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CRIMINALISTICS
CRIMINALISTICS
FIREARMS
FIREARMSIDENTIFICATION
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COMPILED BY
LUCIA M. HIPOLITO - ROMMEL K. MANWONG - ALFIE P. SARMIENTO
FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION AND INVESTIGATION

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INTRODUCTION
Ballistics (gr. ba'llein, "throw") is the science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles,
especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and hurling projectiles so as to
achieve a desired performance. A ballistic body is a body which is free to move, behave, and be modified in
appearance, contour, or texture by ambient conditions, substances, or forces, as by the pressure of gases in a gun, by
rifling in a barrel, by gravity, by temperature, or by air particles.
Firearm ballistics information is used in forensic science. Separately from ballistics information, firearm and
tool mark examinations involve analyzing firearm, ammunition, and tool mark evidence in order to establish whether a
certain firearm or tool was used in the commission of a crime.
Ballistics is sometimes subdivided into:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Internal ballistics, the study of the processes originally accelerating the projectile, for example the passage
of a bullet through the barrel of a rifle;
Transition ballistics, the study of the projectile's behavior when it leaves the barrel and the pressure behind
the projectile is equalized.
External ballistics, the study of the passage of the projectile through space or the air; and
Terminal ballistics, the study of the interaction of a projectile with its target, whether that be flesh (for a
hunting bullet), steel (for an anti-tank round), or even furnace slag (for an industrial slag disruptor).

Ballista is a gigantic bow or catapult which was used to hurl large objects such as stones at a particular
distance to deter animals or enemy forces.
Today, the word Ballistics is frequently used synonymously in the press and in the Police Parlance to
Firearms Identification.
BALLISTICS
It is a science in itself because it evolved from systematic knowledge, research and development, training,
experience and education of those who pioneered in this field.
Technically speaking, it refers to the "science of firearms identification which involves the scientific
examination of ballistics exhibits such as: fired bullets; fired shells; firearms; and allied matters, used in crime.
Legally speaking, ballistics is the microscopic examination of fired cartridge cases and bullets together with
the recording and presentation by means of photography of what is revealed by the microscope.
BALLISTICS THEORY
Ballistics is the scientific study of the propulsion and motion of projectiles such as bullets, artillery shells,
rockets and guided missiles. Also includes the study of the destructive action of such projectiles.
The drag of a projectile moving head on is now usually divided into three parts:
1.
2.
3.

bow resistance - due to air pressure at the head of the projectile;


skin friction - caused by the friction of air moving along the middle portion of the body; and
base drag - due to the under-pressure and disturbance of the air behind the base.
The following are pioneers in the study of force and projectiles:

1.

GALILEO, NEWTON, and LEIBNIZ established the principles of dynamics and the methods of calculus,
studies which helped the rapid development of external ballistics.

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2.
3.

GALILEO and NEWTON were both interested in the force called air resistance, now usually called
aerodynamic drag, which reduces the speed of a projectile.
In 1707, CASSINI, an astronomer suggested measuring firearms muzzle velocity.

INTERIOR BALLISTICS
It is the study of motion of projectiles within the gun barrel. The time during which the projectile is influenced
by Interior Ballistics is very short. From the release of the firing pin to the moment the sound of the shot can be heard
as it leaves the muzzle occupies only about 0.01 seconds, in a modern rifle.
Interior ballistics involves:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Ignition of the primer.


Flames is produced
Combustion of the gunpowder
Energy that is generated
Force/Pressure developed
Velocity of the bullet (from the chamber to the muzzle)
Rotation of the bullet
Engraving of the cylindrical surface of the bullet.

Interior ballistics deals with the temperature, volume, and pressure of the gases resulting from combustion of
the propellant charge in the gun; it also deals with the work performed by the expansion of these gases on the gun, its
carriage, and the projectile. Some of the critical elements involved in the study of interior ballistics are the relationship
of the weight of charge to the weight of projectile; the length of bore; the optimum size, shape, and density of the
propellant grains for different guns; and the related problems of maximum and minimum muzzle pressures.
Note the following:
The British engineer Benjamin Robins conducted many experiments in interior ballistics. His findings justly
entitle him to be called the father of modern gunnery.
Late in the 18th century the Anglo-American physicist Benjamin Thompson made the first attempt to
measure the pressure generated by gunpowder. The account of his experiments was the most important contribution to
interior ballistics that had been made up to that time.
About 1760 French ballisticians determined the relationship of muzzle velocity to length of barrel by
measuring the velocity of a musket ball and cutting off a portion of the barrel before taking the velocity of the next shot.
By using the results of these experiments and advances in chemistry and thermodynamics, ballisticians developed
formulas showing the relationship between muzzle velocity and weight and shape of projectile; weight, type, and grain
size of powder charge; pressure and temperature in the barrel; and the size of the powder chamber and the length of
the barrel.
Related Terms in Interior Ballistics
1.
2.

Action term referring to the mechanism of a firearm.


Burning Rate - An arbitrary index of the quickness that burning propellant changes into gas. Burning
rate is controlled by the chemical composition, the size and shape of the propellant grains, and the pressure
at which the burning takes place. IMR 5010 powder is very slow burning and Bulls eye is fast burning.

3.

Bulk Density - The ratio of the weight of a given volume of powder vs. the weight of the same volume
of water.

4.

Chamber Pressure the pressure generated within the chamber erroneously called breeched
pressure.

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5.

Charge Weight to Bullet Weight ratio - This is the ratio of the weight of the powder charge to the
weight of the projectile.

6.

Detonation Chemical rearrangement of molecules into gas instead of solids to cause the high
explosives to exert full power of shock. The speed of detonation varies in different explosive but in some it is
as high as 7000 yards in a second.
Energy - is measured in foot-pounds, and one foot-pound means that amount of energy, which would
be capable of lifting a weight of one pound through a distance of one foot Drop-Block Action- That type of
action in which the breechblock rises and forces vertically in cuts in the receiver side walls. Lever actuated
as a rule.
Expansion Ratio - The ratio of the capacity of the powder chamber plus bore (in grains of water) to the
capacity of the powder chamber (in grains of water).

7.

8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Foot Pound - the amount of work required to raise one pound one foot high against the force of
gravity.
Foot second - velocity expressed in foot per second.
Gas - a fluid resulting from the combustion of gun powder with a relatively great expansion and
spontaneous tendency.
Hangfire - Occurs when a cartridge fails to explode on time or delayed in firing.
Knocking Power - the power of the bullet which delivers a very heavy paralyzing blow that put the
victim down and may then recover if the wound inflicted upon is not fatal.
Loading Density - The ratio of the weight of the powder charge to the capacity of the powder chamber
(case). It is usually expressed as the ratio of the charge weight to the capacity the powder chamber in grains
of water. (See below.) Generally, the more fully the powder charge fills the case the more consistent and
accurate the load will be. On the other hand if the loading density is too low, (too much free space in the
case) it can cause erratic ignition, change in the pressure curve (moving the peak towards the muzzle), or
even overly rapid burning ("detonation") of the powder charge. (One reason manuals list minimum or starting
loads.)

15.

Misfire total failure of a cartridge to discharge. This is different from hang fire which merely a delayed
combustion, while misfire a complete failure eve to start combustion.
16.
Powder Chamber Capacity - As with most interior ballistics capacity measurements it is usually
expressed in grains of water. It is determined by measuring the weight of water that a fired case from the test
firearm can contain with a bullet seated to its normal depth. Note that this varies with different bullets or
seating depth as well as the dimensions of the chamber, and the brand of case.
17.
18.

Pressure Outward push of gases from powder combustion against cartridge case, chamber and bore.
Sectional Density - The ratio of the bullet's weight (in pounds) to its diameter.

19.

PSI - Pounds per square inch. It is often seen designated as PSIA. This designation is now used to
signify a measurement of chamber pressure taken with a piezo-electric device. Piezo-electric units operate in
a similar fashion to the copper crusher units but use a reusable crystal "crusher" that changes its electrical
properties in response to pressure. When connected to suitable recording equipment the entire pressure
pulse history can be recorded or displayed. The peak pressure recorded by a piezo-electric peak device
usually reads about 5,000 psi higher than the figure determined by the copper crusher method.

20.

Recoil the equal and opposite reaction of the gun against the forward movement of the bullet during
the explosions.
21.
Residual Pressure the pressure remaining in the chamber after the bullet has left the barrel.
EXTERIOR BALLISTICS
Exterior Ballistics deals with the motion of projectiles from the time they leave the muzzle of the firearm to the
time they hit the target. The flight of most bullet or projectile does not exceed 30 seconds at maximum range, which for
almost any firearms is obtained at an elevation of about 33.

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CONDITIONS - refers to the natural laws.


a. velocity - speed per unit of time ex. M16 - 3,300 ft/sec.
b. energy - fatal equivalent of a bullet.
c. yaw - the unstable rotating motion of a bullet.
d. gyroscopic action - refers to the stillness of its rotating motion and attained its highest momentum or
stability in flight and penetrating power.
In exterior ballistics, elements such as shape, caliber, weight, initial velocities, rotation, air resistance,
and gravity help determine the path of a projectile from the time it leaves the gun until it reaches the target.
Until the middle of the 16th century it was believed that bullets move in straight lines from the gun to the
target and that shells fired from mortars describe a path made up of two straight lines joined by an arc of a circle. The
Italian mathematician Niccol Tartaglia, in a published work on gunnery, claimed that no part of the path of a projectile
could be a straight line and that the greater the velocity of the projectile the flatter its path. Tartaglia invented the
gunner's quadrant used to determine elevation of the muzzle of a gun. He is and Italian scientist who a book in which
he said that the trajectory of a bullet was really a continuous curve. He directed some firing tests to determine this
angle, and discovered that it was near 45 degrees and he noted that the trajectory was continuously curve.
Galileo proved that in a vacuum a projectile describes a parabolic arc. The description of the law of
gravitation by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton made plain the cause of the curvilinear motion of projectiles. By
the use of calculus he determined the momentum transferred from the projectile to the particles of air at rest; this
method of calculating air drag has been superseded by the use of tables prepared from experimental firings.
Two methods have been used to determine the velocity of a projectile after it leaves the gun. One method
measures the momentum of the projectile; the other measures the time required for the projectile to travel a given
distance. The first method is the older, and in the past, when guns and projectiles were small, velocities low, and
ranges short, the results were sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes. The ballistic pendulum and gun
pendulum were used to measure projectile momentum, but these devices have been supplanted by cheaper and more
accurate machines working on the principles of the second method.
The ballistic pendulum was developed about 1743 by Robins, who was the first to undertake a systematic
series of experiments to determine the velocity of projectiles. The principle of the ballistic pendulum, as well as of the
gun pendulum, which was developed by Thompson, is the transfer of momentum from a projectile with a small mass
and a high velocity to a large mass with a resultant low velocity.
The ballistic pendulum consisted of a massive plate of iron to which was bolted a block of wood to receive
the impact of the projectile; the pendulum was suspended freely from a horizontal axis. The block, when struck by the
projectile, recoiled through a certain arc that was easily measured. Knowing the arc of recoil and the masses of the
projectile and the pendulum, the velocity of the projectile could be determined by calculation. The ballistic pendulum
was able to withstand the impact of musket balls only; however, by determining the relations that should exist between
the caliber, length of barrel, and charge of power, Robins substantially advanced the science of gunnery.
By the second method, the velocity of a projectile is determined by measuring the time required for it to travel
a known length of its path. Numerous machines have been devised for this purpose; in 1840 the British physicist Sir
Charles Wheatstone suggested the use of electricity for measuring small intervals of time. This suggestion led to the
development of the chronograph, a device for recording, by electrical means, the time required for a projectile to pass
between two screens of fine wire.
The formulas and tables for the exterior ballistics of each new type of gun or cannon are more or less
empirical and must be tested by actual experiment before the aiming devices can be accurately calibrated.
Further, exterior (external) ballistics refers to the attributes and movements of the bullet after it has left the
gun muzzle. It includes:

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Muzzle blast - the noise created at the muzzle point of the gun due to the sudden escape of
the expanding gas coming in contact with the air in the surrounding atmosphere at the muzzle point.
Muzzle energy - energy generated at the muzzle point.
Trajectory - the actual curved path of the bullet during its flight from the gun muzzle to the target.
The following are the kinds of trajectory: straight horizontal line - parabola-like flight - vertical drop
Range - the straight distance between the muzzle point and the target.
a. Accurate (effective) range - the distance within the shooter has control of his shots, meaning he can
place his shots at the desired spots.
b. Maximum range - the farthest distance that a projectile can be propelled from a firearm.

* While the range at which the ordinary pistol and revolver are supposed to be effective in only 50-70
yards, all of them can send their bullets much further than that and are capable of inflicting fatal wounds at
distances up to one mile, depending on the caliber and gunpowder content.
5.

Velocity - rate of speed of the bullet per unit of time.


Long barrel rifle up to 3,000 yards accurate range and its hinge muzzle velocity of 1000-4000 ft./sec.

* Bullets from rifled weapons spin at 2000-3000 revolutions per second, but over the first few yards
of trajectory distance varies with the weapon their flight is slightly unstable; the end of the projectile wobbles
before it picks up a smooth flight path. This phenomenon is called TAILWAG, and is of considerable important
in evaluating gunshot wounds. A bullet with tailwag does not strike its target clearly.
6.
7.
8.

Air resistance - resistance encountered by the bullet while in flight.


Pull of gravity - downward reaction of the bullet while in flight.
Penetration - depth of entry on target.

Note on the following Contributors:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.

1707 - Cassini. Suggested measuring of firearms muzzle velocity


1857 Monsieur Noiles. Published a thesis titled Les Plaies Feu Courtes. His thesis dealt with the
subject of wounds made by small firearms.
1748 - Henry Shrapnel. He invented the shrapnel, which disperse its load of case shot with a small
bursting charge, increasing the effective range of case.
1898 Mr. Corin in Paris, France. Published an article titled La Determination de La Distance
aLaguelle un Coup de Feu a ete Tire (Determination of the distance at which a shot has been discharged
from a firearm).
1900 Dr. Albert Llewellyn Hal in Buffalo, New York (USA). A very significant article entitled The
Missile and the Weapon was published in the June issue of the Buffalo Medical Journal.
1903 Mr. E.J. Churchill in London, England (uncle of Robert Churchill of later fame as a firearms
examiner for the United Kingdom). He provided testimony as to some experimentation that he had
performed involving the distance of which a shot had been fired into a human skull.
1900 - Dr. Albert Llewellyn. He wrote an article entitled The Missile and the Weapon, which dealt
with a variety of issues to include how measurement of land and groove markings are made on bullets. He
also discussed the examination of gunpowder residues in barrels of firearms and the changes that take place
over time after the weapon is fired.
1921 - Mr. Jorge T. Filho. He published an article entitled Estimation of Distance from which a Bullet
was Fired (Da Diagnose da Distance nos Tiros de Projecteis Multiplos Chumbo de Caca).
Emile Monnin Chamot. He authored a 61-paged monograph entitled The Microscopy of Small Arms
Primers.

Note on the following Terms in Exterior Ballistics:


1.
2.

Accuracy Range The maximum distance at which a particular gun and cartridges will consistently place all
shots in the standard target for that distance.
Accurate Range The distance within which the shooter has control of his shots.

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3.

Back Curve - This is that portion of the bullets trajectory that drops below the critical zone beyond the point
blank range. Past this point the trajectory begins to drop off very rapidly with range and the point of impact
becomes very difficult to estimate.

4.

Ballistic Coefficient The means that the bullet may lose its speed very rapidly during its flight the air. This
is a number that relates to the effect of air drag on the bullet's flight and which can be used to later predict a
bullet's trajectory under different circumstances through what are called "drag tables."
Bullet Energy the power possessed by a moving bullet, or in other words, its ability to keep going when it
meets an obstacle and to do work on the obstacle is immense importance, for obviously the more power a
bullet has an the harder it is to stop the more effective it can be as a weapon
Bullet Trajectory - This is the bullet's path as it travels down range. It is parabolic in shape and because the
line of the bore is below the line of sight at the muzzle and angled upward, the bullet's path crosses the line
of sight at two locations.

5.
6.

7.

Critical Zone - This is the area of the bullet's path where it neither rises nor falls greater than the dimension
specified. Most shooters set this as 3" to 4" from the line of sight, although other dimensions are
sometimes used. The measurement is usually based on one-half of the vital zone of the usual target. Typical
vital zones diameters are often given as: 3" to 4" for small game, and 6" to 8" for big game and antipersonnel use.

8.

Drift - is the curve taken by the bullet while in flight. A right hand rifling curves to the right while that of the left
and rifling curves to the left.
Effective Range- The maximum distance at which a bullet may reasonably be expected to travel accurately
and kill a particular type of live targe
Extreme Range The greatest distance the bullet will travel when the cartridge is fired.
Flat Trajectory - A comparative term used to indicate very little curvature in the flight in the bullet from
muzzle to point of impact. When the velocity is high, comparatively flat trajectory.
Gallery Range - The indoor target range. National rifle association of America, gallery rules required stance
from firing point to target of 50 feet or 75 feet for.22 rim fire riffle; 50 feet or 60 feet for .22rim-fire pistols. On
properly constructed indoor ranges, firing may be conducted with center fire pistol and revolvers at ranges of
25 yards and 50 yards. Such installation are generally referred to as indoor range the term gallery being
applied usually only to the short range .22 caliber installation.
Gallery Range - The indoor target range. National rifle association of America, gallery rules required stance
from firing point to target of 50 feet or 75 feet for.22 rim fire riffle; 50 feet or 60 feet for .22rim-fire pistols. On
properly constructed indoor ranges, firing may be conducted with center fire pistol and revolvers at ranges of
25 yards and 50 yards. Such installation are generally referred to as indoor range the term gallery being
applied usually only to the short range .22 caliber installation.
Initial Point - The range at which the bullet's trajectory first crosses the line of sight. This is normally occurs
at a range of about 25 yards.

9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

14.

15. Instrument Velocity - the velocity of a projectile measured by the scientific instrument called chronograph,
at a specified point on its trajectory. Always lower than the muzzle velocity.
16. Key-hole Shot the tumbling of the bullet in its flight and hitting the target sideways as a result of not
spinning on its axis.
17. Maximum Point Blank Range - This is the farthest distance at which the bullet's path stays within the critical
zone. In other words the maximum range at which you don't have to adjust your point of aim to hit the target's
vital zone. Unless there is some over riding reason to the contrary shots should not generally be attempted
much past this distance. In the words of the Guru, "It is unethical to attempt to take game beyond 300
meters." If you do, you should write yourself a letter explaining why it was necessary to do so. An
approximate rule of thumb says that the maximum point blank range is approximately your zero range plus
40 yards.
18. Maximum Range the farthest distance that a projectile can be propelled from a firearm.

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19. Maximum Ordinate - This is the maximum height of the projectile's path above the line of sight for a given
point of impact and occurs somewhat past the halfway point to the zero range and it is determined by your
zeroing range.
20. Mid-range Trajectory - This is the height of the bullets path above the line of sight at half way to the zero
range. It does not occur at the same range as the maximum ordinate height which can be greater.
21. Minute of Angle (MOA) - A "minute" of angle is 1/60 of a degree which for all practical purposes equates to
1 inch per 100 yards of range. Thus 1 MOA at 100 yards is 1 inch and at 300 yards it is 3 inches. The term is
commonly used to express the accuracy potential of a firearm.
22. Point Blank Range Popularly used to indicate the distance the bullet will travel before it drops enough to
require sight adjustment. A short fired so closed to the target that no sighting is necessary for effective
aiming.
23. Ricochet The bouncing off or deflection of a bullet from its original trajectory (normal path) after striking a
resistant surface.
24. Shocking Power the power of the bullet that results in the instantaneous death of the victim.
25. Stopping Power the power of the bullet that put the victim out of action instantly. So it should be
understood that stopping power is not necessarily the same thing as killing power. However, stopping power
depends very largely on the location of the sot.
26. Target an object at which the firearm is aimed and discharged.
27. True Drop the actual distance the bullet falls during the time of flight to the target. This is not the same as
what we speak of when we discuss drop in the ordinary sense, which is more properly termed effective or
apparent drop
28. Zero Range - This is the farthest distance at which the line of sight and the bullet's path intersect.
TERMINAL BALLISTICS
It is the study dealing with the effect of the impact of the bullet on the target. Penetration of the bullet is of
prime interest. Penetration is important also in determining safety requirements for target backstops. They are
important to both sportsman and military.
TERMINAL BALLISTICS involves:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Terminal accuracy - size of the bullet grouping on the target.


Terminal energy - energy of the projectile when it strikes the target. Also known as striking energy.
Terminal penetration - depth of entry of the bullet in the target.
Terminal velocity - speed of the bullet upon striking the target.

Terminal ballistics also deals with the destructive actions and effects that occur at the end of the projectile's
flight as an integral and un-deformed body. The flight may end in one of two ways:
1.
2.

the projectile may strike a solid obstruction, or


its metal case may be broken by the explosion of a bursting charge

SHOTS BALLISTICS - deals with the attributes and properties of shots and pellets.
CHOKE - When the diameter of a barrel of a shotgun is the same throughout the bore, it is called true cylinder.
The bore of the gun is sometimes constricted near the muzzle end. That is, the diameter near the muzzle
end is slightly smaller than the diameter of the bore of the rest of the barrel. The barrel is said to be choked.
Full if reduced by one mm; half if reduced by one-half mm; quarter if reduced by mm; and improved
cylinder if reduced by about 1/10 mm.

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The amount of spread in the shot is controlled by the choke. If a barrel will put 70 percent of its shot charge
in a 30-inch (76-centimeter) circle at 40 yards (37 meters), it is called full choke. Modified choke will deliver about 60
percent; improved cylinder about 50 percent. A full choke 12-gauge gun will kill ducks that are about 60 to 65 yards (55
to 59 meters) away.
Chilled Shot shotgun pellets made from lead especially hardened by the addition of a slight amt. of antimony.
WOUND BALLISTICS It is the study of the effects of projectile to human body.
Gunshot Wound (GSW). It is an open wound produced by the penetration of bullet slug within the tissues of
the body. The bullet which was propelled from the gun as well as the flame from the heated expanded gases in short
range fire is the one that produces injury.
Three Basic Kinds of GSW Distinguished by the Proximity of the Weapon
1.
2.
3.

Contact gun muzzle pressed against, or within an inch or two, of the body.
Close discharge 6 inches to 2 ft.
Distance Discharge over 2 ft. or 3 ft.

Range of Fire - an important aspect of forensic ballistics.


1.

2.
3.
4.

Muzzle Pattern indicates contact wound and are often observed in suicide cases. The whole charge
(projectile, wads, if any, smoke, unburnt or semi-burnt powder particles and hot gases) enter into the target.
No burning, blackening and tattooing are observed. Instead, they are observed inside the hole through
careful examination. The edges are found ragged (torn in star shape) and the wound is like an exit wound.
Scorching caused by the flame or hot gases not by the hot projectiles as is commonly believed. It is
also known as burning or charring.
Blackening caused by the deposition of smoke particles by all types of powders at close ranges.
Being light particles, they soon lose their velocity and get deposited on any material available in the path.
Tattooing (a.k.a. peppering) caused by the embedding of unburnt and semi-burnt powder particles
into the surface of the target. These particles are slightly heavier than the smoke particles. They retain
motion to somewhat longer intervals and consequently cause tattooing to a distance of about one and a-half
times blackening range.

Other GSW Characteristics


1.
2.
3.
4.

Pink Coloration caused by absorbed carbon monoxide in the skin and flesh.
Dirt Ring deposited by some projectile (which carry greases on them) around the wound. Existence
of this indicates the entrance side of a firearm injury & does not indicate range.
Contusion caused by the impact of the projectile (reddish dark to bluish black - varies somewhat with
the age of the injury). It takes the form of a belt around the wound. It is of uniform in thickness.
Foreign Materials Their presence not only permits the identification of the firearms injury but they
also permit a fairly reliable guess of firearm.

Factors influencing entrance and exit gunshot wounds


1.
2.
3.

Kind of weapon - The higher power the weapon is the more destructive to the tissues of the body.
Caliber of the weapon - The higher the caliber of the wounding bullet, the greater will be the size of the
wound of entrance, hence, greater destruction to the tissues.
Shape and composition of the missile - The conical shape free end of the bullet slug has more penetrating
power but less tissue destruction, while bullet slug with hemispherical free end had less penetrating but more
destruction to the tissues.

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* Some bullets were made to be deformed upon heating the target like the hallow point, dumdum and soft point bullet. Bullets made of hard metals like the magnum 44 and the armor-piercing bullet
are not usually deformed upon hitting the target. Other bullets and the fragments may cause further injury to
the body. The tracer bullet is in flame during its flight to the air and may caused burn upon hitting the body
and this bullet is also used in targeting the low flying airplane.
4.
5.

6.

Range of fire - the injury is not only due to the missile but also due to the pressure of the heated expanded
gases, flame and articles of gunpowder. However, in long range fire, the characteristic effect of the bullet
alone will produce the injury.
Direction of fire - A right angle approach of the bullet to the body will produce a round shape wound of
entrance in short distance fire, while in acute angle of approach the bullet will produce an oval shape wound
of entrance with contusion collar widest on the side of the acute angle of approach and a tendency for the
bullet to deflect to another direction upon hitting the target.
Part of the body involved - When the bullet hit the soft tissues of the body; the bullet penetrates and
usually without any change in direction, however upon hitting the bones and other hard body structures the
bullet may fracture the bones causing further injury or may deflect to another direction.

Description of the wound of entrance is based on the distance of the body from the fired gun
1.

2.

3.

Contact fire. This is burst due to the explosion of the powder which produces the heated and expanded
gases. There is burning of the tissues because it is within the flame zone; singeing of the hair; and particles
of gunpowder in and around the wound of entrance; skin is separated from the underlying tissues in the
affected area and the blasted tissues are cherry red in color because of the presence of carbon monoxide;
pressure of the bullet will caused caving-in or excavation of tissues and the contusion collar is seen around
the wound of entrance. The size of the wound is rather small.
Near contact up to six inches distance. There is bursting of tissues, burning and blackening of the skin as
in contact fire but the particles of gunpowder are present inside as well as around the wound of entrance.
The shape of the wound maybe lacerated or slit-like and the size is larger than the diameter of the missile.
The excavation of tissues due to the pressure of the penetrating bullet slug but it can be severe as in contact
fire.
Distance above six inches up to 24 inches. The size of the wound gradually approximates the size of the
missile. The farther the target, the lesser the burning or blackening of tissues, gun powder tattooing,
singeing of the hair and excavation of tissues and lesser until they disappear beyond the 24 inches distance.

