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LATIN

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At Classical Academic Press we do not merely create instructional textbooks, we create complete sets
of learning tools designed to make teaching and learning both accessible and delightful. For each
subject we start with a core text: the student book. We then provide several support materials to give
all the aid that a teacher or student could need to feel confident as they master the subject together.
These products are all listed below so that you can see a complete view of the entire curriculum. In
addition, we created an entire website, HeadventureLand.com, which offers free educational games,
videos, and ebooks where students can practice the subject they are learning.

The Student Text: filled with the lessons and exercises that are the students primary
contact with the material.

The Answer Key: includes actual full-size worksheets from the student text. Dont

reinvent the wheel, get the answers to quizzes, exercises and worksheets in large bold print.

The DVD & CD Set: we have bodies for a reason and we should take advantage of

them in the learning processthe visual and audio component of our curricula is a tremendous
application of this truth. Watch teachers and students interact, learn from the best tutors, and
imprint the material with engaging visuals. Using the intelligence of your ear and eye will make
learning vocabulary and other course content natural. Support your students understanding of
the subject material and give yourself time in the week for other children, planning, and
other daily responsibilities.

Activity Books: contain over 100 puzzles and games that follow chapter-by-chapter with

the student text to help the students practice vocabulary and grammar.

History Readers: show students that they can use their newfound knowledge to read.

Translation is an incredibly empowering experience for language learners. The readers are keyed to the
grammar and vocabulary of the Latin for Children series and correspond to the Veritas Press History
card series. They are also an excellent supplementary text for students using other Latin curricula.

Clashcards: these bright cards are not only straight flashcards, but also games that you can
play! Who said that rigorous learning isnt fun?

Test Packet: Often requested by customers, this set of comprehensive tests to supplement

the student book is an excellent and helpful resource! The downloadable packet includes weekly
chapter tests, unit tests, and even unit study guides. A complete answer key for the tests is included.

Latin Everywhere: Make Latin a consistent and fun part of your life! Have a

visual learner for a Latin student? The Latin Word Quest Poster features a translation
exercise of all the Latin for Children, Primer A vocabulary words to match with fun
corresponding images. Have a wordsmith? Try the Latin Crosswords Book (which
includes all the vocabulary in Latin for Children Primers A, B, and C!) and you will
learn and practice over 1500 words! For the car and home, the Veni Emmanuel CD is
a collection of hauntingly beautiful Latin carols, and includes a 16-page booklet of full
Latin lyrics along with literal and poetic English translations. Hours of Latin fun!

Classical Latin Creatively Taught

Latin for Children


Primer A

Dr. Aaron Larsen


Dr. Christopher Perrin

Latin for Children: Primer A


Classical Academic Press, 2003
Version 3.6

All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the
prior written permission of Classical Academic Press.
Classical Academic Press
2151 Market Street
Camp Hill, PA 17011
www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com
ISBN: 978-1-60051-000-7
Book design and cover by:
Rob Baddorf
On-site Italian photographs by:
Rebekah Almond

Table of Contents

Unit

Unit I:
1st
Conjugation
Verbs/1st
Declension
Nouns

Unit II:
2nd
Declension
Nouns

Unit III:
Adjectives
(1st and 2nd
Declension)

Unit IV:
2nd
Conjugation
Verbs/
Imperfect
Tense

Introduction to Students

IX

Classical Pronunciation

Ecclesiastical Pronunciation

Chapter

Page

1st Conjugation Verb: am

Verbs and Verb Endings

Present-Tense Verb Endings:


-, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt

VerbsPerson, Number, and


Tense

17

1st Declension Noun: mnsa

Noun Gender and Number

23

1st Declension Noun Endings:


Noun Cases
-a, -ae, -ae, -am, -

29

REVIEW

REVIEW

33

2nd Declension Noun: ldus

Masculine and Feminine Nouns

39

45

51

10

57

Chant

Grammar Topics

2nd Declension Noun


Endings: -us, -, -, -um, -;
Sum (I am) Chant
2nd Declension Neuter Noun:
dnum
2nd Declension Neuter Noun
Endings: -um, -, -, -um, -

Nominative Case Subjects and


Predicate Nominatives

REVIEW

REVIEW

Adjective Endings
Masculine, Feminine,
and Neuter (1st and 2nd
Declensions)
1st and 2nd Declension
Adjective: magnus

Linking Verb (sum, esse);


Sentence Labeling and Translation
Neuter Nouns; More About Case

Adjectives, Adjective Questions,


and Agreement

11

65

12

71

13

77

REVIEW

REVIEW

14

85

2nd Conjugation Verb: vide

2nd Conjugation Verbs, 1st


Declension Masculine Exceptions

15

91

Sentence Pattern Chant

Sentence Pattern A and B Practice

16

97

Imperfect-Tense (past) Verb


Endings: bam-, -bs, -bat

The Imperfect Tense

Predicate Adjective Sentence


Patterns AC

Table of Contents
Unit
Unit IV
(continued)

Unit V:
Future Tense/
Imperfect
Tense of sum

Unit VI:
Future Tense
of sum/
Accusative
Prepositions

Unit VII: e,
re/Ablative
Prepositions
and Review

Chapter

Page

Chant

17

105

Imperfect-Tense (past) Verb


Endings: -bam, -bs, -bat

Translating Present- and


Imperfect-Tense Verbs

18

111

REVIEW

REVIEW

19

117

Future-Tense Verb Endings:


-b, -bis, -bit

The Future Tense

20

123

Accusative Case Endings

Accusative Case: Direct Objects

21

129

Imperfect Tense of sum:


eram, ers, erat

22

135

Present and Imperfect of sum

Sum: The Imperfect Tense; Pattern


D Sentences
Accusative Case: Objects of the
Preposition

23

141

REVIEW

24

147

25

153

26

159

REVIEW

REVIEW

27

163

Irregular Verb: e, re

Verbs: o, re

28

169

1st Conjugation Verb: e, re

Compound Verbs with


Prepositions as Prefixes

29

175

30

181

31
32

Future Tense of sum:


er, eris, erit
Accusative Preposition Flow
Chart

Grammar Topics

REVIEW
Future Tense of sum
Accusative Case: Objects of the
Preposition Continued

Ablative Case Preposition


Flow Chart
Sum, Esse in Present,
Imperfect, and Future Tenses

Compound Verbs Continued;


