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Annotated Bibliography

Victor, Brian, Hasan

lst Rhode Island System of Labor." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Ed. Thomas
Riggs. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2015. 1139-1141. U.S. History in
Context. Web. 20 Dec. 2016.
The successes and accomplishments of the mill from Slater that added to Rhode Island
and Pawtucket. How children worked the mills and explains the different types of people
that worked during that time with the mills. The hours of work that a normal worker took
in a day working at the mill. And lastly, it shows the difficulties and how hard it was to
work in the mills.
"A Bio. of America: The Rise of Capitalism - Transcript." A Bio. of America: The Rise of
Capitalism - Transcript. WGBH Interactive, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2016.Website
It tells about how life was like before the mill was invented. Also how England was
before the mill and everything started to operate. And how life changed after the mill
came into place.
Brown, Nell Porter. "Factory Fans." Harvard Magazine. Harvard University, 01 Sept. 2016. Web.
This article by Harvard Magazine describes the various mills and factories in New
England which were instrumental to the Industrial Revolution. Includes the history of
Slater Mill and its historic site. Also includes the history of how Slater was able to bring
the mill plans to the USA, and build the mill and expand his ideas. Also describes the
different buildings at the mill.

Eastern Illinois University Homepage. Childhood Lost - Child Labor During the Industrial

Revolution, www.eiu.edu/eiutps/childhood.php.
This article done by the Eastern Illinois University outlines the problem of Child Labor
during the first american industrial revolution. This problem arose when many families
relocated to different cities, much like Slater Mill in Pawtucket, in hopes of landing a new
job in a booming business. However, many families found out that the pay for these jobs
were so low that is required all family members to work at the factory to keep themselves
above the poverty line. This lead to children working 10-12 Hours a day in dangerous
conditions around toxic chemicals or dangerous machines which caused death or illness.
This Article provides a background as to why child labor laws were put into place in the
"Economic Growth and the Early Industrial Revolution." UShistory.org. Independence Hall
Association, Web. 27 Nov. 2016. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/22a.asp>
This website created by the Independence Hall Association, outlines to their readers the
early Industrial revolution, including Samuel Slaters part in bringing over revolutionary
textile machinery from England to the USA. The Industrial Revolution was well on its
way in England, however the American colonies lagged behind, until one day Mr. Slater
immigrated to the US and brings with him new/innovative textile machinery. Mr. Slater
using this machinery constructs a mill in Rhode Island (which runs off of water-power)
and thus marks a turning point in US history during the 1790s. This article also shows to
us the hardships of the laborers, who were exploited and usually left to children. As a
result of this Child Labor Laws were enacted.
"The First American Factories." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association. Web.
The website explains the first mills that existed in The United States of America, and also
describes the importance that each mill provided for its staff, the community, and
America. This website also tells the early details of the mill, including how many workers
it had, how many machines they had, how they did work, and what kind of products were

https://www.arcadiapublishing.com. Web.

It tells about how it became a tourist attraction. It also explains how it became to be a
popular attraction and how a lot of people are interested on this. Furthermore, it explains
the roles that the mill played in the history of Pawtucket.
Herring, Michael. Child Labor in U.S. History. Child Labor in U.S. History - The Child Labor
Education Project,
This Child Labor Education Project outlines the United States Government reasons as to
why they enacted Child Labor Laws and the years such laws were passed. Many people
believed child labor, which came in two forms: indentured servant or slaves, was the
most cost efficient way to run a business because they were more easi.ly manipulated,
cheaper, and less likely to protest their working environment. Most Notable group in the
outrage against child labor was the Union of National Association of Farmers where they
condemned such practices. This project provides in chronological orders the events/steps
that our government and people took to outlaw child labor.
History.com Staff. Industrial Revolution. History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009,
The History Channel provides to us the historical background of the Industrial
Revolution, and how in reality it began in Britain in the late 1700s. However, after
Samuel Slater illegally immigrated into the US colonies and brought along with him the
same mechanics used in Britain, thus sparking the 1st Industrial Revolution in the
Americas. This revolution improved upon machinery in factories for mass production of
an item, which as a result made the textile, transportation, banking, and communication
industries to boom and prosper. This provides to our project the effects on the citizens
of the americas caused by the Industrial Revolution and how it changed many lives for
the better and introduced technology never before seen.