Differentiation between gunshot wound of Entrance and Wound of Exit


Differential points
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Size of the wound


Edge of the wound
Shape of the wound
Contusion collar
Gunpowder tattooing
Presence or absence
Protrusion of tissue
Paraffin test

Wound of Entrance

smaller than the missile


Inverted
Round or oval
present in contact
and near contact fire
always present
Absent
+ in contact and near fire

Wound of Exit

bigger than the missile


Everted
no definite shape
absent
absent
maybe absent if the slug is
lodged inside the body
maybe present
negative

Determination whether the gunshot injury is Suicidal, Homicidal or Accidental


A. Evidence to prove that gunshot wound is suicidal
1. Accessibility of the involved part to the hand of the victim
2. Usually only one gunshot wound
3. Usually the distance is short range or class range

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4. Presence of suicide note


5. History of frustration or despondency of the victim
6. Presence of cadaveric spasm on the hand of the victim
7. Exclusion of other evidences to prove that it is not suicide
B. Evidence that the gunshot wound is homicidal
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wound is located at any part of the body


Victim usually at a certain distance from the assailant
Signs of struggle (Defense wound) maybe present in the victim
Disturbances of the surroundings.
Wounding weapon usually not found at the scene of the crime
Testimony from the witnesses

C. Evidence that gunshot wound is accidental


1.
2.
3.
4.

Usually only one gunshot wound


Wound located at any part of the body
Absence of personal grudge between the victim and the one who fired the gun
Testimony from witnesses

Take note:
Shotgun Wound - It is an open wound produced by the penetration of pellets or shots within the tissues of
the body. In shotgun fire, the pellets penetrate and usually lodged inside the body and a tendency for a wider
dispersion of pellets at a certain distance except in contact and near contact fires.
Characteristics of the Shotgun Wound of Entrance
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

Contact fire - irregular with bursting of the affected tissues due to explosion of the heated and expanded
with accompanying flame causing burning of the skin and the tissues. There is singeing of the hair; presence
of wads and particles of gunpowder inside the wound of entrance.
Near shot up to six inches distance. There is marked laceration of the skin and destruction of tissues
due to the pressure of explosion. The burning on the surface of the skin and particles of gunpowder are
present inside and around the wound of entrance. There is singeing of the hair as well as pieces of wads
inside and outside the wound of entrance.
Distance about one yard. The pellets penetrate the tissues as one mass making the wound with
irregular edge of the wound of entrance. There will also be blackening of tissues with slight burning, singeing
of the hair or gunpowder tattooing.
Distance about two to three yards. The wound of entrance has a big central hole with ragged edges
and a few stray wounds of entrance around the central hole. At this distance, there will be no more
blackening or burning of the skin, gunpowder tattooing, singeing of the hair and pieces of wads or near the
wound of entrance.
Distance of four yards. A small group of pellets may penetrate the tissues producing a central core,
although plenty of pellets in a wider dispersion may produced separate wound of entrance. The pellets
dispersed about one and a half the distance in yards in non-choked barrel while in full-choked bore the
dispersion is one half less but there is a wider dispersion in short barrel shotgun.

Points to consider in the reporting of gunshot and shotgun injuries


1.
2.
3.

Detailed description of the gunshot and shotgun wound


Location of wound in the body
Measurement of the wound as to diameter and depth

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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Number of wound of entrance and exit


Direction and length of the bullet tract
Organs or tissues involved
Location of the slug if lodged in the body
Diagram, photograph, sketch or drawing of the gunshot or shotgun wound

Effects or complications of wound


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Hemorrhage Bleeding. It is the loss of blood from the ruptured vessel secondary to trauma or existing
pathology.
Direct mechanical injury - This is the direct damage to the tissues
Shock - It is disturbance of the balance of fluid in the body characterized by fall in blood pressure, decreases
blood flow or blood volume in the body.
Infection. It is the appearance, growth and multiplication of the micro-organism in the living tissues.
Embolism. It is the clogging of the blood vessel by foreign bodies such as air or bits of fats or septic
embolus causing blocking to the blood flow to the distal tissues supplied by the blood.

Points to consider in the reporting of wound:


1. Character of the wound
2. Location of wound in the body
3. Measurement of the wound - It is declared in inches, centimeters and millimeters.
a. Length
b. Width
c. Depth
4. Number of wound
5. Direction of wound
6. Organs involved
7. Severity of the wound
8. Period of healing or incapacity of the victim.
Other pieces of evidence in dealing with the wound
1.

Evidence from the wounding weapon


a.
Presence of blood stains, bits of tissues and other body fluids on the wounding weapon.
Evidence from the victim as well as the assailant
a. Presence of blood stains, bits of tissues and other body fluids on the victim or assailant
b. Presence of wound on the victim as well as the assailant
c. Effects or complications of wound such as found in the clinical manifestations on the victim
Evidence from the scene of the crime
a. Presence of blood stains or drops of blood on the streets or flouring, walls, furniture and other materials
at the scene of the crime
b. Presence of bits of tissues, torn clothing and other body fluids at the scene of the crime

2.

3.

Take Note:
SIR SYDNEY SMITH founder of the Medico-Legal Faculty at Cairo University and later Regis Professor of
Forensic Medicine at Edinburgh, was one of the leading exponents in studying entrance and exit wounds, powder
burns and powder tattooing on human skin and other medical phenomena associated with gun fire.
Studies involving Terminal and Wound Ballistics

1857 Monsieur Noiles. He published a thesis titled Les Plaies Feu Courtes. His
thesis dealt with the subject of wounds made by small firearms.
1889 Mr. A. Lacassogne of Lyon, France. He published a paper tided La
Deformation Des Balles de Revolver (Deformation of Revolver Bullets) in Volume 5. Archives de
lAntropologie Criminelle et Des Sciences Penales.

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1748 - Henry Shrapnel. He invented the shrapnel, which disperse its load of case
shot whit a small bursting charge, increasing the effective range of case.
Anomynous author. Published a thesis an article entitled Entrance Wounds and
Powder Markings.
Mr. Louis B. Wilson. He published an article entitle Dispersion of Bullet Energy in
Relation to Wound Effects.
P. Chavigny and E. Gelma. They authored an article entitled Fissures of the Skull by
Revolver Bullets at short-range.
J. Howard Mathews. Chairman of the Department of Chemistry at the University of
Wisconsin. In this first criminal case, he was involved on the metallographic analysis of bomb parts used to
kill an individual.

FORENSIC BALLISTICS
It is the study of Firearm Investigation and Identification of firearms by means of ammunition fired through
them. This is the real branch of the science which the police use as their guide in field investigations. This includes
the following:
1.

2.

3.

Field Investigations - conducted by the first officers on the case in the field when they investigate a
case or cases wherein firearms have been used. This is a routine job of the investigating officers, and
this involves recognition, collection, marking, preservation, and transmittal of ballistics exhibits like fired
bullets, fired shells, firearms and allied matters.
Technical examinations of the ballistics exhibits - This is the job performed by the firearms
examiners in the laboratory. It involves marking of the evidence firearms, test firings of evidence
firearms to obtain test bullets and test shells for comparative purposes, photomicrography under the
bullet comparison microscope, preparation of comparative charts, and the making of reports on the
findings and observations of the firearms examiners.
Legal proceedings - Court Trials - wherein the ballistics report of the firearm examiner and the ballistics
exhibits are presented during the trial of the case in a court of justice.

Take Note:
FORENSIC - As applied to ballistics, or to any other subject, suggest a relationship to Courts of Justice and
legal proceedings.
FORUM It is a Latin word from which forensic was derived, meaning a marketplace, where people gather
for "public disputation" or "public discussion". Thus, the title "Forensic Ballistics" aptly describes the subject under
consideration - the science of investigation and identification of firearms and ammunitions used in crimes. The terms
"Ballistics", Forensic Ballistics" and "Firearms Identification", have come to mean one and the same thing in the minds
of the public, and they can be used interchangeably.
Studies concerning Forensic Ballistics

1835 - Henry Goddard. In one of his case in England, where a homemaker was shot and killed, he was
able to identify the mold mark the mold is used to manufacture lead balls from molten leads on the field
projectile. He was the bullet, which could be traced back to the mold. He also examined the paper patch
the paper patch provides the seal between the ball gunpowder firearms was able to identify it as having
been torn from a newspaper that was found on the room of the guilty servant.
Paul Jesrich. He took photomicrographs of two bullets to compare, and subsequently individualize them
through the minute differences.
1905 - Mr. Kockel. He published an article entitled The Expert Examination of Fired Bullets.
1912 - Professor V. Baltahazard. He devised a series of procedures to identify fired bullets to the firearms
from which they were fired. He studied the firearms by taking an elaborate series of photographs of test fired
bullet from the firearms as well as evidence bullet. He also applied these same specilalized photographic

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techniques to the examination and identification of cartridge casings using firing pin, breech face, ejection
and extractor marks.
1913 - Professor Balthazard. Published the first article individualizing bullet markings.
1922 - Mr. C. Williams. He wrote an article entitle Fingerprints on Bullets which appeared in Outdoor Life
magazine.
1920 - R.E. Herrick. He published an article entitled Ballistics Jurisprudence.
November 1924 Dr Sydney Smith. He wrote an article concerning the details of the investigating that
appeared in the British Medical Journal in January 1926. He relates that he believes that scientific
examination of firearms and projectiles in Great Britain had its beginning as a result of the publication of his
report on the case.
1920 - COL CALVIN H. GODDARD (M.D., U.S. ARMY) pioneered the introduction of this science
in Criminology courses in the different universities.
1947 - Col Goddard came to the Philippines when Gen. Castaneda was ambushed together with his aid, Col
Salgado in Kamias, Quezon City, both died.
1924 Captain Edward C. Ned Crossman. A well-known shooter and sports writer, examined firearms
evidence for the Los Angeles County Sheriff in April 1925, in New York City, New York (USA), THE Bureau of
Forensic Ballistics was established by C.E. Waite, Major (later Colonel) Calvin H. Goddard, Philip O. Gravelle
and John H. Fisher.
1934 - Major Sir Gerald Burrard. He wrote a book entitled The Identification of Firearms and Forensic
Ballistics, which discussed many early cases that occurred throughout the British Empire.
1935 Major Julian S. Hatcher. He wrote and published; Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification
and Evidence together with the Textbook of Pistols and Revolvers.
1944 John E. Davis. He joined the Police Department in Oakland, California establishing its first
criminology laboratory.
Derechter and Mage. They wrote an article entitled Communication on the Identification of Fired Bullets
and Shells.
Arthur Lucas. He published an article entitled The Examination of Firearms and Projectiles in Forensic
Cases.
Jack D. Gunther & Professor Charles O. Gunther. They published the entitled The Identification of
Firearms, which provided additional information about the principles of firearms identification with
approximately one-half of the book discussing in great detail the Sacco-Vanzetti case to include reprinting
large portions of the actual court transcript. They also discussed the need for the science of firearm
identification to utilize the scientific methodology.
1958 John E. Davis. An eminent criminals and Director of the Oakland Police Department (CA)
Criminalistics Section (Crime Lab) wrote a book titled An Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms and the
Striagraph. In his book, Davis provided excellent information about the examination and identification of
firearms and tool mark evidence.
1996 Tom A. Warlow. He published a text on firearms identification titled Firearms, the Law and Forensic
Ballistics. Warlow has written a useful text that contains excellent information for firearm and toolmark
examiners.
1997 Brian J. Heard. He published a text on firearms identification titled Handbook of Firearms and
Ballistics Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence.

SUBJECTS OF BALLISTICS STUDY


FIREARMS
A firearm is a weapon that fires either single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases
produced through rapid, confined burning of a propellant. This process of rapid burning is technically known as
deflagration. In older firearms, this propellant was typically black powder, but modern firearms use smokeless powder
or other propellants.
The term gun is often used as a synonym for firearm, but in specialist use has a restricted sensereferring
only to an artillery piece with a relatively high muzzle velocity and a relatively flat trajectory, such as a field gun, a tank
gun, an anti-tank gun, or a gun used in the delivery of naval gunfire.

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Firearms are sometimes referred to as small arms. Small arms are weapons which can be carried by a single
individual, with a barrel bore of up to approximately 0.50 inch (12.7 mm). Small arms are aimed visually at their targets
by hand using optical sights. The range of accuracy for small arms is generally limited to about one mile (1600 m),
usually considerably less, although the current record for a successful Sniper attack is slightly more than 1 1/2 miles.
Firearm (Technical) is an instrument that is used for the propulsion of projectile by means of the expansive
force of gases of burning gunpowder.
Firearms or Arm (legal Sec. 877 of the RAC and Sec. 290 of NIRC) includes rifles, muskets, carbines,
shotguns, pistols, revolvers and all other weapons from which a bullet, a ball, a shot, a shell or missiles may be
discharged by means of gunpowder or other explosives. The term also includes air rifles, except that are in small in
caliber and usually used as toys. The barrel of any firearm is considered a complete firearm for purposes of Section
877 of the Revised Administrative Code.
Take Note:

Rifle long rifle bored firearm designed to hit targets at a greater or longer distance, with spiral grooves to
fire only a single shot.
Musket long smooth bored firearm that is designed to prepare a single shot.
Shotgun long smooth bored firearm having a barrel of 25-30 inches long and designed to shot birds in
flight; long smooth bored firearm and breech loading designed to fire a number of lead pellets or shot in one
charge.
Carbine s short barrel rifle, having a barrel not longer than 22 inches and it is designed to fire a single shot
through a rifled-bore, either semi-automatic or full automatic, for every press of the trigger.
.22 minimum caliber - .19 - .18 if only used as toys, could not be considered as firearm.
barrel of any firearm - Possession of any part of a firearm is considered a violation of illegal possession of
firearm (SCRA Dec. 11, 1992).

FIREARM: IN ITS GENERAL CONTEXT


Firearm is any weapon that uses gunpowder to fire a bullet or shell. Generally, the term is used for light
firearms, such as rifles, shotguns, and pistols. They are often called small arms. Heavier firearms are generally
referred to as artillery.
Mechanism
Any firearm, large or small, has four essential parts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Barrel It is a long tube. It may be smooth, as in a shotgun, or with spiral


grooves on the inner surface, as in a rifle.
Chamber - It is a widened hole at the breech (rear) end of the barrel. It holds
the cartridge (explosive charge).
Breech mechanism - The breech mechanism closes the rear end of the
barrel, holding the cartridge in the chamber.
Every up-to-date firearm has some way by which the breech can be opened for
loading and locked for safety in firing. Artillery uses screw plugs or breechblocks. Machine guns, rifles, and
other small arms usually have a metal cylinder, or bolt, that is locked when the gun is fired, and drawn back
to eject (force out) the empty cartridge case and to reload.
Firing mechanism - The firing mechanism may be electric, as in some large
artillery pieces. In small arms, a spring drives a pointed firing pin through the breech bolt against a sensitive
primer in the cartridge. The firing pin is cocked (drawn back) against a hook called the sear. When the trigger
is pulled, the sear releases the firing pin, which in turn leaps forward to strike the primer. A jet of flame from
the primer ignites the rest of the powder, forming a gas. This explosive gas propels the bullet from the barrel.

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HANDGUN/SHORT ARMS
1.
2.

Pistol a handgun that is magazine feed. It is said that pistols were invented in the Italian town PISTOIA.
Hence, the name pistol arrived in Britain about 1515 as German import.
Revolver A handgun with a corresponding cylinder that revolves before the barrel which consist of different
chambers.

ORIGINS OF FIREARMS

13th Century development of firearms followed the invention of gunpowder in Western Europe.
BERTHOLD SCHWARTZ a German monk, and Roger Bacon, an English monk are both credited with
gunpowder invention.
* Most reference books credit Roger Bacon, English monk and scientist, with the invention of
gunpowder in 1248, and Berthold Schwartz, with the application of gun powder to the propelling of a
missile in the early 1300s. This powder was that we now call black powder.

1118 Moors used artillery against Zaragoza. Early manuscripts tell o fseveral Moorish campaign in
which artillery was used all dating prior to Bacon and Scwartz.
1245 Gen. Batu, the Tartar leader used artillery in Liegnitz when he defeated the Poles, Hungarians and
Russians.
* It is also often stated that gunpowder was first invented by Chinese were aware of gunpowder
and its use as a propellant long before its advantage became recognized in Europe. It may also assume the
Arabs with their advance knowledge of chemistry at that time.

1247 one of the earliest recorded uses of firearms in warfare was that o fan attack on Seville, Spain.
1346 Cannons used by King Edward III of England at Crecy
1453 Mohammed II of Turkey in his famous conquest of Constantinople.
1500 AD - French Artist LEONARDO DA VINCE as can be gleaned in his sketch of steam powered cannon
to his primitive wheel lock firearm.
* First firearms were inefficient, large and heavy and were not capable of being carried by an
individual soldier hence; the development of cannons preceded that of small arm weapons by almost 50
years.

Stages of development of mans weapon:


> STONES > CLUBS > KNIVES > SPEARS AND DARTS > SLINGSHOTS TO HURL OBJECTS > BOWS AND
ARROWS > CROSS-BOWS >GUNS > MISSILES
Contributors in Firearms Development

Col. Calvin H. Goddard, Md., OS, U.S. Army Father of Modern Ballistics
Horace Smith Founded the great firm Smith & Wesson and pioneered the making of breech-loading
riffles.
Daniel B. Wesson An associate or partners of Smith in revolver making.
John M. Browning Wizard of modern firearms and pioneered the breech loading single shot riffle.
John T. Thompson Pioneered the making of Thompson Sub-machine gun.
David Carbine Williams maker of first known carbine.
Alexander John Forsyth Father of the percussion ignition.
Elisha King Root Designed machinery of making Colt firearms.
Eliphalet Remington one of the first riffle makers.

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John Mahlon Marlin founder of Marlin Firearms Company.


James Wolfe Ripley Stimulated the development of the Model 1855 riffled-musket.
Samuel Colt (1814-1862) - of Hartford, Connecticut, produced the first practical revolver bringing it to what
most gunsmiths would agree was its perfect form in the Colt Army 1873 model, which became famous for
its .45 caliber.
Other manufacturers followed Colts lead: Remington and Smith and Wesson in the US., Adams and
Scott-Webley in BRITAIN, Star, Luger, Browning and Beretta on the CONTINENT, until revolvers were in
used in every part of the world.
Henry Derringer He gave his name to a whole class of firearms (Riffles and pistols)
John C. Garand Designed and invented the semi-automatic US Riffle, Cal. .30 MI
Oliver F. Winchester one of the earliest riffles and pistol makers.
John Dreyse (1841) - Invented a breech-loading infantry rifle, the so called needle gun because of its long
sharp firing pin.
Maj. Cavalli of Sardina (1845) - He develop a serviceable breech loading artillery rifle.
Carl Walther (1866) - Develop a reliable small caliber automatic Pistol.
Paul Withelm Mauser (1871) - Produced parts of the rifle which had been adopted by the German
government.
Sergei Mossin (1891) - Designed the Russian Service rifle.
Kijiro Nambu (1904) - An army gun designer whose design was first produced by the Kayoba factory.
Charles Dorchester & George Sullivan (1950) - Formed the Armalite business.

IMPORTANT DATES IN FIREARMS HISTORY


1313 Gunpowder as a Propellant. The age of gunpowder began with its first use as a propellant for a
projectile. Such use has been recorded as early as 1313.
1350 Small Arms. Gunpowder was first used only in cannons. It was in the middle of the 14 th century that
portable hand firearms were introduced. These guns were ignited by a hand-held hot wire or lighted match.
1498 Riflings. The first reference to riffled barrels appeared. Although its important as an aid to accuracy was
recognized by some, it was a year after before riffling was generally used.
1575 Cartridge. Paper cartridge combining both powder and ball were developed. This greatly speeded
loading and reduced the hazards of carrying loose powder.
1807 Percussion System. The discovery of Forsyth in 1807 that certain compounds detonated by a blast
would be used to ignite the charge in a firearm, for the basis for all later percussion and cartridge to come
into general use.
1845 - Rimfire Cartridge. In France, Flobert developed a bullet breech cap which was in reality the first rim fire
cartridge.
1858 Center fire Cartridge. The Morse cartridge o f1858 marked the beginning of the rapid development of the
center fire cartridge.
1884 Automatic machine-gun. Hiram Maxim built the first fully automatic gun, utilizing the recoil of the piece
of load and fire the next charge.
1885 Smokeless Powder. In France, Vieille developed the first satisfactory smokeless powder, a new
propellant which not only lacked the smoke characteristic of black powder, but also more powerful.
MECHANISMS OF FIREARM ACTION
Generally, the principles involved in all firearms action are the same. When the firearm is cocked and ready
to fire, a pull on the trigger will cause the firing pin of the hammer to hit the percussion cap of the cartridge in the firing

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chamber which is aligned with the rear portion of the barrel. The hit by the firing pin on the percussion cap will cause
generation of a sufficient heat capable of igniting the primer.
The primer will in turn ignite the gunpowder or propellant which will cause evolution of gases under pressure
and temperature. The marked expansion of the gases will force the projectile forward with certain velocity.
Owing to presence of the rifling at the inner wall of the bore, the barrel offers some degree of resistance to
the projectile. In as much as the riffling is arranged in a spiral manner, the projectile will produce a spinning movement
as it comes out in the muzzle.
Together with the bullet passing out of the barrel are high pressure heated gases, unburned powder grains
with flame and smoke.
During explosion, there is a backward kick of the firearm which in automatic firearm cause the cocking and
the cartridge cause thrown out by the ejector. The backward movement is called recoil of the firearm.
RIFLING
Rifling refers to spiral grooves that have been formed into the barrel of a firearm. It is the means by which a
firearm imparts a spin to a projectile to gyroscopically stabilize it to improve accuracy. Most rifling is created by either
cutting with a machine tool, pressed by a tool called a "button" or forged into the barrel over a "mandrel". The grooves
are the spaces that are cut out, and the resulting ridges are called 'lands'. These lands and grooves can vary in
number, depth, shape, direction of twist ('right' or 'left'), and 'twist rate' (turns per unit of barrel length). The spin
imparted by rifling significantly improves the stability of the projectile, improving both range and accuracy.
It consists of the number of the helical grooves cut on the surface of the bore, it includes the lands and
grooves are running parallel with one another concentrically.

* Sporting Rifle
As a bullet is fired from a rifle, grooves in the interior of the barrel cause it to spin. The spinning motion stabilizes the
bullet and increases its distance and accuracy. This illustration shows a modern hunting rifle and highlights its main
components.
Take Note:
Recent developments - The grooves most commonly used in modern rifling have fairly sharp edges. More
recently, polygonal rifling has become popular, as it seems to produce better accuracy due to the fact that it does not
damage the bullet as badly as conventional rifling. Polygonal barrels also tend to have longer service lives because the
reduction of the sharp edges of the land reduces flame erosion. Higher velocities may be generated due to a reduction

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of friction and an improvement of the gas seal between the bullet and barrel. A disadvantage of polygonal rifling is that
if simple lead bullets are used, lead from the bullet tends to accumulate in the barrel (called leading) resulting in a dirty
barrel, poor accuracy, and if the leading becomes severe, excessive chamber pressure which could cause a barrel or
locking failure. Polygonal rifling is currently seen on most pistols from GLOCK and Kahr Arms.
CALIBER OF THE FIREARM
The caliber of the firearm is the diameter of the bore of the barrel measured from land to land in rifled firearm.
It is expressed in inches or fraction of an inch by the American and English manufacturers and millimeters or in
centimeters there by manufacturers in Continental Europe.
THE RIFLE
The rifle, invented about 1500, had spiral grooves in the barrel that made it more accurate than any previous
firearm. Smokeless powder was developed in the 1800's. Breechloading systems replaced dangerous muzzle loading.
Many improvements since have resulted in high-powered firearms.
Rifle is a gun with spiral grooves in its long barrel that spin the bullet as it is shot. Rifles are usually held
against the shoulder when firing. Soldiers use rifles in battle. People also use rifles to hunt game and to compete in
shooting matches.
The parts of a rifle - All rifles have four basic parts:
(1) the barrel,
(2) the stock, (3) the action, and
(3) the sights.
How a rifle works. A rifle is ready to be fired when a cartridge has been fed into the firing chamber. Then the rifle is
aimed and the trigger squeezed. The rifle's hammer or firing pin strikes the rear end of the cartridge and ignites the
primer. The primer in turn ignites the propellant powder in the cartridge. The powder burns rapidly, creating pressure
that drives the bullet down the barrel.
The rifling in the barrel makes the bullet spin. Without spin, a bullet would not stay pointed forward in flight,
but would tumble over and over. The spinning motion increases the accuracy of a bullet.
Kinds of Rifles
Rifles are classified by:

type of action: (manually operated, automatic, or semiautomatic);


the name of the designer or manufacturer (for example, Remington or Winchester); or
caliber. Caliber may refer to the inside diameter of the barrel or the diameter of the bullet. The caliber is
measured in millimeters or in decimal fractions of an inch.

There are three kinds of repeating rifles with hand-operated actions-bolt-action, lever-action, and slideaction. These rifles have magazines (cartridge holders) that feed cartridges into the firing chamber.
The action on two other kinds of rifles-automatic and semiautomatic-is operated by forces caused by the
burning of the propellant powder in the firing chamber.
1.
2.

Bolt-action rifles have an action that resembles a bolt used to lock a door. When the bolt on the rifle
is pulled back, the used cartridge is thrown out and the hammer is cocked. When the bolt is moved forward, it
pushes a new cartridge into the firing chamber.
Lever-action rifles are loaded by moving a lever under the breech down and back up. The down
movement throws out the used cartridge and cocks the hammer. The up movement inserts a new cartridge
into the firing chamber.

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3.

Slide-action rifles, also called pump-action rifles, are loaded with a back-and-forth movement of a
rod and handle beneath the front part of the barrel. When the handle is pulled back, the breech opens and
the used cartridge is thrown out. A live cartridge is inserted when the handle is pushed forward.