Verbs: Principal Parts

187

REVIEW

REVIEW

193

END-OF-BOOK REVIEW

REVIEW

203

My Latin Journey Checklist

207

Reference Charts

211

Glossary by Chapter

223

Glossary by Alphabet

231

How to Teach Latin for Children

232

Helpful Resources

Ablative Case and Prepositions

INTRODUCTION
TO STUDENTS

e are glad that you will be studying Latin! Latin is an


old language that was spoken by some of the most interesting and famous people who ever livedthe ancient
Romans and many other people throughout Europe (which contains
such countries as England, France, Spain, Germany, and Italy). The
Romans are famous because of their excellent ideas and accomplishments. They were the very best builders of the time and built many
roads and buildings that still stand today after 2,000 years. They were
very well organized and formed a government that created many useful laws. The Romans were also very good at fighting and had the best
and strongest armies. They conquered and ruled over most of modernday Europe and every land that bordered on the Mediterranean Sea!
The Romans were also interested in art and literature. They admired
the Greeks (whom they conquered) and tried to copy much of the art
that the Greeks had made. They copied Greek sculptures, paintings,
and buildings. There were also some great Roman writers who wrote
many very interesting and famous stories, poems, and plays. Some
of the Romans were such good writers and thinkers that people have
continued to read and study them for over 2,000 years! Even today
people read and enjoy their books and ideas. Two of the most famous
Roman writers are Caesar and Cicero. Caesar was a great army general (and later a dictator) who wrote about his victorious battles, and
Cicero was a famous senator (a kind of ruler) who wrote books about
how to speak well. Other famous Latin writers include the poet Vergil
(who wrote a book called the Aeneid), another poet named Horace,
and some writers of history named Livy and Tacitus.

page V

People have been studying Latin for a


long time . . .
Did you know that for nearly 2,000 years most
boys and girls going to school in Europe studied
Latin (and usually Greek, too!) when they were
young students? Children learned Latin because
Latin was spoken by so many people, and because so
many good books were written in Latin.
The Latin language has been so popular for the last 2,000 years that
many other languages have borrowed words from Latin! Did you
know that about five out of every ten English words come from a
Latin word? When you learn Latin, you are also learning a good
bit of English. Here is an example: If someone said, Let me demonstrate how the aquarium is a habitat for this turtle, you would
discover that six of the twelve words (in italics) in this sentence are
from Latin words.
We hope that you can see that learning Latin words will be very
interesting and enjoyable. It will take some hard work, however,
like anything that is really worth learning. We will do all that we
can to make learning Latin enjoyable, and will help you to clearly
understand everything we teach you, step by step.
So now you have seen that studying Latin will help you understand
a lot more about your own language (your mother tonguethe
language you have grown up speaking). But there is another good
reason to study Latin. Studying Latin will help you one day to
read some of the world's very best books in the language in which
they were written. You will be able to read Latin books in Latin!

page VI

How to study and learn Latin using this book


Latin will be enjoyable to learn if you first learn how to learn
it! Your teacher or parent will be of great help to you, but
you must be ready to do your part. Here are some important
tips:
Do your exercises faithfully and well. Your assignments
should not be too long, but you will have at least two every week.
Try to speak Latin as soon as you can, even when you only have
learned a little.
Ask questions whenever you are not sure of something.
Now for the most important thing you can do: Memorize your Latin
words. You will only have to learn about ten words a week! Here are
some tips to help you memorize your words so that you will never
forget them:

Chant or sing your words, just like you will learn them in class. It
is much easier to remember what you sing or chant.

If you have the video or DVD that accompanies this book, sing and
chant along with the students in the video.

Review your Latin words every day (or night) for about five to
fifteen minutes. A little bit of review every day is very, very helpful. Keep reviewing words from earlier chapters to make sure you
have really mastered them.

Make Latin vocabulary cards and put them on a ring. You can put
the Latin word on one side and the English word on the other. You
can also purchase fabulous, colored Clash Cards from our website
at www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com. Clash Cards are designed
to be helpful, easy-to-use flash cards, but they are are also a card
game that makes practicing vocabulary words fun and exciting!

Chant and sing your words because it is much easier to remember


them when you do so. Try to look at the words you chant while
you are chanting them, so you are using your eyes and your voice.

page VII

If you have the LFC History Reader that accompanies this book, use
it weekly for additional translation work and to learn some Greek and
Roman history.
For a fun way to review vocabulary and grammar, make use of the LFC
Activity Book! that accompanies this primer. You can preview samples online
at our website.
Quiz your classmate or anyone else taking Latin. Quiz your teacher or parent, and have them quiz you. Have contests to see who can get the most right
or who can give the answers fastest. Make your own written test and see how
many you can get right.
Try and find new derivatives (English words that come from Latin) for the
Latin words you know.
Visit www.HeadventureLand.com for free games, videos, and readers that will
help you practice Latin in a fun and creative way! Review your vocabulary
online by playing Latin FlashDashthe game that tests your vocabulary
chapter by chapter. The site also has additional worksheets, exercises, and
tests.
Questions? Feel free to ask questions on our online forum, and check out
other supplemental material at www.ClassicalAcademicPress.com.
We hope that you will find your study of Latin this year rewarding and a
lot of fun. Please contact us with questions and ideas at our website (www.
ClassicalAcademicPress.com) or contact us on Facebook! We would love to hear
from you.
Pax (Peace),
Dr. Christopher A. Perrin and Dr. Aaron Larsen

page VIII

Classical
PRONUNCIATION
There are twenty-four letters in the Latin alphabetthere is no j or w. The letters k, y, and z were used
very rarely. Letters in Latin are never silent. There are two systems of pronunciation in Latinclassical
and ecclesiastical.
Latin Consonants: Consonants are pronounced the same as in English with these exceptions.
Letter

Pronunciation

Example

Sound

before s or t like English p

urbs: city

urps

c / ch

always hard like English k

cant: I sing

kahn-toh

always hard like English goat

gaudium: joy

gow-diyum

gn

in the middle of the word like English ngn


in hangnail

magnus: big

mang-nus

before a vowel it is a consonant like the English y

iace: I lie down

yah-keh-oh

should be rolled as in Spanish or Italian

rgina: queen

ray-geen-ah

always like the s in the English sing

servus: servant

ser-wus

always as an English w

vallum: wall

wa-luhm

DipHthongs: Diphthongs are two vowels with a single sound.


ae

au

ei

oe

as in eye

as in out

as in stray

as in coil

ui
not a diphthong;
pronounced oo-ee

Latin Short and Long Vowels


Vowels can be short or long in Latin. When they are long, they have a little dash called a macron placed
over them. Long vowels take about twice as long to say as short ones.
Short Vowels

