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13/11/2016 BitFieldsinC  C­BitFields Advertisements  PreviousPage NextPage 
13/11/2016
BitFieldsinC
C­BitFields
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SupposeyourCprogramcontainsanumberofTRUE/FALSEvariablesgroupedinastructurecalledstatus,asfollows−
struct {
unsigned int widthValidated;
unsigned int heightValidated;
}
status;
Thisstructurerequires8bytesofmemoryspacebutinactual,wearegoingtostoreeither0or1ineachofthevariables.TheC
programminglanguageoffersabetterwaytoutilizethememoryspaceinsuchsituations.
IfyouareusingsuchvariablesinsideastructurethenyoucandefinethewidthofavariablewhichtellstheCcompilerthatyouaregoing
touseonlythosenumberofbytes.Forexample,theabovestructurecanbere­writtenasfollows−
struct {
unsigned int widthValidated : 1;
unsigned int heightValidated : 1;
}
status;
Theabovestructurerequires4bytesofmemoryspaceforstatusvariable,butonly2bitswillbeusedtostorethevalues.
Ifyouwilluseupto32variableseachonewithawidthof1bit,thenalsothestatusstructurewilluse4bytes.Howeverassoonasyou
have33variables,itwillallocatethenextslotofthememoryanditwillstartusing8bytes.Letuscheckthefollowingexampleto
understandtheconcept−
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
/* define simple structure */
struct {
unsigned int widthValidated;
unsigned int heightValidated;
}
status1;
/* define a structure with bit fields */
struct {
unsigned int widthValidated : 1;
unsigned int heightValidated : 1;
}
status2;
int main( ) {
printf( "Memory size occupied by status1 : %d\n", sizeof(status1));
printf( "Memory size occupied by status2 : %d\n", sizeof(status2));
return 0;
}
Whentheabovecodeiscompiledandexecuted,itproducesthefollowingresult−
Memory size occupied by status1 : 8
Memory size occupied by status2 : 4
BitFieldDeclaration
Thedeclarationofabit­fieldhasthefollowingforminsideastructure−
struct {
type [member_name] : width ;
};
Thefollowingtabledescribesthevariableelementsofabitfield−
Elements
Description
type
Anintegertypethatdetermineshowabit­field'svalueisinterpreted.Thetypemaybeint,signedint,or
unsignedint.
member_name
Thenameofthebit­field.
width
Thenumberofbitsinthebit­field.Thewidthmustbelessthanorequaltothebitwidthofthespecifiedtype.

13/11/2016

BitFieldsinC

Thevariablesdefinedwithapredefinedwidtharecalledbitfields.Abitfieldcanholdmorethanasinglebit;forexample,ifyouneeda

variabletostoreavaluefrom0to7,thenyoucandefineabitfieldwithawidthof3bitsasfollows−

struct { unsigned int age : 3;

} Age;

TheabovestructuredefinitioninstructstheCcompilerthattheagevariableisgoingtouseonly3bitstostorethevalue.Ifyoutrytouse

morethan3bits,thenitwillnotallowyoutodoso.Letustrythefollowingexample−

#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h>

struct { unsigned int age : 3;

} Age;

int main( ) {

Age.age = 4; printf( "Sizeof( Age ) : %d\n", sizeof(Age) ); printf( "Age.age : %d\n", Age.age );

Age.age = 7; printf( "Age.age : %d\n", Age.age );

Age.age = 8; printf( "Age.age : %d\n", Age.age );

return 0;

}

Whentheabovecodeiscompileditwillcompilewithawarningandwhenexecuted,itproducesthefollowingresult−

Sizeof( Age ) : 4 Age.age : 4 Age.age : 7 Age.age : 0

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