.
The island, about 84 Km. in area, is inhabited by approximately. 6000 inhabitants it was
named after a British Provincial governor but the locals call it Narikel Jinjera. At high the
main is island Uttar Para is divided in to four smaller islands, connected

by strips of

land immense in ankle deep water.Most of the Island's 5500 in habitants live on uttar
para. The majority are Muslims and live primarily of fishing, although some Plant rice
and Vegetable It's Fascinating to see so many different types of fish drying in the sun on
endless bamboo racks along the beach.
This island is completely plain land and constituted mainly with sand, stone and coral.
This area is covered with coconut trees, and there is a nice beach surrounding the island
and dense Keya and Nishinda groves besides the beach etc really make the island as a
fascinating and beautiful landscape for the visitors. There is a nice sight of blue seawater
surrounding the island. The different varieties of shells and mother of pearl such as conch
shells, Spanish drill and cowries are plenty here. Living corals can be seen about 20 feet
deep in to the transparent water around a part of Saint Martins inland named Chera Dip,
which becomes detached from the island during high tide (Banglapedia, 2003).
Finding your way around water para is simple as there is only one tarred street, opposite
the landing point on the beach, where the island's shops and restaurant are located water
Para Boasts a primary and high school, as well as a post office, police station and a
border patrol, a barber and tailor, a generator and a cyclone warning center and shelters.
The people there are very friendly, and will most likely to invite you for a cup of tea.

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THE FIELD STUDY OF ST.MARTIN & COXS BAZAR


The study was executed among the tourists of the st.martin both from home &
abroad which hilights the socio-economic image of the spot (ST.MARTIN) to the
domestic & inetrnational tourists.
SEASON AND PERIOD OF THE STUDY:
Field survey has been conducted during tourist period (Octobar to mid December) from
3rd Octobar to 26th December 2016. The period of the survey was from 9am to 1.30pm
and 2.30pm to 5.30pm.

PREPARATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE:


A questionnaire has been prepared in such a way that, it covered---

TOURISTS FACILITIES OF ISLAND


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TYPES OF TOURISTS
IMAGE OF THE ST. MARTIN TO THE TOURISTS
GOVERNMENT PROJECTS
ROLE OF PRIVATE SECTORS

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TOURISM

PROBLEMS AND EXISTING FACILITIES FOR TOURISTS.

COLLECTION OF DATA:
Data and relevant information for tourism development in St. Martins
was collected through the predetermined questionnaire mentioned above.
Tourism

development

activities,

problems

and

prospects,

tourist

facilities, and tourist impact data were collected through face-to-face


interviews and personal observations of selected possible tourism areas
in St. Martin.

Information on biophysical characteristics, and existing recreational


facilities were collected through books, magazine, newspaper, and from
previous official records.

DATA ANALYSIS:
This includes the compilation and presentation of collected data and
information through questionnaire in the form of schedules, tables,
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graphs and finally their manipulation into convenient forms as used


subsequent section.
The following conditions were found in the study area.

4.1 Age group of the respondent:


Age group of the respondent
70
60
50
Frequency

40

30
20
10
0
0 14

15 34

35 49

50 59

60+

Source: Field survey 2016


According to questionnaire survey 2016 about 65.71 percentage respondents were age
group (15-34) on the other hand about 21.90 percent respondent were age group (35-49)
and rest of 01.91 percentage respondents were age group (0-14). It have been found that

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most of the respondents were adult and it is positive factors for development of St.
Martin Island specially.
4.2 Education status of the Respondent
Education status of the respondent
45
40
35
30
Frequency

25

20
15
10
5
0
Illiterate

Primary

S.S.C

H.S.C

Degree

Masters

Source: Field survey 2016.