Long Vowels

Letter

Example

Sound

Letter

Example

Sound

a in Dinah

casa: house

ka-sa

in father

stre: to stand

stah-reh

e in pet

deus: god

deh-us

in they

vidre: to see

wi-dey-reh

i in pit

silva: forest

sil-wah

in machine

re: to go

ee-reh

o in pot

bonus: good

bah-nus

in hose

err: I wander

e-roh

u in put

cum: with

kum

in rude

ldus: school

loo-duhs

page IX

ecclesiastical
PRONUNCIATION
Classical or Ecclesiastical Pronunciation?
Both dialects are really quite similar, so ultimately the decision is not a significant one. The classical dialect attempts to follow the way the Romans spoke Latin (an older dialect), while the ecclesiastical dialect
follows the way Latin pronunciation evolved within the Christian Church during the Middle Ages, particularly within the Roman Catholic Church.
The main difference between the two dialects is the way c/ch and v are pronounced. The classical dialect
pronounces c/ch as an English k, whereas the ecclesiastical pronounces it (Italian style) as an English ch (as
in check). The ecclesiastical pronounces v as the English v (as in victory), whereas the classical pronounces
it as an English w. In the ecclesiastical dialect a j occasionally appears in place of an i, and the t has a special
pronunciation, like ts as in cats. See the chart below in which the ecclesiastical pronunciation is shaded.
So, take your pick and stick with it! Either choice is a good one. Our audio CDs and DVDs contain
both pronunciations.
There is no w. The letters k, y, and z were used very rarely. Letters in Latin are never silent.
Latin Consonants: Consonants are pronounced the same as in English with these exceptions.
Letter

Pronunciation

Example

Sound

b
c
c
g
g
gn

before s or t like English p


before e, i, ae, oe, and y always like English ch
before other letters, hard c like English cap
soft before e, i, ae, oe like English germ
before other letters, hard like English goat
in the middle of the word like English ngn in
hangnail

urbs: city
cna: food
cant: I sing
magistra: teacher
gaudium: joy
magnus: big

urps
chey-nah
kahn-toh
mah-jee-stra
gow-diyum
mang-nus

j
r
s
t
v

like the English y in yes


should be rolled as in Spanish or Italian
always like the s in the English sing
when followed by i and another vowel, like tsee
always as an English v

jace: I lie down


rgna: queen
servus: servant
silentium: silence
vallum: wall

yah-keh-oh
ray-geen-ah
ser-vus
see-len-tsee-um
va-luhm

DIPHTHONGS: Diphthongs are two vowels with a single sound.


ae
as in stray

au
as in out

oe
as in stray

ui
not a diphthong; pronounced oo-ee

Latin Short and Long Vowels


Vowels can be short or long in Latin. When they are long, they have a little dash called a macron
placed over them. Long vowels take about twice as long to say as short ones. The ecclesiastical short
and long vowels are pronounced in the same way as in the classical pronunciation. See the table on the
preceding page.
page X

Chapter
1
C
hapter 1
Week
Unit I1

MEMORY PAGE:
Chapter Maxim: In prncipi erat Verbum
(In the beginning was the WordLatin Vulgate)
New Chant: 1st Conjugation Verb: am
Singular

Plural

1st person

am

ammus

2nd person

ams

amtis

3rd person

amat

amant

Vocabulary:

am, amre, amv, amtum


d, dare, ded, datum
intr, intrre, intrv, intrtum
labr, labrre, labrv, labrtum

NOUNS =
a person, place, or thing

nrr, nrrre, nrrv, nrrtum

english
I love, to love, I loved, loved
I give, to give, I gave, given
I enter, to enter, I entered, entered
I work, to work, I worked, worked
I tell, to tell, I told, told

aqua, aquae

water

fbula, fbulae

story

porta, portae

gate

silva, silvae

forest

terra, terrae

earth

page 1

VERBS = show action

LATIN

Unit I

CHAPTER 1: GRAMMAR PAGE

VERBS: ACTION WORDS


In this first chapter you will learn five verbs and five nouns. The first five words on
your vocabulary list are verbs. Verbs are words that show action. For example, in
the clause I work in the forest, which word is the action word? Well, work, of
course! The way we say I work in Latin is labrso labr is a verb, a Latin
action word. Sometimes verbs can also show a state of being, too, but we will teach
you that later.
LATIN: FEWER WORDS THAN ENGLISH, BUT MANY WORD ENDINGS
There are a lot of words in English, but they rarely have different endings. For
example, the verb love stays the same whether we say I love, we love, or
they love. Sometimes we do add an ending, like when we say he loves or we
loved. In Latin, though, the verb for love (am) changes its ending very often! We
will learn the various endings that come with Latin verbs (and nouns) so that we
can know what they mean and how to translate them. (To translate a Latin word,
by the way, means to write outor tellwhat a Latin word means in English! The
translation of am is I love.) Now you know that Latin is a language of many
endings but fewer words than English!

As you travel along your Latin journey,


check off your progress using the checklist
that begins on page 203.
Enjoy the journey!

PAGE 2
page

CHAPTER 1: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT.

Unit I

Look at the chart on the preceding page. It shows you one of the most common
words in Latin (the verb love) with all of its endingssix endings in all. When we
list a verb with all of its endings, that is called conjugating a verb.
You can also see that a Latin verb such as am actually contains two words in
English! The word am means I love, so it contains not only the word love,
but also the word I. The ending of the verb (-o in this case) tells you that it is I
who is doing the loving. Words such as I, you, he, she, it, we, and
they are all little words called pronouns that tell you who is doing the action of
the verb. The ending of a Latin verb tells you which pronoun to use! We will study
these endings next week, so dont fret too much about them now. The chart below,
however, shows you how the verb endings change:
Singular

Plural

1st person

am: I love

ammus: we love

2nd person

ams: you love

amtis: you all love

3rd person

amat: he, she, or it loves

amant: they love

Remember, practice makes perfectus!


Practice using free downloadable worksheets, tests, and quizzes as well as
online games, readers, and videos!
Visitwww.HeadventureLand.com
page 3

Unit I

CHAPTER 1: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT.