Automatic and semiautomatic rifles are used mainly by soldiers and police officers. When a rifle is fired, gas is
formed by the burning powder in the firing chamber. The expanding gas drives the bullet out of the barrel. In most
modern automatic and semiautomatic rifles, some of this gas operates the action. When a cartridge is fired, a fresh
cartridge is moved out of the magazine into the firing chamber, and the firing mechanism is cocked.
The M16A2 is the automatic rifle used by the U.S. armed forces. It weighs 8.9 pounds (4 kilograms) when
loaded with a 30-cartridge magazine. The M16A2 can fire one shot at a time, or three shots in a single burst. It uses a
5.56-millimeter cartridge.
Rifle cartridges are enclosed in a casing (metal covering) made of brass or steel. Cartridges vary in size
according to the caliber of the rifle. The names of some cartridges include the year the cartridge was put into use. The .
30-06 is a .30-caliber cartridge chosen for use by the U.S. Army in 1906. The classification of some cartridges includes
the caliber and velocity (speed) of the bullet. The bullet from a .250-3000 cartridge has a velocity of 3,000 feet (910
meters) per second.
Take Note:
Modern rifles developed from the crude, muzzle-loading firearms of the 1400's. Rifling of barrels was
invented in Europe about 1500. Smooth-bore firearms (weapons without rifling) could not be depended on to hit targets
more than 100 steps away.
The jaeger rifle of central and northern Europe was the first accurate rifle. It was developed about 1665.
German immigrants brought jaegers to Pennsylvania in the early 1700's and gave them new features, including longer
barrels. The Pennsylvania-made Kentucky rifle developed from the jaeger. Some Kentucky rifles were used in the
Revolutionary War in America (1775-1783).
Rifles used round bullets until the 1850's, when more accurate Minie bullets became popular. Minie bullets
had hollow bases and pointed tips and were used in the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865). Improvements of the late 1800's
included repeating rifles, smokeless explosive powder, and jacketed bullets, which have a tough metal cover over a
lead or steel core.
THE HANDGUN:
Handgun is a firearm that can be operated with one hand. Other types of guns, such as rifles and machine
guns, require the use of both hands, a tripod (three-legged stand), or a shooting rest.
Parts of a handgun (the frame, the grip, the barrel, the sights, and the action)
The frame is the main body of the gun that connects the other parts. The grip is the handle of the gun, and
the barrel is the metal tube through which the bullet is fired. The lands and rifling (grooves) are alternating raised
surfaces and channels inside the barrel. They cause the bullet to spin and thus make it travel in a direct path.
The shooter uses the sights to line up the handgun with the target. Some sights can be adjusted to help aim
the gun more easily. All handguns made for target shooting have adjustable sights.
The action includes the main working parts of the handgun. It consists of such parts as the trigger, the
hammer, and the cartridge chamber. The type of action determines how the handgun is loaded and fired. The action of
every handgun includes a safety, a mechanism that prevents the gun from being fired unintentionally. The safety
ensures that the gun fires when the shooter squeezes the trigger, but not, for example, when the gun is dropped to the
ground.
Types of handguns - There are five main types of handguns:

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

single-action revolvers,
double-action revolvers,
single-action semiautomatic pistols,
double-action semiautomatic pistols, and
single-shot pistols.

Revolvers carry ammunition in chambers in a rotating cylinder. Most pistols are loaded with a magazine
containing the ammunition. The magazine is a metal holder inserted in the gun's butt (thicker end).
Single-action revolvers typically hold six cartridges. An arm near the hammer rotates the cylinder one-sixth
of a turn when the hammer is cocked. This movement puts a cartridge into line with the barrel and the firing pin (part
that strikes the primer to fire the cartridge). After cocking the hammer, the shooter pulls the trigger. The hammer
unlocks and falls, exploding the cartridge. The Colt single-action Army revolver, first produced in the 1870's, is the most
famous firearm of this type.
Double-action revolvers, like single-action revolvers, typically hold six cartridges. But, unlike single-action
revolvers, double-action revolvers do not require the user to manually cock the hammer before firing. Instead, the gun
is fired by only pulling the trigger. When the trigger is pulled, a lock that holds the cylinder in place is released,
revolving the cylinder and cocking the hammer. When the next chamber is lined up with the barrel, the cylinder locking
bolt is raised into the locking notch, securing the cylinder. The hammer then falls and fires the cartridge. The cycle is
repeated for the next shot.
The main advantage of the double-action revolver over the single-action revolver is that it can be fired
rapidly. The Smith & Wesson military and police revolver is one of the most popular double-action revolvers. This
firearm was introduced in 1905.
Single-action semiautomatic pistols are fired by first pulling back a device called a slide to cock the
hammer or the firing pin, which is sometimes called a striker mechanism. When the slide is released, it moves forward
and feeds a round from the clip into the cartridge chamber. When the shooter pulls the trigger, the hammer falls or the
striker mechanism is released, impacting the primer and exploding the gunpowder in the cartridge. The explosion
causes the slide to move backward. This recoil automatically ejects the empty cartridge and recocks the gun. When the
slide moves forward again, it reloads the chamber. The most famous single-action semiautomatic is the Colt .45
automatic pistol. It served as the standard sidearm of the U.S. armed forces from 1911 until 1985.
Double-action semiautomatic pistols operate somewhat like double-action revolvers. When the trigger is
pulled, the hammer goes through the firing cycle and fires the cartridge. After the initial shot, the pistol begins to
operate like a single-action semiautomatic pistol. The recoil of the first shot forces out the empty cartridge case, cocks
the hammer, and inserts a new cartridge from the clip into the cartridge chamber. Double-action semiautomatics are
widely used by sports enthusiasts and police officers. In 1985, the 9-millimeter Beretta, a double-action semiautomatic
pistol, became the standard sidearm of the U.S. armed forces. Other popular models include the Smith & Wesson
Model 39 and the Walther PPK.
Single-shot pistols are used chiefly in international target-shooting competitions. To load a single-shot
pistol, the user moves the operating lever (part that opens and closes the action) forward and down to lower the breech
block and to cock the firing pin. The breech block closes the breech of the gun-that is, the part behind the barrel. After
the breech block has been lowered, the cartridge chamber is exposed. The user then inserts a cartridge into the
chamber. Next, the operating lever is pulled up and back to close the chamber and move the cartridge into the closed
position. The pistol is then ready to fire. When the trigger is pulled, the firing pin drops, exploding the cartridge. The
procedure is then repeated to remove the cartridge and reload the pistol. Famous single-shot pistols include the
Hammerli Free Pistol, the Walther, and the Martini.
Take Note:
The first gun operated with one hand was the matchlock gun, which appeared in the 1400's. It was fired by
attaching a burning cord or match to an S-shaped holder called a serpentine. In the early 1500's, the wheel-lock gun

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was invented. Its metal wheel struck a spark when it revolved against a piece of pyrite. With the wheel lock, soldiers no
longer had to carry flames to ignite the gunpowder.
During the mid-1500's, snaphance pistols, which were easier to operate than the wheel lock, came into
widespread use. In the 1600's and 1700's, many kinds of gunlocks were developed, including the flintlock.
In 1807, Alexander Forsyth, a Scottish inventor, introduced the percussion system. Percussion-system pistols
were loaded from the muzzle, with a sliding can of priming powder on the breech. Small handguns called derringers
are descended from percussion-system pistols, but are breech loaded. They are named for Henry Deringer, Jr., a U.S.
pistol maker of the 1800's.
Rapid-fire handguns - One of the first practical revolvers was the Colt Paterson, patented in England in
1835 by Samuel Colt, a U.S. inventor. In 1857, the U.S. inventors Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson began producing
revolvers that used cartridges.
The Borchardt, the first self-loading semiautomatic pistol, appeared in 1893. It had an eight-cartridge clip
placed in the hollow of the grip. George Luger, an Austrian-born inventor, improved the Borchardt in the early 1900's. In
1897, John M. Browning, a U.S. inventor, patented an automatic pistol that became the basis for later automatics,
including the Colt .45.
THE MACHINE GUN
1. Machine gun is an automatic weapon that can fire from 400 to 1,600 rounds of ammunition each
minute. Machine gun barrels range in size from .22 caliber to 20 millimeters. Ammunition is fed into the gun from a
cloth or metal belt, or from a cartridge holder called a magazine. Because machine guns fire so rapidly, they must be
cooled by air. Machine guns are heavy weapons and are usually mounted on a support.
Operation: In all machine guns, extremely high gas pressure provides the operating energy for the firing
cycle. The cycle begins when the propellant charge in the cartridge case burns. This combustion creates the gas
pressure that is used in the blowback, gas, and recoil operating systems. All three systems fire the projectile
through the bore of the barrel, eject the cartridge case, place a new cartridge in the firing chamber, and ready the
mechanism to repeat the cycle.
In the blowback system, the operating energy comes from the cartridge case as the case is forced to the
rear by the gas pressure. The case moves against the bolt (a device that opens and closes the bore), driving the bolt
backward against a spring. The case is ejected, and the compressed spring drives the bolt forward. As the bolt moves
forward, it cocks the firing mechanism, picks up a new cartridge, carries it into the chamber, and the cycle begins
again.
In the gas system, the gas pressure drives a piston against the bolt. The bolt is driven to the rear, providing
energy for a cycle like that of the blowback system.
In the recoil system, the bolt locks to the barrel when the gun is fired. These parts remain locked together
as they are forced to the rear by the gas pressure. This movement provides energy to operate the gun.
2. Ground weapons. The 7.62-millimeter M60 machine gun is a major infantry weapon. It is air-cooled
and gas-operated, and fires about 600 rounds a minute. The M60 replaced the Browning machine gun, an important
weapon in World Wars I and II, and the Korean War.
3. Aircraft weapons. By the close of World War I, several types of machine guns were mounted on
airplanes. These types included the Vickers, Maxim, Hotchkiss, Colt-Martin, and Lewis. Some machine guns were
synchronized to fire in between the blades of propellers.
During World War II, fighters and bombers carried machine guns as armament. They also carried automatic
cannon up to 20 millimeters in size. During the Vietnam War, airplanes and helicopters called gunships carried
machine guns or cannon. Today, most fighter planes and gunships carry rockets for air-to-air and air-to-ground use.

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Bombers use machine guns mounted in groups of two or four in power-driven turrets. The Vulcan 20-millimeter aircraft
cannon has six rotating barrels. It can fire more than a ton of metal and explosives each minute.
4. Anti-aircraft weapons. The .50-caliber Browning machine gun was used as an antiaircraft weapon
during World War II. It was used alone, or in groups of two or four. Large-caliber automatic cannon that fired explosive
shells were also developed as antiaircraft weapons. The 20-millimeter, Swiss-made Oerlikon gun was used on U.S.
Navy ships. It was a self-fed, self-firing cannon that could fire 600 rounds a minute.
Take Note:
A type of machine gun appeared as early as the 1500's. It consisted of several guns bound together in a
bundle or spread out in a row. A device that was fitted to the gun barrels caused them to fire simultaneously or in
series. But little success was achieved until the Civil War, when many quick-fire guns appeared. Practical, rapid-fire,
mechanical guns were used in the Franco-Prussian War, when soldiers operated them with a crank or lever. The
French Montigny mitrailleuse and the American Gatling were among the more successful of these guns.
In 1883, Hiram Maxim, an American-born inventor, developed the first entirely automatic machine gun to
gain wide acceptance. By the time of World War I, many different types of machine guns had come into use.
CLASSIFICASTION OF FIREARMS
A. ACCORDING TO GUN BARREL INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION
1.
2.

Rifled Bore Firearms - those that contain riflings inside the gun barrel. Riflings refers the lands and grooves
such as the following: Rifle Pistol - Revolver
Smooth Bore Firearms those that have no riflings inside the gun barrel for the breech end up to the
muzzle of the firearm. Such as the following: Shotguns - Muskets

SHOTGUN it is smooth bore firearm designed to shoot a number of lead pellets one discharge.
GAUGE as applied to shotgun indicates that the bore diameter is equal to the diameter of lead ball
weighing in pounds.
B. MAIN TYPES OF FIREARM (according to caliber of projectile)
1. Artillery propelled projectile is more than one inch in diameter.
Ex. Cannons, mortars, bazookas
2. Small Arms propelled projectile is less than one inch diameter.
Ex. Machine guns, shoulder arms and handguns/arms
C. TYPES OF FIREARMS ACCORDING TO MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION
1.
Single Rifle Firearms type of firearm designed to fire only one shot for every loading.
Example: Pistol, Rifle, Shotgun
2. Repeating Arms type of firearm designed to fire several shots in one loading. Example: Automatic pistols,
Revolvers, Rifles, Shotguns
3. Bolt Action Type reloading is done by manipulation of the bolt. Examples: Rifles, Shotguns.
4. Automatic Loading Type after the first shot is fired, automatic loading or feeding of the chamber takes
place. Examples: Rifles, Shotguns
5. Slide Action Type (Trombone) loading takes place by back and forth manipulation of the under forearm of
the gun. Examples: Rifles and Shotguns.
6. Lever Type (Break-type) loading takes place by lever action on the firearm. Examples: Rifles, Shotguns.
D. TYPES OF FIREARMS ACCORDING TO USE
1.

Military Firearms
a. Pistols
b. Revolvers
c. Rifles

d. Shotguns
e. Machine guns

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2.
3.

Pocket and Home Defense Firearms


a. Pistols
c. Rifles
b. Revolvers
d. Shotguns
Target and Outdoorsman known as Sporting
a. Pistols
b. Revolvers

c. Rifles

E.

UNUSUAL/MISCELLANEOUS TYPES those that are unique in mechanism and construction.


a. Paltik pistols
b. Paltik rifles
c. Paltik revolvers
d. Paltik shotguns

F.

CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS ACCORDING TO ITS POWER PURSUANT TO R.A. 8294

Section 1. Unlawful Manufacture, Sale, Acquisition, Disposition or Possession of Firearms or Ammunition or


Instruments used or intended to be used in the Manufacture of Firearms or Ammunitions. The penalty of prision
correctional in its maximum period and a fine of not less than Fifteen thousand pesos (P15,000.00) shall be imposed
upon any person who shall unlawfully manufacture, dealt in, acquire, dispose or possess any low-powered firearm,
such as rimfire handgun, .380, .32 and other firearm of similar firepower, part of firearm, ammunition or machinery, tool
or instrument used in the manufacture of any firearm or ammunition: provided, that no other crime was committed.
The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine of thirty thousand pesos (P30,000.00) shall be
imposed in the firearm is classified as high powered firearms which includes those with bore bigger in diameter than
caliber .38 and 9mm such as caliber .40, .44, .45 and also lesser caliber firearms but considered powerful such as
caliber .357 and caliber .22 center fire magnum and other firearms with firing capability of full automatic and by burst of
two (2) or three (3): Provided, however, that no other crime was committed by the person arrested.

G. THREE MAIN PARTS OF FIREARMS


1.

Revolver
a. barrel assembly
b. cylinder assembly
c. frame or receiver

3. Rifle Cal. .30


a. barrel assembly
b. magazine assembly
c. stock group

2.

Pistol
a. barrel assembly
b. slide assembly
c. frame or receiver

4. Shotgun
a. barrel assembly
b. magazine assembly
c. stock group

H. DETAILED PARTS
1. Revolver
1. Barrel Assembly
(1)
breech end
(2)
muzzle end
(3)
bore
(4)
riflings
(5)
front sight
(6)
make

2. Pistol
a. Barrel Assembly
(1) breech end
(2) muzzle end
(3) bore
(4) riflings
(5) chamber
(6) interlocking ribs
(7) barrel lug
(8) barrel link
(9) barrel link pin
(10) barrel lead (leed)

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I.

2. Cylinder assembly
(1) chambers
(2) extractor
(3) extractor rod
(4) racket
(5) cylinder grooves
(6) yoke
(7) cylinder locking notches (touch holes)

b. Slide Assembly
(1) front sight
(2) top strap
(3) ejection part
(4) rear sight
(5) breech block
(6) breech face
(7) extractor
(8) firing pin
(9) firing pin stop
(10) serrations
(11) trademark
(12) model
(13) interlocking lugs

3. Frame or Receiver
(1) top strap
(2) rear sight
(3) breech face
(4) hammer
(5) spur
(6) thumb latch
(7) side plate
(8) back strap
(9) firing strap
(10) butt
(11) front strap
(12) trigger guard
(13) trigger
(14) cylinder lock
(15) right side stock
(16) left side stock
(17) trade mark (monogram)
(18) serial number

c. Frame or Receiver
(1) ejector
(2) hammer
(3) spur
(4) grip safety
(5) disconnector
(6) thumb safety
(7) back strap
(8) butt
(9) lanyard loop
(10) front strap
(11) magazine well
(12) right side stock
(13) left side stock
(14) trigger
(15) trigger stock
(16) modes
(17) plunger
(18) serial number

AUXILIARY PARTS (ACCESSORIES)


The following parts must be removed first before disassembly of the weapon:
- recoil plug - recoil spring - barrel bushing - recoil spring guide - slide stop pin

J.

ADVANTAGES
1.

Revolver

almost everyone knows something about how to handle it.


safer for inexperienced people.
the mechanism allows the trigger pull to be better.
a misfire does not put the revolver out of action.
Can handle satisfactory old or new or partly deteriorated ammunition which reduces velocity.

2.

Automatic pistol

has a better grip, fits the hand and points naturally


more compact for the same fire power
easier to load, easier to clean

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barrel when worn or corroded can be replaced without sending the gun to the factory
gives greater number of shots
gives greater fire power and greatest ease in firing
no gas leakage during firing

K. DISADVANTAGES

L.

1.

Revolver

bulkier to carry
grip or handle is generally not as good as that of pistol
hard to clean after firing
slower to load
harder to replace worn out parts its a factory job
worn out or poorly made weapon is subject to variable accuracy to improper lining up of cylinder

2.

Automatic Pistol

ammunition must be perfect it causes jam


misfire stops the functioning of gun
when kept loaded for long period of time magazine spring is under tension
has poorer trigger pull
magazine requires jacketed bullet
more dangerous to handle especially for inexperienced people
usually not adopted for reloading
possible ejection of empty shell towards the face of the firer causing flinching
throws out empty shell on the ground to remain as evidence
cannot be fired from the pocket without jamming

PRECAUTION FOR REVOLVERS


Every police officer should frequently check his revolver for:
1. obstruction in the barrel
2. bulging or swollen barrel
3. firing pin protrusion through recoil plate when trigger is in rearward position
4. on older revolvers, the imprint of the primer on the recoil plate in relation to the firing pin hole (insures blow in
the center of primer)
5. evidence of splitting lead around breech of barrel or for complaints of fellow shooters
6. tightness of all side plate screw
7. tightness of ejector rod head if the weapon is S & W
8. cleanliness and protective film of oil to prevent rust

AMMUNITIONS/CARTRIDGES
LEGAL DEFINITION it maybe found in Chapter VII, Sec. 290 of the National Internal Revenue Code as
well as in Sec. 877 of the Revised Administrative Code. It refers to ammunition as s loaded shell for rifles, muskets,
carbines, shotguns, revolvers and pistols from which a ball, bullet, shot, shell or other missile may be fired by means of
gunpowder or other explosives. The term also includes ammunition for air rifles as mentioned elsewhere in the Code.
TECHNICAL DEFINTION Technically speaking, the term ammunition refers to a group of cartridges or to a
single unit or single cartridge meaning a complete unfired unit consisting of a bullet, cartridge, case, gunpowder and
primer. The term may also refer to a single round.

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ORIGIN
The term cartridge evolved from about the turn of sixteenth century. The earliest small arms ammunition or
cartridge consisted of a pre-measured charge of powder wrapped in a paper. In Websters later edition, a cartridge is
defined as A case capsule, shell or bag of metal, pasteboard, of the like, containing the explosive charge and in small
arms and some cannon, the projectile to be fired. The term cartridge is derived from the word charta, the Latin
word for paper. Later on, it came through the French word cartouche, meaning a roll of paper, which indicates
that the original cartridges were not the brass gilding- metal tipped units which we are familiar with today.
The use of paper-wrapped powder charged greatly speeds the loading of military weapons, avoided waste of
powder from spillage, and provided a uniform charge from shot to shot. In time, the bullet was either attached faster or
more convenient.
Take Note:

ammunition means any unfired assembly of cartridge case, powder, primer and projectile which may be
used in a firearm. Today, it refers to a file of assembled cartridges in bulks as in boxes or lots & also used to
refer to the supply a person may be carrying with him.
round refers to a single cartridge.
shotgun cartridges are commonly referred to as shell or shotshell
rifle ammunition is referred to as metallics or cartridges.
When an investigator uses a term cartridge he invariably refers to revolver, pistol, or rifle cartridges.
The layman uses the abovementioned terms indiscriminately, although as general rule he speaks of
cartridges when referring to a pistol, revolver, rifle ammunitions and shells when referring to shotguns.
Among the uniformed, the word bullet as often misused, as it is commonly used to apply to any sort of any
unfired cartridge. Actually, it is that solid portion of the cartridge which leaves the muzzle of the gun and does
the striking or killing. The word can properly be used in connection with pistol, revolver or rifle
ammunition but other common designations for the bullet are projectile or ball is a relic of old muzzleloading days when all rifle projectiles were round lead balls.

PARTS OF A CARTRIDGE (Nomenclature)


1.
2.
3.
4.

BULLET the projectile propelled through the barrel of a firearm by means of expansive force of gases
coming from burning gunpowder.
CARTRIDGE CASE the tubular metallic container for the gunpowder. Sometimes called shell or
casting.
GUNPOWDER It is the propellant which when ignited by the primer flash is converted to gas under high
pressure and propels the bullet or shot charge through the barrel and on to the target.
PRIMER the metal cap containing the highly sensitive priming mixture of chemical compound, which when
heat or struck by firing pin would ignite. Such action is called percussion.

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF FIREARMS


1.
2.
3.
4.

Revolver cartridges
Pistol cartridges
Rifle cartridges
Shotgun cartridges

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO LOCATION OF PRIMERS


1.

PIN FIRE CARTRIDGE the first cartridge of a self exploding type which enjoyed any real general use was
the type called the pin fire commonly attributed to Monsier Le Facheux of Paris, around 1896. Pin-fire
cartridges were made for all types was small arms in appearance to a modern shotgun shell wherein it had a

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2.
3.
4.

head of the cartridge and a percussion fixed by a wad or metal cup. The percussion had a pin resting on its
detonating compound. The end protruding of the e pin is hit by a hammer coming down vertically from the
side of the cartridge instead of penetrating horizontally from its fear. This type of cartridge is no longer used.
CENTER FIRE priming powder is located at the center.
RINGFIRE CARTRIDGE A type of cartridge used only on sabotage cases. The chattel cartridges of Steyr
advance combat rifle and Steyr anti-material squad machine gun. This is a special type of cartridge wherein
the priming mixture is placed in a circular hollow ring about 1/3 of the base of the cartridge.
RIM FIRE CARTRIDGE The simplest form of modern cartridge is the rim-fire cartridge. The name rimfire is derived from the fact that this type can be fired only if the cartridge is struck by the hammer of firing
pin on the rim of he case. In this type, the priming mixture is contained or located in a cavity inside and
around the rim of the cartridge which is a very sensitive area. If a rim fire cartridge is struck anywhere in the
sensitive area, the priming substance is crushed between the front and rear of the case rim. This denotes or
ignites the priming mixture, causing a flash of flame.

Rim-fire cartridges may be identified by the smooth base of the cartridge case, which may or may not
have a head stamps are merely letters or design found on the base of the cases that identifies the manufacturer.
These rim-fire cartridges are generally found in caliber .22s. They can be fired in either caliber .22 pistols, caliber
22. revolvers and caliber .22 rifles. Rim-fire cartridges can be further classified into:
a. rimmed type used in revolvers .38 and .357
b. semi-rimmed used in super .380
c. rimless - .45 pistols, Thompson, grease gun, submachine guns
TYPES ACCORDING TO CALIBER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Caliber .22 used in revolvers, pistols, rifles


Caliber .25 used in pistols and rifles
Caliber .30 used in carbines and other rifles
Caliber .32 used in automatic pistols and revolvers
Caliber .380 used in pistols
Caliber .38 used in revolvers
Caliber .357 used in .357 revolvers (Magnum)
Caliber .44 used in Magnum revolvers
Caliber .45 used in Automatic pistols
Caliber .50 used in caliber .50 machine guns

The abovementioned different classes of small arms cartridges are generally encountered by the Police in
the field of firearms investigation in our jurisdiction. These are commonly used by criminals because they are used in
firearms that are easy to carry, conceal, fire and dispose of.
CLASSIFICATION OF AMMUNITIONS ACCORDING TO ITS EFFECTS
1. Penetrators - pierce targets using a single bullet,
2. High explosives - burst before hitting their target, fragmenting into thousands of penetrating pieces or
becoming a high-speed jet of molten metal, and
3. Carrier projectiles - break open near the target to deliver leaflets, radar-deceiving materials, or
submunitions (small ammunition).
ARTILLERY AMMUNITION
Artillery includes rocket launchers and such mounted guns as howitzers, mortars, antiaircraft guns, and naval
guns. Most types of field and naval artillery ammunition are called shells. A single shell, like a single cartridge, is known
as a round. Field artillery projectiles range in size from 50 to 240 millimeters and can weigh over 200 pounds (90
kilograms). Most artillery shells taper to the rear, a shape that gives them greater range. Some have streamlined
ogives (nose shields). Others, known as base-burner shells, have a small amount of propellant burning in the tail
during flight. This reduces drag (air resistance).

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Some shells are high explosives, which detonate on impact and damage or destroy the target. Detonating
the shell's explosive filler shatters the shell into thousands of fragments. High explosives include TNT; RDX, also
known as cyclonite or hexogen; composition B, a mixture of RDX and TNT; PETN; and pentolite, a combination of
PETN and TNT. Other shells contain mines or small shells that can be expelled at intervals over a specified area or
during a certain period of time.
Still other shells are filled with a non-explosive substance, such as a chemical that is poisonous or that
produces smoke or fire. Illuminating, or star, shells light up the battlefield or seascape. A shell with a chaff warhead
expels strips of aluminum, which produce images on a radar screen similar to those caused by aircraft. Such images
confuse radar operators and thus help protect aircraft from enemy attack.
There are five main types of artillery shells
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Fixed ammunition fired by artillery consists of a projectile, a casing, a primer, and a propellant. Like smallarms cartridges, fixed artillery ammunition shells are manufactured as complete units.
Semifixed ammunition resembles fixed ammunition. However, the projectile fits loosely into the casing so
that the sections can be separated. Thus, the amount of propellant in the casing can be increased or
decreased, depending on how far the shell is from the target.
Separate loading ammunition, also called bag ammunition, consists of separate sections for the projectile,
the primer, and the propellant. The propellant is packed into bags that are placed behind the projectile. The
number of bags used depends on the distance the shell must travel. This type of ammunition is used to fire
the heaviest artillery shells over great distances.
Separated ammunition consists of two sections. One section is the projectile. The other includes the primer,
the casing, and a fixed amount of propellant.
Guided ammunition can correct its flight in the air after being fired. It often uses pop-out tail fins to steer
itself. Most guided ammunition finds its target by tracking a laser spot on the target. This spot is usually
produced by a forward observer, a person or object forward of the line of fire. Some shells known as smart
shells have small radars and computers in them. These shells can search for and find such targets as
armored vehicles or trucks without help.