According to Field study-2016, about 40.95 percent respondent are graduated and about
28.57 percent respondent were post graduated on the other hand about 2.85 percent
respondent have been completed education. It implies that most of the respondents were
found to have been graduated and it may be concluded that learned person most often
visits here.
3.3 Occupation& Income of the respondent:
Percentage

Percentage

Fig: 1

Fig: 2

0-4000

6.67 1.9
Servic e31.43
Business

Student

23.83

36.19

House wife

Others

4000-7000

6.67 17.14
9.52
22.86
15000-19000

8000-11000

12000-15000

27.62
16.19

20000+

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Source: Field Survey- 2016

Socio-economic condition is essential to measurement tourist flow in a particular tourist


area. The St. Martin Island about 36.19 percent respondents were service holder and
about 31.43 percent respondent were students on the other hand, rest of 6.67 percent
respondent were housewife. (Fig 1)
According to field survey 2008, we have been found about 27.62 Percent respondents
income was 0-4000 Tk. on the other hand abut 22.86 percent respondent income was
8000-11000 Tk. And rest of 17.14% respondent in come was above 20000 Tk. (Fig 2)
So, as most of the respondent occupation are service holder and student and therefore
their income is less and it affects their visit in the tourist spot.

4.3 Origin of the respondent:


Tourists attraction/origin context
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Frequency

Chittagong

Coxs Bazar

Sylhet

Foreign

Source: Field survey - 2016

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According to our field survey about 46.67 percent respondent have come from Dhaka
zone, followed by 22.86 percent chittagong zone, 6.67 percent North bengal zone, 1.90
percent Noachkhali zone. On the other hand about 3.80 percent respondent have come
from foreign countries.
It implies that by providing proper facilities, many respondent could be attracted different
areas of the countries as well as out of the areas.

4.3 Total Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh


Earlier it has been discussed the situation of the tourist arrivals by different regions and
sub-regions along with its share as well as the situation prevailing in the South Asian
countries. Attempts were also made to highlight details of the same for Bangladesh. The
following table shows tourist arrivals in Bangladesh in different years and the rate of
growth of the same:

Year-Wise Total Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh


Year
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

Tourist Arrivals
Number
Growth Rate (%)
213242
210475
(-) 2.44
226785
(+) 14.76
240122
(+) 10.52
256231
(+) 11.50
265887
(+) 6.18
282420
(+) 9.97
271961
(-) 5.73
272781
(+) 0.48
299211
(+) 15.30
307199
(+) 4.01
307246
(+) 0.02
344509
(+) 17.98
371270
(+) 10.94
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Average Growth

+7.79 %

Rate
Source: Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation
The table shows that the number of tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has increased to
371,270 in 2015 from 213,242 in 2001 which shows an average annual growth rate of
7.79 percent. The tourist arrivals increased in 2014 by 17.98 percent and 10.94 percent in
2015 over its preceding year. In general, the statistics shows a very good and positive
trend. But the fact is that the overall scenario is not good. This rate can be considered
very accelerative for those countries that have already matured in the market. But for the
initial level of market entry, the above growth rate is not a positive one.

By using the above data the projected number of tourist arrivals for the year 2016 and
2020 can be calculated with the help of regression analysis where, the model:
y = mx + b
Here, x is independent variable (year) and y is dependent variable (total number of tourist
arrivals)

Slope m

n( xy) ( x)( y )

Intercept b

n( x 2 ) ( x ) 2

y m( x )
n

By interpreting and solving this we get the value m = 10873.734 and b = 94828.35 and
then the model stands as: y = 10873.734(x) + 94828.35 and the projected tourist arrivals
is 412303 and 521040 for the year 2016 and 2020 respectively subject to remaining the

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present trend unchanged, whereas the BPC forecasted that Bangladesh will receive 0.9
million tourists in 2020 which seems very unrealistic forecast.
4.4 Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and Travels in Bangladesh
The marketing performance of any tourism organization can be evaluated based on the
earnings by the organization. So, it was attempted to focus on the earnings of BPC and
the growth rate of the same for the last couple of years to have a clear picture of the
sector in terms of financial performance. The following table is showing the earnings
and growth rate of the same of BPC, the only government owned tourism organization in
Bangladesh:

Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and Travels in Bangladesh


Year
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
Average growth Rate

Earnings from Tourism


Amount (Million Tk*)
Growth Rate (%)
267.7
391.3
(+) 46.17
448.3
(+) 14.57
1607.1
(+) 35.4
823.6
(+) 35.66
1125.4
(+) 36.64
1799.7
(+) 59.92
3086.9
(+) 71.52
2370.1
(-) 23.22
2582.7
(+) 8.97
2638.1
(+) 2.15
3087.1
(+) 17.02
3207.4
(+)3.90
3782.7
(+) 17.94
4203.25
(+) 11.12
(+) 24.12
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Source:

Bangladesh

Bank

and

BPC

http://www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd

Web

page,

available

from:

/resource_center_wtar9904_03_sh2.php

(accesses30.03.06)
Though the foreign exchange earnings through mobilizing domestic resource by the host
countrys tourism industry can play an important role in the economy, the earning of BPC
is very insignificant in terms of the overall earnings of the said industry in the world and
even in the Asian region. The earnings from tourism in Bangladesh was Tk. 267.7 million
in 2000-01 which increased to Tk. 4,203.25 million in 2014-2015. There is also a very
positive sign that every year from 2000-01 to 2014-2015 has a positive growth rate
except 2000-01. The year 2008-09 is exceptional and achieved a negative growth rate
over its preceding year may be due to devastating flood in all over the country and which
lasted about 2 months. The highest growth rate was achieved in 2007-08 which is 71.52
percent over the previous year. From the above table, it can be easily made the comment
that though Bangladesh does not have a good position in world tourism, but the trend of
growth ranges in the earnings is encouraging.

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CHAPTER 5
PROBLEMS & PROSPECT
Recommendation & Findings

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5.1

THE ROLE OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

The New Millennium and the coming decades are very much crucial for the developing
countries to achieve Sustainable Economic Growth. Tourism is considered to be the
largest income generator of the world economy contributing over 10% to Global Gross
Domestic Product (GDP). For at least one third of the developing countries, the tourism
receipts are the main source of export revenue and the tourism industry generates
substantial economic benefits to the developing countries.
The exceptional growth of tourism over the last 50 years is one of the most remarkable
economic and social phenomena of the 21st century. The number of international arrivals
shows an evolution from a mere 25 million arrivals in 1995 to the 763 million of 2014
representing an average annual growth rate of more than 7% over a period of 50 years well above the average annual economic growth rate for the same period. Tourism has
clearly outperformed all the other sectors of the economy and has grown into the most
significant economic activity in the world.
Tourism industry has an increasingly vital economic, social, cultural and environmental
impact, both globally and on the national scale, and that the continuing growth of tourism
and tourism-related activities has diverse implications for the attainment of sustainable
development.

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For many developing countries, in particular the Least Developed Countries (LDCs),
tourism is considered to be the one of the fundamental pillars of their Economic
Development.
But despite of many prospects, the tourism industry in Bangladesh remains neglected for
a long time. Bangladesh is bestowed with the beauties of nature. Its fascinating natural
beauty has provoked many travellers from far and nears through ages to undertake a
journey to this land of the Bengalis. One such traveler aptly observed, "Bangala has a
hundred gates open for entrance, but not one for departure. "
Bangladesh offers the rare beauty spot of sunrise & sunset in fascinating Kuakata, the
rare beauty of the Sundarbans-abode of the Royal Bengal Tiger, the longest smooth sandy
beach in Cox's Bazar, the oldest archeological site in Mahasthangarh and many other
delightful beauties of cultural and historical heritage. Bangladesh is inheritor to a rich
cultural legacy.
In more than two thousand years of its history, many illustrious dynasties of kings and
Sultans have ruled and gone, but not without leaving their mark in the form of
magnificent cities and monuments and the desolate ruins which can still be seen in many
places throughout the country. Above all, the simple and friendly people of Bangladesh along with its tribes isolated from modern society by their own distinct culture and way
of life - make Bangladesh a unique attraction for tourists.
Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the national tourism organisation of the
country, was established in 1973 with the intention of developing the tourist facilities and
promoting tourism products and created a favourable image of the country. Although
BPC is one of the few public sector corporations earning profit since 2007-08, it fails to
attract foreign tourists due to some limitations.
The Tourism sector can play an important role as a driving force of Economic
Development by contributing in three high priority goals of developing countries:

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THE GENERATION OF INCOME


EMPLOYMENT &
FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNINGS.
Tourism Expenditures and the Export related goods and services generate income to the
host Economy and can stimulate the investment necessary to finance growth in other
Economic sectors. Government may earn revenue by imposing tax on the popular
products demanded by the tourists.
Tourism offers the opportunity of providing jobs for different classes of people and
thereby contributing to the alleviation of poverty in developing countries. Tourism
generates jobs directly through hotels, restaurants, taxis, souvenir sales and indirectly
through the supply of goods and services needed by tourism-related business. In addition
Tourism can induce the local government to make infrastructural improvements and also
make an important contribution to a country's Balance of Payments (BOP). So Tourism
is a powerful engine of growth for many developing countries.
In Singapore, tourism has made a significant contribution to output, employment, and
income and overall Balance of Payment. Singapore has unveiled a new tourism blueprint
titled "Tourism 21" that is expected .to turn the nation into a world class tourism
business center and the tourism capital of the East and Singapore has earned 30000cr taka
in the last year.
Malaysia allocated millions of dol1ars for tourism infrastructure in an effort to increase
arrivals and receipts to 50000 Cr Taka. The tourism industry is one of the few sectors in
which Nepal holds a comparative advantage and the industry has influenced segments of
Nepal's economy and social system through the multiplier effect including hotels,
restaurants, transport, shopping, entertainment and other allied economic activities. Some
20% of Nepal's foreign exchange earnings are contributed from this sector.
Tourism is now the highest foreign currency generating industry in the Maldives, earning
70% of the country's foreign exchange, 40% of the government revenue and contributing
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almost 20% to the Gross Domestic Product. The Maldives has also earned the distinction
of being recognised by the World Tourism Organization as a model for the sustainable
development of tourism.
Although the number of tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has shown an increasing trend over
the years, Bangladesh has not been able to reap the full benefits in the tourism sector up
to the desired level according to its potentiality. In the year of 2014-2015, approximately
371270 tourists visited Bangladesh and it earned 3967 million taka whereas in 20152016; 400000 tourists visited Bangladesh contributing more than 5000 million Taka to
the domestic economy.
Having realised the importance of tourism's multidimensional effects such as the balance
of payments situation, diversification of the economy, expansion of revenues, and
generation of employment opportunities directly and indirectly Bangladesh should give
top most priority to the Tourism Industry.
Tourism development may be an important instrument for economic advancement for
Bangladesh if necessary initiatives are taken. For overal1 sustainable development of
Bangladesh, tourism comprises as one of the key development components. Moreover,
the natural and cultural blessings of the country have prescribed numerous attractions and
adventure to offer the tourists of al1 kinds and at all seasons. A strategic Master Plan has
also been formulated by the World Tourism Organization with the assistance of UNDP
for integrated development of tourism in the country.
Steps have been taken to develop tourism infrastructure in phases as per the
recommendations of the Master Plan which include creation of tourist facilities at various
places. Besides, these initiatives may be taken to include projects in the next Annual
Development Programme (ADP). With the implementation of these projects, it is
expected that the whole country will come under a tourism network.
It is common knowledge that tourism cannot grow in isolation as it is a multi-sector
industry. Governments are only just starter but effective and active participation between
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the private and public sectors, non-governmental organisations, institutional bodies, and
local communities should be ensured to get the fruitful effects of Tourism Industry. So
committed efforts are needed from both the public and private sectors for full
development and utilisation of the potentials of the Tourism Industry.

