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Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

Chapter 1

1.

(a ) 3;

(b)

4;

(c) 3;

(d) 1;

(e)

2;

(f)

4;

(g ) 2.

3. (a ) 86,900;

 

(b)

9100;

(c)

0.88;

(d)

476;

(e)

0.0000362.

5. 4.6%.

7. 1.00

9. 1%.

*

10 5 s.

11. (3.060.2) * 10 9 cm 2 .

13.

(a ) 1 megavolt;

(b)

2 micrometers;

(c)

6 kilodays;

(d)

18

hectobucks;

(e)

700 nanoseconds.

15.

17.

19.

(a ) 1.5

(b) 1.5 * 10 8 km.

(a ) 3.9 * 10 9 in.;

(b) 1.0 * 10 8 atoms.

(a ) 9.46 * 10 15 m;

(b) 6.31 * 10 4 AU.

Soccer; 9.4 yd, 8.6 m, 9.4%.

* 10 11 m;

21.

23. (a )

(b)

10

10

10

(d) 10

(c)

12

protons or neutrons; protons or neutrons; protons or neutrons;

68 protons or neutrons.

29

10

25. (a ) 10 3 ;

(b)

5 ;

(c)

(d)

27.

29.

31.

(b)

33.

35.

37.

(b)

39.

41.

9 .

10

10

10

2 ;

500 hr.

2.5 hr.

(a ) 700;

answers vary.

Second method.

8.8 s.

(a ) L T 4 , L T 2 ;

m s 4 , m s 2 .

10 35 m.

3.3 *

10

5

chips cylinder.

43. 46,000 years.

45.

47.

49.

51.

53.

400 jelly beans.

75 minutes.

10

5

5 *

3000 m.

(a ) 0.10 nm;

metric tons, 1 * 10

8

gal.

(b)

1.0

* 10 5 fm;

(c)

1.0

* 10 10 angstroms;

(d)

9.5

* 10 25 angstroms.

55. (a ) 3%, 3%;

(b) 0.7%, 0.2%.

57. 8 * 10 2 m 3 .

59.

61. 4

1.18 * 10 9 atoms m 2 .

* 10 51 kg.

Chapter 2

1.

53

m.

3.

0.57

cm s,

no, we need the

distance traveled.

5.

0.14

h.

7.

(a ) 350 km;

(b)

78 km h.

9.

(a ) 3.68 m s;

(b)

0.

11.

38

s.

13.

1.6

min.

15.

6.00

m s.

17.

6.1

m

s 2 .

19.

6.0

m

s 2 ,

0.61 g ’s.

21.

(a ) 21.2 m s;

(b)

2.00 m s 2 .

23.

1

m

s 2 ,

110 m.

25.

260 m s 2 .

27.

112 m.

29.

44 g ’s.

31.

(a ) 130 m;

(b)

69 m.

33.

21

m s.

35.

6.3

s.

37.

0.70

m s 2 .

39.

61.8

m.

41.

17

m s,

14 m.

43.

1.09

s.

45.

(a )

50 40 30 20 10 0 012345 Time (s) Speed (m/s)
50
40
30
20
10
0 012345
Time (s)
Speed (m/s)

(b)

120 80 40 0 012345 Time (s) Distance fallen (m)
120
80
40
0 012345
Time (s)
Distance fallen (m)

49.

5.21 s.

51.

12 m s.

53.

1.6 m.

55.

(a ) 48 s;

(b)

90 s to 108 s;

(c)

0 s to 42 s, 65 s to 83 s, 90 s to 108 s;

(d)

65 s to 83 s.

57.

(a ) 0.3 m s;

(b)

1.2 m s;

(c)

0.30 m s;

(d)

1.4 m s;

(e)

0.95 m s.

59.

2.0 1.5 1 .0 0.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t (s) − 0.5
2.0
1.5
1
.0
0.5
0
10
20
30
40
50
t (s)
− 0.5
− 1.0
− 1.5
− 2.0
(m/s)

61.

1.2 m.

A-27

63.

3.1 m.

65.

(a ) 14.4 s, no;

(b)

no, 4.6 s.

67.

(b)

4.8 m;

(c)

36 m.