ARTILLERY-VEHICLE AMMUNITION
Armored-vehicle ammunition consists of projectiles fired by guns mounted on tanks and other armored
vehicles. They have diameters from 20 to 125 millimeters.
A common armored-vehicle penetrator is a projectile with a nose cap of tungsten or another heavy metal.
The cap helps the projectile penetrate opposing vehicles. A high explosive projectile is a hollow-charge warhead. This
warhead is hollow in the front and has an explosive charge in the back. Its explosion converts a copper cone in the
warhead to a molten, high-speed jet. The jet penetrates the target. Another armored vehicle projectile is a long dart
made of tungsten or depleted uranium (uranium with most of its radioactivity removed). The dart travels on a device
called a sabot, which breaks away after the dart leaves the gun's barrel.
RIOT CONTROL AMMUNITION
This is used by law enforcement officials to subdue rioters without causing serious injury. Most of this
ammunition consists of hard rubber bullets. Another type is made of soft rubber rings that look like doughnuts and may
contain tear gas. These rings cause less damage than do the rubber bullets.
SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE (SHELL)
Shotgun is a shoulder gun that fires a cartridge that contains a powder charge and a load of metal pellets,
called shot. The shot spreads over a wide area. This makes it easier to hit a moving target with a shotgun than with the
single bullet from a rifle or a pistol. The shotgun is chiefly a hunting gun.

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Kinds of Shots:
1.
2.
3.

bird shot - small shotgun pellets


buckshot larger ones are used to shoot such animals as deer
single shot consist of single unit of projectile

Shotgun cartridges consist of a plastic or paper tube with a brass or steel case at one end. They contain
lead or steel shot instead of bullets.
The caliber of a shotgun is measured by bore, or gauge. The weight of the lead shot required to fit the
muzzle of the gun is the standard of measurement for the bore. If a bullet weighing 1/12 pound (38 grams) fits the bore,
the shotgun is called a 12-bore, or a 12-gauge, gun. Popular gauges are 10, 12, 16, 20, 28, and .410.
Some shotguns are named by caliber, as for example, the one that is called .410 gauge shotguns which
actually means .41 caliber. A 12-gauge shotgun has a caliber of .729 inch.
The first shotgun, developed in 1537, was loaded with small shot instead of one round ball. In 1831,
Augustus Demondion patented a cartridge that held small shot. Modern shotguns are single barrels, double barrels,
or single barrels with automatic repeating magazines that hold several cartridges. Repeating shotguns are popular in
the United States with hunters as well as with many law enforcement officers.
SHOT WADS. At a distance of 5-8 yards or more from the place of firing in the approximate direction of fire, one
can sometimes find wads.
CARTRIDGE LIFE
The life of well made metallic small arms ammunitions perhaps 10 years on the average. Some last 5-6
years, however, ammunitions may lose some of its strength in 5 or 6 years. Some may last 25 years or more
depending on the conditions storage. Damp, and warm climates are worst.
In order to prevent the entrance of oil or moisture, it is common practice to varnish the mouth of the case
before the insertion of the bullet and to put a ring of waterproofing around the joint between the primer and the
primer pocket.
CARTRIDGE CASES/SHELL
It is a tubular metallic or non-metallic container which holds together the bullet, gunpowder and primer.
It is the portion of the cartridge that is automatically ejected from the automatic firearm during firing and this
remains at the scene of the crime. This is firearm evidence that can help trace a particular firearm from which it was
fired.
FUNCTIONS OF CARTRIGE CASE
The function of cartridge case is basically the same whether it is fired in revolvers, pistols, rifles, shotguns, or
machine guns. These include:
1.
2.
3.

It holds the bullet, gunpowder and primer assembled into one unit.
It serves as a waterproof container for the gunpowder.
It prevents the escape of the gases to the rear as the sidewalls of the cartridge case are forced against
the walls of the chamber by the pressure. It serves as a gas seal at the breech end of the barrel.

PARTS OF THE CARTRIDGE CASE

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1.

RIM the projecting rims of rimmed and semi-rimmed cases serve the purpose of limiting the forward travel
of cartridges into their chambers and thus also limit the clearance, if any between the head and the
supporting.
2. PRIMER POCKET performs three functions:
a.) holding primers securely in certain position;
b.) providing a means to prevent the escape of gas to the rear of the cartridge;
c.) providing a primer support for primer anvils, without which the latter could not be fired.
3. VENTS ORFLASH HOLES the vent or flash holes is the hole in the web or bottom of the primer pocket
through which the primer flash provides ignition to the powder charge. It is the opening or canal that
connects the priming mixture with the gunpowder.
4. THE HEAD AND BODY the head and body constitute the cork that plugs the breech of the barrel
against the escape of the gas.
5. NECK applied to that part of the cartridge case that is occupied by the bullet to prevent the bullet from
being push back or loosened.
6. CANNELURES shell cannelures are the serrated grooves that are sometimes found rolled into the neck
and body of cases at the location of the cases of the bullet to prevent the bullet from being pushed back or
loosened.
7. CRIMP is that part of the mouth of a case that is turned in upon the bullet. It works two ways a) it aids in
holding the bullet in place; b) it offers resistance to the movement of the bullet out of the neck which affects
the burning of gunpowder.
8. BASE - the bottom portion of the case which holds: a)the primer which contains the priming mixture; b) the
shell head which contains the head stamp, caliber, and year of manufacture.
9. SHOULDER that portion which supports the neck.
10. EXTRACTING GROOVE the circular groove near the base of the case or shell designed for the automatic
withdrawal of the case after each firing.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO CASESHAPE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Straight all rimmed shell and most centerfire revolver cartridges. Ex. Cal. 38 special
Tapered very rare but being used in so-called magnum jet Cal. .22.
Bottleneck ex. 5.56mm cartridge cases
Belted ex. .30 magnum

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO HEAD FORMS


1. Rimmed diameter of base is very much bigger than of the body
2. Semi-rimmed diameter of base is slightly bigger than of the body
3. Rimless diameter of base is the same as of the body
CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE ACCORDING TO THE CONFIGURATION OF ITS BASE
1. RIMMED It has a flange at the base which is larger than the diameter of the body of the cartridge case.
This flange is to enable the cartridge to be extracted from the weapon in which it is used.
2. SEMI-RIMMED It has a flange which is slightly larger than the diameter of the cartridge case and a groove
around the case body just in front of the flange.
3. RIMLESS The flange diameter is the same as the body and there is, for extraction purposes, a groove
around the case-body in front of the flange.
4. REBATED It has an extractor flange which is less than the diameter of the cartridge case.
5. BELTED CASE It has a pronounced raised belt encircling the base of the cartridge, the belt is for additional
strength in high pressure cartridge.
CARTRIDGE CASES ACCORDING SHAPES
1. Straight cased where the case diameter is approximately the same along its length.
2. Bottled-necked where a wide bodied case is, just before the case mouth, reduced in diameter to that of
the bullet.
3. Tapered case where a wide based cartridge case is gradually reduced in diameter along its length.

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FUNCTIONS OF CARTRIDGE CASE


1. Serves as container for bullet, powder charge and the primer
2. Prevent the escape of gases
3. It serves as the waterproof container of the powder charge.
Take Note:

Annealing is the process of making cartridge case by heating a brass to become very soft and ductile and
very weak: when it is drawn or otherwise worked, it becomes hard, strong and elastic.
Belted Cartridge A cartridge, which has a raised belt before the extractor groove. The cartridge seats on
this belt, most Magnum cartridge case. Also called a European type primer.
Blank Cartridge Is a cartridge consisting of the case with its primer, powder charge and a wad to train the
powder.
Blank Cartridge Pistol A firearm without opening in the muzzle, the gas may escape through the hole in
the top of the frame.
Center Pin serve us a locking device for the cylinder.
Drawing a machine operation in manufacturing cartridge cases. Is the process of making case by
punching discs from a sheet of brass and then making these discs out into tubes closed to one end.
Guard Cartridge one loaded with buckshot or a reduced charge ball.
Rolled Crimp One in which the mouth of the cartridge case is turned inward into a cannelure on the bullet
all around its circumference to retain the bullet at the proper seating depth.
Round One single complete cartridge.
Ruptured Case Any cartridge case, which has been split in firing so that the gas has escape.
Short Cartridge a metallic cartridge loaded with a small shot.
Signal Cartridge one containing vari-colored luminous balls of the roman candle variety.

BULLETS (Projectiles)
Bullet is also knows as PROJECTILE is a metallic or non-metallic body usually referred to as a bullet that
is completely dependent upon an outside force for its power.
Under this definition, the term may also include projectiles propelled from shotguns although strictly speaking
these projectiles designed for shotguns are called shot, slug or pellets. In a laymans viewpoint, a projectile fired
from a firearms is called slug, although what be actually meant is a bullet.
The term bullet originated from the French word boulette, a small ball. In common Police parlance, a
bullet may be called slug which is a colloquial term.
CLASSIFICATION OF BULLETS ACCORDING TO MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION
Basically there are two (2) kinds of bullets:
1.
2.

Lead Bullets those which are made of lead or alloy of this metal such as lead, tin and antimony.
Jacketed Bullets those with a core of lead alloy covered a jacket of harder metal such as guiding metal
and copper zinc.

Purposes of the jacket


1.

keep the bullet intact and from not breaking up when it strike the target.

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2.
3.

prevent damage while in the weapon


control expansion

Take Note:

copper plated steel maybe used instead of gilding metal for the jacket of caliber .45 - jacket of metal patch
made of cupro nickel or gilding metal.
If jscket bullets are used in revolvers, the gun barrel will be loosened or destroyed.

TYPES OF BULLETS ACCORDING TO SHAPE


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pointed bullet
Round Nose bullet
Wad Cutter bullet
Semi-Wad Cutter bullet
Hollow Point bullet
Boat Tailed bullet

* Another improvement in bullets was the boat-tail in which the name became .30 M1. The M stands for
Mark but some contend stands for MODIFICATION.
COMMON BULLET TYPES
1. solid lead point
2. solid hollow
3. solid paper patch
4. metal cased
5. soft point
6. metal cased hollow point
7. metal point
8. rifled slug
9. glycer type bullet
10. quadraximum
PURPOSES OF BULLETS
1.
2.
3.
4.

.38 disability purposes


.45 knocking power subduing a maniac or amok
M16 fatal effects
Garand and Carbine penetration and long range shooting

TYPES OF BULLETS ACCORDING TO USE


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ball Bullets have a soft cores and are used against personnel.
Armor Piercing Bullet have hardened steel cores and are fired against vehicles, weapons and armored
targets in general.
Tracer Bullets contains compound usually similar to barium nitrates which is set on fire when the bullet is
projected. The flash of this smoke from this burning permits the flight of the bullet to be seen.
Incendiary Bullets contains a mixture such as phosphorous or other materials, that can be set on fire by
impact. They are used against target that will burn readily such as aircraft.
Explosives Bullets contains a high charge of high explosive and because of their small size it is difficult to
make a fuse tat will work reliably in small arms ammunition. For this reason the use of high explosive bullets
is usually limited to 20mm and above.

BULLETS MEASUREMENT (DIAMETER)

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Cartridges used in weapons other than shotguns are measured by caliber (the diameter of the bullet).
Manufacturers and users of ammunition in the United States have traditionally specified caliber in decimal fractions of
an inch. For example, a .30-caliber cartridge has a diameter of 30/100 inch (7.6 millimeters). However, it is becoming
customary to use millimeters instead. The U.S. armed forces specify caliber in millimeters. Small-arms cartridges are
less than 20 millimeters or .78 caliber.
EQUIVALENT OF CALIBER TO MILLIMETER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Caliber .22 about 5.56 mm


Caliber .25 about 6.35 mm
Caliber .32 about 7.65 mm
Caliber .30 about 7.63 mm (Mauser)
Caliber .30 about 7.63 mm (Luger)
Caliber .38 about 9mm
Caliber .45 about 11.43 mm

CONVERSION TABLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

cm to mm
mm to inch
inch to mm
meter to yard
grain to gram
gram to grain
gram to kg

Multiply
10.0
0.03937
25.4
1.094
0.06480
15.43
0.001

Take Note:
.0002 second explosion of a bullet by means of tremendous explosion of burning gases.
Resistance of .38 is 15,000 to 45,000 ft./found.
Buck-shot it ranges 50 yards

Take Note:

Ball Bullet Bullets have soft lead cores

inside a jacket.

Cannelure (bullet) A knurled ring or


serrated grooved around the body of the bullet which contains wax for lubrication in order to minimize friction
during the passage of the bullet inside the bore.
Dumdum Bullet an out-moded and
generally misused term hollow point bullets manufactured in Dumdum, India.
Explosive (Fragmentary) Bullets
Contain a high charge explosive, because of heir small size, it is difficult to make a fuse that will work reliably
in small arms ammunitions. For this reason the use of high explosive bullets is usually to 20 mm. and above.
Hollow Point designed to increase
expansion (sometimes called express bullets)
Iced Bullets or solidified bullets super
cooled water made as a projectile.
Lead Bullets - Actually a mixture of lead
and one or more hardening ingredient.
Metal Cased Bullet colloquially used to
indicate either a metal patched of full patched bullet.

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Metal Patched Bullet any metal-jacketed


bullet. Technically, it is a bullet having a metal cup over the base and extending forward over that portion of
the bullet which bears against the rifling, the lead core being exposed at the nose of the bullet.
Mushroom Bullet colloquially. Any bullet
designed to expand on impact. Technically, a metal patched bullet with exposed round nose.
Ogive the curved portion of the bullet that
is symmetrical and forms the head of the projectile of ogival shape.
Plated Bullet a bullet covered with a thin
coating of a copper alloy to prevent leading on the inside of the barrel.
Pointed Bullet more effective ballistically
because there is less surface resistance to air, thus the speed is less retarded and greater velocity.
Soft or Drop Shot shotgun pellets made
of ordinary soft lead made into round pellets.
Soft Point Bullet expands on striking
hence it produces more serious damage and have greater stopping power: from a high velocity rifle, it will
expand upon striking a flesh until it looks like a mushroom, hence, they are often called mushroom bullet.
Such bullets are of little effect than a full-jacketed bullet in revolvers or automatic pistols, because the
velocity is too low to cause the bullet to expand.
Steel Jacketed Bullet bullet having soft
steel jacket, often clad or plated with gliding metal to prevent resting and reduce frictional resistance in the
bore.
Tracer Bullet a bullet containing a
substance inside the jacket at the base of the bullet which is ignited when fired showing a brilliant tail light
during its flight. It has an incendiary effect if they strike before the tail light base burned put.

GUNPOWDER
It is a substance or a mixture of substances which upon suitable ignition releases a large amount of chemical
energy at a high and controllable rate, the energy liberation is to convert the propellant into a high of gas.
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPOSITION
Generally, there are two types of powder in small arms. These are:
1.

Black Powder (Europeans) the standard ingredients are: Potassium nitrate 75%, Sulphur 10% and
Charcoal 15%. Its characteristics are:
a.
oldest propellant powder
b.
consist of irregular grains and have either a dull or shiny black surface
c.
produces grayish smoke and considerable residue is left in the barrel
d.
burns with reasonable great rapidity when ignited

Qualities (typical to all explosives)


a.
b.
c.
2.

when ignited, it will burn by itself without aid from the outside air
in burning, it gives off large amount of gas
a considerable amount of heat is evolved

Smokeless Powder Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerine as the major ingredients, mixed with one or more
minor ingredients such as centralite, Vaseline esters, inorganic salts and etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF SMOKELESS POWDER


1.
2.

Single based (Nitrocellulose) pure nitroglycerin gelatinized with nitrocellulose


Double based - Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerine with the following minor ingredients:
a. centralite

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b.
c.

Vaseline phthalate esters


Inorganic salt

Purposes of the minor ingredients:


a. insure stability
b. reduce flash or flame temperature
c. improve ignitability
Characteristics
a. gray green to black in color and grains are similar in size and shape to the single-base propellants
b. almost all have a perfectly definite shape such as: small squares; discs; flakes; stripes; pellets; and
perforated cylindrical grains
3.

Triple based Nitrocellulose, Nitroglycerine and Nitroguanadine - It was devised in an attempt to


compromise between the low power single based powders and high power but excessive heat of double
based powders. The percentage of nitroglycerin is small, but sufficient to give added power. The nitroguanidine lowers the flame temperature while still adding active explosive constituent. One of its virtues is
that it is entirely flashless though it does not generate rather more smoke than the other types.

4.

High ignition temperature propellant Its main constituent is from RDX group of high explosives. It was
moderated to the process of gelatinozation and was then developed by Dynamite Noble of Germany in
conjunction with Heckler and Koch for the latters G11K2 rifle. This is a caseless cartridge.

Take Note:

Cordite A British propellant made by


dissolving gun cotton and nitroglycerin and adding 5% of Vaseline.
Gun Cotton A very powerful explosive,
like nitroglycerin which is a chemical compound and not a mixture. This is formed by the action of nitric and
sulfuric acid on cotton or any other kind of cellulose.

PRIMER
It is an assembly which ignites the propellant. The primer assembly of center fire cartridges consists of a
brass or guiding-metal cup that contains a primer composition pellet of sensitive explosive, a paper disc (foil), and a
brass anvil.
A blow from the firing pin of a small arms weapon on center of the primer cup
compresses the primer composition violently between the cup and the anvil, thus causing the composition to explode.
The hole or vent in the anvil allows the flame to pass through the primer vent in the cartridge case, thereby igniting the
propellant.
Rimfire ammunition, such as the caliber .22 cartridge does not contain primer assembly; the primer
composition is spun into the rim of the cartridge case and the propellant is in intimate contact with the composition. In
firing, the firing pin strikes the rim of the case and thus compresses the primer composition and initiates its explosion.

Take Note:
1807 Alexander John Forsyth conceived the percussion ignition system.
Presbyterian Minister, chemist and hunter.

He was a Scotch

First successful priming mixture was one composed of potassium chlorate.


TYPES OF PRIMER ACCORDING TO ANVIL

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1.
2.

Boxer primer (one flash hole) favorite in U.S. invented by Col. Edward Munier Boxer in 1869.
Berdan (European Type) two flash holes or vents invented by Hiram Berdan of New York in 1850s.

PARTS OF PRIMER AND FUNCTION


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Primer Cap it is the soft guiding metal which serves as the container of priming mixture, paper disc and
anvil.
Priming Mixture contains a small amount of explosive mixture which is sufficiently sensitive to result of
chemical reaction being set up by the caused by a sudden blow.
Paper Discs this is made of thin shellacked paper disc that protects the priming mixture that will cause its
disintegration. Its two-fold purposes:
a.
help hold the priming mixture in place and
b.
exclude moisture
Anvil it is made of spring tempered brass place inside the primer and it is on this side or point which the
priming mixture is crushed.
Battery Cap battery cap as applied to shotgun primer serves as the main support for the whole primer
components.

PRIMING COMPOUNDS
1. Corrosive it has potassium chlorate IF ignited produces potassium chloride which draws moisture from
the air and this moisture speeds the rusting and corrosion in gun barrels.
CORROSION chemical wear and tear of the inside of the barrel due to rust formation or chemical reaction
by products of combustion during firing.
EROSION mechanical wear and tear of the inner surface of the gun barrel due to mechanical abrasion or
sliding friction.
2.

Non-corrosive
Mixture 25 yrs. ago:
a. potassium chlorate (initiator & fuel) 45%
b. antimony (element & fuel) 23%
c. fulminate of mercury (initiator) 32%

WWII Frankford Arenal (FH 42)


sulfur 21.97% ; potassium chlorate 47.20%; antimony sulfide 30.83%
Typical rimfire (Cal. .22) Frankford Arsenal
potassium chlorate 41.43%; antimony sulfide 9.53%; copper sulpho-cyanide 4.70%; ground glass 44.23%
Germans
fulminate of mercury 39%; barium nitrate 41%; antimony sulfide 9%; picric acid 5%; ground glass 6%
Swiss by Ziegler 1911
fulminate of mercury 40%; barium nitrate 25%;
antimony sulfide 25%; barium carbonate 6%; ground glass 4%
Take Note:

Match Slow a slow burning fuse or twisted cotton soaked in a solution of saltpeter or hemp or on
matchlock weapons.
Maynard Primer another form of percussion cap. Explosive pellets were sealed at proper intervals
between two strips of paper. This primer tape was then rolled and inserted in guns of suitable design. The
action of cocking the hammer pulled the primer tape until a primer pellet lay under the hammer and over the
ignition vent into the chamber ready for firing. Similar forms are used in cap pistols.

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FORENSIC BALLISTICS (FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION)


It is the study of recovered projectiles to identify the firearms which fired them. It would be better termed
firearms identification. The evidence thus obtained is generally accepted in criminal Courts trials to establish use or
possession of a certain weapon.
Formerly, all that an expert could testify in Court concerning a bullet recovered from the scene of a crime
was that it was a certain type and caliber. Thus a caliber .38 bullet could not have fired in a caliber .45 revolver.
Linking a bullet to a specific revolver was not then possible. About 1920, great advances began to be made in
identifying firearms by their fired bullets and/or cartridge cases, and for the first time, formed criminology courses were
offered by universities to train individuals in the techniques of Forensic Ballistics. Colonel Calvin H. Goddard was the
leader in this effort. The most important tools used was the Comparison Microscope, a binocular instrument so
arranged that two similar objects can be compared in detail simultaneously, with corresponding surfaces adjacent.
When bullet is fired, it acquires marks or scratches from the bore surfaces. These marks, from irregularities
left by the tool cuts or caused by wear and rust, by reproducible by firing another bullet through the same barrel. The
bullet is evidence and the second bullet can then be compared for match. The pattern obtain is comparable to a
fingerprint, thus making coincidence of identical patterns from two different guns most unlikely if not impossible. A
composition is that, was yet, there has been no system devised to classify such patterns, as there is with fingerprints.
When a cartridge is fired it is pressed forcibly against the breechface of the firearm, there receiving an
impression of any tool marks. The firing pin also leaves its marks can be compared by the microscope, and a fired
cartridge case thus be linked to a specific weapon.
ARMS MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION
How a firearm is manufactured?
The first thing which is of importance for the Firearms Examiner is the understanding of the construction of a
gun barrel and to be sufficiently familiar with the various steps in the manufacture of firearms which may influence the
investigation of the crime. There should always be sound reason for all markings, scratches or dents visible or
firearms evidence and it is the function of the firearms examiner to determine how and why they were made and also to
interpret their significance both to himself as well as to the Court of Justice.
The process of manufacture starts with a solid steel bar which, when drilled from end to end makes it is steel
pipe. The interior surface at this stage bears numerous scratches resulting from irregular cutting of the drill and the
metal chips which mark the finish. For smooth bore barrels, after the drilling process the inside of the barrel is made
very smooth by a process known as lapping. In barrels intended for rifles the next steps after drilling consists of
reaming and drilled hole for its entire length, this removes some of the sears and scratches. The reamer removes
metal from the entire surface because it is slightly larger in diameter than the drill.
If the barrel is to be rifled it is done with the use of modern tools which automatically cut the spiral grooves on
the inside the barrel and impart to every firearms characteristics which are peculiar to the barrel. Each manufacturer
has its own characteristics designed for the lands and grooves. It has its individual patterns which determine whether
the grooves are inclined to the left or to the right.
In addition to these peculiarities there are other markings left by the rifling tools which cuts the grooves that
is as the rifling cutter wears small imperfections on its surface are transmitted to the surface of the barrel and in similar
manner the accumulation of metal chips remove by the cutter will scratch the barrel as it passes along. Even in the
button system imperfection will remain after the lapping and finishing operations are completed. These microscopic
scars will make a series of striations on every bullet which passes through the barrel. It is the comparison of these
bullet striations which is the basis of examination.

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Another phase of firearm manufacture which is of great importance to the identification of firearms is finishing
operations of the breechface of the breechblock of the firearm. It is that portion of the firearm against which the
cartridge is fired.
TWO (2) GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS REGARDING FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION
1. CLASS CHARACTERISTICS are those characteristics which are determinable even before the manufacture
of the firearm. It is categorized into the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Caliber
Number of Lands and Grooves
Width of Lands and Grooves
Twist of riflings
Pitch of the rifling
Depth of grooves

CLASS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FIREARMS


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.
u.
v.
w.

Colt Type ---------------------------------------- .45 6L G2X


Grease Gun ------------------------------------- .45 6R G+
Smith and Wesson Rev. ---------------------- .45 6R GL
Smith and Wesson Rev. ---------------------- .38 5R G=L
Colt Revolver ---------------------------------- .38 6L G+
Colt Pistol Super-------------------------------- .38 6L G+
Colt Revolver ----------------------------------- .32 6L G+
Colt Pistol --------------------------------------- .32 6L G+
Colt Pistol --------------------------------------- .25 6L G2X
Colt Revolver ----------------------------------- .22 6L G2X
Colt Revolver ----------------------------------- .357 6L G2X
Smith and Wesson Rev. ---------------------- .32 5R G=L
Smith and Wesson MRF Rev. ---------------- .22 6R G=L
Enfield Revolver -------------------------------- .38 7R G2X
US Carbine -------------------------------------- .30 4R G3x
Browning Pistol --------------------------------- 9mm 6R G=L
Star Pistol ---------------------------------------- .380 6R G+
Llama Pistol ------------------------------------- .380 6L G+
Beretta Pistol ------------------------------------.32 6R G2X
Astra Pistol -------------------------------------- .32 6R G2X
Arminius Revolver ------------------------------ .22 6R G2X
Burgo Revolver --------------------------------- .22 8R G+
Marlin M57 Rifle -------------------------------- .22 2OR G+

2. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS are those characteristics which are determinable only after the
manufacture of the firearm. They are characteristics whose existence is beyond the control of man and which have a
random distribution. Their existence in a firearm is brought about by the tools in their normal operation resulting
through wear, tear, abuse, mutilations, corrosion, erosions and other fortuitous causes. These are the irregularities
found on the inner surface of the barrel and on the breech face of the breechblock of the firearms as a result of the
failure of the tool beyond the control of the manufacturer to make them smooth as a minor.
PRINCIPLES GOVERNING FIREARMS EXAMINATION
1.

BULLET IDENTIFICATION
a.

No two barrels and microscopically identical as the surface of their bores all posses individual
characteristics markings.

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b.
c.
2.

When a bullet is fired from a rifled barrel, it becomes engraved by the riflings and this engraving on
a bullet fired from one barrel will be different from that on a similar bullet fire from another barrel. And
conversely,. The engraving on bullet from the same barrel will be the same.
Every barrel leaves its thumbmark on every bullet which is fired through it, just as every breech
face leaves its thumbmark on the base of the fired cartridge case.

IDENTIFICATION OF FIRED BULLETS AND CARTRIDGE CASES


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

The first thing to do in the examination of bullets is to conduct a visual examination of the
bullets in order to familiarize with all markings appearing on it.
Conduct examination of the bore of the firearm.
Determine the conspicuous characteristics appearing on the bullet or any markings appearing
therein.
Markings appearing on the test bullet No. 1 and does not appear on the succeeding test bullet
such markings should be disregarded. Consequently, such markings are called accidental markings
which came from foreign substances.
If the bullet is undersized or the bore of the firearms is badly worn out there will be a
cylindrical passage of the expending gas will appear dark or black in the picture.

