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Camille Xiang and Kelvin Zhang

11/22/2016
C Block
Honors World History II
Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources:
At the Headquarters of the Nanking Safety Zone Committee. 1937. RG 8: Box 265
Folder 2: Forster, Ernest & Clarissa, Nanking. The Yale Divinity School Library. By The
Yale Divinity School. Web. 6 Jan. 2017. <http://divinityadhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-265-0002-0009.jpg>. This image
gives readers a sense of how dedicated that Rabe was to the Chinese people by showing
them him meeting with other people at the headquarters of the Nanking Safety Zone.
Biography.com Editors. Matthew Perry. Digital image. The Biography.com Website. A&E
Television Networks, 2 Apr. 2014. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.
<http://www.biography.com/people/matthew-c-perry-40184>. This picture of Matthew
Perry provides readers with insight on how the person who drastically changed the
history of Japan.
Carries His Dying Son Wounded in a Japanese Air Raid on Nanking. N.d.Wikipedia.
Web.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Nanking#/media/File:Nankinginfant2.jpg>.
Shows a Chinese civilian carrying his son who was dying from the Japanese air raid and
gives the reader a sense of the struggle that the civilians had.
Chairman, Emergency Committee, University of Nanking. "Gentlemen." Letter to
Japanese Embassy. 17 Dec. 1937. Yale University Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2016.
<http://divinity-adhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/NMP0064.pdf>. The Safety
Committee's letter provides a sense of the terrible state of the camps at the time, how the
Japanese Embassy disregarded it, and the type of harassment that the Chinese citizens
were subjected to by the Japanese. The letter also shows how the Nanking Safety
Committee stood up against the Japanese Embassy in order to protect Chinese citizens.
Committee Which Organized the First Religious Work. N.d. Yale Divinity Library. Web.
<http://divinity-adhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-265-00020027.jpg>. Group of Nanking Safety Zone staff members who made the first religious
work group to try and make the victims of the incident more comfortable while they are
there.
Gamble, Sidney D. Ginling College Dormitory. 1924-1927. Sidney D. Gamble
Photographs, Nanking. Duke University Library. By Duke University Library. Web. 3

Jan. 2017. <http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/gamble_363-2074/#info>. This


image of the Ginling College dormitories shows readers the reason why Vautrin was in
Nanking, and what would become part of a refugee camp during the Rape of Nanking.
Ginling College. N.d. Nanking. American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage
of Minnie Vautrin. By Hua-ling Hu. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois U,
2000. N. pag. Print. This image provides readers with a visual of Ginling College, which
gives readers a perspective on how much Minnie Vautrin had to administrate.
Group of People Who Were Saved. N.d. Yale Divinity Library. Web.
<http://web.library.yale.edu/divinity/nanking/photographs>. Shows a photograph of a
group of people who were all saved by the members of the Nanking Safety Zone
History.com Staff. The Meiji Restoration. Digital image. History.com. A+E Networks,
2009. Web. 2 Jan. 2017. <http://www.history.com/topics/meiji-restoration>. This
illustration from the time of the Meiji Restoration shows what Japan was like when the
emperor brought them the modernization of the western nations.
Hu, Hualing. American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2000. Print. These diaries provide readers with an
inside look on the different atrocities faced by Chinese citizens at the time and the
challenges that members of the Safety Committee had to go through in order to help save
people. The book also provides helpful notes and context in order to help readers better
comprehend the text.
International Safety Zone Members. N.d. Nanking. The Rape of Nanking. By Iris Chang.
New York: Basic, 1997. N. pag. Print. This image provides readers with faces to the
stories that they have heard about John Rabe, and allows the readers to acknowledge
different members of the committee.
Japanese Crimes. N.d. The Fall Of Shanghai: Prelude To The Rape Of Nanking & WWII.
Web. <http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/the-fall-of-shanghai-prelude-to-therape-of-nanking-wwii/>. This shows many Chinese civilians hiding as the Japanese
soldiers marched through Nanking and destroyed everything.
Japanese Soldier Stabbing a Victim. N.d. Nanking. The Rape of Nanking. By Iris Chang.
New York: Basic, 1998. N. pag. Print. This image shows readers the true horrors of what
the foreigners in Nanking witnessed throughout the Rape of Nanking.
Japanese Soldiers. N.d. Web. <https://thenankingmassacre.org/2015/07/05/thecontroversies-in-japan/>. Photographs of a few Japanese soldiers celebrating after the