69.

20 m s 2 .

71.

(a ) 5.80 s;

(b)

41.4 m s;

(c)

99.5 m.

73.

She should try to stop the car.

75.

1.5 poles.

77.

30%.

79.

245.0 km h.

81.

23.7 s,

840 km h.

83.

(a ) 4.3 * 10 6 bits;

(b) 67%.

Chapter 3 1. 302 km, 13° south of west. B D west B u D
Chapter 3
1.
302 km, 13° south of west.
B
D
west
B
u
D
south-
B
west
D
R
3.
11.70 units,
–33.1°.
5.
(a )
B
V
y
B
V
23.4°
B
V
x
(b)
–22.8
units, 9.85 units;
(c)
24.8 units, 23.4° above the
–x axis.
7.
(a ) 1.3 units, positive x direction;
(b)
12.3 units, positive x direction;
(c)
12.3 units, negative x direction.
9.
(a ) x component 24.0,
y component 11.6;
(b)
26.7 units, 25.8°.
11.
64.6, 53.1°.
13.
(a ) 62.6,
–31.0°;
(b)
77.5, 71.9°;
(c)
77.5, 251.9°.
15.
– 2845 m,
5190 m.
(
3589 m, 2450 m),
17.
3.7 m.
19.
6 times farther.
21.
14.5 m.

23. 18°, 72°.

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Vertical distance (m)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Vertical distance (m)

Horizontal distance (m)

25.

2.0 m s.

 

27.

(a ) 30.8 m;

 

(b)

5.02

s;

(c)

136 m;

 

(

d) 28.9 m s.

29.

22.3

m.

31.

481 m.

 

33.

(a ) 4.0 m.s, 55° above the horizontal;

(b)

4.6

m;

 

(c)

9.7

m s,

76° below the

horizontal.

 

35.

No, 0.81 m too low; 4.6 m to

34.7

m.

37.

(a ) 4.0 * 10 1 m s;

 

(b)

24 m s.

39.

1.66

m s,

25°.

41.

23.1

s.

43.

(a )

10.4

m s,

17° above the

horizontal;

 

(b )

10.4

m s,

17° below the

horizontal.

 

45.

5.31° west of south.

47.

(a ) 56°;

 

(b)

140 s.

49.

23

s, 23 m.

 

51.

65

km

h,

58° west of north;

65

km

h,

32° south of east.

53.

Horizontal:

3.9 m s 2

leftward;

vertical:

1.9 m s 2

downward.

55.

0.88

s, 0.95 m.

 

57.

1.7 m s 2 .

 

59.

(a ) 9.96 s;

 

(b)

531 m;

(c)

53.2

m s, 60.4 m s;

(d)

80.5

m

s;

(e)

48.6° below the horizon;

(f)

70.9

m.

61.

v T tan u.

63.

(a ) 13.3 m;

 

(b)

22.1°.

 

65.

33

m s.

67.

54°.

A-28

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

69.

(a

)

2.51

m s,

61.4°;

(b)

3.60

m downstream, 6.60 m

 

across the river.

71.

(a

) 13 m;

 

(b)

31° below the horizontal.

73.

(a

) 68 m;

 

(b)

7.3

m s.

75.

0.51%.

 

Chapter 4

1.

77 N.

3.

5.

7.

9.

11.

13.

15.

1450 N. 1.3 * 10 6 N, 39%, 1.3 * 10 6 N.

3100 N.

780 N, backward.

(a ) 196 N, 196 N;

(b) 98.0 N, 294 N.

Descend with downward

a 2.2 m s 2 .

2800 m s 2 , 280g¿s, 1.9 * 10 5 N.

17. (a ) –7.35 m s 2 ; (b) 1290 N. 19. (a ) 7.4
17.
(a ) –7.35 m s 2 ;
(b) 1290 N.
19.
(a )
7.4 m s,
downward;
(b) 2100 N, upward.
21.
(a )
(b)
B
mg
B
F
N
B
m g
23.
1410 N.

25.

(a ) 31 N (lower cord), 63 N (upper cord);

(b) 35 N (lower cord), 71 N (upper cord).

F T1 F T2 = 2.