WHAT TO COMPARE?
1.
2.

Evidence Bullet
Test/Standard Bullet
Before proceeding in the examination of the firearm by means of the fired bullets, first identify the
particular firearm through the class characteristics appearing on the cylindrical surface of the bullet.
Manufacturers of firearms make certain marks which may distinguish firearms manufactured by
them from that of other manufacturers. Each manufacturer makes specific number of spiral grooves and
direction of the twist of rifling. A bullet recovered at the crime scene or from the body of the victim may show
those marks and on examination, the examiner may presumptively state from what make of firearm it came
from, thus, if one examination or recovered bullet, it was found out that there are six (6) grooves and the
rifling marks are twisted to the left, then it is possible that it came from a Colt firearm. Smith and Wesson
manufacturer has five (5) lands, five (5) grooves and with right hand twit of rifling. Other class characteristics
varied from one manufacturer to another.

3.

SHELL Identification
a.
b.
c.

The breechface and the striker of every single firearm leave microscopically individualities of their own.
The firearm leaves its fingerprint or thumbmark on every cartridge which is fires.
The whole principle of identification is based on the fact that since the breechface of every weapon must
be individually distinct, the cartridge case which it fires is imprinted with this individuality.
The imprints on all cartridges fired from the same weapon are the same and those cartridges fired from
different weapon must always be different.

IMPORTANCE OF FIRED BULLET IN FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION


a. By means of fire bullet you can determine the particular barrel of firearm used.
b. Recovered bullet can tell the type, caliber and make of firearm from which it was fired.
c. Can determine also the condition of the firearm us
FIREARM CARTRIDGE CASE
Before proceeding in the examination, conduct a preliminary examination on the cartridge case having a
visual examination on the condition of such cartridge case. Determine whether or not it came from a revolver or from
an automatic pistol and sub-machine guns. Examine those markings that are present on the base portion, the

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breechface marks, firing pin impression, the location of the extractor and ejector markings. Check also the markings
caused by the chamber of the firearm. The magazine and the ejector port markings must also be taken into
consideration particularly those cartridge cases from gums having full automatic mechanism.
MARKINGS APPEARING ON A FIRED CARTRIDGE CASE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Breechface marks
Firing pin impression
Ejector mark
Extractor mark
Chamber mark

TWO TYPES OF MARKINGS (individual)


1.
2.

Impression type those markings caused by direct pressure contact. (ex. Breechface mark)
Striated mark those markings caused by sliding contact. (ex. Minute striations on the cylindrical surface of
the bullet)

Take Note:

Abrasion (in the bore) Scratches caused


by using improper cleaning materials, or by firing ammunition with bullets to which abrasive material was
adhering. Normal enlargement of the bore and wearing away of lands due to the abrasive action of the
bullets.
Accidental Characteristics - Those ate
characteristics or marks left by some individual gun that occurred on that particular shot and may or may not
reproduced on any other shots. For example, a grain of send of shaving of steel happened to be in the barrel
when a shot was fired.
Ballistician Person whose knowledge in
firearms identification is accepted by the courts and other investigation agencies.
Definitive Proof after the gun is finally
completed, it is again fired with a heavy charge to ensure against accident. This is the definitive proof and
guns passing this test are stamped with still another marked.
Expert - As used in courts includes all
witnesses whose opinions are admitted on grounds of specialized knowledge, training and experience.
Fouling - The accumulated of a deposit
within the bore of a firearm caused by solid by-products remaining after a cartridge of is fired.
Heavy Rusting - Usually called corrosion
rather than fouling.
Proof Marks It is the examination and
testing of firearms by a recognized authority according to certain rules and stamped with a mark to indicate
that they are safe for sale and used by the public.
Provisional Proof the testing of the rough
gun barrels and fired with a heavy charge of powder to see if they are strong enough to be finished and
assembled into gun. This provisional proof and a certain stamp are placed on barrels so tested.
Secondary Firing Pin Impression Is a
mark on the side of the regular impression usually found in pistols.
Shaving Marks a shaving on the ogive
portion of the fired bullet due to poor alignment of the cylinder with the barrel. This shaving is often found in
the revolver.
Skid Marks When the bullet first starts
forward without turning, that before the bullet can begin to turn, it moves forward a small distance and this
makes the front of the groove in the bullet wider than the rear part. This skidding is more pronounced in
revolvers.

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Slippage Marks Scratches of the fired


bullet due to badly worn rifling or when the bullet is small or too soft for the velocity used, there is a tendency
for it to go straight forward without turning and it jumps the rifling or slips.
Stripping Marks scratches on the fired
bullet due to worn out barrel.

TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
1. Physical Evidence bullets, cartridge cases and suspected firearm once submitted by the requesting
party will be physically examined to determine its markings or initials made by the investigator for identification
purposes. If no identifying marks were found the firearms examiner will, before anything, affix his own identifying
markings or initials derived form the names of the requesting party, victim or suspect in that order of priority. The
firearm will also be physically examine to determine its safety devices seeing to it that there is no cartridge inserted in
the chamber that will cause accidental firing. Likewise, it will be examined of its vital parts whether or not it is in
operating condition and a tag will be attached for distinction.
Bullets of different class characteristics will be segregated from one another especially the determination of
caliber, number of lands and grooves, twist of rifling, etc. to facilitate its easy final microscopic examination.
Cartridge cases will also be segregated to determine the caliber, type and make of firearm from which they
were fired. Misfired or dud cartridges will also be taken into consideration. Although they may not have any ballistics
probative value, yet, they may give a clue to the solution of a crime.
2. Test Firing The firearm is test fired before a bullet recovery box in order to obtain test bullets and test
cartridge cases for comparison with the evidence bullets and cartridge cases, respectively,. But before firing, the
cartridge will be marked at the side of the case and on the nose portion of the bullet with letter T (to represent test)
followed by the last two digits of the serial number of the firearm of the test to be made (eg) T-77-1 to T-77-3 in their
order of firing to distinguish the number 1 test from the number 2 or 3 as the case may be.
3. Microscope Examination After the recovery of the test bullets and cartridge case, they will be
compared with the evidence cartridge cases under the Bullet Comparison Microscope to determine whether or not the
have the congruency of striations or the same individual characteristics.
BULLET COMPARISON MICROSCOPE
Toady, the most widely and reliable instrument in Firearms Identification is the Bullet Comparison
Microscope. With this instrument, the firearms examiner can make a complete examination and comparison of the so
called Class and Individual characteristics that appears on the fired bullets and fired cartridge cases.
This instrument consists of two single tubes fitted with a cross arm and comparison eyepiece, in which the
images of two objects held on its two adjustable stages are fused into one, forming a single image as can be seen on
the comparison eyepiece. The microscope tubes are built as a unit with the comparison eyepiece which has a prism
arrangement that brings the images of the specimen held under the microscopic tubes into a side by side position in
the left and right side of the eyepiece field the eyepiece is threaded for focusing on the dividing line between the two
fields.
Under the microscope the two fired bullets or fired cartridge cases can be examined in a juxtaposition and
whatever the observation and findings obtained during the examination can be photographed for court presentation
and also to give the Court a better understanding and good appreciation of how he came to that conclusion.
HOW TO OPERATE THE MICROSCOPE
Place the two objects on the two adjustable stages under the two microscopic tubes and peep through the
comparison eyepiece. If the objects cannot be seen, adjust the stages through the rock and pinion mechanism. Once

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the two objects focused, the next step is to find the similarities existing between the objects either shifting them
vertically or horizontally.
Every examiner, no matter how experienced or expert he may be, has had the experience of spending many
hours in the attempt to get the satisfactory and convincing matching in cases where there was every reason to believe
that the has the gun that fired the evidence bullet or shell.
Obtain matching as many as possible, because convincing ones self and convincing the Court beyond all
reasonable doubt are two quite different matters. Te expert must always keep in mind the fact, judges are always keep
in mind the fact, judges are always unpredictable: if some pairs of grooves (or lands) match and others do not, the
expert must be prepared to explain why they do not.
FINDINGS/CONCLUSION
Findings are the bases of conclusion. A conclusion cannot be made without the findings. A good conclusion is
always based on good findings. In comparative examination of the evidence bullet that are found on the periphery
running from the forward shoulder to the base portion (these are surface of the barrel), are discernible with the test
bullet or if they have the congruency, correspondence or intermarriage, then the evidence bullet and the test bullet
were fired from one and the same firearm. For conclusive of findings, there should be at least three (3) tests that
should be compared. The first is for preliminary, the second is for confirmation and the third is for conclusion. This is
also true for fired cartridge cases. Although the individual characteristics of the cases may be found at the base portion
where breechface, ejector, extractor markings are found on the sides that are in contact with the inner surface of the
chamber.
Clip or magazine markings may also give discernible markings. Like the ejector or extractor markings if
considered singly may not be a basis for conclusion. These only serve as corroborative characteristics but certainly
lack legal significance. This is so because the case may have these markings even if they were unloaded from the
firearm without firing. As a rule, the point of the examination and comparison is at the area of the primer proper where
breechface markings together with the firing pin impression are located. Primers are softer metals and receive more
prominent striation than any other portion of the base.
Conclusion is the opinion gathered from the finding. This is the end result of the examination and should be
taken seriously as it involves the life and liberty of the suspect. When the evidence and the test bullets or cartridge
cases have the same individual characteristics, the competent examiner will conclude that they were fired from one
and the same individual characteristic; the competent examiner will conclude that they were fired from one and the
same suspected firearm. If they have different individual characteristics, certainly, the evidence bullet or case was not
fired from the suspected firearm. Where the evidence has prominent or minor striations that the three tests, it calls for
uncertainty and doubt for a positive or negative conclusion. Only those evidence bullets or cases that have the same
individual characteristics may be taken of photomicrograph for Court presentation.
REQUIREMENTS FOR A POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.

PROMINENT Standing out or projecting beyond a surface or line, readily noticeable.


CONSISTENT Possessing firmness. The impression or striation found on the evidence bullet or cartridge
case appearing in every test bullets and cartridge cases.
SIGNIFICANT The markings have meaning or capable of being interpreted by the Firearms Examiner or
Ballistician.

INSTRUMENTS USED IN FORENSIC BALISTICS


1.
2.

Analytical or Torsion Balance Used for determining weights of bullets and shotgun pellets for possible
determination of type, and make of firearm from which it was fired.
Bullet Comparison Microscope This valuable instrument is specially designed to permit the firearms
examiner to determine the similarity and dissimilarity between two fired bullets or two fired shells, by
simultaneously observing their magnified image in a single microscopic field.

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3.
4.

5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

14.
15.

Bullet Recovery Box Consist of a wooden box, 12 x12x 96, with a hinged to cover and with one end
open. This long box is filled with ordinary cotton and separated into sections by cardboard petitions.
CP6 Comparison Projector An instrument very much similar with the bullet comparison microscope,
where 2 fired bullets or shells can be compared in one setting of the firearms examiner. Also in one sitting,
the evidence fired shell can b4e immediately compared with the test fired shell with the use of this equipment
is absolutely no strain of any kind. No eye strain because the magnified image appears on a large screen
and is observed as a vertical and comfortable viewing distance. No back strain from stooping over a
microscope several hours a day. No mental strain because comparison of evidence is faster, easier and less
tiresome, thus allowing a more efficient and productive of investigative time in the crime laboratory with
method that can be seen in the screen can be photographed by any kind of camera.
Filan Micrometer Eye Piece - a measuring microscope to read the width of the land and groove marks and
to obtain the pitch of the rifling in turns per inch.
Helixometer Type of instrument used in measuring pitch of rifling firearms. This instrument is generally
used in high advanced ballistic laboratory. It is not very much needed in a typical police ballistic laboratory.
With the use of this instrument it is possible to measure the angel of twist in a rifle, pistol, or revolver barrel. It
is used by the insertion of a telescope aligned with the axis of the bore. There is an eyepiece and an
objective. The scope is mounted on a routable bearing with graduated discs that permits reading circular
measurements, there is a scale graduated in inches. From the discs we can get the angel of the pitch, this
can be combined with the scale reading to compute how many inches of barrel length would be needed for
one complete turn of the rifling. Comparing this figure with those in tables of manufacturers specifications,
we can often identify the making and the model of a weapon whose other features have been destroyed
already.
Machine Rest - A machine use for testing the accuracy of a firearm.
Caliper an instrument used for making measurements such as bullet diameter and bore diameter.
Micrometer similar in use as caliber.
Onoscope a small instrument sometimes used in examining the internal surface of the gun barrel in
determining the irregularities inside the bore of the gun barrel. It has a tiny lamp at the terminal portion and
this is inserted inside the bore for internal examination.
Optical Sight sight containing series of lenses to form an optical system being contained in one unit.
Optical sights do not necessarily have telescopic properties. The optical system may merely include range
indicating, or range estimating devices, plus the necessary means of adjusting for elevation and wind age.
Shadow Graph Equipment used in firearms identification. It contains a series of microscopic lenses of
different magnification that can be used in examining fired bullet or fired shells to determine their class
characteristics and also for orientation purposes. It greatly differs from the bullet comparison microscope and
stereoscope microscope, that this instrument contains a large ground glass, 14 inches more or less in
diameter, wherein the observation and comparison of the class characteristics is done by the firearm
examiner. Similarly with the bullet comparison made in the circular ground glass.
Stereoscopic Microscope unlike the bullet comparison microscope does not have any camera
attachment and no photomicrograph can be taken for court presentation. It is generally used in the
preliminary examination of fired bullets and fired shells to determine the relative distribution of the class
characteristics or for so-called orientation purposes. It can be used also in the close-up examination of
tempered serial numbers of firearms. It has two eyepieces and the lenses and objectives can be manipulated
vertically with a series of magnifications. It is one effective instrument for firearms identification.
Taper Gauge It is used primarily for determining bore diameter of firearms. This instrument is very useful
for giving quick idea as to the caliber of a gun.
Telescope Sight an optical employing the principle of the telescope to enlarge the image of the target.

OTHER TERMS TO PONDER IN BALLISTICS


1.
2.
3.

Accelerator A device used in some automatic and semi-automatic weapons to accelerate the rearward
travel of the bolt of breechblock by applying leverage at the critical point in the bolts travel. Any device of
linkage designed to speed the movement of some portion of the mechanical train.
ACP Arms Corporation of the Philippines.
Barrel Length - In interior ballistic work this differs from the "barrel length" use in general measurements. It
is measured from the face of the muzzle to the base of the seated bullet or base of the case neck.

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4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

27.
28.
29.
30.

Barrel Telescope Instrument used to make a visual inspection of the inset of a gun barrel to see a sign of
having been fired recently, to look for leading or metal fouling and to see how distinct the lands and grooves
appear.
Blow back As pertains to automatic and semi-automatic arms, a weapon in which no mechanical locking
system is employed. The breech is held closed at the moment of firing by the action of recoil springs and the
weight of the slide, hammer and other moving parts. The weight of these parts is so much greater than the
breech action has been appreciably overcome; then the breechblock action is blown backward, by residual
pressure. A term commonly used to describe the backward escape of powder or primer gases from the
chamber around the breechblock or bolt due to split or fractured cartridge case or punctured primer.
Blow Forward An automatic of semi-automatic firearm having a standing breech, in which the barrel is
blown to open the action and eject the fired cartridge case. The barrel is then forced back against the
standing breech by a powerful spring. The gun is cocked and reloaded as the barrel is forced to the rear.
Bore Centerline - This is the visual line of the center of the bore. Since sights are mounted above the bore's
centerline and since the bullet begins to drop when it leaves the muzzle the bore must be angled upwards in
relation to the line of sight so that the bullet will strike where the sights point.
Breech Block The steel block which closes the tear bore against the force of the charge; or the face of the
block.
Burr Hammer An expose hammer having a serrated knob at the top to provide a griping surface for
cocking.
Camming lug bolts that type which employs one or more bolt locking logs which are cammed outward
from the interior of the bolt cylinder to unlocked the action.
Chamber the rear portion of the barrel where the cartridge is inserted.
Cylinder serves as chamber and magazine and a revolver.
Cylinder Stop stops and holds the cylinder in alignment for firing.
Delayed Blowback Sometimes called hesitation locking the breech, although not positively locked, must
overcome a mechanical disadvantage, such as knuckle joint, to open.
Disconnector The lever in the gunlock which prevents the release of the hammer unless the slide and
barrel are in forward position safely interlocked.
Double Set Triggers A pair of triggers so arranged that pressure on one trigger engages the sear in such
fashion that the slightest tough on the second trigger will then discharge the gun.
Double Action Sear Built into weapon to allow double action fire.
EC- Evansille Chrisler
Ejector - The mechanism in the firearm which causes the cartridge case or shell to be thrown out from the
gun.
Extractor That mechanism in a firearm by which the cartridge case or shell is withdrawn from the chamber
mechanism in a revolver that pulls the empty shells simultaneously.
Extractor Rod That mechanism in revolver that activates the extractor and is a locking device.
FA Frankford Arsenal.
Falling Block Action That type of action, which the breechblock is pivoted at the rear of the receiver so
that the face of the breechblock swings down below the chamber to open the action.
FCC- Federal Cartridge Company
Firearm (Other Definition) - Means any pistol or revolver with a barrel les than 12 inches, any riffle with a
barrel less than 15 inches, other weapon which is design to expel projectile buy the action of explosion.
(Uniform firearms act of Pennsylvania)
Flying Firing Pin A firing pin shorter that the length of its travel in the breechblock. A spiral spring coiled
around the pin forward compressing the spring and exploding the primer, the compressed spring immediately
draws the firing pin back into the breechblock. This is a safety feature since the firing pin is not in contact
with the primer except when driven forward by the hammer at the instant of firing. Also known as rebound
type firing pin Ex: Colt Government Model Caliber. 45 and Tokarev 7.62 mm.
Folding Trigger - A trigger hinged so that it can be folded forward close to under side of the frame. Ex:
Italian 10:35 mm Bodego.
Frame - Part of the firearm that houses the internal parts.
Front sight - A protrusion or attachment above the barrel near the muzzle. It may be fixed or adjustable.
Grip or Automatic Safeties - Flat lavers of plungers normally protruding from some portion of the grip such
position that when the hand firing the piece is squeezed around the grip, by the firer, automatically releasing

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31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

the firing mechanism. In most cases, when pressure on the grip is relaxed the safety automatically resets
itself, In a few instances, it must bee usually reset.
Hair Trigger A term loosely applied to any trigger which can be release by very light pressure.
Hammer mechanism in a firearm that strikes the prime.
Hammer Block - Safety device that prevents hammer blow to primer.
Hand (Pawl) - Mechanism of a revolver which rotate the cylinder.
Hanged Frame - A weapon in which the barrel including the cylinder in the case of revolver is pivoted to the
forward end of the frame. Closing the gun swings the barrel into firing position where the chambers are firmly
locked against the standing breech.
Headspace - The distance between the breech of the gun and the support for the cartridge rim; in other
words, it is the space occupied by the head of the cartridge when the gun is loaded.
Head stamps - Merely the letters or design placed on the base of the cases by the manufacturer to identify
his product.
Inertia Firing Pin - A firing pin assembled into the breech block and free to move forward and backward. It is
impelled forward by the blow of the hammer or striker and backward by the explosions of the primer.
LC- Lake City Arsenal
Leaf Sight - Any metallic sight which is hinged at the base to permit raising it to a vertical position sighting
and lowering it to a horizontal position to avoid damage and carrying leaf sight. Principle is usually applied to
rear sight only.
Line of Sight - This is the visual line of the aligned sight path. Since sights are mounted above the bore's
centerline and since the bullet begins to drop when it leaves the muzzle the bore must be angled upwards in
relation to the line of sight so that the bullet will strike where the sights point.

42. Mainspring mechanism in a firearm that provides energy to the hammer to activate firing mechanism.
43. Metallic Sights normally consist of a pair of front sight and rear sights.
44. Muzzle Brake a device attached to the muzzle of a gun designed to deflect the propelling gases emerging
from the muzzle behind the bullet and to utilize the energy of these gases to pull the gun forward to counter
the recoil of the weapon.
45. Open Sight any sight in which there is to tube or aperture through which aim is taken.
46. Paradox Gun a shotgun having the last few inches of the muzzle rifled so that it will impart a spin to the
patented slug that is used with it when it is desired to fire a large single projectile instead of a charge of shot.
47. Parker size a Gray rust preventive finish for metal.
48. Post Sight A front sight resembling a post or one of generally rectangular of quadrilateral design.
49. Pump Action Popular term for slide action.
50. Pyramidal Sight - a front sight of generally pyramidal design.
51. RA or REM Remington arms company.
52. Ramp Sight A front sight mounted at the ramp, which inclines upward and forward, a rear sight having a
sliding member, which may be moved up and down a ramp to change the elevation of the sight.
53. Rear Sight The rear-most of a pair of metallic gun sights. It may be mounted on the barrel, receiver, frame,
slide, tang, cocking piece, bolt sleeve or stock; may be fixed or adjustable.
54. Receiver Sight Any type of sight fastened to the receiver bridge.
55. Recoil Operated Pertains to automatic and semi-automatic arms, a weapon in which the barrel and
breechblock are locked together at the instant firing. As the bullet leaves the barrel, the rearward thrust of the
powder gases starts the locked barrel and bolt to the rear.
56. Repeater Any firearm holding more than one round at a time.
57. Rolling Block Action that type of action in which the breechblock rotates its about an axis pin downward
and backward from the chamber.
58. RPA Republic of the Philippines Arsenal
59. Sear The lever in the gunlock, which hold the hammer until the released by the trigger.
60. Semi-Automatic Revolver are those in which the recoil from one shot plus spring action revolvers, the
cylinder aligns a chamber and cocks the hammer ready for firing the next shot.
61. Set Trigger An adjustable trigger design to operate reliable with a very light trigger pull. Colloquially a hair
trigger.

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62. Shoat Trigger An absolute form of trigger in which no trigger guard was used. The trigger was mounted in
and projected only slightly from the frame just forward of the grip.
63. Shoulder Portion of a shell that support the neck.
64. Slide Action That type of breech closure, which is moved forward and backward along guide ways
paralleling the lower side of the barrel. The operating rod is properly linked to the breechblock to provide the
desired and closing action.
65. Slide Plate Part of the revolver that provides access to the internal part.
66. Signal Radius the distance between forward and rear sight.
67. Silencer A device intended to be attached to muzzle of a firearm to prevent or reduce its noise.
68. Single Action Revolvers Are those in which the hammer must be manually cocked.
69. Solid Frame in a revolver, a swing-out cylinder or rod ejector type. There is a break or hinge in the frame.
70. Spur Hammer a hammer having a cocking spur.
71. Stab Crimp a series of small indents at intervals around the cartridge case, engaging a cannelure in the
bullet jacket. Both types of crimp are also used on high-pressure cartridge to hold the primer in the pocket.
72. Standing Breech when a receiver is not cut away at its rear to a point below the line of the gun bore, the
solid rear wall of the receiver is the standing breech. In the case of hinged frame weapons the solid
rearward portion of the frame (receiver) against which the heads of the chambered cartridge rest after the
gun has been closed and locked is the standing breech. In a revolver or single shot pistol that section of the
frame that supports the head of the cartridge in the cylinder or chamber is the standing breech.
73. Straight-line Hammer a metal forced straight back by bolt action during bolt reciprocation to cocked
position. When released it drives straight ahead to fire. Found on reising and similar guns.
74. Straight-pull Action that type in which the rotary motion required to turn the bolt locking lugs into or out of
engagement with their locking recesses is applied by the action of studs on the bolt sliding in helical grooves
cut inside a bolt cylinder.
75. Sub caliber Barrel a barrel of small caliber inserted down the bore or mounted over the barrel of a large
caliber gun, permitting it to be used for practice work with less powerful, cheaper ammunition. Generally, it is
called a Sub-caliber tube.
76. Thumb latch mechanism in a revolver that actuates bolt to release the cylinder.
77. Thumb trigger a button design on or near the tang. It fines the rifle when depressed normally by thumb
pressure. Tang-rear-ward projecting arms of the receiver into which the butt stocks is fastened.
78. Trigger the lever operated by the shooter which releases the firing pin and allows it to discharge the
cartridge.
79. Trigger Guard the bent strip of metal that protects the trigger from accidental discharge.
80. Trigger Lever mechanism in a revolver that contacts the rebound slide to return the trigger forward.
81. Trigger Spring spring that provides energy for return movement of rebound slide.
82. Trigger Stop mechanism in a revolver that prevents excessive rearward movement after hammer release.
83. Tube Sight a tube in which front and rear sights are mounted.
84. Turn-bolt Action that type of firearm which locked by the turning one or more bolt locking lugs into locking
recesses cut into the receiver.
85. U or UT Utah Ordinance Company
86. Vernier Sight metallic sights which may be adjusted for elevation or wind age by the action of a vernier
screw. Also called a micrometer sight. Screw having a head calibrated to indicate the amount of movement
transmitted to the sight.
87. WCC Western Cartridge Company
88. Wedge-type Bolts that type which employs a ramp or camp arrangement raise lower, or move to either
side, one end of the bolts so that the end of the bolt or lug thereon is wedged against a supporting surface in
the receiver to lock the action.
89. WRA Winchester Repacking Company
90. Yoke mechanism in a revolver that connects pivot between the frame and cylinder.

oo

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POLICE PHOTOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION
Photography is an invaluable aid to modern day scientific crime detection and investigation as well as crime
prevention. Perhaps it could be stated that without photography our law enforcement officer in the so-called modern
day scientific crime detection would still be lagging a hundred years.
The year 1839 is considered generally as the birth year of photography. Its first landmark in police history is
generally confined to its application to the problem of personal identification. In those days the Bertillon system of the
facial features of the criminal were measured, as well as the bone structures of the various parts of the body. These
measurements were worked into a classification system and the photograph of the criminal was used to supplement
the classification. Later, the Bertillon system was superseded by the fingerprint system of personal identification. Under
the fingerprint system the photograph of the subject is still placed on his finger print chart, not to supplement the
identification system but to have available photograph if needed for investigation purposes.
This course is divided into two main topics: TECHNICAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY.
TECHNICAL: technical concepts and principles which includes characteristics of photographic rays, the use of camera,
lenses, filters, structure of film and photographic papers, chemical processing and others.
FORENSIC: covers investigative photography, preparation of mug file and crime scene photography.
Objective:
The objective of this course is to help the students become aware of the basic principles and concepts of
photography. Although this course is not intended to make the students become professional photographers, it is
designed to give them enough information for them to realize the vital use of photography as a significant tool in law
enforcement and criminal investigation. As future law enforcers and criminal investigators, they must be knowledgeable
on how to utilize effectively and efficiently photographic evidences during court proceedings.
Significance:
The usefulness of Forensic Photography in criminal investigation is very extensive. Small objects but of great
importance in a crime committed may escape in the first phase of examination by the investigator but may be
seen and recovered, only after closed examination of the photographs of the crime scene.
Investigators are sometimes compelled to reconstruct or describe in court some of the details of the crime
scenes they investigated several months ago. With the bulk of cases the investigator handle, perhaps he would
be confused or may not exactly recall some of these details or exact location of objects. However, with the aid of
photographs taken from the crime scene, investigator will not find hard time to refresh in their minds and will be
able to describe or explain exactly the details in court.
A good photograph of the scene is a permanent record, which is always available, especially in court
presentation. In court proceedings, judges, prosecutors and defense lawyers have generally never visited the scene of
the crime. Therefore, photographers should bear in mind to obtain a normal, sharp and free of distortion photograph.
As a general rule, take many photograph of the crime scene and select the best.