Battle of Nanking
Japanese Troops Burns Dead Bodies. N.d. NANJING MASSACRE. Web.
<http://www.history.com/topics/nanjing-massacre>. Photograph of Japanese Troops
throwing dead bodies into a pit and lighting them all on fire in order to get rid of evidence
showing their committed war crimes.
Japanese War Crimes. N.d. The Fall Of Shanghai: Prelude To The Rape Of Nanking &
WWII. Web. <http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/the-fall-of-shanghai-preludeto-the-rape-of-nanking-wwii/>. This image shows the Japanese soldiers celebrating after
they burned down a building and stole everything of value.
John Rabe at a Nazi Party Event. N.d. Nanking. The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries
of John Rabe. By John Rabe. Trans. John E. Woods. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.
N. pag. Print. This image shows readers how John Rabe's position in the Nazi Party was a
significant part of his life, and how it brought him to Nanking, where he would eventually
save thousands of lives.
Lyon, Emma. Minnie Vautrin. N.d. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic, 1997. 162.
Print. This picture of Minnie Vautrin, the "Living Goddess of Nanking", provides readers
with a sense of her appearance as a young woman, and shows readers how a normal
woman at the time, such as Minnie, was able to save so many lives.
Mills, W. Plumer. "Gentlemen." Letter to Japanese Embassy. 17 Dec. 1937. Yale
University Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2016. <http://divinityadhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/NMP0063.pdf>. Plumer's letter provides a first
hand account of the numerous atrocities that happened daily in the camp, and the
different types of things that the Japanese would do. It also gives a sense of the different
things that the Committee tried to do to take a stand against the Japanese and protect
Chinese citizens.
N.d. American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois U, 2000. N. pag. Print. Photograph of Minnie
Vautrin&rsquo;s grave after she committed suicide. Shows the reader the thankfulness the
Chinese had for her with the decorations and flowers around her grave.
N.d. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic, 1997. N. pag. Print. This photograph shows
the horrible things that the Japanese soldiers did to the civilians.
Nanking Massacre Children. N.d. 1937: The Rape of Nanking (Nanjing). Web.
<http://ahrp.org/1937-the-rape-of-nanking-nanjing/>. Photograph of many children being

thrown into a pit by the Japanese soldiers to be buried after raping them and killing them.
Patient with Purpose. N.d. Rafu Shimpo. Web. <http://www.rafu.com/2009/09/patientwith-purpose/>. Photograph of a civilian rescuing a child and shows the horror that war
causes to the innocents.
Patients in the Refugee Hospital Attending a Religious Service. N.d. Yale Divinity
Library. Web. <http://divinity-adhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-2650002-0079.jpg>. Photograph of a few patients in the hospital attending a religious service
within the Nanking Safety Zone.
Persons Executed by the Japanese Soldiers in Various Parts of the Grounds of Ku Ling
Temple. N.d. Yale Divinity Library. Web. <http://divinityadhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-265-0002-0001.jpg>. Shows a
group of dead bodies, who were shot for no reason while traveling back to the refugee
camp and showing readers the horrible actions that the Japanese did.
Rabe, John, and Erwin Wickert. The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe.
New York: A.A. Knopf, 1998. Print. This source is the diary of John Rabe, a Nazi who
founded the International Safety Committee of Nanking and was a key person in the
retrieval of many victims. John Rabe provided many accounts of the daily atrocities that
happened in Nanking and how the International Safety Zone took a stand against the
Japanese troops during the Rape of Nanking.
Rabe, John. A Nazi Flag Being Used as the Roof of a Shelter. N.d. The Diaries of John
Rabe, Nanking. The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe. By John Rabe.
Trans. John E. Woods. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1998. N. pag. Print. This picture
illustrates Rabe's position in the Nazi party because it shows that he was able to use a flag
of the party as the roof of a shelter.
Refugees Gathered at the Headquarters of the Nanking Safety Zone Committee. 1937.
RG 8: Box 265 Folder 2: Forster, Ernest & Clarissa, Nanking. Yale Divinity School
Library. By Yale Divinity School Library. Web. 7 Jan. 2017. <http://divinityadhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-265-0002-0020.jpg>. This image
provides readers with proof of how desperate the refugees were at the Rape of Nanking,
and shows readers why the foreigners in Nanking helped.
Reinhardt, Ursula. John Rabe. N.d. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic, 1997. 167.
Print. This photograph of John Rabe, one of the founders of the Safety Zone, provides
readers with insight on the appearance of John Rabe. It also shows readers just how

ordinary Rabe looks contrary to his interesting narrative.