Industrial Revolution. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, Encyclopedia Britannica,

The Britannica Encyclopedia provides a different point of view of the Industrial
Revolution as a whole, but this time it takes place in the late 1700s in Britain. The

citizens of Britain have worked on and developed a new means of mass production, most
notably are the textile mills. However, being aware of their head start from the countries
surrounding them, the monarch forbade immigration, however that did not stop Samuel
Slater who in order to start up his own mills lied and illegally immigrated into the US
Colonies. Once here and along with the Brown Family set up textile mills all around
present day New England.
"Industrial Revolution." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History, edited by Thomas Carson
and Mary Bonk, Gale, 1999. U.S. History in Context,
source=Bookmark&u=prov94491&jsid=97fab3892f0aa9db6a12fd46c2dac479> Accessed 27
Nov. 2016.
The Gale Encyclopedia not only shows to us the early Industrial Revolution, but also
informs us of its later form which lasted until the 1850s. This revolution raised many
political and economic questions to the US government, but also served to raise profits in
oil, steel, mining, rail, and agriculture industries. This led to certain people holding
monopolies of a certain service/good, most notable is John D Rockefeller with the control
over oil and rail, which lead to tremendously high prices in the rail industry. This caused
the US government to look for a solution after hearing the cries of their citizens, the
solution was to break up these companies and make it illegal for any one person to own a
monopoly of any good or service.

Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution, topics.info.com/Industrial-Revolution_3925.

This article conveyed to us the effects of the Industrial Revolution on the United States,
for example the transformation from farm to factories and even the revolutionary
inventions themselves. Some Revolutionary Inventions include the creation of the steam
engine used on both trains and boats which allowed for the easier transportation of goods,
the telegraph for communication, and the Cotton Jenny + Gin in the textile industry.
Lubar, Steven D. "Samuel Slater and the origins of the American textile industry, 1790-1860."
Business History Review 59 (1985): 495+. World History in Context. Web. 20 Dec. 2016.

This shows the origins and the beginnings of the mill. It also tells how it added to
peoples life and how it played out in society. Information about how people responded
and reacted to the mill is mentioned as well. The weakness and downsides of the mill are
Mill City. Questgarden,
This illustration shows the Slater Mill during its early years. The photo shows people
roaming around the city streets as well as a horse and buggy showing that trade was quite
prominent during this time. It was because of Slater Mill on why Pawtucket became a
major hub for manufacturing and trade during this time.
Outman, J. L., and E. M. Outman. Industrial revolution Almanac. New York: UXL, 2004
Provides us with the origins of the Industrial Revolution, What inventions it brought
along; steam engine, railroad, steamboats, and new machines used in factories with the
intention of mass production i.e. the transformation from an agricultural based economy
to one driven by industrialization. New ways of conducting business, age of petroleum
and electricity, and lastly the social and economic effects. (Still Reading Book)
Paiz, Victor Hugo. Slater Mill. 2016. Slater Mill Photographs, Pawtucket.

Record, Historic American Engineering, and Ri-1. Old Slater Mill Roosevelt Avenue Pawtucket
Providence County Rhode Island HAER No. RI-1 .. . V(A^ 5- PHOTOGRAPHS
Record National Park Service Department of the Interior Washington, D.C. 20240
May 2016<https://cdn.loc.gov/master/pnp/habshaer/ri/ri0100/ri0102/data/ri0102data.pdf>

This article was published by the National Park Association and it gives the records of
Slater Mill when it was produced cotton. It also summarize how it helped push the
Industrial Revolution. This article provides specific records and dates where the mill
played a part in the industrial revolution.
"Samuel Slater and the Slater Mill Historic Site." Samuel Slater and the Slater Mill Historic Site.
Town of Woonsocket Web. 28 Nov. 2016. <http://www.woonsocket.org/histsite.htm>
The website is run by the Town of Woonsocket, which provides a great source for Slater
Mill. The website provides information on the different buildings of the historic site, and
what was the purpose for each of the buildings. From residential buildings, to the entire
mill, the website provides facts and details on each one of these buildings.
Samuel Slater Biography (1768-1835). "Samuel Slater Biography (1768-1835). Web. 28 Nov.
2016. <http://www.madehow.com/inventorbios/19/Samuel-Slater.html>
The website gives information of who Samuel Slater is and his life story, from birth until
death. It goes on to explain how in the 1700s England controlled the textile industry,
however this all changed when one man (Mr. Slater), immigrates to the U.S. and brings
with him his knowledge of water-powered textile machines. Slater opened a Mill on
Rhode Island and along with Mr. Brown, their industry boomed. A key step to his success
was the use of child labor and sweatshop like conditions, for this reason the US has
passed laws against using children for labor.