A Verb in Four Parts: The Four Principal Parts


If you look at the Memory Page, you will see that each Latin verb has four different
forms (am, amre, amv, amtum). We call each form a principal part. Why
do we call each form a principal part? Because each part is an important form that
shows us how to make other forms of the verb. It is a principal part because it is an
important part to know. No need to worry about the other forms that come from
these principal partsyou will learn those in good time. Learning the principal
parts now, however, will be fun and will save you a lot of time later!
Here are the names for each of the four principal parts:
am
Present

amre
Infinitive

amv

amtum

Perfect

Passive
Participle
or Supine

Nouns
You will learn five nouns in this chapter, too (aqua, fbula, porta, silva, terra).
Nouns are used to name a person, place, or thing (or sometimes an idea). You can
see that nouns, like verbs, also have endings. For example, aqua, aquae
are both forms for the word waterone form ends with -a (aqua)
and the other form ends with -ae (aquae). Dont worry now about the
endings for nounsyou will learn these in chapters 3 and 4.

PAGE 4

CHAPTER 1: Worksheet

Unit I

A. TRANSLATION:
1. am _____________________________

7. aqua____________________________

2. intr_____________________________

8. porta____________________________

3. d_______________________________

9. nrr___________________________

4. labr____________________________

10. silva____________________________

5. fbula____________________________

11. terra____________________________

6. In prncipi erat Verbum _________________________________________________


B. CHANT: Conjugate the verb am.
See if you can remember how to fill in the boxes.

am

C. GRAMMAR:
1. In Latin, both _____________________ and ______________________ have endings.
2. Latin is a language of fewer ___________________ but many ____________________.
3. What kind of word names the action or state of being in a sentence? _______________
4. To __________________ a verb is to __________________ all of its ________________.
D. DERIVATIVES:
1. Aesop is famous for his _________________________. (fbula)
2. Reward will follow hard ________________________. (labr)

PAGE 5
page

Unit I

CHAPTER 1: Derivative Worksheet

Thousands of English words come from Latin. We call these English words
derivatives because they are derivedtakenfrom an original Latin word called
the Latin root. For instance, from the Latin root am we get the English derivative
amity, which means friendship and peaceful harmony.
The word derivative is itself a derivative, which comes from the Latin words de
(down from) and rivus (river, stream). This means that a derivative is a word that
flows down or off a river of . . . words!
A. Study
Study the following English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have
learned this week:
Latin
English
amity, amorous, enamor, amateur
am
donate, donation
d
entrance, introduce, introduction
intr
labor, laboratory
labr
narrate, narration, narrative
narr
aquatic
aqua
fable, fabulous
fbula
portable, port
porta
Pennsylvania
silva
extraterrestrial, terrain, terrarium
terra
B. Define
In a dictionary, look up one of the English derivatives from the list above and write
its definition in the space below:
_______________________________________________________________________
C. Apply
1. The Latin phrase terra firma is still used by English speakers today. Here is an
example of its use: After being on a plane for six hours, it sure felt good to walk
on terra firma. What do you think the phrase terra firma might mean? Write your
answer below:
_______________________________________________________________________
2. The word Pennsylvania is another Latin derivative. Pennsylvania was one of the
original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. It was founded by William Penn.
What do you think the word Pennsylvania might mean? Circle your answer below:
a. The land of big pencils

b. The land of Penn


PAGE 6

c. Penns Woods

CHAPTER 1: Quiz
A. Vocabulary:

Unit I

Latin

English

am, amre, amv, amtum


d, dare, ded, datum
intr, intrre, intrv, intrtum
labr, labrre, labrv, labrtum
nrr, nrrre, nrrv, nrrtum
aqua, aquae
fbula, fbulae
porta, portae
silva, silvae
terra, terrae
B. CHANT: C
 onjugate the verb am.
See if you can remember how to fill in the boxes.

am

C. GRAMMAR: Define the following words.


1. Conjugation: ______________________________________________________
2. Verb: ____________________________________________________________
3. L
 ist the four principal parts: _________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

PAGE 7
page

Chapter One

Use games & puzzles to supplement ever


y LFC chapter in our

Latin for Children: Primer A Activity Book

Find out more at www.ClassicalAcademicP


ress.com

Enter the Maze...

There are three Latin words stuck in the maze. You need to go in there (if you dare) and find exactly which three
words are on the pathway to the exit. Find those words and only those words, then enter them in the space provided at the bottom. You might want to use a pencil until you find the correct path...

intr

terra

ENTER

silvae

portae

amv

intrtum

nrr
aqua
am

fbulae
ded
labr

amv
nrrre

fbulae

EXIT

The 3 Latin words are: ___________________, ___________________, ___________________


Can you translate them? ___________________, ___________________, ___________________
PAGE 6

Chapter 2
Unit I

MEMORY PAGE:
Chapter Maxim: In prncipi erat Verbum
(In the beginning was the WordLatin Vulgate)
New Chant: Present Tense Verb Endings: -, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
Singular

Plural

1st person

-mus

2nd person

-s

-tis

3rd person

-t

-nt

VOCABULARY:

LATIN
via, viae

english
road, way

fossa, fossae

ditch

mnsa, mnsae

table

mta, mtae
pgina, pginae
cna, cnae
patria, patriae

turning point, goal


page
dinner
fatherland

aura, aurae

breeze

rgna, rgnae

queen

nsula, nsulae

island

page 9

Unit I

CHAPTER 2: GRAMMAR PAGE

Present Tense Verb Endings


Singular

Plural

1st person

-mus

2nd person

-s

-tis

3rd person

-t

-nt

NUMBER
Take a good look at the chart above. You will see a column
that is labeled singular and another labeled plural. This
means that all the verb endings in the singular column tell us that
just one person (a single person) is doing the action of the verb. If I workwell
I am just one person doing work. If you work, you are just one person, too. If our
friend John works, he is just one person doing work. I, you, and he are singular.
However, if you and I together do work, then we are doing work, and we arent
singular anymorewere plural! If two of you (you all) are doing work, then you
are plural. If our friends John and Susan are doing work, then they are working,
and they, too, are plural! When we speak of a Latin verbs number, we are asking
how many people are doing the verbs action, and the answer is always either one
person or several people, singular or plural!
Tense
We are going to be learning how to form Latin verbs in the present tense. This
means that we will be learning how to use verbs that show action in the present
time. The word tense simply refers to the time when a verb is taking place. I
love takes place in the present time (or tense). I loved takes place in past time so
it is a kind of past tense. Can you guess what tense I will love is? Rightit is the
future tense since I will love is love that takes place in the future! You will learn
more about tense later on in this book.
PERSON
So now we know what it means for a verb to have number. Latin verbs also have
another trait, called person. Whereas a verbs number asks, How many are doing
the action? a verbs person asks, Who is doing the action of the verb? We
divide the kind of people who can do the action of a verb into three categories:
1st person, 2nd person, and 3rd person. The 1st person can be either I or we
PAGE 10

CHAPTER 2: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT.