Small Group of the Staff and Patients of the Refugees Hospital in Nanking. N.d. Yale
Divinity Library. Web. <http://divinity-adhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDSRG008-264-0001-0001.jpg>. Photograph of a few staff members and patients at the
Ginling hospital in Nanking and shows the reader the amount of people risking their lives
to stop the Japanese.
Soldiers Posing with Chinese Women. N.d. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic,
1997. N. pag. Print. Image shows Japanese soldiers taking pictures with nude chinese
women to keep as souvenirs.
Sword Practice. N.d. They Were in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Witnessed by
American and British Nationals. Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2004. N. pag. Print. Shows
the horrible image of a Japanese soldier using a dead Chinese victim&rsquo;s body as
sword practice.
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Digital image. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. N.p., n.d.
Web. 8 Jan. 2017. <illinois.edu>. This image of the college that Minnie Vautrin attended
gives readers a perspective of how intelligent of a woman that Vautrin was.
Treating a Wounded Victim. N.d. . Web.
<http://undertakerrach.gouketu.com/nanking.html>. Photograph of a group of
men in the Nanking Safety Zone treating a wounded victim. Shows the reader
how much care the people in the Safety Zone was giving to the Chinese during
this time.
Vautrin, Minnie, Shui-fang Tsen, Hualing Hu, and Lian-hong Zhang. The Undaunted
Women of Nanking: The Wartime Diaries of Minnie Vautrin and Tsen Shui-fang.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2010. Print. Minnie Vautrin's diary provides readers
with an inside look at the different difficulties that were faced by outside help, especially
for women, in Nanking at the time. The diary also gives readers perspective on the
severity of the human rights violations that occurred and the numerous ways that Minnie
Vautrin saved many lives.
Victim of Air Raids. N.d. Web. <http://jaimedelacruzblog.blogspot.com/2016/05/chinafabrication-of-nanking-massacre.html>. Shows a woman inside the hospital of the Safety
Zone who would have been a victim of the Japanese raping if the Nanking Safety Zone
was not set up.

Wards at the University Hospital, Nanking. N.d. The Yale Divinity School Library,
Nanking.The Yale Divinity School Library. By The Yale Divinity School. Web. 4 Jan.
2017. <http://divinity-adhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-265-00020085.jpg>. This picture shows readers the hospital wards in the Nanking University
Hospital that brought Robert Wilson to Nanking, provides readers with a sense of the
organization present before the Rape of Nanking.
Wilson, Robert O. "Dear Folks." Letter to B.A. Garside. 15 Aug. 1937. The Nanking
Massacre Project. Yale University Library, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2016. <http://divinityadhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/NMP0012.pdf>. These letters provide present day
people with a larger understanding of the difficulties that the committee dealt with when
trying to save many people. It detailed the rape, murder, and torture that Chinese citizens
at the time faced from the Japanese troops.
Women inside the Safety Zone. N.d. Web. <http://www.alphacanada.org/testimonies/testimonies-introduction>. Shows a group of women inside the
Safety Zone who were saved from the Japanese.
Yale Divinity School Library. Dr. Robert Wilson. Digital image. The Nanking Massacre
Archival Project. Yale University, 29 Jan. 2016. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.
<http://web.library.yale.edu/divinity/nanking/documents>. This picture of Robert Wilson
gives readers a sense of who Robert Wilson was by showing readers what he looked like.
Yin, James, Young Shi, and Ron Dorfman. The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History
in Photographs. Chicago, IL: Innovative Pub. Group, 1997. Print. This book of pictures
provides gruesome and chilling pictures detailing the horrors of the Nanking Massacre
and provide images as a way to document the human rights violations that happened.
Young Refugee at Ginling College. N.d. Yale Divinity Library. Web. <http://divinityadhoc.library.yale.edu/Nanking/Images/YDS-RG008-265-0002-0033.jpg>. Picture of one
of the refugees that Minnie Vautrin rescued. The refugee was brought to the Safety Zone
and shows the reader the diversity of victims during the Rape of Nanking
Secondary Sources
Barrett, David P. "They Were in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Witnessed by American and
British Nationals." Canadian Journal of History 41.2 (2006): 426. Expanded Academic
ASAP. Web. 1 Nov. 2016. <http://libraries.state.ma.us/login?
gwurl=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
p=EAIM&sw=w&u=mlin_m_winhigh&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE|
A155824482&asid=c801059977d0dd6ed026e98e76e1abf2>. This journal article provides
an intricate reflection on how British and American nationals were reacting to the