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A photograph of the crime scene is a factual reproduction and accurate record of the crime scene because it
captures TIME, SPACE AND EVENT. A photograph is capable of catching and preserving the:
SPACE - the WHERE of the crime (Locus Criminis)
TIME the WHEN of the crime
EVENT the WHAT of the crime what is the nature or character of the crime?
Uses of photography in police work
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Identification files- Criminals missing persons, lost property, licenses, anonymous letters, bad checks,
laundry marks, and civilian of personal fingerprint IF In the case of atomic attack or a catastrophe such as an
airplane crash, the fingerprints from a civilian file are proving helpful in making positive identification
Communication and microfilm files- Investigative report files, Accident files transitions of photos (Wire Photo)
Photographic supplements to reports. With modern day electro photography machines accident reports can
be made in seconds and sold to insurance adjusters for nominal fees. An excellent source of revenue for
department is the sale of photographs of traffic accidents to insurance companies and lawyers.
Evidence- Crime scenes, traffic accidents, homicides suicides, fires, objects of evidence, latent fingerprint
traces. Evidence can be improved by contrast control, by magnification and by visible radiation.
Offender detection Surveillance, burglar traps, confession, reenactment of crimes intoxicated driver test.
One of the newest applications of police photography is to record on motion picture film arrests in which the
suspect offers resistance. The practice has been instituted by at least one metropolitan law enforcement
agency to counter charges of police brutality.
Court exhibits- Demonstration enlargements, individual photos, projection slides, motion pictures.
Reproduction or Copying Questionable checks and documents, evidential papers, photographs, official
records and notices.
Personnel training- Photographs and films relating police tactics, investigation techniques, mob control, and
catastrophe situations.
Crime and Fire prevention Hazard lectures, security clearance, detector devices, photos of hazardous fire,
conditions made when fire prevention inspection are made.
Public relations Films pertaining to safety programs, juvenile delinquency, traffic education, public
cooperation, and civil defense.

*Four primary ways of using photography in Police Work:


1.
2.
3.
4.

As means of identification.
As a method of discovering, recording and preserving evidence.
As a way to present, in the courtroom, an impression of the pertinent elements of a crime.
As a training and public relations medium for police programs.

PHOTOGRAPHY: ITS PRINCIPLE


In photography, the light writes when it strikes minute crystals of light sensitive surfaces (films and
photographic papers), a mechanical device (camera) and chemical processing (film development and printing). As a
process, photography is the method of using light to produce identical image of an object that can be preserved
permanently by employing:
a. camera: camera use to regulate, absorb and filter light
b. film and any sensitized material to record light
Photograph is a mechanical result of photography. To produce a photograph, light is needed aside from
sensitized material (films and photographic papers). Light radiated or reflected by the subject must reach the sensitized
material while all other lights must be excluded. The exclusion of all other lights is achieved by placing the sensitized
material inside a light tight box. The light maybe visible or invisible.
The effect of light on the sensitized material is not visible in the formation of images of objects. The effect
could be made visible with the aid of chemical processing of the exposed sensitized material called development.

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Photography is the production of visible images by using the action of light on a sensitized material. The
word photography was derived from two Greek terms PHOTO which means light and GRAPHY which means to write.
Thus, literally, photography means to draw with light.
PHOTOGRAPHIC RAYS
What is light? Many as good while darkness the opposite as bad have associated light. In case of anxiety,
fright, severe mental disorders and depression many experienced dream like apparitions. In states of religious ecstasy,
visions and hallucinations occur which can be attributed to the high sensitivity of the retina. Many frequently perceived
light impressions, which cannot be attributed to external stimuli of an altogether different kind, such as pressure, impact
and functional disturbances in our body and nervous system.
Everyone also knows light. It excites the retina of the eye. Light makes things visible. There is no
exaggeration to say that man cannot live without light. Same things are true in photography, because light is needed to
produce a photograph.
LIGHT AND THE EYE
Our eyes are sensitive to light, which give us information about the shapes, colors and movements of objects
around us. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation and we know it travels in the form of waves. The complete
range of electromagnetic spectrum and our eyes are capable of seeing only part of the spectrum. We can see a large
part of the wavelengths emitted by the sun, that is white light but the sun also emits other waves, which we cannot see.
Infra red is a wavelength emitted by the sun which cannot be seen, though we can feel it in our bodies as
warmth or heat. Ultra violet is another form of light we cannot see, but we know about it because it tans our skin in
summer.
HOW LIGHT BEHAVES
Light moves in straight lines from its source, but it can be bent and scattered by objects placed in its path.
We see rays of sunlight streaming through a window on a sunny day because some of the light is scattered by dust
particles in the air. We can only see a ray of light when it strikes the eye directly. Then it forms an image of the object
from which it has come, either the light source itself, or something from which it has been reflected, such as a
motorcar. Non-luminous objects are one, which are only visible when they reflect the light from a light source. In a
totally dark room, you would not be able to see a desk, but you would be able to see the hands of a luminous clock. If
the totally black room had no dust particles floating around it, you would not able to see the beam of light, but only the
light source itself and any object that reflects the light.
SPEED OF LIGHT
Even an electric light appears to glow immediately it is switched on, a small but definite time lag occurs
between the light coming on and the electromagnetic radiation entering our eyes. In a room, this time lag is too short to
be noticeable, but for distant objects like stars, the lag is thousand of years. Even light from the moon, which is
relatively close to earth, experiences a time lag of one second. The speed of light, measured in a vacuum is 299, 792.5
km/sec (approximately 186,281 miles/sec / 186,000).
BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT
INTERFERENCE - Any phenomenon having a periodic disturbance of some sort and travels outward from a
source is called a wave. To understand how energy can travels in waves, think of a wooden log floating in the ocean.
Light maybe visualized as such as the high points are called crest while the low points are called troughs. The
distance between two successive crest and troughs is called a wavelength.
When two light beams cross, they may interfere in such a way that the resultant intensity pattern is affected.
When two waves meet or interfere, they reinforce one another (crest form a higher crest than either) at some points
and annul one another (crest of one wave interfere with the trough of the other) at other points.
The crest of one wave meets the trough of another wave. The phenomenon is called annulment of waves.
The British physicist Thomas Young in the experiment illustrated first demonstrated such an interference pattern. Light
that had passed through one pinhole illuminated an opaque surface that contained two pinholes. The light that passed

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through the two pinholes formed a pattern of alternately bright and dark circular fringes on a screen. Wavelets are
drawn in the illustration to show that at points such as A, C, and E (intersection of solid line with solid line) the waves
from the two pinholes arrive in phase and combine to increase the intensity. At other points, such as B and D
(intersection of solid line with dashed line), the waves are 180 out of phase and cancel each other.

DIFFRACTION light in space and not within the gravitational field of any object travels in a straight line.
The bending of light around an object gives rise to the phenomenon called diffraction. This phenomenon is responsible
for the partial illumination of object parts not directly in the path of the light.
LIGHT AND MATERIALS
Materials, which allow light to pass through so that objects on the other side can be distinguished, are called
transparent.
Those that allow light to pass through but diffuse the flow of light so that objects on the other side cannot be
distinctly seen are called translucent.
Materials, which allow no light to pass through, are called opaque. When light strikes an object such light
is absorbed, transmitted and or reflected practically. The amount of light transmitted or reflected depends upon the
characteristics of the material, the quantity and quality of the light the angle of the source etc.
THE LAW OF REFLECTION refers to the rebounding or deflection of light. The angle of reflection depends
upon the angle of the light striking the material, which is referred to as the angle of incidence.
THE LAW OF REFRACTION when the material in the path of the light is transparent a change in the
direction of the light occurs.
The change in the direction of light when passing from one medium to another is called the phenomenon of
refraction. The change in the direction of the light is due to the change in the speed of light when passing from one
medium to another. The displacement depends upon the angle of incidence, the kind of material and its thickness.
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
By using a prism made of glass or plastic, it is possible to see the colors that made up the sunlight. The
colors separated in this way are called a spectrum. Another way to see the spectrum of sunlight is to look at a rainbow.
The light is bend as observed, and because some of wavelengths bend more than others, the colors are separated.
The violet rays are bent the most, and the red rays least.
The prism experiment shows how white light is made up of a combination of wavelengths of different colored
lights. To make colors it would seem that we would need paints or dyes of every possible colors and shade to get
exactly what we want but in fact any color can be made by combining various proportions of the three basic colors.
These are called the primary colors.

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The whole range of radiant energy that includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultra
violet lights, x-rays and gamma rays. Visible light, which makes up only of a tiny fraction of the electromagnetic
spectrum, is the only electronic radiation that humans can perceive with in their eyes.

SOURCES OF LIGHT
There are two sources of light, they are known as natural and artificial. Natural lights are lights which come
to existence without the intervention of man and artificial lights are lights which are man made. In photography natural
light is used for outdoor photography and artificial lights are utilized in indoor photography to augment the adverse
lighting condition.
NATURAL LIGHT
The source of all daylight is the sun. The combination of color and contrast ascertains the quality of the
daylight. The lighting contrast depends upon the sunlight available in the daylight, when clouds do not cover the sun.
Then, the contrast is high on the contrary; if clouds cover the sun the contrast is low. In the process of photographing
and object; the lighting contrast must be considered in the exposure of the film. It is suggested that the
recommendations, given by the manufacturer of the film be observed religiously to produce good and presentable
photographs.
Color of the daylight will also affect the appearance of the objects being photographed specially in color
photography. Some of the factors affecting the color of the daylight:
a) atmospheric vapor
b) atmospheric dust
c) reflected light reached the objects and directly coming from the source.
Daylight maybe classified according to its intensity. They are:
a) Bright sunlight
b) Hazy sunlight
c) Dull sunlight.
These classifications are modified by the film manufacturers like
a) Open bright sunlight
b) Under shade bright sunlight
c) Hazy sunlight
d) Cloudy bright sunlight
e) Cloudy dull sunlight.
To distinguish this classification of daylight according to intensity, the appearance of the shadows of the
objects must be considered. In bright sunlight, the subject will produced a strong shadow, because the source of light
in not covered and the objects or subjects appear glossy in open space due to direct sunlight and reflected light coming
from the sky which act as a reflector.
In Hazy sunlight, the sun is covered by thin cloud and the shadow appears bluish because of the decrease of
light falling on the subject in open space. The shadow cast is transparent to the eye and more details are visible under
this lighting condition than a bright sunlight.
In dull sunlight, the sun is totally covered by thick clouds. No shadow is cast to the uniform illumination of
lights all around the subjects in open space.
ARTIFICIAL LIGHT

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Almost all artificial light sources can be used in photographing of objects, as long as the light is capable of
exposing the sensitized materials (film). Some of the artificial lights are electronic flash, photoflood lamp, fluorescent
lamp, and Infrared and Ultra-Violet lamp.

COLORS OF LIGHT FOUND IN VISIBLE SPECTRUM


Visible Spectrum - a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum where the visible light is found, the portion of
the electromagnetic spectrum that affect the human sense of sight. Visible light includes all those radiation having a
wavelength ranging from 400 700 mu.
COLOR
Primary Colors

Approximate Wavelength

A. Red (longest wavelength)


B. Blue
C. Green

700 mu
450 mu
550 mu

Complementary Colors
A. Magenta (shortest wavelength)
B. Cyan
C. Yellow

400
500
590

Neutral Color
A. Gray
B. White
C. Black
COLOR MIXING
1. Color Addition
R+B+G = W
R+B= M
R+G= Y
B+G= C
2. Color Subtraction
W-R= C
W-B=Y
W-G=M

M+Y= R
Y+C= B
Y+C= G
W-C=R
W-Y=B
W-M=G

C-G=B
Y-G=R
Y-R=G

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COLORS


The three primary colors in light are red, green and blue. White light can be made by mixing red, blue and
green. The process of making colors by mixing primary colors of light is called addition, because one color is added to
another.
Colors made by combining two primary colors are called secondary colors. They are yellow (red and green),
cyan (blue and green) and magenta (blue and red). When the primary colors are mixed in different proportions any
color at all can be produced.

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Painted objects do not produce their own light, they reflect light, when objects look red, because it is
reflecting only red light to our eyes. To do this, it absorbed the other primary colors in the white light it is reflecting. It
absorbed green and blue and reflects red.

OPTICS
Optics is the study of light. It is concerned with the nature of light and the way it behaves in optical
instruments. Light is a form of energy and so an object may only produce light when there is energy present. A red-hot
piece of metal receives energy in the form of heat and converts some of it into red light.
ATTRIBUTE OF COLORS
Radiant energy within a limited frequency range has the property of stimulating the retina of the eye to create
color sensation, which the brain interprets. Radiant energy, which has this property, is called light, the physical stimulus
of vision.
Color can be defined in qualitative terms according to certain psychological attributes. These attributes are
hue, brightness and saturation. Hue is the attributes of chromatic colors, which distinguishes them from achromatic
colors. Brightness is the attributes of colors, which allows the relation of colors in it to be related to given tones of gray
ranging in a series from white to black. Saturation is the attribute of a chromatic color, which designates to which the
color differs from a gray of the same brightness. Brightness and saturation can be understood in a practical sense from
the following, take a very vivid red (single saturation) and either a small amount of white or black. The color will change
to lighter or darker. In both instances, the vividness of the color is lessened (decreased saturation). The purity of the
color is then affected. By adding at the same time small amount of white and black, the brightness can be held
constant and only saturation is affected. When sufficient amount of white and black are added the hue becomes no
longer recognized from the gray tone to which it was originally related in brightness.
SELECTIVE AND NON SELECTIVE
Absorption refers to the taking in of light by the material. Following the law of conservation of energy, such
light taken in is not lost but merely transformed into heat.
Materials in their appearance are sometimes deceiving when light strikes them. For instance, when light
strikes a material and all the light is practically reflected, it will appear white. However when red light strikes the same
material, it will appear red. And green light of the same material it will appear green. Such material exhibits what is
called non-selective absorption.
There are other materials, which behave differently as stated above, when light incident upon other such
material they appear red, or blue or green but not white. With green or blue light the same material appears black
because practically all lights are absorbed. A material appears red under white light because only red light is practically
reflected while all other wavelengths are absorbed. Such materials which selectively reflects and absorbed others
wavelength exhibits selective absorption characteristics.
MEDIUMS OF LIGHT
Objects that influence the intensity of light as they may reflect absorb or transmit.
Mediums of light maybe classified as:
TRANSPARENT OBJECTS mediums that merely slow down the speed of light but allow to pass freely in
other respects, transmit 90% or more of the incident light.

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TRANSLUCENT OBJECTS mediums that allow light to pass through it in such a way that the outline of the
source of light is not clearly visible, transmit 50% or less of the incident light.
OPAQUE OBJECTS A medium that divert or absorb light, but does not allow lights to pass though, they
absorb most of the light while reflecting some of it.

THE RAT LAW


When incident light hits a medium, three things might happen, the light maybe:
A. Reflected
B. Absorbed
C. Transmitted
MECHANICAL DEVICE (CAMERA)
The principle of photography are derived from science and the images on the film or paper made by the rays
or light through the camera are dependent on the same general laws which produces images upon the retina through
the lens which produce images upon the retina through the lens of the eye.
A camera basically is nothing more than a light tight box with pinholes or lens, a shutter at one end and a
holder of the sensitized material at one end. While there is various kind of camera from the simplest in construction
(the box type) to the most complicated, all operate in the same principle. The exposure of the sensitized material to
light is controlled by the lens and its aperture and the shutter through its speed in opening and closing the lens to light.
The essentials of any camera, therefore, are light tight box, a lens, a shutter, and a holder of sensitized
material. All other accessory of any camera merely makes picture taking easier, faster, and convenient for the operator
and is call accessories.
Light tight box suggests an enclosure devoid of light. An enclosure is one which would prevent light from
exposing the sensitized material inside the camera. This does not necessarily mean that the box or enclosure be
always light tight at all times because if it does, then no light can reach the sensitized material during exposure. Light
tight box means that before and after the exposed to extraneous light which is not necessary to form the final image.
The lens, which must be focus at the object at the time of picture taking, is one of the most important parts of
any camera. The function of the lens is to focus the light coming from the subject. It operates more or less the same
way as the lens of the eye. It is chiefly responsible for the sharpness of the image formed through which light passes
during the exposure of the sensitized material inside the light tight box. The area of the lens may large or small during
the exposure of the sensitized material depending upon the light coming form the subject to be pictured. The quantity
and quality of the light coming from the subject depend upon the light source. As a rule the more light we have from the
source the more light will be reflected and vice versa. Should the light be too great the area of the lens maybe reduced
with the focal number adjustment. The smaller the area of the lens the greater is the numerical value of the focal
number. The greater the focal number numerically the less light will pass through the lens but more distance will
appear in reasonable sharpness.
The shutter has for its function through its action called shutter speed the control of the duration of the
exposure of the sensitized material to light. The higher the numerical value of the shutter speed the shorter will be the
duration of the opening and closing of the lens. As an effect only a small amount of light will pass through the lens.
Thee holder of sensitized material located at the opposite side of the lens has for its function to hold firmly
the sensitized material in its place during exposure to prevent the formation of a multiple or blurred image of the
subject.

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CAMERA TYPES
Frequently it asked, What is the best camera? The answer would be the best camera is the one that takes
the best pictures. Regardless of the type or kind of camera, a good operator will get results even with a cheap one.
THE PINHOLE CAMERA - The simplest camera is a pinhole camera, which consists of a box with a small
hole in one of its sides. To produce a sharp image, the hole must be very small and this restricts the amount of light
entering the camera. Quite a long time may be necessary to let enough light through to affect the film and this causes
problems because if the subject moves the picture will be blurred. It is impossible to photograph anything like a moving
car or a galloping horse with a pinhole camera.
CAMERA OBSCURA - Is a box used for sketching large objects? The term means dark chamber. The box
contains a mirror set at 45-degree angle. Mounted in the front end of the box is a double convex lens like that in a
photographic camera. Light from the object or scene is transmitted through the lens. The mirror reflects this light
upward to ground glass screen on the top of the box. There the light forms an image of the object or scene that can be
sketched easily.
FIXED FOCUS CAMERA - The most basic of all camera, have a non-adjustable lens. Most models have a
single diaphragm setting and only one or two shutter speeds. Most fixed focus cameras, including many inexpensive,
pocket-sized models, use 110 or 126 size film. The negative of such film require considerable enlargement, which may
produce a fuzzy image.
In general, a fixed focus camera can take satisfactory photographs in ordinary daylight but not in dim light,
because its lens does not admit much light. The camera may produce a blurred picture is moving or less than two
meters away. Many fix-focused cameras can take flash pictures.
Disposable cameras are a kind of fixed - focus camera that combine a plastic lens, a shutter, a film in one
small box. The entire camera is taken to the photo laboratory when the roll of film has been exposed.
POINT AND SHOOT CAMERA - Have many automatic features that make them easy to use. Electronic
devices inside the cameras automatically adjust the focus, set the light exposure and the shutter speed and advance
and rewind the film. A built in electronic flash automatically supplies light when too little light reflects from the subject.
The cameras are equipped with high quality lenses that produce a sharp image. Some of them have a zoom lens.
Point and Shoot cameras use films that measure 35 mm. Since their introduction in 1970s theses cameras have
gained wide popularity among amateurs photographers.
SINGLE LENS REFLEX CAMERAS - Appealed to skilled amateur photographers and to professional
photographers. The cameras name refers to its viewing system. The photographer views the subject through the
camera lens rather than through a separate viewing lens. A mirror between the lens and the film reflects the image onto
a viewing screen. When the shutter release button is pressed to take a picture, the mirror lifts out of the way to allow
the light to expose the film. Thus the photographer sees almost the exact image that is recorded on the film. SLR
cameras use 35 mm film. The photographer can adjust the focus, select the shutter speed, and control the opening of
the diaphragm. Many new models can also adjust the focus and control the light exposure automatically.
The standard lens of the SLR camera can be replaced by special purpose lenses that change the size and
depth relationship of objects in a scene. These lenses include wide-angle lens, telephoto lens, and zoom lenses. A
wide-angle lens provides a wider view of a scene than a standard lens does. A telephoto lens has a narrow angle of
view and makes objects appear larger and closer. A zoom lens combines many features of standard, wide angle and
telephoto lenses. With other accessories, many SLR cameras can take pictures through a microscope, telescope or
underwater.
Reflex cameras, both the SLR and the TLR types, are equipped with mirrors that reflect in the viewfinder
the scene to be photographed. The twin-lens reflex is box-shaped, with a viewfinder consisting of a horizontal
ground-glass screen located at the top of the camera. Mounted vertically on the front panel of the camera are two
lenses, one for taking photographs and the other for viewing. The lenses are coupled, so that focusing one
automatically focuses the other. The image formed by the upper, or viewing, lens is reflected to the viewing screen
by a fixed mirror mounted at a 45 angle. The photographer focuses the camera and adjusts the composition while

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looking at the screen. The image formed by the lower lens is focused on the film at the back of the camera. Like
rangefinder cameras, TLRs are subject to parallax.
In the SLR type of reflex camera, a single lens is used for both viewing the scene and taking the
photograph. A hinged mirror situated between the lens and the film reflects the image formed by the lens through a
five-sided prism and on to a ground-glass screen on top of the camera. At the moment the shutter is opened, a
spring automatically pulls the mirror out of the path between lens and film. Because of the prism, the image recorded
on the film is almost exactly that which the camera lens sees, without any parallax effects.
Most SLRs are precision instruments equipped with focal-plane shutters. Many have automatic exposurecontrol features and built-in light meters. Most modern SLRs have electronically triggered shutters; apertures, too,
may be electronically actuated or they may be adjusted manually. Increasingly, camera manufacturers produce
SLRs with automatic focusing, an innovation originally reserved for amateur cameras. Minolta's Maxxum series,
Canon's EOS series, and Nikon's advanced professional camera, the F-4, all have autofocus capability and are
completely electronic. Central processing units (CPUs) control the electronic functions in these cameras. Minolta's
Maxxum 7000i has software cards which, when inserted in a slot on the side of the camera, expand the camera's
capabilities.
Autofocus cameras use electronics and a CPU to sample automatically the distance between camera and
subject and to determine the optimum exposure level. Most autofocus cameras bounce either an infrared light beam
or ultrasonic (sonar) waves off the subject to determine distance and set the focus. Some cameras, including
Canon's EOS and Nikon's SLRs, use passive autofocus systems. Instead of emitting waves or beams, these
cameras automatically adjust the focus of the lens until sensors detect the area of maximum contrast in a
rectangular target at the centre of the focusing screen.
TWIN LENS REFLEX CAMERAS - Have a viewing lens directly above the picture - taking lens. The image in
the viewfinder appears on a flat screen on top of the camera. Photographer found such a viewing screen helpful in
composing a picture. Photographers do not hold the viewfinder to the eye, as they do with a fixed focus, point and
shoot, and single lens reflex camera. They usually hold the camera at the chest or waist and look down into the
viewfinder. The image appears reversed from left to right. In most models, nearby subjects appear lower in the picture
area of the viewfinder than they appear in the photograph. Most twin lens reflex cameras use film that produces
negatives measuring six by six centimeters.
VIEW CAMERAS View cameras are generally larger and heavier than medium- and small-format
cameras and are most often used for studio, landscape, and architectural photography. These cameras use largeformat films that produce either negatives or transparencies with far greater detail and sharpness than smaller format
film. View cameras have a metal or wooden base with a geared track on which two metal standards ride, one at the
front and one at the back, connected by a bellows. The front standard contains the lens and shutter; the rear holds a
framed ground-glass panel, in front of which the film holder is inserted. The body configuration of the view camera,
unlike that of most general-purpose cameras, is adjustable. The front and rear standards can be shifted, tilted, raised,
or swung, allowing the photographer unparalleled control of perspective and focus.
It is the largest and most adjustable type of camera. Most have accordion like body, with a replaceable lens
in front. They have a large viewing screen instead of a viewfinder. Most models have an adjustable diaphragm and
shutter speed. View cameras must be mounted on a stand for efficient operation.
A photographer focuses a view camera by moving the lens end or the back end of the camera forward or
backward to produce a sharp image. A view camera can provide artistic distortions of subjects more effectively than
any other kind of camera.
Many professional photographers use view camera for portraits and other subjects. A view camera uses
sheet of film that range in size from 60 to 90 mm to 280 by 360 mm. The picture is often contact printed. A contact print
is a photograph made to exactly the same size a negative. It is made by shining light through the negative, which is
held in contact with light sensitive paper.
INSTANT CAMERAS - Use film that provides a print without first being developed into a negative. The
cameras produce a print 15 seconds to 2 minutes after the photographer takes a picture. The time varies according to

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the camera and to the type of film. Instant camera use film that provides pictures ranging in size from 73 by 94 mm to
508 by 610 mm. Special types of film for instant camera also provide negatives. Some instant cameras can take flash
pictures and focus automatically as the photographer lines up a subject in the viewfinder.
ELECTRONIC CAMERA - Create pictures that can be viewed on a television screen. The lens in most
electronic cameras focuses light on light sensitive mechanism called CHARGED COUPLED DEVICE OR CCD. The
CCD changes the light into electronic signals. The electronic pictures can then be stored on small magnetic discs
similar to those I=used in computers. With additional equipment, electronic images can also be sent over telephone
lines or printed on paper.
FILM CAMERAS - Takes pictures that re-create the motion of a subject when they are viewed. Professional
filmmakers generally use large cameras that take 35 or 16 mm film. Most amateurs records on 8 mm film called super
8. Today, many amateur filmmakers use portable video cameras called CAMCORDERS. These cameras convert light
reflected by the subject into electronic signals that are recorded on magnetic tape. Most film cameras and camcorders
can record sound at the same as they record images. Most of them also have a zoom lens.
STEREO CAMERAS - Have two identical picture taking lenses with matched shutter. When a stereo camera
takes a picture, each lens photographs the same subject, but from a slightly different angle. When shown to a device
called a stereoscope or seen through glasses that polarize light, the two images blend in one picture that seems to
have depth. Stereo cameras are made for taking photographs or for making films.
SPECIAL PURPOSE CAMERA - Have been designed for industrial, medical, military, and scientific uses
they include aerial cameras used in space and underwater cameras.
Folding cameras favored for their compact design and movable bellows, have been in use for many
years. The cameras lens is incorporated into the bellows, which is slid back and forth along a rail to
change focus. The dark clothe covering the photographer and the box body of the camera blocks out
undesirable light, which might otherwise interfere with the picture.
Box cameras like this Brownie were the earliest cameras used by the general public. Relatively simple
in design and operation, they consisted of a wooden or plastic box, a drop-blade shutter, and a holding
device for the film. Modern box cameras are similar to early models, generally featuring only one shutter
speed and one opening; the very easy operation makes it a popular camera among casual
photographers.
The Polaroid, or instant, camera delivers a finished print directly following exposure. Although most
models are somewhat larger than the standard personal camera, the advantage of this system is the
convenience and speed of the results. Special film used in conjunction with the camera is designed to
develop itself, and represents one of the more recent chemical revolutions in photography.
Reflex cameras use mirrors to form an image of the scene to be photographed in the viewfinder. The 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera is one of the most popular cameras on the market today because of
its compact size, speed, and versatility. Most models offer a combination of automatic and manual
options.