NATIONAL TOURISM POLICY


The National Tourism Policy was declared in 1992. Its main objectives are:
1. To create interest in tourism among the people
2. To preserve, protect, develop and maintain tourism resources
3. To take steps for poverty-alleviation through creating employment
4. To build a positive image of the country abroad
5. To open up a recognized sector for private capital investment
6. To arrange entertainment and recreation
7. To strengthen national solidarity and integrity
In line with the policy, the Government provides incentives to attract private sector
partners. The incentives include tax-holiday, loans, concession rates for taxes and
duties and in specific cases, allotment of land etc.
Tourism Law
Bangladesh has very diverse and distinctive flora and fauna, which include a
mixture of species at the Sundarban and Chittagong Hill Tracts. Many of them are unique
to Bangladesh and largely unknown to the rest of the world. In fact, numerous globally
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threatened and endangered species inhabit Bangladesh. Combination of diverse


landscapes, unspoiled habitat, and some rare wild plant and animal species have become
a subject of growing international attention and conservation efforts. Tourism is always
proud of having inherited all resources of environment. Thats why law regarding tourism
has a significant role to play for protecting various resources.
A. The need to adopt tourism law
Tourism law may effectively come forward to contribute to over all conservation
of environment. Deforestation and poaching of birds and animals are a threat to the
development of tourism. This is the right time to initiate a long-term plan to develop
Bangladesh as an internationally competitive tourist destination supported by mid-term
plan to enhance tourism in the region and short-term plan to develop new tourism
destinations, products and attractions. And this is time to adopt measures for tourism
development through enacting strict tourism law. To denote tourism as the world's largest
industry, there is some statistics for those who like facts and figures against the belief of
real scenario. A according to the World Tourism Council, last year tourism generated
revenue over US$6 trillion. It provided around the world 221 million jobs, with an
expectation that by 2015 it will be providing some 269 million jobs. Between 2006 and
2015, tourism's growth rate is expected to average 4.6 percent per year. (8)Law for
tourism industry in Bangladesh would definitely result in a great success for controlling
deforestation and conserving environment.
B. The cardinal objectives of tourism law
a. To preserve historical and cultural values and promote national pride.
b. To contribute in the harmonious and balanced development of the
country.
c. To stimulate the domestic private sectors to participate in the promotion
and development of tourism resources.
d. To improve the standard of living of local communities, encouraging
their active participation in the tourism sectors.
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e. To encourage measures for the safety and tranquility of tourists,


consumers and suppliers of tourism services
f. To ensure equal rights and opportunities for all those subject to this law.
C. Impact of Tourism Law
Tourism in Bangladesh has strengths to play a significant role to expand domestic demand,
increasing earnings in foreign currencies, eliminating poverty and providing jobs. The
existing rules and regulations on tourism service cannot meet the needs for the development
for the tourism industry in the context of present era. So, the Tourism Law should be enacted
as soon as possible in order to standardize the development of tourism industry. The law
should define the status of tourism industry in the national economic and social
development, and the government policy and measures on expanding the tourism industry.
The law should decide on the system for the rational development and scientific utilization
of tourism resources and environmental protection, and provide for the protection of tourists'
rights and interests. There is an increasing recognition by industry, government and
international agencies that effective laws and institutions are fundamental to achieving end
result

MAJOR PROSPECTS OF TOURISM


The significance of tourism is been viewed from many angles like economic, social,
cultural, political, etc. Tourism is now the fastest growing and single largest industry in
the world. The industry has attained the impressive growth in the world-wide in terms of
tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings which has led the ever increasing
competition among the destination countries and gained the top priority in most of the
destination countries. Though the growth of tourism is impressive world-wide, the same
in Bangladesh is not so. It is not because of lack of attractive tourists attraction to the
destination of Bangladesh, rather it is the result of inadequate promotional measures.
Bangladesh failed to market its attractive tourist attractions like world longest unbroken
sea beach, covering miles of golden sands, soaring cliffs, surfing waves, rare conch
shells, Buddhist Temples, Pagodas and enjoyable sea-food all which is almost impossible
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to be found in anywhere of the other tourist destination of the world; the worlds largest
mangrove forests is formed at the delta of the Ganges, cultural heritage, pristine beauty of
the nature etc. and leads to attract an insignificant number of tourists to its destination.
The contribution of Bangladesh tourism to the world tourism is very negligible. Even the
position of the country among the SAARC countries is at the bottom line. It holds the
position just above the position of Bhutan. As a result, the contribution of tourism in the
economy of Bangladesh is very insignificant.