Unit I

you

he, she, it

-o

-s

-t

1st

2nd

3rd

plural

singular

(singular and plural versions). The 2nd person can be either you or you all
(singular and plural). The 3rd person can be either he/she/it or they
(singular and plural). The drawing below may help you understand a verbs person.
we

you (all)

they

-mus

-tis

-nt

2nd

3rd

1st

Now by studying the chart at the top of the previous page, try to answer these
questions: What is the 1st person, singular verb ending? If you answered -o, you
are correct. What is the 2nd person, plural ending? Your answer should be -tis.
What is the 3rd person, singular verb ending? The answer is -t. In the next section
below, we will learn how to attach these endings to verbsand conjugate them!
CONJUGATING A VERB
When we put together all the different forms of a verb, we call it conjugating a
verb. You have already seen one verb conjugated when you learned am, ams,
amat, ammus, amtis, amant in chapter 1.
Singular

Plural

1st person

am: I love

ammus: we love

2nd person

ams: you love

amtis: you all love

3rd person

amat: he, she, or it loves

amant: they love

page 11

Unit I

CHAPTER 2: GRAMMAR PAGE CONT.

Notice that the verb endings (-, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt) are all underlined in the table. These
endings are simply added to am, which is the verb stem. How do we find the verb stem?
Its easy. We go to the 2nd principal part, which is amre, and drop the -re, leaving us am.
Study the diagram below:
am

amre

amv

amtum

amre = am
Lets try conjugating another verbintr, intrre, intrv, intrtum. The stem will
be intr after we take the -re off of intrre. So our conjugation should look like this:
Singular

Plural

1st person

intr: I enter

intrmus: we enter

2nd person

intrs: you enter

intrtis: you all enter

3rd person

intrat: he, she, or it enters

intrant: they enter

You will note that the full stem (intr) does not appear in the first person singular
where we have intr. This is because the - replaces the - in intr. The same is true
for am. The - replaces the - in am.

Remember, practice makes perfectus!


Practice your vocab with FlashDash
the free online flashcard game.
Visitwww.HeadventureLand.com

PAGE 12

CHAPTER 2: Worksheet

Unit I

A. TRANSLATION: New and Review Vocabulary


1. am _____________________________

7. amtis___________________________

2. rgna____________________________

8. intrant__________________________

3. via_______________________________

you tell
9. nrrs*__________________________

4. patria____________________________

we work
10. labrmus*______________________

5. fbula ___________________________

11. dat*_____________________________
he/she gives

6. In prncipi erat Verbum _________________________________________________


B. CHANT: Give the present tense verb endings
and fill in the boxes.

*Note that these verb forms come from


the conjugation of narr, labr, and d.
See previous page. Can you conjugate
these verbs in all their forms?

C. GRAMMAR:
1. The number of a verb answers the question _______________________?
2. Latin is a language of many___________________ and fewer ______________________.
3. Write the ending that fits the description below:
Description........................................... Ending
1st person singular................................ __________
3rd person plural................................... __________
2nd person singular.............................. __________
4. T
o conjugate a verb is to list all of its ______________________.
D. DERIVATIVES:
1. To find out about dinosaurs you must dig up a ______________. (fossa)
2. To find out what happens next in the story, turn the _____________. (pgina)
PAGE 13

Unit I

CHAPTER 2: Derivative Worksheet

A. Study
Study the English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week.
Latin
via
fossa
mnsa
pgina
cna
patria
aura
rgna
nsula

English
way, viaduct
fossil, fossilize
mesa
page
cenacle
patriot, patriotic
aroma
reign, regal
insular, insulate

B. Define
In a dictionary, look up two of the English derivatives from the list above and write
their definitions in the spaces below:
1. _____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
C. Apply
1. The Latin word via is still used by English speakers today. Here are some examples:
He traveled here via airplane.
Come via the freeway. Dont drive through the city streets.
In these sentences, via probably means:
a. very

b. by way of

c. quickly

2. The Latin word patria means fatherland. In the patriotic song My Country,
Tis of Thee what clue can you find that helps you understand why people often
call their country their fatherland?
My country, tis of thee,
________________________________
Sweet land of liberty,
Of thee I sing;
________________________________
Land where my fathers died,
Land of the pilgrims pride,
From every mountainside
________________________________
1
Let freedom ring!
Samuel Francis Smith, My Country, Tis of Thee. Available at: <http://www.hymnsite.com/lyrics/umh697.sht>.

PAGE 14

CHAPTER 2: Quiz
A. NEW VOCABULARY:

Unit I

Latin

English

via, viae
fossa, fossae
mnsa, mnsae
mta, mtae
pgina, pginae
cna, cnae
patria, patriae
aura, aurae
rgna, rgnae
nsula, nsulae
B. REVIEW VOCABULRY:

Latin

English

d, dare, ded, datum


labr, labrre, labrv, labrtum
aqua, aquae
silva, silvae
terra, terrae
C. CHANT: Give the present-tense verb endings and fill in the boxes.

D. GRAMMAR: Define the following terms:


1. Number: __________________________________________________________________
2. Person: ____________________________________________________________________
PAGE 15

L at i n F or C h i l d r e n , P r i m e r A A c t i v i t y B o ok
r in our
plement every LFC chapte
Use games & puzzles to sup

Book!
er A Activity
Latin for Childrereatn:wwPrw.Cim
m
s.co
res
lassicalAcademicP
Find out mo

w
o
T
r
e
t
p
New Criss Cross

Complete the puzzle using the clues shown below.

Can you draw a line between the


correct person/number and its
appropriate pronoun(s)?

It

3 Person
Plural
rd

Down
1. dinner
2. ditch
4. breeze
6. queen
7. road, way
8. turning point,
goal

We

You

He

You (all)

2nd Person
Plural

1st Person
Plural

2nd Person
Singular

She

They

3rd Person
Singular

Across
3. ae
5. ae
8. ae
9. ae

I
1st Person
Singular

Word Crossing

a
h

Across
3. page
5. fatherland
8. table
9. island

Down
page
1. ae dinner
fatherland
2. ae ditch
table
4. ae breeze
island
6. ae queen
7. ae road, way
Henrietta the hamster got out of her cage again.
8. ae turning point, goal

Holes

She loves to chew on paper and, well... you get the picture.
Help fill in the holes.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

1st Person

-mus

2nd Person

-s

-tis

3rd Person

-t

-nt

PAGE
PAGE16
8

Chapter 3
Unit I

MEMORY PAGE:
Chapter Maxim: Arma virumque can*
(Of arms and the man I singVergils Aeneid)
New Chant: 1st Declension Noun: mnsa
Case

Noun Job

Nominative

Singular

SN, PrN** mnsa: table

Genitive

PNA

Dative

IO

Accusative

DO, OP

Ablative

OP

VOCABULARY:

mnsrum: of the tables

mnsae: to, for the table

mnss: to, for the tables

mnsam: the table

mnss: the tables

mns: by, with, from the table

mnss: by, with, from the tables

LATIN

st, stre, stet, statum


par, parre, parv, partum
spect, spectre, spectv, specttum
sum, esse, fu, futrum

** These are abbreviations


for noun jobs that will
be explained in chapter
9. Note them but there
is no need to memorize
them.

mnsae: tables

mnsae: of the table

err, errre, errv, errtum

* Can is a synonym of
cant. Both verbs mean
I sing.