Nanking Massacre, including Americans and English people in Nanking at the time. It
gave an interesting perspective and gave examples regarding how they would stand up to
Japanese troops in Nanking.
Carroll, Andrew. "An American Missionary Describes 'beastly' Atrocities in Nanking." World
War II 2012: 25. World History Collection. Web. 19 Oct. 2016.
<http://libraries.state.ma.us/login?gwurl=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
p=PPWH&sw=w&u=mlin_m_winhigh&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE|
A291352827&asid=14c316a30e75b64406939658b016174f>. This magazine article
provides multiple examples of the human rights violations that occurred during the
Nanking Massacre and accounts for the multitudes of lives lost throughout the event. This
source also provides more perspective about the horrors happening at the time and how it
affected the mentality of the Chinese people later on in history.
Central Intelligence Agency (US). Chinese Flag. Digital image. Central Intelligence Agency.
United States Government, n.d. Web. 24 Dec. 2016.
<https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html>. This flag
symbolizes China and shows readers what Chinese citizens at the time felt loyal to and
what soldiers died for.
Central Intelligence Agency (US). Japanese Flag. Digital image. Central Intelligence Agency.
United States Government, n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2016.
<https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html>. This flag
symbolizes the country of Japan and provides readers with a symbol for the Japanese
troops during the Rape of Nanking.
Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. New York, NY:
Basic, 1997. Print. This secondary source book gave in depth information on the
atrocities of the Nanking Massacre, how the international community responded, and how
the foreigners in Nanking at the time established the International Safety Zone, and how
they took a stand against violent Japanese troops in order to protect citizens of Nanking.
Fogel, Joshua A. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Berkeley: U of
California, 2000. Print. Fogel gives readers a deep and in depth discussion and argument
regarding the numerous human rights violations that occurred in Nanking, how it affected
the mentality of Chinese citizens, and how it created a need for modernization in China.
Fuji Art Museum. First Sino-Japanese War Battle. Digital image. Fuji Art Museum. N.p., n.d.
Web. 3 Jan. 2017. <http://www.fujibi.or.jp/en/our-collection/tour-of-our-collection/ukiyoe-collection/complete-list-of-works.html?collection_id=8000>. This depiction of a battle
during the First Sino-Japanese War provides readers with a visual of what the battles may

have looked like, and how the Japanese perceived the rising tensions.
History.com Staff. "Nanjing Massacre." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 22
Oct. 2016. <http://www.history.com/topics/nanjing-massacre>. This article provides the
reader with historical context and an overview on the important events that occurred
throughout the Nanking Massacre. This article also summarizes the founding of the
International Safety Committee of Nanking, and gives a general consensus on the
numerous ways they took a stand against the Japanese troops by protecting Chinese
citizens.
Lianhong, Zhang. "THE NANJING MASSACRE: THE SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL
EFFECTS." East Asia: An International Quarterly 18.3 (2000): 36. Expanded Academic
ASAP. Web. 1 Nov. 2016. <http://libraries.state.ma.us/login?
gwurl=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
p=EAIM&sw=w&u=mlin_m_winhigh&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE|
A75277603&asid=4c315018f4ca64b5d4e1d6b24db71165>. This journal article on the
effects of the Nanking Massacre provided readers with a deeper understanding of the
significant toll that the massacre had on the mentality and beliefs of the Chinese people.
The source shows the extreme effect that the Nanking Massacre had on Chinese beliefs,
such as the obsession that the Chinese government acquired to improve and modernize
itself.
Lu, Suping. They Were in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Witnessed by American and British
Nationals. Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2004. Print. This book provides readers with a
very in depth and new approach to the mentality of foreigners in Nanking at the time. It
shows the different facets of each person in the committee and how each of them stood
up against the Japanese troops.
"Nanjing Massacre." Britannica School. Encyclopedia Brittanica, 20 Mar. 2015. Web. 19 Oct.
2016. <http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/54784>. This encyclopedia article gives
readers a fundamental understanding of the causes, effects, and main events that occured
during the Nanking Massacre. It also provides readers with essential historical
background and context, important people, and the Nanking Safety Committee.
TIME Magazine. "The Nanjing Massacre: Scenes from a Hideous Slaughter 75 Years Ago |
TIME.com." Time. Time, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2016.
<http://world.time.com/2012/12/13/the-nanjing-massacre-scenes-from-a-hideousslaughter-75-years-ago/>. This magazine article provides multiple pictures that personify
and show the true horrors of the Nanking Massacre. The pictures show multiple human
rights violations such as murder, rape, and mutilation.

Wikipedia. Map of the First Sino-Japanese War. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., 7 Dec. 2016.
Web. 20 Dec. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War>. This
provides readers with context regarding the locations that various battles were fought
during the First Sino-Japanese War and shows just how many countries that were caught
in the middle of this battle.