a. The New Millennium and the coming decades are very much crucial for the
developing countries to achieve sustainable economic growth. Tourism is
considered to be the largest income generators of the world economy
contributing over 10% to global gross domestic product (GDP). For at least
one third of the developing countries, the tourism receipts are the main source
of export revenue and the tourism industry generates substantial economic
benefits to the developing countries.
b. The exceptional growth of tourism over the last 50 years is one of the most
remarkable economic and social phenomena of the 21st century. The number
of international arrivals shows an evolution from a mere 25 million arrivals in
1950 to the 763 million of 2004 representing an average annual growth rate of
more than 7% over a period of 50 years - well above the average annual
economic growth rate for the same period. Tourism has clearly outperformed
all the other sectors of the economy and has grown into the most significant
economic activity in the world.
c. Tourism industry has an increasingly vital economic, social, cultural and
environmental impact, both globally and on the national scale, and that the
continuing growth of tourism and tourism-related activities has diverse
implications for the attainment of sustainable development.

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d. For many developing countries, in particular the Least Developed Countries


(LDCs), tourism is considered to be the one of the fundamental pillars of their
Economic Development.
Role of Government to Develop Tourism Industry
Having realized the importance of tourism's multidimensional effects such as the
balance of payments situation, diversification of the economy, expansion of revenues, and
generation of employment opportunities directly and indirectly Bangladesh should give
top most priority to the Tourism Industry.
Tourism development may be an important instrument for economic advancement
for Bangladesh if necessary initiatives are taken. For overal1 sustainable development of
Bangladesh, tourism comprises as one of the key development components. Moreover,
the natural and cultural blessings of the country have prescribed numerous attractions and
adventure to offer the tourists of al1 kinds and at all seasons. A strategic Master Plan has
also been formulated by the World Tourism Organization with the assistance of UNDP
for integrated development of tourism in the country.
Steps have been taken to develop tourism infrastructure in phases as per the
recommendations of the Master Plan which include creation of tourist facilities at various
places. Besides, these initiatives may be taken to include projects in the next Annual
Development Programme (ADP). The SAARC Tourism Ministers decided to celebrate
2006 as South Asia Tourism Year and they proposed a common tourism plan "SAARC
Action Plan on Tourism -2006" for the well being of the tourism industry within the
region. With the implementation of these projects, it is expected that the whole country
will come under a tourism network.
It is common knowledge that tourism cannot grow in isolation as it is a multisector industry. Governments are only just starter but effective and active participation
between the private and public sectors, non-governmental organizations, institutional
bodies, and local communities should be ensured to get the fruitful effects of Tourism
Industry. So, committed efforts are needed from both the public and private sectors for
full development and utilization of the potentials of the Tourism Industry.
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Bangladesh Tourism Vision 2020


BPC has come up with a study which once again confirmed immense prospect of
country's tourism. The study, called 'Bangladesh Tourism Vision 2020' forecast that
tourist arrivals to Bangladesh likely to exceed 1.30 million by 2020, if recommended
actions are taken.WTO Tourism 2020 Vision study forecasts average annual growth rate
of 6.10 per cent between 1995 and 2020 for South Asia and BPC's Bangladesh forecasts
at least 500,000 visitor arrivals by 2020. According to recent trend in arrivals, the BPC
study indicates average annual growth rate in tourist arrivals to Bangladesh would be
much above the WTO estimates. "It is fairly realistic to forecast that total arrivals to
Bangladesh would reach about 900,000 in 2020. Even, the number of tourists may exceed
1.30 million provided that the favorable market situation prevails",
The study-Tourism Vision 2020-determined that Bangladesh would cash in on the
following critical factors
(i)

A positive image will exist and prevail.

(ii)

Political stability is firmly established.

(iii)

Bangladesh will become a single destination like Maldives, Malaysia and


Singapore.

(iv)

Approximately 1.30 million tourist will visit Bangladesh each year


following the year 2020 and the growth rate will continue to rise

(v)

Target to contribute to the GDP of Bangladesh, at least 4-5 percent from the
tourism industry.