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Single-lens reflex, or SLR, cameras are among the most common in use today. Single-lens reflex means that the
same lens is used for viewing and taking the photograph. The movable mirror between the lens and the film
reflects the image on a ground-glass viewing screen while the user adjusts the focus. When the shutter release
button is depressed, a spring pushes the mirror out of the way, and the image is recorded on the film. The
cameras are popular because users often have the option to control elements such as shutter speed, focus, and
aperture manually or automatically. This option allows photographers to achieve a wide variety of effects with
relative ease. The quality of SLR camera pictures is generally superior to that of the so-called point-and-shoot
camera.
Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
CAMERA WITH LENSES
A lens can be used to focus the light onto the film to produce a bright, clear image. The hole behind the lens
is called the aperture and on many cameras the size of the hole, or aperture can be altered. The length of time that
light is allowed to enter the camera is called the exposure and is controlled by the shutter. In its normal position the
shutter is closed and prevents light entering the camera. When the button is pressed, the shutter flies open for a pre determined length of time, depending on the light conditions in which the photograph is being taken. This can be as
long as one second or as short as 1/1000 second or even shorter. On a dull day you need a longer exposure than on a
sunny day.
Both the diaphragm and the shutter need to be adjusted according to the amount of light that is available for
taking a photograph. At midday in summer there will probably be plenty of light. On a winter afternoon there may not. In
a living room at night, the light maybe quite good for the eye, but not enough for the camera.
A camera is essentially a sealed with an opening at one end to admit light and a device at the other end for
holding photographic film or other light sensitive material.
THE CAMERA AND ACCESSORIES
LENS The lens of a camera consist of one or more glass or plastic disk with flat, concave, or convex
surfaces, each disk is called element. The purpose of the lens is to focus light on the film. The focal length of the lens is

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the distance between the optical center and the film. For any given film size, the shorter the focal length is, the greater
the field of view that is, the greater the area covered in the picture. Focal length also affects depth of field the
amount of the foreground and background that will be in sharp focus in the picture. The shorter the focal the greater is
the depth of field.
Lenses of various focal lengths can be used interchangeably on some cameras, allowing the photographer to
vary the field of view without taking the camera to a different position. A zoom lens has an adjustable focal length and
stays focused on one object as its focal length is change.
The light power of the lens is determined by the ratio of its focal length to its effective diameter (the effective
diameter is equal to the diameter of the aperture - the circular opening that controls the amount of light that passes
through the lens). The ratio expressed with the symbol f/, is called the f- number. The larger the aperture in relation to
the focal length, the smaller is the f- number.
SHUTTER The shutters on most cameras can be adjusted to different shutter speeds. The shutter speed
means the length of time the shutter is open. This might be several seconds ( or even hours if you are photographing a
night sky ) or one thousandth of a second or even less with special cameras. Most cameras have a shutter speed dial
showing speeds from one second to, for example, one thousand of a second. The dial is set to the speed the
photographer wants. Of course, the faster the shutter speeds the shorter the time the shutter is open and the smaller
the amount of light let in. Shutter speed are arrange so that each setting will let in half the amount of light let it half the
amount let in by the one below it and twice the amount of the one above it. There is usually also a time exposure
setting so that the shutter can be left open for minutes or even hours in certain conditions.
The shutter is a device that prevents light from reaching the film until the photographer is ready to take a
picture. When a lever or button is released or button is pushed, the shutter is released, and a spring or magnet snaps
its aside, exposing the film to light for a certain light of time. The length of time is adjustable on all but the simplest
camera,, it ranges from one second to 1/1000 of a second or less. Most adjustable cameras are capable of making
time exposure exposure of more than one second. Typically, time exposure is made by using a special shutter setting
marked T (FOR TIME) or B (FOR BULB) referring to a shutter release device used with early cameras.
An adjustable speed shutter is one of two devices a camera has to permit the photographer to regulate the
amount of light reaching the film ( the diaphragm is the other ) At a given aperture setting, a small shutter speed will let
more light reach the film than a fast shutter speed. However, the lower the shutter speed, the greater is the chance
that the image on the film will be blurred by the movement of the subject or camera. Some cameras have electronic
shutter control. After the shutter is released the control uses a light sensing device called a photocell to determine
when enough light has been received for a proper exposure and it then it closes the shutter automatically.
The shutter is located behind the lens, between the elements of the lens (between the lens shutter) or
immediately in front of the films (focal plane shutter).

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The shutter is a sliding door that allows light to pass through the aperture (opening) onto the film. Different
settings on a small dial on the top of the camera determine how long the shutter will remain open. The aperture
selector is on the body of the lens. The numbers that indicate the size of the aperture are called f-numbers or f-stops.
The f-stop is equal to the ratio of the focal length of the lens to the diameter of the opening. The shutter speed and fstop determine the exposurethat is, the overall amount of light that will reach the film. However, even when the
amount of light is constant, the effect may be different. Photographers experiment with different combinations to
achieve various effects.
The shutter, a spring-activated mechanical device, keeps light from entering the camera except during the
interval of exposure. Most modern cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters. Some older amateur cameras use a
drop-blade shutter, consisting of a hinged piece that, when released, pulls across the diaphragm opening and exposes
the film for about 1/30th of a second.
In the leaf shutter, at the moment of exposure, a cluster of meshed blades springs apart to uncover the full lens
aperture and then springs shut. The focal-plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its
width. When released, the shade moves quickly across the film, exposing it progressively as the slit moves.
DIAPHRAGM The diaphragm changes the size of the aperture of the lens. Like a shutter with valuable
speed, a diaphragm regulates the amount of light reaching the film. The diaphragm also affects depth of field the
smaller the aperture the greater the depth of field.
The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture in the same way as the iris of the eye, if you look at a cats
eye when it comes in out of the darkness you will that the irises have contracted to make the pupils bigger. After a few
moments in a bright light the irises expand and cause the pupils to become much smaller. The aperture of the camera
must also be larger in dim light and smaller in bright light.
The diaphragm is usually a ring of overlapping metal leaves, which can be adjusted. The control settings for the
diaphragm are referred to as f stops and going from one f stop to the next reduces the amount of light by one half.
The common setting are f /2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16 and f/22.

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The diaphragm usually consists of a series of movable blades attached to a supporting ring. Its various
positions are called stops, or f stops. The diaphragm is controlled by a hand operated ring or lever, or by automatic
electromechanical device. Simple cameras do not have diaphragm, so the aperture can not be changed.
Most cameras with diaphragms have a series of standard f- stop numbers marked on the lens mount, in
some cameras, theses numbers are also visible in the viewfinder. At each succeeding stop, the lens admits half as
much light as at the previous one.
As the shutter speed is increased, the aperture must be larger, if the same amount of light is to reach the
film. The amount of light reaching the film is the same at f/8 and 1/500 of a second as at f/11 and 1/250 ( the setting of
f/8 provides twice as much light f/11, but the shutter speed of 1/500 provides half as much light as 1/250).
In taking pictures, a photographer will often select a particular shutter speed and then adjust the f stop for
getting the proper exposure or the photographer will select a particular f-stop and then adjust the shutter speed.
The diaphragm, a circular aperture behind the lens, operates in conjunction with the shutter to admit light into
the light-proof chamber. This opening may be fixed, as in many amateur cameras, or it may be adjustable. Adjustable
diaphragms are composed of overlapping strips of metal or plastic that, when spread apart, form an opening of the
same diameter as the lens; when meshed together, they form a small opening behind the centre of the lens. The
aperture openings correspond to numerical settings, called f-stops, on the camera or the lens.
The function of the Diaphragm (F/Number)
1.

By expanding or contracting the diaphragm or increasing or decreasing the F/ number numerically


it is possible to regulate the amount of light passing through the lens reaching the sensitized
material.

2.

By expanding or increasing or decreasing the f/number numerically it is possible to control the


depth of field.

3.

By expanding or contracting the diaphragm, it is possible to control the degree of sharpness due to
lens defects.

VIEWING AND FOCUSING DEVICES The viewfinder shows the photographer the scene being
photographed. It maybe a viewing screen, a miniature lens system, or a sample wire frames.
Most modern cameras also have some sort of viewing system or viewfinder to enable the photographer to
see, through the lens of the camera, the scene being photographed. Single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs) all incorporate
this design feature, and almost all general-use cameras have some form of focusing system as well as a film-advance
mechanism.
LENS APERTURE Adjustable cameras are equipped with an iris diaphragm, a device located in or near
the lens and consisting of thin overlapping leaves that fold together to create a hole of continuously variable size. In
this way the aperture or lens opening, can be adjusted to admit more or less light as required. The diaphragm is
usually marked with a series of settings called STOPS, which are designated by F- NUMBERS, such as f/5.6 or f/5.8.
The f/ number expresses the ratio of focal length to aperture. The larger the number, the smaller the aperture.
To stop down or close one stop is to set the diaphragm control at the next smaller marked stop, for
instance from f/4 to f/6, or from f/6 to f/11. This reduces the amount of light admitted by one half. To open up one stop,
means to set the diaphragm control at the next wider aperture.
DEPTH OF FIELD - The lens aperture not only controls the amount of light entering the camera, it also
affects another fundamental aspect of the photograph depth of field. Depth of field is the range in front of and behind
a sharply focused subject in which details also look sharp in the final photographic image. It depends on lens aperture,
the focused distance, and the focal length of the lens. A small lens aperture, great camera to subject distance, and
focal length result in greater depth of field.

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SHUTTER SPEED AND MOTION Shutter speed determines how effectively a moving object can be
stopped, that is, how sharply it can be reproduced without blurring, or streaking in the final image. With a fast shutter
speed, the shutter is opened only briefly and the moving object has little time to change its position before exposure is
completed. With a slow shutter speed, on the other hand, the shutter remains open for a relatively long time. Thus, the
faster the shutter speed, the sharper the moving object will appear on the final image, and the slower the shutter
speed, the more blurred object will appear.
The camera shutter must stop the subjects apparent speed or the speed at which its image move across the
film, regardless of the subjects actual motion through space. Factors such as distance, direction of motion, and focal
length of the lens must all be taken into consideration. Generally, the closer the moving subject is to the camera, the
greater its apparent, motion will be. Thus, if they wish to get sharp image, most photographers avoid extreme close
ups of moving subjects.
FILM TRANSPORT MECHANISM Moves new, unexposed film into position for the next picture.
FILM ADVANCER Necessary so that the exposed film can be transferred to the take up spool while the
unexposed film remain on the opposite side of the lens for another exposure.
FILM ADVANCE LEVER
FILM REWIND CRANK
FILM REWIND KNOB
FILM TAKE-UP SPOOL
SHUTTER SPEED DIAL Controls the opening and closing of the shutter, regulates the quantity of light that
reaches and affects the sensitized material, a dial which sets the length of time in which the light is allowed to enter
the camera.
SHUTTER RELEASE BUTTON The click of the camera that releases the shutter
FOCUSING MECHANISM The mechanism that estimates the appropriate objects distance from the
camera to form a sharp or clear image on the photograph.
FOCUSING RING The outer ring of the lens which is rotated or adjusted to obtain a clear and sharp
photograph and it enables the photographer to adjust focal range.
F-STOP RING
F-NUMBERS
ASA DIAL/SHUTTER SPEED DIAL
FLASH UNIT
FLASH TERMINAL
FLASH ACCESSORY SHOE
TIMER/SELF-TIMER
CABLE RELEASE
TRIPOD
DAYTIME EXPOSURE (Outdoor) Without Flash
Bright Sunlight
Hazy Sunlight
Bright Hazy
Low Hazy
Low Shaded

SS 125 or250
LO F5.6 or F8
- SS 125
-LO F5.6 or F4
-LO F2 or F4
-LO F5.6 or F4
-SS 30 or 125

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-LO F2 or full open


INDOOR WITHOUR FLASH BUT THERE ARE 2 TO 4 FLOURESCENT BULB
SHUTTER SPEED 15
LENS OPENING - F1.2 or F2
INDOOR BUT WELL LIGHTED- (BRIGHT LLIGHT)
SHUTTER SPEED 60
LENS OPENING - F5.6 orf4
INDOOR OR OUTDOOR WITH FLASH (DAY OR NIGHT)
USE SYNCHRONIZED SHUTTER SPEED WHICH IS 60 OR X ANY COLORED NUMBER IN THE SHUTTER SPEED.
Distance of the Subject :
1-6 ft
= F8
6-10FT = F5.6
10-15FT = F4
15FT and above = full open
NIGHT EXPOSURE (TOTAL DARKNESS WITHOUT FLASH)`
Shutter Speed is = B
Lens Opening is full open
ESTIMATE THE TIME, THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT ENTERS THE CAMERA, USE TRIPOD AND CABLE RELEASE.
EX. SS = B
LO
= F1.2
TIME = 90 seconds (Depends upon the available light)
CAMERA LENSES
A camera lens is a transparent material made of glass or plastic, which has two opposite symmetrical and
spherical surfaces. A lens is also a piece of transparent material that has at least one curved surface. The lenses
refract (bend) light rays and in doing so can form images of an object. The image maybe larger, smaller or the same as
the object itself.
The lens, which must be focus at the object at the time of picture taking, is one of the most important parts of
any camera. The function of the lens is to focus the light coming from the subject. It operates more or less in the same
way as the lens of the eye. It is chiefly responsible for the sharpness of the image formed through which light passes
during the exposure of the sensitized materials inside the camera. The area of the lens may large or small during the
exposure of the sensitized materials depending upon the light coming from the subject to be pictured. The quantity and
quality of the light coming from the subject depend upon the light source. Should the light be too great, the area of the
lens maybe reduce with the focal number adjustment. The smaller the area of the lens the greater is the numerical
value of the focal number. The greater the focal number numerically the less light will pass through the lens but more
distance will appear in reasonable sharpness.
The higher the numerical value of the shutter speed, the shorter will be the duration of the opening and
closing of the lens. As an effect only small amount of light will pass through the lens.
Artificial lenses are made of various transparent materials such as glass, plastics or crystals. Quartz
crystals are used to refract ultra violet light, which a very short wavelength.

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Interchangeable lenses allow a photographer to capture a variety of pictures that would otherwise be
difficult or impossible to obtain with a single camera. For instance, a zoom lens may be used to photograph individual
drops of dew on a spiders web. A telephoto lens might be used to shoot a close-up view of a dangerous or easily
frightened wild animal. Other options provided by special lenses include wide-angle lenses such as the fisheye lens,
which curves outward to show a view of 180 degrees or more.
The lens is as important a part of a camera as the body. Lenses are referred to in generic terms as wideangle, normal, and telephoto. The three terms refer to the focal length of the lens, which is customarily measured in
millimetres. Focal length is defined as the distance from the centre of the lens to the image it forms when the lens is set
at infinity. In practice, focal length affects the field of view, magnification, and depth of field of a lens.
Cameras used by professional photographers and serious amateurs are designed to accept all three lens
types interchangeably. In 35-mm photography, lenses with focal lengths from 20 to 35 mm are considered wide-angle
lenses. They provide greater depth of field and encompass a larger field (or angle) of view but provide relatively low
magnification. Extreme wide-angle, or fisheye, lenses provide fields of view of 180 or more. A 6-mm fisheye lens
made by Nikon has a 220 field of view that produces a circular image on film, rather than the normal rectangular or
square image.
Lenses with focal lengths of 45 to 55 mm are referred to as normal lenses because they produce an image
that approximates the perspective perceived by the human eye. Lenses with longer focal lengths, called telephoto
lenses, constrict the field of view and decrease the depth of field while greatly magnifying the image. For a 35-mm
camera, lenses with focal lengths of 85 mm or more are considered telephoto.
A fourth generic lens type, the zoom lens, is designed to have a variable focal length, which can be
adjusted continuously between two fixed limits. Zoom lenses are especially useful in conjunction with single-lens
reflex cameras, for which they allow continuous control of image scale.
History of Lenses
The early history of lenses is unknown. In 1845, an archeologist uncovered in what is now Iraq an ancient
rock crystal ground to form a small convex lens, but there is no evidence that lenses were widely known or used in
ancient time. An early investigation of the principles of lenses was made in the 11 th century by Alhazen, a Persian
physicist. Spectacles with convex lenses were in common use both in Europe an din China as early as the 13 th century.
Zacharias Janssen, a Dutch optician, is credited with combining lenses to make a compound microscope
about 1590. Galileo improved the telescope in 1609. The art of designing and manufacturing lenses has progressed
steadily since that time.
How Lenses Are Made
The refraction of light is always the same under identical circumstances, allowing physicist to draw up
mathematical laws of optics. These laws are use in determining the shape of a lens for a particular purpose. The shape
is computed mathematically and is expressed by a formula that guides the lens maker in his or her work.
The glass used for a lens is of the highest quality. It is first molded into blanks, which are disk about the size
of the finished lenses. A lens is formed by grinding and polishing a blank into shape. Grinding operations are performed
by revolving dish-shaped devices coated with abrasives. The first grinding, with a carborundum abrasive, gives the
lens its general shape. Later, grindings with finer and finer abrasives give it its final shape. The lens is then polished
with rouge (fine ferrous oxide) and cut to the proper size.
Principles of Lens Action
The ability of a lens to bring light to a focus or make it diverge derives from the fact that the velocity of light
changes as the light passes through different materials. Thus when a ray of light leaves the atmosphere and enters a
lens, it slows down. According to the angle at which it strikes the lens surface, it is refracted that is, it changes

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direction. The ratio of velocity of light in air to its velocity in the lens material is called the index of refraction of the
material.
A lens refracts light rays in such a way that on of three things will occur:
1. The rays will come together at a point.
2. The rays will produce an image.
3. The rays will move in parallel lines or in diverging lines.
A LENS can be used to focus the light onto the film to produce a bright, clear and sharp image. The hole
behind the lens is called the aperture and on many cameras the size of the hole or aperture can be altered. The length
of time that the light is allowed to enter the camera is called the exposure and is controlled by the shutter. In its normal
position the shutter is closed and prevents the light entering the camera. Both the diaphragm and the shutter need to
be adjusted according to the amount of light that is available for taking a photograph.
All photographic lenses do the same basic job. Collect light rays from a scene in front of the camera and
project them as images unto the film at the back. However, the choice of lenses also plays a very important role in the
creative aspects of photography.
CAMERA LENSES CAN BE USED TO CONTROL THE
1.
2.
3.

Amount of light that reaches the film.


Magnification of the image.
Lastly, area of the image to be recorded on the film.

IMAGE FORMATION
The focal length of a single lens is the distance from the lens to the point at which incoming parallel rays
focus. Light converged in the manner can produce a real images, that is, an image that can actually be projected onto
screen. In a negative lens, rays do not actually come to a real focus but appear to originate from a point called the
virtual focus.
TYPOLOGY OF LENSES
There are two types of lenses, the converging and diverging lens. As to converging lenses we have the
double convex, Plano convex and the concavo-convex. Under diverging lenses we have double concave, Plano
concave and the concavo concave.
1.

CONVEX LENS DIVERGING LENS

A convex lens causes light rays to converge, or come together, and is called a positive lens. A positive lens
focuses light form a distant source into visible image that appears on then opposite side of the lens to the object.
A convex lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges. When parallel rays of light pass through this type of
lens, they are bent inward and meet at a point called the focus. The distance from the center of the lens to the focus is
known as the focal length.
The size, position, and type of image produced by a converging lens vary according to the distance of the
object from the lens. If an object is more than one focal length from the lens, an inverted real image of it is formed on
the opposite side of the lens. Light rays from the object pass through a real image and can be focused on a screen.
When an object is located a distance of two focal lengths on a converging lens, the image is the same size as the
object and is located on the opposite side of the lens. A smaller image of the object can be obtained by moving the
objects by more than two focal lengths from the lens. Placing the object between one and two focal lengths from the
lens can produce a larger image.

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If the object is less than one focal length from the lens, no real image can be formed. Instead a magnified
virtual image is formed behind the object and is right side up. Light rays from the object do not pass through a virtual
image, and such an image cannot be focused on the screen.

A convex lens has a thick centre and thinner edges. Light passing through a convex lens is bent inward,
or made to converge. This causes an image of the object to form on a screen on the opposite side of the lens. The
image is in focus if the screen is placed at a particular distance from the lens that depends upon the distance of the
object and the focal point of the lens. This diagram shows how rays of light starting from a point, O, on the object,
strike the lens and are then brought to focus at another point, I. The same applies to every point on the object, as is
shown by the pair of points P and J; thus an image, exactly similar to the object is built up.
1.
2.

SIMPLE CONVEX convexo convex


SPECIAL CONVEX special positive lens
a. Plano convex
b. convexo concave

2.

CONCAVE LENS DIVERGING LENS

Concave lens or negative lens spreads the light depends on the amount of curved on the faces of the lens.
The distance between the lens and the image it produces is called the FOCAL LENGTH. The shorter the focal length,
the smaller the image. The greater the curvature of the faces of the lens, the shorter its focal length will be. Lens that
posses at least one surface that curves inward. It is a diverging lens, spreading out those light rays that have been
refracted to it. Concave lens is thicker at the edges than they are at the center. Light rays passing through a diverging
lens are bent outward. Diverging lens form only virtual image.
1.
2.

SIMPLE CONCAVE concavo concave - Biconcave lens (with both surfaces curved inward)
SPECIAL CONCAVE special negative lens
a. Plano - concave lens with one flat surface and one concave.
b. Concavo convex

A concave lens is curved inward; it is shaped like two dishes placed back-to-back. Light passing through
a concave lens bends outward, or diverges. Unlike convex lenses, which produce real images, concave lenses

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produce only virtual images. A virtual image is one from which light rays only appear to come. This one appears as
a smaller image just in front of the actual object (in this case a shamrock). Concave lenses are generally prescribed
for myopic, or short-sighted, people. Concave lenses help the eyes to produce a sharp image on the retina instead
of in front of it.
Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
3.

COMPOUND LENSES
Simple lenses generally produce aberrated (imperfect) images. This imperfection in image formation can be
reduced using compound lenses.

TYPES OF LENSES BASED ON LENS SPEED


Lens speed refers to the largest opening of the diaphragm that the light can pass through it determines the
maximum intensity of the light entering the light tight box.
A. FAST LENS Lens with high lens speed, a high lens speed is used during nighttime or in dark room.
B. SLOW LENS lens with low lens speed, used during daytime or where the room is very bright.
TYPES OF LENSES BASED ON THEIR FOCUS
Focus: the means by which the object distance is estimated or calculated to form sharp images.
It also refers to the point at which light rays converge. It is the point where a set of lights rays converges after
passing through a lens or other optical arrangement. It also refers to the point from which rays appear to diverge, the
place where the visual image is clearly formed, as in the eye or a camera. The point of principal focus is called focal
point.
Focusing is the process of changing the distance between the centers of the lens to the focal plane. It is the
technique of adjusting the focal length to get the sharp image of the object or scene to be photographed.
Infinity refers to the distance so far removed from the observer that the rays of light reflected to a lens from a
point at the distance maybe regarded as parallel. It is a distance setting on a camera focusing scale, beyond which all
objects are in focus.
REAL FOCUS the point of convergence of the light rays.
VIRTUAL FOCUS - the point where diverging rays would meet if their direction were reversed.
In terms of focus, there are two types of lenses sold today:
1.

2.

AUTO FOCUS are the predominant types to the market. AFLSRs focus using a phase detection system
that slits the incoming light into two or more parts and compares them to determine the amount of
DEFOCUS. AF is not perfect, but the technology has greatly improved since the first AF lenses made their
appearance. As it is, sometimes this phase detection system can have difficulty with dim lighting and fast
moving objects, but they are more accurate than the infrared systems found on point and shot cameras.
MANUAL FOCUS LENSES YOU SIMPLY TURN THE FOCUSING RING BY HAND UNTIL THE
SUBJECT IS SHARP IN THE VIEW FINDER. Although AF lenses dominate the market today, nearly all
interchangeable AF Lenses allow the user to over ride the AF mode with the manual focus option. These
lenses usually have a switch on the barrel, so that you can choose one or the other to suit the shooting
circumstances.

WHY DO LENSES VARY TO EACH OTHER?


The most important way lenses differ is in their FOCAL LENGTH.

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FOCAL LENGTH the distance between the lens and the film plane when the lens is focused on infinity.
Focal length controls magnification (the size of the image formed by the lens). A lens is also described in terms of its
view angle, the mount of the image shown on the film.
GROUP OF LENSES ACCORDING TO THE ANGLE OF VIEW
1.

Normal Lens A lens with a focal length equal to the diagonal measure the image area. The image area of
35 mm camera is 24x36 mm, thus a normal lens for any 35 mm SLR is 50 mm international standards, 50
mm lens may have an actual focal length of 48 52 mm, and the normal lens has a picture angle of 5
degrees that correspond to the viewing angle of the human eye.
CHARACTERISTICS:

defects.

less than 45 degrees.

2.

Optimum area coverage than any lens type.


Minimum distortion and fewer common lens
Angle of view equal to 75 degrees but not

Wide Angle Lens The wide-angle lens has a shorter focal length than the normal lens. As a result, it
covers a picture angle of 60 90 degrees. It enables photographing a widely extended scene from a close
proximity or within a confined area. The range for wide angles for 35 mm SLR cameras includes 8mm,
24mm, 28 mm, and 35 mm. The 28 mm and 35 mm are the most important for general wide angle for police
work.
CHARACTERISTICS:

compared with any lens at the same distance.

negative material.

toward the edges of the negative material.

3.

Reduced scale but increases area coverage


Increased deep perception at a given scale.
Increased distortion toward the edges of the
Reducing illumination from the center
Angle of view exceeds 75 degrees.