Plural

ancilla, ancillae (f)

english
I wander, to wander, I wandered, wandered
I stand, to stand, I stood, stood
I prepare, to prepare, I prepared, prepared
I look at, to look at, I looked at, seen
I am, to be, I was, about to be
maidservant

glria, glriae (f)

glory

ra, rae (f)

anger

unda, undae (f)

wave

fenestra, fenestrae (f)

window
page 17

Unit I

CHAPTER 3: GRAMMAR PAGE

Noun Declensions
Do you remember what a noun is from your English grammar class? Just in case
you forgot, a noun is a word that names a person, place, thing or sometimes
an idea. Do you remember how in the last chapter we found that verbs have all
sorts of different endings? Well, nouns have a whole set of endings all their own.
As we have learned, when we put together all of the different forms of a verb, we
call it conjugating a verb. When we do the same thing for a noun, we call it
declining a noun.
Take a look at the declension of mnsa on the preceding page. Notice
how, just as with the verbs, the chart has two columns going up
and down. Just as with the verbs, the column on the left is for the
singular forms of the noun (which means just one, remember?) and
on the right are all the plural forms. No problem so far, right? We call
the difference between singular and plural in nouns their number, just
like we do for verbs.
Number is the only thing that both verbs and nouns have in Latin,
though. Another thing that Latin nouns have common in is gender,
and verbs dont have that. English nouns have gender, too. In English, boy is a
masculine noun, girl is a feminine noun, and table is a neuter noun, meaning
that its not really either a boy-table or a girl-table because tables arent boys
or girls... theyre just tables. Well, this may surprise you, but in Latin, all tables are
girls! At least they are in Latin grammar. In fact, all of the nouns from this week
and last week are feminine, which means that theyre girl-nouns (Dont worry,
boys; well give you lots of masculine nouns next chapter.). Make sure to note that
nouns ending in -a, -ae (we call them 1st declension nouns) will almost always be
feminine.
Note that the -a, -ae endings are the nominative and genitive singular, not the
nominative singular and nominative plural.
Case
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

Singular
mnsa
mnsae

PAGE 18

Plural

CHAPTER 3: Worksheet

Unit I

A. TRANSLATION: New and Review Vocabulary


1. err _____________________________

7. fossa____________________________

2. spect____________________________

8. cnae (Nom)*____________________

3. st_______________________________

9. patria___________________________

4. ra_______________________________

10. mnsae (Nom)*__________________

5. undae (Nom)* ____________________

11. via______________________________

6. Arma virumque can _______________________________________


*These three words could be genitive singular, dative singular, or nominative plural! In this case, translate
them as nominative plural.

B. CHANT: Fill in the endings and translate the forms of mnsa given below. The first
one has been done for you.
Case

Singular

Plural

Nominative

a: table
mns_________

mns_________

Genitive

mns_________

mns_________

Dative

mns_________

mns_________

Accusative

mns_________

mns_________

Ablative

mns_________

mns_________

C. GRAMMAR:
1. A _________ names a __________, __________, ___________ or ___________.
2. Singular and _____________ are the two options for ________________.
3. Number answers the question ____________________________?
4. Masculine, ______________, and neuter are the three options for ___________.
5. G
 iving all of the endings for a verb is called conjugating it, whereas listing all the forms
of a noun is called _____________ it.
D. DERIVATIVES:
1. Watching football on the couch can be called a __________________ sport. (spect)
2. T
 o __________________ something is to throw it out the window.
(fenestra, preceded by d for out)
PAGE 19

Unit I

CHAPTER 3: Derviative Worksheet

A. Study
Study the English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week:
Latin
err
st
par
spect
ancilla
glria
ra
unda
fenestra

English
error, erroneous
station, stationary, static
prepare, parry, pare
spectator, spectacle, spectacular, speculate
ancillary
glorious
irritate, irate, irritable
undulate, inundate
defenestrate

B. Define
In a dictionary, look up three of the English derivatives from the list above and
write their definitions in the spaces below:
1. _____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________
C. Apply
1. Errre hmnum est. This is a famous saying from the Roman philosopher
Seneca. Can you figure out what it means? (Hint: hmnum means human.)
Give your translation here: ________________________________________________
2. Inundate, a derivative of the Latin word unda means to flood with waves
of water. The following sentence uses inundate and several other derivatives.
Underline all the derivatives in this sentence:
The secretary was inundated with so much paperwork that she made error after
error and became extremely irritated.
3. Now write your own sentence using at least two derivatives from this weeks
vocabulary list above.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
PAGE 20

CHAPTER 3: Quiz
A. NEW Vocabulary:

Unit I

Latin

English

err, errre, errv, errtum


st, stre, stet, statum
par, parre, parv, partum
spect, spectre, spectv, specttum
sum, esse, fu, futrum
ancilla, ancillae
glria, glriae
ra, rae
unda, undae
fenestra, fenestrae
B. CHANT: Give the chant for the declension of mnsa and fill in the boxes.
Noun Job
SN, PrN
PNA
IO
DO, OP
OP

C. GRAMMAR: Define the following terms.


1. Noun:_____________________________________________________________________
2. Declension:________________________________________________________________
3. What question does the number of a noun answer?_______________________________
4. What are the two options for number?_________________________________________
5. What are the three options for gender?_________________________________________
PAGE 21

L at i n F or C h i l d r e n P r i m e r A A c t i v i t y B o ok
r in our
plement every LFC chapte
Use games & puzzles to sup

Book!
er A Activity
Latin for Childrereatn:wwPrw.Cim
lassicalAcademicPress.com
Find out mo

e
r
e
h
T
r
e
t
girly nouns
p
a

Sister Susie wants to have a tea party, but shes not sure
which teabags go with which cups. Can you help by
drawing a line from the teabags to the correct teacups?
Make sure to match both words on each item.