"Samuel Slater Builds the First Factory." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Ed.
Thomas Riggs. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2015. 1156-1159. U.S.
History in Context. Web. 20 Dec. 2016.
It tells about Slaters life a little bit and how he changed the world by what he invented.
Information about Samuel Slater is given including his story before the mill. For
example, his family and children are mentioned along with his early life. Why and how
the Industrial Revolution grew because of what he did is explained and mentioned.

Sweeper and a Doffer in Cotton Mill. University of Massachusetts, Lowell, dd

This photograph is of a few children working at a textile mill. From their faces, they look
tired, dejected, and overworked. Children were very commonly used in textile mills,
including Slater Mill, as they were able to crawl inside hard to reach areas and had
smaller hands to work with different knobs. Their extremities would often get maimed or
lost while working with heavy equipment.
Samuel Slater. Encyclopedia of World Biography, Encyclopedia.com,
Once Slater mill arrived in the Americas around the year 1789 he got to work by
contacting Moses Brown of Rhode Island because of Browns already existent mill and
its ideal placement near the water, which was sufficient enough power to spin Slaters
machinery. Mr. Slater then hired and trained children from the surrounding area of
Pawtucket where raw cotton was cleaned and then sent into these machines for carding.
Carding is short pieces of cotton which are then spun and woven to make fabric.
"Samuel Slater - Father of the American Industrial Revolution." Samuel Slater - Father of the
American Industrial Revolution. Town of Woonsocket. Web.
The Town of Woonsocket runs this very informative page regarding Samuel Slater and
his other business ventures in the United States. It said that he built housing to attract
workers to live in and work in his mills. Working conditions would be better or worse
depending on demand of workers. The weather conditions in the mill were often terrible,
and workers often developed respiratory conditions due to inhaling particles such as lint.
"Slater Mill, Pawtucket, Providence County, RI." Slater Mill, Pawtucket, Providence County, RI.
Library of Congress. Web.
The Library of Congress provides excellent photographs of the mill, blueprints of the
mill, and historical data dating all the way back to when the mill was first established.
Photographs are from both the present day as well as back when the mill was made.
Significant Events of the American Industrial Revolution. About.com Education, 7 Aug. 2016,

Describes to us the three most important developments made as a result of American

Industrialization. These things are; the expansion of transportation through the use of
steam engines in trains and the laying down of a railroad infrastructure. Secondly, the
effective harnessing of electricity used in communication through telegraphs or by the
newly invented telephone. Lastly, the industrial processing and the improvement of the
capability to mass produce, examples of this machinery is the Cotton Gin or Jenny.
"The History of Slater Hall." History of Slater Hall Citizen's Committee- "Worth the Effort" Web.
20 Dec. 2016. http://slaterhallsc.org/history.html
It tells about the building and how to get there. It also show the directions and streets to
get there. It also tells about the different buildings that are located around the area,
including the different floors inside the mill and inside different buildings. There is info
about remodeling that has been done as well .
United States. National Park Service. "History & Culture." National Parks Service. U.S.
Department of the Interior, Web. 28 Nov. 2016.
The National Parks has created a site for the Blackstone River Valley, which is an
important part of Slater Mill, as it was built on the Blackstone River. This website
provides information on the various mills, including Slater Mill, that were influential to
the economy of the United States, and what eventually kickstarted the Industrial

User, Super. "Slater Mill Museum." Manufacturing Rhode Island - Slater Mill Museum.
Manufacturing RI. Web.
The website Manufacturing RI gives information on the various mills and factories across
Rhode Island. The webpage for Slater Mill provides facts about the Mill, as well as
various photographs of the interior of the mill, showing the machines and looms that
were utilized by child workers when the mill was active.
Women in the U.S. National Archives,

This photograph shows a young woman, most likely 15-16 years old, working on a loom
inside a mill. This goes back to child labor, and how relaxed the laws were during the
height of the Industrial Revolution. While she seems to enjoy her job, most child laborers
suffered while doing backbreaking work and receiving very little pay in exchange.