(vi)

The communication network will be well established both internally and


externally.

(vii)

The investment for the sector will come from both the government and
private sectors.

(viii) The products will be diversified and improved and marketing system will
develop.

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(ix)

Liberal and easy travel system will be introduced by Bangladesh and other
countries.

To achieve the vision all the terms and conditions including proposed products
development and marketing plans, communication strategies, recommendations outlined
in the Study Report have to be implemented properly. Also concerted efforts must be
made to override the negative image of the country. There must be campaigns through
international media and through Bangladesh's missions abroad. Safety and security for
tourists, especially at the tourist spots have to be ensured.

Focused Problems and Recommendation:

Determined by the Research Team Based On The Findings


The research team has articulated some points in a comprehensive way that have been
emerged from the study, which are as follows:

Problems:
Negative Image Of Bangladesh.
Development planning of the government does not give importance to proper
infrastructure development in the tourism sector.
Problems of security, accessibility and accommodation for tourist.
Complicated visa and travel formalities in Bangladesh missions.
Lack of initiative by the Bangladesh mission
Lack of fund allocation in national budget
Lack of initiative to preserve, conserve and maintain the tangible tourism
products.
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Lack of proper marketing plans for tourism products for the generation
countries of the world.
Lack of coordination among concerned ministries, department, agencies and
bodies of government.
Lack of institutional capacity of the ministry of civil aviation and

tourism in

general and the BPC in particular.

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Recommendation

Develop infrastructure and road network connecting dhaka with all tourist
attraction of Bangladesh.
Simplify the visa and immigration formalities
Ensure safety and security for tourists, especially at the tourist sports. Use
specially trained-up police in tourism security or tourist Police.
Establish coordination among all the concerned ministries, department agencies.
Allocate fund in the national budget and initiate immediate loan system for private
sector tourism entrepreneurs and tour operators including BPC to create more
facilities;
Published brochure/catalogue description the attraction of religious heritage
products- Muslim relics, Buddhism and Hinduism. BPC can translate its brochures
in different languages including Japanese, Chinese and Garman;
Establish casino at hill district area and water games facilities at kaptai lake.
Entrust BPC with the responsibility to issue registration to hotels /motels and tour
operators and strictly monitor the performance and standard of private sector
tourism training institutes.
Exempt tourism industry from the purview tax and vat at least for 10years
Community awareness and participation, social tolerance for tourist should be
created.
Run tourism business both by the government and private sector simultaneously to
maintain the standardization of services.

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Conclusion:

Tourism industry has an increasingly vital economic, social, cultural and environmental
impact, both globally and on the national scale, and that the continuing growth of tourism
and tourism-related activities has diverse implications for the attainment of sustainable
development. It is a dominant service sectors that contributing to a large GDP growth,
employment generation, earning foreign exchange and making ecological balance of a
country. Though this contribution is not enough to prove it as a competitive one, compare
to other countries. Restructuring information transmission , development of infrastructure
facilities, creation of new reserve zones for the tourist and proper maintenance of existing
spots, improvement of law and order situation in the tourist areas, ensuring congenial and
peaceful environment during tourist season.(i.e. from September to April) may be
adopted to increase tourist attraction an development of this industry in Bangladesh.

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GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS

BPC: BANGLADESH PARJATAN CORPORATION


GDP: GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
NTO: NATIONAL TOURISM ORGANIZATION
OECD: ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT
PATA: PACIFIC ASIAN TRAVEL ASSOCIATION
SAARC: SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION.
TOAB: TOUR OPERATORS ASSOCIATION OF BANGLADESH
UNSC: UNITED NATIONS STATISTICAL COMMISSION
USTTA: UNITED STATES TRAVEL AND TOURISM ADMINISTRATION
WTTC: WORLD TRAVEL AND TOURISM COUNCIL
NHTTI: NATIONAL HOTEL & TOURISM TRAINING INSTITUTE

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The Daily Bangladesh
The Daily Independent
The Daily Financial Express
The Daily Star
Journal of Bangladesh Parjaton Corporation
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Visit Bangladesh India- T.M. Jalal Uddin
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