ra
via

nsula
fenestra

cna
aura

cna
unda

pgina
aura
nsula
esse

Su
gar

sum
via

rgna
sum

dinner island
breeze window

unda
glria

queen
I am

I am
road

anger
road

dinner
wave

page
breeze

wave
glory

_____________ virumque _____________


(Of arms_______________ I singVergils ____________)
PAGE22
11
PAGE

island
to be

Chapter 4
Unit I

MEMORY PAGE:
Chapter Maxim: Arma virumque can*
(Of arms and the man I singVergils Aeneid)
New Chant: 1st Declension Noun Endings: -a, -ae, -ae, -am, -
Case

Singular

Plural

Nominative

-a
-ae
-ae
-am
-

-ae
-rum
-s
-s
-s

Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

VOCABULARY:

LATIN
puella, puellae (f)
fmina, fminae (f)
flia, fliae (f)

english
girl
woman
daughter

germna, germnae (f)

sister

magistra, magistrae (f)

female teacher

discipula, discipulae (f)

female student

domina, dominae (f)


famula, famulae (f)

female master
female servant*

serva, servae (f)

female slave*

amca, amcae (f)

female friend

page 23

*Certainly slaves
served their masters,
but they did not serve
freelythey had to.
A famulus could be a
slave, too, who served in
a household.

Unit I

CHAPTER 4: GRAMMAR PAGE

CASE:
Last week our topic was gender and number, two characteristics of a noun that
are very important to remember. This week were going to learn about the last
characteristic of a noun, case. Case helps us to figure out how the noun is used in a
sentence. In Latin, case tells us how the noun relates to the other words around it.
Nouns in English dont have case.
Looking at the chart on the previous page, we see the cases in bold. The names
of the cases need to be remembered along with the endings of the nouns. To help
us remember the names of the cases, we will use a mnemonic tool. The word
mnemonic simply means made to aid memory. The tool we will use to help us
with this memory job is called an acrostic. An acrostic is made by taking the first
letter of each listed word and creating a saying or sentence from them. You could
come up with your own, but we find this one easy to remember:
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative

NEVER GIVE DAVUS ANY APPLES


The N in never stands for nominative. The G in
give stands for genitive, et cetera (and the rest). We will
discuss the uses of the specific cases in a later chapter, so dont stress
about that just yet!

Once this is memorized, we will be able to recall just what is asked for with 1st
declension nouns. For instance, what is the 1st declension, nominative plural ending?
If we go to the chart, we can follow the nominative row over to the plural column
and find the ending -ae. Now find the 1st declension, accusative singular ending. You
should see that the ending is -am. Practice this. It will come in very handy!
NO WORD FOR THE OR A IN LATIN
In your vocabulary list, notice that puella is translated as girl, which is correct.
Because there is no word in Latin for the or a (called article adjectives), you
can also translate puella as the girl or a girl. How will you know whether to
translate puella as girl, the girl, or a girl? You can choose the translation that
makes the best sense in English! Once you start translating Latin sentences, the
other Latin words in a sentence will help you choose whether or not to use the
or a (or an) in your translation.
PAGE 24

CHAPTER 4: Worksheet

Unit I

A. TRANSLATION: New and Review Vocabulary


1. discipula _________________________

7. puella___________________________

2. ancilla ___________________________

8. spect___________________________

3. domina __________________________

9. germna ________________________

4. ra_______________________________

10. magistra ________________________

5. fenestra __________________________

11. fmina__________________________

6. Arma virumque can _________________________________________


B. CHANT: Fill in the 1st declension endings and the boxes with the missing labels.
Plural

Genitive

-ae

Accusative

C. GRAMMAR:
1. What does the case of a noun tell us?_______________________________________
2. What are the options for case?____________________________________________
3. Give the present tense verb endings.________________________________________
D. DERIVATIVES:
1. W
 e have learned that first declension nouns are almost always ________________
in gender. (fmina)
2. If someone is friendly he or she can be called ___________. (amca)

PAGE 25

Unit I

CHAPTER 4: Derivative Worksheet

A. Study
Study the English derivatives that come from the Latin words you have learned this week:
Latin
fmina
flia
germna
magistra
discipula
domina
famula
serva
amca

English
feminine
filial
germane
magistrate, magisterial
disciple, discipline
dominate, dominion, domain
family, familiar, familiarize
servant, servitude
amity, amicable

B. Define
In a dictionary, look up two of the English derivatives from the list above, as well as
the word family, and write their definitions in the spaces below:
1. _____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
3. Family: ______________________________________________________________
C. Apply
A famula was a female servant or slave in a Roman household. A male servant was
called a famulus. A household of servants or slaves was called a familia. We get our
English word family from the Latin words famula, famulus, and familia.
When you looked up the word family, you saw that it is used in several different
ways. We can even speak of a family of Romance languages that all came from Latin
(the language of the Romans). Do you know what some of the Romance languages
are? Circle the languages below that you think might have come from Latin.
(Hint: It will be hard for you to be wrong.)
Italian

Spanish
Romanian

Portuguese
French

PAGE 26

CHAPTER 4: Quiz
A. NEW Vocabulary:

Unit I

Latin

English

puella, puellae
fmina, fminae
flia, fliae
germna, germnae
magistra, magistrae
discipula, discipulae
domina, dominae
famula, famulae
serva, servae
amca, amcae
B. REVIEW Vocabulary:

Latin

English

err, errre, errv, errtum


sum, esse, fu, futrum
st, stre, stet, statum
ra, rae
unda, undae
C. CHANT: Give the 1st declension noun endings and fill in the boxes.
-a

D. GRAMMAR: Answer the following questions.


1. What does case help us figure out?___________________________________________
2. Give the acrostic for remembering the cases.___________________________________
PAGE 27

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Ac

A
er
im
Pr
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re
ild
Ch
r
fo
Latin
m
w.ClassicalAcademicPress.co
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PAGE 28

Chapter 5
Unit I

REVIEW CHAPTER:

ow that you have learned forty Latin words (ten


words in each chapter), it is time to review them to
make sure you wont forget them. Remember to
practice reciting these words for five to ten minutes every
day. Try to give the English words for each Latin word
on the following list. For each word that you miss, put a
check in the circle next to that word. Then work really hard
on those checked words until you have them mastered! If
you want to, write the English words by the Latin words.
Remember to chant or sing the words several times every day.
Review this list at least once every day this week.
Verbs:

Verbs:

Nouns:

Nouns:

am________________________________
d _________________________________
intr________________________________
labr______________________________
nrr_______________________________
aqua________________________________
fbula_______________________________
porta_______________________________
silva________________________________
terra________________________________
via_________________________________
fossa________________________________
mnsa_______________________________
mta________________________________
pgina______________________________
cna________________________________
patria_______________________________
aura________________________________
rgna_______________________________
nsula_______________________________

err________________________________
st_________________________________
par________________________________
spect_______________________________
sum________________________________
puella_______________________________
fmina______________________________
germna____________________________
flia_________________________________
magistra____________________________
discipula____________________________
domina_____________________________
famula______________________________
serva________________________________
amca_______________________________
ancilla______________________________
glria_______________________________
ra__________________________________
unda________________________________
fenestra_____________________________

page 29

Unit I

CHAPTER 5: Review Cont.