27.

29. (a ) 1.0

* 10 1 m s 2 ;

(b) 3.3 m s.

31.

33.

35.

(a

) 23°;

(b

) toward the windshield.

( a ) 2.7 m s 2 ;

(

b) 0.96 s;

( c) 99 kg.

34 N.

37.

(a ) 0.60;

 

(b)

0.53.

39.

42°.

41.

0.46.

43.

1200 N.

 

45.

1.4.

47.

(a ) 5.0 kg;

 

(b)

1.0

* 10 1 kg.

49.

(a ) 1.7 m s 2 ;

 

(b)

430 N;

(c)

1.7

m s 2 ,

220 N.

51.

1.20

* 10 2 N,

in the direction

opposite to the child’s

velocity.

 

53.

4.8 s.

55.

4.0 * 10 2 m.

 

57.

(a ) 3.67 m s 2 ;

(b)

9.39

m

s.

59.

(a ) 2.5 m s 2 ;

 

(b)

6.3

m

s.

61.

5.3 m s 2 .

 

63.

4.0

* 10 1 N.

65.

2.2 m s 2 .

 

67.

(a ) 1.6 m s 2 ;

(b)

0.53.

69.

0.86

m s 2 .

71.

9.9°.

73.

73 m s.

 

75.

(a ) 0.67;

(b)

6.1

m s;

(c)

15

m s.

77.

4.2°.

79.

(a )

8.76

* 10 4 N,

upward;

(b)

1.14

* 10 4 N;

(c)

1.14

* 10 4 N,

downward.

81.

(a ) 45 N (10 lb);

(b)

37

N (8.4 lb);

(c)

no, the fish cannot be lifted

 

vertically by a 10-lb force.

83.

380 N (between second and last climbers), 760 N (between first and second climbers).

85.

(a ) 3.0 times her weight;

( b) 7.7 times his weight; Jim.

87.

23 m s (85 km h).

 

89.

4.90

* 10 2 N.

91.

(a ) 0.9 m s 2 ;

 

(b)

0.98

m s 2 .

93.

(b ) Yes.

 

95.

( a ) 16 m s; ( b) 13 m s.

97.

1100 N, opposite to the velocity.

Chapter 5

1.

(a ) 1.01 m s 2 ;

 

(b)

22.7 N.

3.

12 m s.

 

5.

13 m s.

7.

34 m s.

9.

24

m

s,

yes.

 

11.

8.5

rpm.

 

13.

1700 rev day.

 

15.

0.210.

 

17.

F A = 4p 2 f 2 Am A r A + m B r B B, F B = 4p 2 f 2 m B r B .

19.

(a ) 5970 N;

 

(b)

379 N;

 

(c)

29.4 m s.

 

21.

930 m.

 

23.

59

km h

to

110 km h.

25.

a tan = 4.1 m s 2 ,

a rad = 13 m s 2 ;

1.4.

 

27.

(a ) 0.930 m s;

 

(b)

2.83 m s.

29.

(a ) 24.0 kg on both;

(b)

w Earth = 235 N, w Planet = 288 N.

31.

3.94 kg, 0.06 kg.

 

33.

1.62 m s 2 .

 

35.

6.5

* 10 23 kg.

 

37.

27.4 m s 2 .

 

39.

(a ) 9.78 m s 2 ;

 

(b)

2.44 m s 2 .

41.

9.6

* 10 17 N; 2.7 * 10 5 .

43.

2.02 * 10 7 m.

 

45.

7460 m s.

 

47.

2.4

m s 2 upward.

 

49.

7.05 * 10 3 s.

51.

(a ) 568 N;

 

(b)

568 N;

(c)

699 N;

(d)

440 N;

(e)

0.

53.

(a ) 59 N, away from the Moon;

(b)

76 N, toward the Moon.

55.

9.6

s.

57.

160 yr.

 

59.

84.5 min.

61.

2 * 10 8 yr.

 

63.

Europa: 671 * 10 3 km,

Ganymede: 1070 * 10 3 km,

Callisto: 1880 * 10 3 km.

65.

5.4

* 10 12 m;

yes; Pluto.

67.

69.

71.

73.

75.

5.97 * 10 3 m s 2 , 3.56 * 10 22 N; the Sun.

28.3 m s, 0.410 rev s.

0.18; no; the wall pushes against the riders, so by Newton’s third law, they push against the wall.

9.2 m s.

(a ) In circular motion, they accelerate toward each other without moving toward each other.

(b) 9.6 * 10 29 kg.

77. Yes;

1rg ,

where r is the radius of

the vertical circle.

= 2.0

=

7.1

T outer

(a ) 3900 m s;

(b) 4.4

25.0 m s.

79. T inner

81.

83.

85.

*

*

*

10 4 s.

10 4 s,

10 4 s.

(a ) 7.6

* 10 6 m;

(b)

3.8

* 10 4 N;

(c)

1.2

* 10 6 m.

87. 1.21 * 10 6 m.

89. 0.44 r.

Chapter 6

1.

2.06 * 10 4 J.

 

3.

2300 J.

 

5.

1.0

*

10 6 J.

 

7.

1960 J.

 

9.

390 J.

11.

2 m.

13.

(a ) 2800 J;

 

(b)

2100 J.

15.

484 m s.

 

17.

5.51 * 10 19 J.

 

19.

The lighter one, same.

22;

both the

21.

43 m s.

 

23.

21 m s.

25.

(a ) 3010 N;

 

(b)

7480 J;

(c)

5.42

* 10 4 J;

 

(d)

4.67 * 10 4 J;

 

(e)

7.51

m s.

 

27.

1.01 m.

 

29.

(a ) 9.06 * 10 5 J;

 

(b)

9.06

*

10 5 J;

(c)

yes.

31.

45.4 m s.

 

33.

4.89 m s.

35.

74 cm.

 

37.

1.4 * 10 5 N m.

 

39.

(a ) 7.47 m s;

(b)

3.01 m.

 

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

A-29

41.

52 m.

 

43.

12 Mg h.

45.

(a

) 9.19

* 10 4 J;

(b)

433 N.

47.

332 J.

 

49.

(a

) 15.3 m s;

(b)

1.03 N, upward.

51.

0.091.

 

53.

1.4

*

10 5 J.

55.

(a

) 2.8 m;

(b)

1.5

m;

(c)

1.5

m.

57.

22.0 s.

59.

(a

) 1100 J;

( b ) 1100 W.

61.

2700 N.

 

63.

2.9

* 10 4 W,

38 hp.

65.

5.3

* 10 4 W.

67.

15.4 W.

 

69.

33 hp.

71.

610 W.

73.

14.9 m s.

75.

(a

)

2Fx m ;

(b)

23Fx 4m .

77.

(a

) 0.014 J;

(b)

0.039 J.

79.

(a

)

9.0 * 10 4 J;

(b)

8.2

* 10 4 N;

(c)

2.3 * 10 5 J.

81.

340 W.

 

83.

(a

) 1.0

* 10 4 J;

(b)

16 m s.

85.

(a

) 42 m s;

(b)

3.2

* 10 5 W.

87.

(b)

420 kWh;

(c

)

1.5

*

10 9 J;

(d)

$50, no.

89.

( a ) 8.9

*

10 5 J;

( b ) 54 W, 0.072 hp; ( c ) 360 W, 0.48 hp.

91.

(a

) 0.39 m;

(b)

m s 6 0.53;

(c)

1.4

m s.

93.

1.7

* 10 5 m 3 .

Chapter 7

1.

0.24 kg m s.

 

3.

10.2 m s.

5.

5.9

* 10 7 N,

opposite the gas

velocity.

7.

0.898 m s.

9.

2500 m s.

11. 0.99 m s.

13. 4.9 * 10 6 N.

15.

17.

2230 N, toward the pitcher.

(a ) 9.0

(b) 1.1 * 10 4 N.

* 10 1 kg m s;

19. (a )

0.16 m s; ) 521 N;

(b

(c ) astronaut: 391 J; capsule: 26 J.

21.

(a

)

290

kg m s

eastward;

(b

)

290

kg m s

westward;

(c)

290

kg m s

eastward;

(d)

340

N eastward.

23.

25.