Derivative Study
Derivatives are English words that come from Latin words. For example, aquatic
is an English derivative word that comes from the Latin word aqua (which means
water). Then there is the strange English derivative word defenestration, which
means the act of throwing something out the window! This word comes from
the Latin root word fenestra (which means window). The English derivative
amicable comes from the Latin word amcus (friend). During this review week,
we will learn many more derivatives that help you learn the Latin words better and
learn some more about English, too! Review the lists below that contain your Latin
vocabulary for the last two chapters along with some English derivatives.
Verbs

Verbs

Am: amity (friendship), amorous, amateur,


enamor (showing love to someone)
D: donate, donation
Intr: entrance, introduction
Labr: laboratory (a place where you work!)
Nrr: n
 arrate, narrative, narration
(a story, something told)

Nouns

Err: error, erroneous (to be in error)


St: stationary, station, static (not moving)
Par: pare, parry, repair, compare, separate
Spect: s pectacular, speculate, spectator, spectacle
(a sight to be seen!). A Roman gladiator
fight was called a spectculum!

Nouns

Aqua: aquatic (having to do with water)


Fbula: fable, fabulous
Porta: portable (something you can carry),
port (a place where things are carried
often in ships!)
Silva: Pennsylvania (William Penns woods)
Terra: e xtraterrestrial (from another planet),
terrain (the lay of the land), terrarium
Via: way, deviate, devious, obvious,
trivia, trivium, viaduct
Fossa: fossil, fossilize
Mnsa: mesa (large flat plainlike a huge table)
Pgina: page
Cna: cenacle (a fancy name for a dining room)
Patria: patriot, patriotic
Aura: aroma (something in the air that smells good)
Rgna: reign (to rule), regal (like a king or queen)
nsula: insular (all alone like an island), insulate
(to surround somethinglike an island is
surrounded by water).

Fmina: feminine, female


Germna: germane (closely relatedlike a sister!)
Flia: f ilial (having to do with a parent and child
relationship), affiliation
Magistra: magistrate (a ruler or judge), magisterial
Discipula: disciple (someone who follows and
learns from another), discipline
Domina: dominate (to control)
Famula: family, familiar, familiarize
Serva: servant, serve, servitude
Amca: amicable (friendly), amity
Ancilla: ancillary (helpful)
Glria: glory, glorify
ra: irritate, irritable, irascible (easily angered)
Unda: undulate (moving up and down),
undulation (a wave or something like a
wave), inundate (to flood)
Fenestra: defenestration (the act of throwing
someone or something out of a window)

PAGE 30

CHAPTER 5: Review CONT.

Unit I

Working with Derivatives


Did you know that in some English dictionaries (usually thick ones) you can find
Latin words as part of the definition for English words? Here is an example from
Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, using the word fable:
Fable: n. [ME, fr. MF, fr. L fbula conversation, story, play]: a fictitious
narrative or statement as a legendary story of supernatural happenings.
The ME means Middle English and the MF means Middle French. The two little
letters fr. mean from. Guess what the L means? Yes, it is an abbreviation (a short way
of saying something) for Latin! You already know what fbula means! So the word
fable is from Middle English, from Middle French, and originally from Latin (from
fbula). This dictionary also tells us that fbula can be defined as conversation, story,
playbut you already knew that. The Latin words in these definitions can be called
roots since the English word grew up out of the root of the Latin word. The Latin
root for fable is fbula. The derivative of fbula is fable.
Now choose one English derivative from each column and look them up. Try to
find them in a good dictionary that has Latin roots (your teacher or parent can help
you). Can you see how the dictionary gives you the Latin root? List the derivatives
you looked up below:
1. English Derivative:___________________ Latin Root:___________________
2. English Derivative:___________________ Latin Root:___________________
Try writing a sentence that uses at least two derivatives that you have learned.
Underline the derivative and put the Latin root in parentheses right after it.
Here is an example:
John was irritated (ra) after losing his fossil (fossa).
Now write your sentence:
________________________________________________________________________
Now try writing a short little story using as many derivatives as you can.
Be creativethis could be fun. Underline the derivatives you use and put the Latin
root it comes from in parentheses, just as you did in your sentence above.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
PAGE 31

Unit I

CHAPTER 5: Review CONT.

The Latin Family Tree


S tudy the Latin family tree and see where Latin came from and what languages
came from Latin! The oldest language is listed on the bottom of the tree, and our
language (English!) is listed on the top.

Portuguese
Amigo: friend
Filia: daughter

English!
About 50 percent (half)
of our English words come from
Latin, sometimes directly from Latin,
but often through French. Many
professions get lots of important words
from Latinespecially law, science,
medicine, music, philosophy, and
theology. Also, English literature
is filled with Latin quotations!

Spanish
Amigo: friend
Hija: daughter
All of these five languages
are called Romance
languages because they
came from the language of
the Romanswhich was
Latin! They are all similar.
If you learn Latin well,
you can easily learn any
one (or several) of these
Romance languages. You
can see how closely these
languages are related to
Latin (they are germane to
Latin!) and to each other
by looking at the words
for friend and daughter
in each language. Latin
is a father, and the five
Romance languages are
like sonsthey are brother
languages!

French
Ami: friend
Fille: daughter

Italian
Amico: friend
Figlia:
daughter

Latin!
Spoken in the region
of Latium on the west
coast of central Italy
where Rome is!
Amcus: friend
Flia: daughter

Latin-Faliscan: an
early language that
gave birth to Latin.
Italic: an early language
spoken in the region of Italy.
Proto-Indo-European Language:
spoken through most of Europe as
far back as 5,000 years before Christ
(5000 BC)
PAGE 32

Romanian
Amic: friend
Fiic: daughter

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Learn how absorbing the best words in the best order changes your relationship to ideas.

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