(a ) 5 N s;

(b

) 80 m s.

0.440-kg ball:

1.27

m

s,

east;

0.220-kg ball:

5.07

m

s,

east.

27. Tennis ball:

2.50 m s;

other ball:

29.

31.

5.00

tennis ball’s initial motion.

(

(

(a )

m s;

both in direction of

a ) 0.840 kg; b) 0.75.

1.7

m s,

in direction of initial

incoming velocity;

33.

35.

37.

39.

41.

43.

45.

(b) 1.2 kg.

22.

Vertical: 0.15 m; horizontal: 0.90 m.

21 m s.

0.84.

(a ) 12.1 m s;

(b) 56.4 J before, 13.7 J after.

(a ) 920 m s;

(b)

1.14

the electron’s momentum, 123°

from the neutrino’s momentum.

0.999.

* 10 22 kg m s,

147° from

47. (a ) 30°;

(b) v nucleus = v target = v 23;

49. 6.5 * 10 11 m.

51.

53.

(c) 2

3.

2.62 m.

(1.2l, 0.9l)

relative to back left

corner.

55.

57.

0.27 R to the left of C.

19% of the person’s height along the line from shoulder to hand.

4.3% of their height; no.

59.

61. (a )

4.66 * 10 6 m Earth.

from center of

63.

65.

(a ) 5.8 m;

(b)

m.

m;

(c)

0.45 m toward initial position of

85-kg person.

4.0

4.2

67. 2.0

* 10 1 m.

A-30

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

69. 8. 71. (a ) v A = 3.65 m s,

v B = 4.45 m s;

œ

œ

73.

75.

77.

(b) ¢p A = 370 kg m s, ¢p B = 370 kg m s.

110 km h L 70 mi h.

340 m s.

(a ) 8.6 m;

(b) 38 m.

79. (a ) v m = 3.98 m s,

œ

v M = 4.42 m s;

œ

(b) 1.62 m.

81. (a ) 1.5

* 10 21 J;

(b) 38,000.

83. (a ) No;

85.

(b ) m B m A ;

(c

(d) stays at rest.

m B m A ;

)

v m = 3D B

12m , v 3m = D B 12m .

k

k

Chapter 8

1. (a ) 0.785 rad, p 4 rad;

(b)

1.05

rad, p 3 rad;

(c)

1.57

rad, p 2 rad;

(d)

6.28

rad, 2p rad;

(e)

7.77

rad, 89p 36 rad.

3.

5. (a ) 750 rad s;

5.3

* 10 3 m.

7.

(b) 23 m s; (c) 4.5 * 10 7 bit s.

(a ) 230 rad s;

(b) 4.0 * 10 1 m s,

9. (a ) 0.105 rad s;

9.3 * 10 3 m s 2 .

(b)

1.75

*

10 3

rad s;

(c)

1.45

* 10 4

rad s;

(d)

0.

11.

(a ) 464 m s;

13.

15.

17.

(b)

185

m

s;

(c)

345

m

s.

3.3

* 10 4 rpm.

 

(a)

1.5 * 10 4 rad s 2 ;

(b)

a rad = 1.2

* 10 2

m

s 2 ,

a tan = 6.2

* 10 4

m

s 2 .

(a

)

96 rad s 2 ;

 

(b)

98 rev.

 

19. (a ) 46

rev min 2 ;

(b) 46 rpm.

21. 33 m.

23.

(a ) 0.53 rad s 2 ;

(b)

13 s.

1.2

m N,

clockwise.

2

-

l 1 B,

25.

27. mgAl

clockwise.

29.

31.

33.

35.

37.

39.

(a ) 14 m N;

(b)

0.12 kg m 2 .

m. (a ) 7.8 m N;

(b)

22 m N. (a ) 7.0 kg m 2 ;

(b) 0.70 kg m 2 ;

13 m N.

1.2 * 10 10

310 N.

(c)

y axis.

320

m N;

130 N.

41.

43.

(a ) 1.90

(b) 8.9 * 10 3 m N.

31 N.

* 10 3 kg m 2 ;

45.

47.

(a )

a A = 0.69 m s 2 ,

upward;

a B = 0.69 m