Telephoto Lens as telephoto lens, or long focus lens has a longer focal length and provides a close up
image of a distant object. In contrast to the wide-angle lens, the telephoto lens covers a small field of view
and a shallower depth of field. Because of shallow depth of field, there will be lack of sharpness of the
subject focus areas in the photograph to be produced. Another characteristics of the telephoto lens is
production of flat composition, far objects appear enlarged while near objects do not appear proportionally
large.
CHARACTERISTICS:

compared to any lens type.

apparent when subject is in great motion.

Increase scale but reduced area coverage


Decreased depth perception.
Image quality usually deteriorates which is
Angle of view less than 45 degrees.

Lenses beyond 58 mm are included in the group of telephoto lenses. For identification shots in police works,
lenses of 85 to 135 mm focal length are frequently used. Long tele lenses are those beyond 200 mm.
4.

Super wide Angle Lenses In this category are fish eye lenses with a 180 degrees angle of view. Focal
lengths run from an amazing 6 mm to about 18mm. F stop ranges begin at F 1.8 but average f 3.5 and f 4.

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5.

Macro Lenses The word macro is derived from the Greek word and means, to enlarge . In photographic
terms, a macro lens is designed with extended focusing capabilities to shoot a few inches from a subject. A
lens used for close up photography particularly in taking pictures in minute objects. Using a macro lens, the
subject being photographed will appear bigger than its actual size. This group of lens is most helpful in
fingerprint work, in recording evidences such as pollen grains, hair, fiber and the like.
Two Main Types of MACRO LENS:

One is meant to be used on a held tripod mounted camera and ranges from 40 mm to about 90 mm with the
average about 25 mm.
The other type is either a wide angle or a lens with a focal length with 100 mm or more and is designed with
a close up bellows attachment to the camera. The longer lenses give a larger image and are most suitable
for static subjects and painstaking photography.

6.

Zoom Lenses The macro zoom is relatively new in both long and short-range classes. By turning a ring on
the lens barrel, you are able to focus as close as three four inches and still use zoom capability. Such lens
gives you close ups as well as variable focal lengths. and the macro zoom is taking this field. A final zoom
category is the variable- focal length lens that operates in the same manner as the zoom.

7.

Special Purpose Lenses Two special- purpose lenses in particular should be familiar to you. The first is
adjustable through movement of the front portion up and down for perspective control (PC). Architectural
photographers benefit using a PC lens that offers some control of perspective similar to the using the tilting
front and back of a view camera.
The other lens, a guide-number (GN) lens, includes a diaphragm mechanism that changes aperture as the
lens is focused to synchronize exposure and distance with specific flash attachment on the camera. A GN
lens can be handy, but the use of automatic electronic flash unit would make the GN lens unnecessary.
Incidentally, a number of compact 35 mm range finder cameras with fixed (non interchangeable) lenses are
guide- number equipped. As a flash unit slips into the accessory shoe on top of the camera a small pin is
activated that synchronizes change of aperture with focusing. In this way distant subjects are photographed
through wider f tops than close ones, giving the effect of exposure automation.

8.

Add On Teleconverter Lenses Add-on lenses. Principal among add- on lenses is the fishnet lens that is
screwed into the front of a normal 35 mm camera lens, offering a super wide effect for less cost than a
separate fisheye lens.

FOCUSING THE LENS


It is important to have the lens at the right distance from the film otherwise the image of an object point will
be seen as a circle which is blurred in appearance. The permissible diameter of this circle or disc must be small
enough under certain viewing condition to make impossible to distinguish it from a point. The image will be seen sharp
as long as this circle appears to the eye as a point. The diameter of the circle that can be accepted varies with the
application. The acuity of the vision of the eye and the condition under which the print is viewed (contact or
enlargement or projected).
For a pinhole camera no focusing is required because the aperture is too small that such produces a point
image of an object point. The image is almost equally good over a very wide range of positions of the film.
For a lens camera to produce a sharp image must be focused at the subject. When the camera lens is being
focused at the subject one can observed that the lens travels back and forth from the film. The lens must be focused at
the object point to produce an image point instead of a visible circle of light.

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The question is how an object point pictured as an image point by focusing the lens? Why are not all objects
at different distances from the lens sharp in the picture? The light bending ability of any one lens is constant that is the
light is bending to the same degree.
GATHERING POWER OF LENS
The light gathering power of lens that is express F/ number system is equal to the ratio of the focal length of
the lens to the diameter of the aperture. It is otherwise called the relative aperture. A lens does not perform the same
at all apertures. If an f/2 lens is being used its widest aperture, it will have less depth, poorer resolution and coverage
at the corners that if this same lens were field stopped down to the point of best resolution.
It is important to differentiate between sharpness at the corners of the field and illumination at these same
points. Some lenses will give a needle-sharp image across the entire slide, but lack of coverage will cause a darkening
at the corners. Conversely, there are those lenses that will give unsharp images at the corners although the illumination
supplied by the lens is absolutely uniform and no darkening will take place.
In most modern high-quality cameras performance at the center of the field is a seldom a problem at any
aperture; its the edges that make the difference. In the case of both illumination and sharpness, the point of best
performance usually occurs when a lens is stopped down from two to three stops. Actually, this optimum diaphragm
setting gives the greatest amount of sharpness, brilliance, and gradation over the entire field.
When a lens, even a fine lens is used at its widest aperture, the extreme edges of the lens are being used to
form part of the image. These edges are major source of aberrations. Stopping down prevents these aberrated rays
from reaching the film; it might seem logical, then, that the further the lens is stopped down, the better. This is not the
case, here what actually happens. As the lens is stopped down, further and further, the opening gets smaller and
smaller. When the opening gets so small two things happen. First of all the opening gets so small that the thickness of
the diaphragm leaves approach the diameter of the opening. When this happen, the edges of the diaphragm become a
refractive unit and a general loss of sharpness occurs. A second phenomenon of a completely stopped down lens is
shift of focus. Since the image that strikes the film is made up of light from all portions of the lens, and the lens is
actually set for the focus of the rays passing through an area about 1/3 from its center. In many lenses the point of
focus between these extreme central rays that provides most of the illumination (1/3 from the center) fall at different
points, hence a loss of sharpness due to apparent shift of focus.
LENS DEFECTS
No lens is perfect in every respect. Usually a lens maker tries to find the best compromise among such
qualities as sharpness of definition, speed of light transmission, simplicity of construction and others. Special purpose
lenses however are computed for a single purpose only and in order to achieve the maximum of usefulness in one
special field, other qualities are sacrificed.
Except, the very finest lenses, traces of the following common lens defects will be found in all, such as
chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, curvilinear, distortion, curvature of field, astigmatism and others. No camera
lens will produce defects so exaggerated as the ones which will be demonstrated. However, even considerably less
pronounced fault manifestation maybe enough to produce fuzziness, which usually becomes more severe toward the
edges of a picture.
ABERRATION in optics, is the failure of light rays to focus properly after they pass through a lens or reflect
from a mirror. Proper focus occurs when the light rays cross one another at a single point. ABERRATION occurs
because of minute variations in lenses and mirrors, and because different parts of the light spectrum are reflected or
refracted by varying amounts.
ABERRATION also defined as an optical imperfection responsible for image distortion. It can be avoided by
combining several lenses and by elimination of marginal rays refracted through the outer edges of the lens. Lenses or
mirrors that are sections of spheres produce spherical aberrations. If a beam of parallel rays reflects from a concave
mirror, the rays that reflects from the center of the mirror cross one another at a single point. The rays that reflects far

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from the center cross at points closer to the mirror surface. The imaginary line connecting these points of focus is
called a CAUSTIC.
A CAUSTIC appears as a bright line if it shines on a surface. For example, when sunlight shines through the
open top of a glass of milk and onto the curve interior acts as a mirror. Consequently, the light reflects onto the milk in a
caustic curve. Without aberration, a bright spot would appear on the milk. Convex lenses also produce spherical
aberration. The light rays that pass through the middle of the lens focus farther from the lens than do the rays that pass
through the lens of the edges. If the lens is in a camera, the image on this is blurry. To sharpen the image, a camera
has a small opening called a stop. The stop allows only the rays passing through the center of the lens to reach the
film. Thus, the rays focus at one spot on the film, and the picture is clear.
There are six ( 6 ) types of optical aberrations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Spherical Aberration
Chromatic Aberrations
Astigmatism
Coma
Curvature of Field
Distortion

SPHERICAL ABERRATION
Aberration Geometrical optics predicts that rays of light emanating from a point are imaged by spherical
optical elements as a small blur. The outer parts of a spherical surface have a focal length different from that of the
central area, and this defect causes a point to be imaged as a small circle. The difference in focal length for the various
parts of the spherical section is called spherical aberration
Spherical Aberration is found in all lenses bounded by spherical aberration / surfaces. The marginal
portions of the lens bring rays of light to shorter focus than the central region. The image of a point in space is
therefore not a point, but a blur circle. Spherical aberration is the focusing at the different parts of spherical lens. This
aberration occurs because light hitting the outer parts of the lens is bent more sharply and comes to a focus sooner
than that passing through the middle. In spherical aberration, the image is blurred because different parts of a spherical
lens or mirror have different focal lengths.
When parallel marginal rays and axial rays passing through a simple lens focus at several planes along the
optical axis.
CHROMATIC ABERRATION
All lenses (single) made of one material refract rays of short wavelength more strongly than those of longer
wavelenght and so brings blue more to a shorter focus than red. The result is that the image of a point white light is not
a white point, but a blur circle bordered with colors.
Chromatic aberration is the failure of different colored light rays to focus after passing through a lens,
focusing of light of different colors at different points resulting in a blurred image. When white light, which consists of
colors, passes through a lens, the lens bends the rays. The rays then cross one another on the other side. The violet
rays bend more than the other colors and focus close to the lens. The red rays bend the least and focus farther from
the lens. Rays on the other colors focus at points between these two points. In chromatic aberration the image is
surrounded by colored fringes, because light at different colors is brought to different focal points by a lens.
The inability of a lens to bring the different wavelengths (colors) of white light to a focus on the same plane.
Because the index of refraction varies with wavelength, the focal length of a lens also varies and causes longitudinal or
axial chromatic aberration. Each wavelength forms an image of a slightly different size, giving rise to what is known as
lateral chromatic aberration. Combinations of converging and diverging lenses and of components made of glasses
with different dispersions, help to minimize chromatic aberration. Mirrors are free of this defect. In general, achromatic
lens combinations are corrected for chromatic aberration for two or three colours.

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ASTIGMATISM
Astigmatism is the defect in which the light coming from an off-axis object point is spread along the direction
of the optic axis. If the object is a vertical line, the cross section of the refracted beam at successively greater distances
from the lens is an ellipse that collapses first into a horizontal line, spreads out again, and later becomes a vertical line
Astigmatism is the failure of a lens to produce a point image of an object point. Such condition occurs when
the lens surfaces are not symmetrical with respect to the principal axis of the lens. An extreme example would be one
surface is spherical and the other is cylindrical, or when the lens surfaces are perfectly spherical but the beam of light
from the object point passes through the lens very obliquely.
In astigmatism, the image appears elliptical or cross shaped because of an irregularity in the curvature of the
lens. This is the inability of the lens to bring horizontal and vertical lines in the subject to the same plane of focus in the
image.
The inability of the lens to project a sharply focused image of both vertical and horizontal lines upon the
same plane, at one lens to image distance.
COMA
The result of differences in lateral magnification for rays coming from an object point not on the optic axis is
an effect called coma. If coma is present, light from a point is spread out into a family of circles that fit into a cone, and
in a plane perpendicular to the optic axis the image pattern is comet-shaped. Coma may be eliminated for a single
object-image point pair, but not for all such points, by a suitable choice of surfaces.
A pear shaped image of small circle or point near the edges of the image plane.
Coma occurs when light falling obliquely on the lens and passing through different circular zones is brought
to a focus at different distances from the plane film. A spot of light appears to have a tail, rather like a comet. In come,
the images appear progressively elongated toward the edge of the field of view. The term Coma was coined 1733 by
French mathematician Alexis Clairaut ( 1713 1765 ).
CURVATURE OF FIELD
A curved, concave, or saucer shaped image of an object which has a flat surface produced by simple lens.
In curvature aberration the relation of the images of the different points are incorrect with respect to one
another. In curvature, the images of the different points of the plane image lie on a curved surface, with points at the
edge of the field lying nearer to the lens than those at the center. In curvature, the images distance is different for
different points of the same object due to their differing distance from the axis.
The fuzziness increases toward the edge of the film. Refocusing brings different circle into focus but others
now are blurred.
DISTORTION
Distortion arises from a variation of magnification with axial distance and is not caused by a lack of
sharpness in the image.
When there exists a different magnification for rays at different angles distortion exists. Any straight light
extending across the field is considered curved and for different lenses the curvature maybe from or toward the center.
The distortion is called barrel distortion (in the first case). It is the common type of curvilinear defect. The second
distortion is the pincushion defect.

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For correction two similar lenses, each of half necessary power are placed a short distance apart, with a
diaphragm between. Such a lens is called RECTILINEAR LENS.
OTHER OPTICAL DEFECTS
These defects are usually corrected when the lens is designed; however, they can occur if the lens is
misused or through normal wear.
FLARE or OPTICAL FLARE
In a result of double reflection from inner lens surfaces. It exhibits itself as a misty haze, or a cloudy
semicircular patch of light, which may cover part or the entire image. This doubly reflection may form an image called a
ghost image.
MECHANICAL FLARE
Are bright spots on the film caused by stray light from worn shiny parts of the lens such as the stop, shutter
lens mount, or from the camera itself.
LIGHT LOSS
Most corrected lenses is coated with a substance which will reduce one type of flare ( optical ) and which will
also increase the optics ability to transmit light thus reducing light loss.
STRAY LIGHT
Can be reduced or eliminated by using the proper lens shade placed on the front of the lens as shield.
FOCAL LENGTH
What is focal length?
It is usual to think of the focal length of the lens as the distance from the lens center or the position of the
image it forms of a distant object. It is important to know that it is the focal length that determines how large an image is
formed by the lens. All lenses of the same focal at the same distance produce the same of size; whether they are
called wide angle, or by any other names.
The focal length of a lens can be define as the distance from the optical center of the lens to its focal plane,
when the lens is focused upon an object at infinity in practical terms, means focused on a subject a great distance
away ( 200 ft. or more ) the light rays reflected by that the subject will be traveling on parallel paths, for all practical
purposes, when they reach the film. The photographer seldom or need not measure the focal length of a lens, for this
characteristic is almost always marked on the front of the lens mount.
The focal length is a fixed value of a lens that cannot be changed. It is an inherent factor determined by the
thickness of the lens and curvatures of its surface. The focal is frequently employed to indicate the size of the lens in
millimeter or inches. Thus, a lens labeled as F.L 50 mm. Indicates that when it is focused on a point at infinity, the
distance from the optical center to the focal plane is 50 mm. And it is also the nearest distance at which such a lens will
sharply focuses an image.
The focal length also controls the image brightness, speed of the lens and the image size of the focal plane;
IMAGE SIZE, the focal length determines the size of the image at the focal plane, the longer the focal length, the
greater the size of the image on the film when the subject remains at the given distance. In fact, image size and focal
are directly proportional, doubling the F.L. results in doubling the image size. Because the image size increases with
focal length, it is logically to follow that the longer the focal length the less of the subject the lens will include on the

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negative, that is the negative size remains constant. Or, to state it another way, the greater the lens focal length, the
narrower its field of view (often called angle of view). A short focal length produces smaller image.
LENS SPEED, the largest opening of diaphragm (aperture) at which a lens can be used is also known as the
speed of the lens. Hence the light gathering capability of a lens is called lens speed. Speed here refers to intensity of
light reaching the film, and not to any movement. Thus, an F/2 lens is faster than F74, because an F2 has a larger
aperture and will admit more light at a given time. Lenses having a large aperture are called fast lenses because their
large aperture makes it possible to take photograph at a very short exposure interval or under very dim light conditions.
The closer this largest aperture to one (1) or to being equal in diameter to the focal length of the lens, the faster the
lens.
SENSITIZED MATERIAL
Sensitized Material refers to films and papers that are composed of emulsion containing SILVER HALIDE
crystals suspended in gelatin and coated on a transparent or reflective support.
FILM
A film consists basically, of a random scattering of light sensitive silver halides suspended in a layer of animal
gelatin which is coated onto acetate support or base.
THE FILM STRUCTURE
A. STRUCTURE OF WHITE and BLACK FILM
1.

2.

3.
4.

TOP COATING (TOP LAYER) scratch resistant coating also called gelatin coating, an over coating
composed of a thin transparent layer of a hard gelatin which help protect the silver halide emulsion from
scratches and abrasions. The hard gelatin, which is derived from cows, contains SULFUR. The SULFUR is
very much compatible with silver halides.
EMULSION LAYER SILVER SALT + GELATIN A layer composed of silver compounds which are light
sensitive and halogens (such as bromide, chloride and iodide bromide in fast film emulsion). A silver
compound when combined with a halogen becomes SILVER HALIDE. Silver Halides are rare compound that
are responsible in forming the so called the LATENT IMAGE in the photographic film.
FILM BASE commonly made of cellulose or other material such as paper, plastic, or glass, which supports
the emulsion layer and is coated with a non-curling antihalation backing.
ANTIHALATION BACKING a black dye applied on the rare surface of the film. Its function is to absorb light
that may penetrate the emulsion thus making the image sharper since it suppresses double image. It
prevents halo formation in the photograph. The black dye is removed during processing by one of the
chemicals in the developer. Its second function is to control the film from curling inwards. (Towards the
emulsion surface).

B. STRUCTURE OF COLOR FILM


1.
2.

TOP LAYER sensitive to blue light only, green and red light passes through it without exposing the color
halide.
EMULSION LAYER
a.
b.
c.
d.

3.

Blue filter
Yellow filter CAREY LEA silver suspended in gelatin, it is coated between the top and second
layer to absorb any penetrating blue light but allowing green and red light to pass through.
Green filter a layer that is orthochromatic, the layer sensitive to blue light (which can not reach it)
and green, but not to red light pass on to the bottom of the emulsion layer.
Red filter a panchromatic layer, sensitive to blue (which cant reach it) and red. It is also sensitive
to green light but to a slight degree that is insignificant.

ANTIHALATION BACKING / COATING

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4.

FILM BASE Plastic film base

Emulsions are thin, gelatinous, light-sensitive coatings on film that react chemically to capture the color
and shadings of a scene. The four layers pictured above show the same image as it would appear on different
emulsions in photographic film after the first stage of developing. For black-and-white photographs, only one
emulsion is required, because it is the amount of light, not the colour that activates the chemical reaction. Color film
requires three layers of emulsion, each of which is sensitive to only one of the primary colors of light: blue, green, or
red. As light passes through the layers, each emulsion records areas where its particular color appears in the
scene. When developed, the emulsion releases dye that is the complementary color of the light recorded: blue light
activates yellow dye, green light is magenta, and red light is cyan (bluish-green). Complementary colors are used
because they produce the original color of the scene when the film is processed.
Color films are more complex than black-and-white films because they are designed to reproduce the full
range of color tones as color, not as black, white, and grey tones. The design and composition of most color
transparency films and color negative films are based on the principles of the subtractive color process, in which the
three primary colors, yellow, magenta, and cyan (blue-green), are combined with their complements to reproduce a
full range of colors. Such films consist of three silver halide emulsions on a single layer. The top emulsion is
sensitive only to blue. Beneath this is a yellow filter that blocks blues but transmits greens and reds to the second
emulsion, which absorbs greens but not red. The bottom emulsion records reds.
When color film is exposed to light by a camera, latent black-and-white images are formed on each of the
three emulsions. During processing, the chemical action of the developer creates actual images in metallic silver,
just as in black-and-white processing. The developer combines with dye couplers incorporated into each of the
emulsions to form cyan, magenta, and yellow images. Then the film is bleached, leaving a negative image in the
primary colors. In color transparency film, unexposed silver-halide crystals not converted to metallic silver during
the initial development are converted to positive images in dye and silver during a second stage of development.
After the development action has been arrested, the film is bleached and the image fixed on it.
C. TYPOLOGY OF FILMS
Exposure is made simultaneously in the three layers. Each layer responding to only one of the additive
primary colors (red, blue and green). After exposure and during the film processing, the yellow color of the filter layer is
destroyed.
Films maybe classified according to their forms and types. Basically, films that are available in the markets
today are in various forms. They can be in rolls, in cartridges and cut sheets. Light sensitivity of the film can be
ascertained through its various types.
There are some films that are sensitive to all colors while there is some that are sensitive only to one or
specific set of colors.
Classification according to USE
1.
2.

BLACK and WHITE FILM for B and W Photography


COLOR FILM films that have names ending in COLOR
- Color negatives for prints
The negative in this type of film is divided into blocks and is color positive. It is composed of hue dyes. In
between the blue and green hues, yellow gelatin is placed so that the blue rays of light would not affect the green hue
and in between the green and the red dye, magenta gelatin is placed so that the green rays of light would not affect the
red hue dye of the emulsion.
3.
4.

CHROME FILMS films with names ending in CHROME


- For color transparency (slides); films that are exposed by slides, mounted in a cardboard for slide
projectors: reversal type.
X RAY FILM films that are sensitive to X- radiations
Types based on FILM SPEED (according to light sensitivity)

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1.

FAST FILM contains numerous number of large grains of silver halides that usually develop in groups; film
that are very sensitive to light. When the available is dim, this type of film is the best choice because of the
low reflection power of the subject against a background. It is low in contrast but high in brightness. However,
the use of fast speed film is not advisable due to its graininess result.

2.

SLOW FILM film that require longer period of time to completely expose their emulsion to light; film with
fine grains of silver halides.

Film Speed Film is classified by speed as well as by format. Film speed is defined as an emulsion's degree of
sensitivity to light, and determines the amount of exposure required to photograph a subject under given lighting
conditions. The manufacturer of the film assigns a standardized numerical rating in which high numbers correspond to
fast emulsions and low numbers to slow ones. The standards set by the International Standards Organization (ISO)
are used throughout the world, although some European manufacturers still use the German Industrial Standard, or
Deutsche Industrie Norm (DIN). The ISO system evolved by combining the DIN system with the ASA (the industry
standard previously used in the United States). The first number of an ISO rating, equivalent to an ASA rating,
represents an arithmetic measure of film speed, whereas the second number, equivalent to a DIN rating, represents a
logarithmic measure.
Low-speed films are generally rated from ISO 25/15 to ISO 100/21, but even slower films exist. Kodak's
Rapid Process Copy Film, a special process film, has an ISO rating of 0.06/-12. Films in the ISO 125/22 to 200/24
range are considered medium speed, while films above ISO 200/24 are considered fast. In recent years, many major
manufacturers have introduced super fast films with ISO ratings higher than 400/27. And certain films can be pushed
well beyond their ratings by exposing them as though they had a higher rating and developing them for a greater
length of time to compensate for the underexposure.
DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera technology. DX-coded cartridges of 35-mm film have
printed on them a characteristic panel corresponding to an electronic code that tells the camera the ISO rating of the
film as well as the number of frames on the roll. Many of the newer electronic cameras are equipped with DX
sensors that electronically sense this information and automatically adjust exposures accordingly.
Differences in sensitivity of a film emulsion to light depend on various chemical additives. For example,
hypersensitizing compounds increase film speed without affecting the film's color sensitivity. High-speed film can
also be manufactured by increasing the concentration of large silver-halide crystals in the emulsion. In recent years,
a generation of faster, more sensitive films has been created by altering the shape of crystals. Flatter silver-halide
crystals offer greater surface area. Films incorporating such crystals, such as Kodak's T-grain Kodacolour films, have
a correspondingly greater sensitivity to light.
The grain structure of faster films is generally heavier than that of slower films. Grain structure may give
rise to a mottled pattern on prints that have been greatly enlarged. Photographs taken with slower-speed film appear
less grainy when enlarged. Because of the small size of their silver-halide grains, slow-speed films generally have a
higher resolutionthat is, they can render fine details with greater sharpnessand can produce a broader range of
tones than fast films. When tonal range and sharpness of detail are not as important as capturing a moving subject
without blurring, fast films are used.
Types based on SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY (color sensitivity)
Spectral sensitivity responsiveness of the film emulsion to the different wavelength of light source.
1.

MONOCHROMATIC FILM film that is sensitive to a single color of light (for white and black)
a. BLUE SENSITIVE FILM a film specially treated that makes it more sensitive to blue rays of light
b. ULTRA-VIOLET SENSITIVE FILM sensitive to UV rays only

2.

PANCHROMATIC FILM sensitive to ultra-violet rays, and all light found in the visible spectrum, especially
to blue and violet light. It is suitable for general use in the preparation of black and white photography
because it produces the most natural recording of colors.

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Panchromatic films are further sub classified according to their degree of sensitivity to each primary colors or
light. There are three classes of panchromatic film. They are the following:
a.
b.
c.

Process Panchromatic Film permit short exposures under average lighting condition and has
the advantage of fine grain structure.
Grain Panchromatic Film
High Speed Panchromatic Film designed originally for photographing objects under adverse
lighting condition.

Contrast of the panchromatic film usually varies with the color of the light and using filters can attain proper
contrast in photograph.
3.
4.

ORTHOCHROMATIC FILM film that is sensitive to UV rays, blue and green colors, but not to red. Red
portions are recorded as dark tones, while green and blue parts appear as light tones when printed. This
type of film is popular in the market as the KODALITH FILM.
INFRARED FILM a special type of film that is sensitive to infrared and ultra-violet radiation (radiation
beyond the human eyes sensitive). It is also sensitive to all the colors found in the visible spectrum.
Although the infrared film is sensitive to blue color, a red filter can exclude the blue color. The red filter
transmits only long red and infrared radiation. IR film is useful in penetrating haze because of its longer
wavelength. In Investigative Photography, it is useful in laboratory analysis of questioned documents, in
discovering old ( or faded ) tattoos under the skin, and in the construction of camera types.

D. FILM SPEED (EMULSION SPEED)


EMULSION SPEED the sensitivity of the film to light; the extent to which emulsion is sensitive to light.
The light sensitivity of the film is also known as the FILM SPEED. Speed of the film is determined through the
numerical film speed labels given by the film manufacturer. There are two classical speed ratings that became popular:
1.
2.

ASA (American Standard Association) rating - This is expressed in arithmetical value system. The speed in
numbers is directly proportional to the sensitivity of the material. A film with an arithmetical value of 400 is
four times as fast as one with a speed of 100.
DIN (Deutche Industrie Norman) rating This is expressed in logarithmic value system. In this system, an
increase of 3 degree doubles the sensitivity of the film.

ISO rating (International Standards Organization) combination of ASA and DIN rating. The higher
the ISO number, the more sensitive the film to light and the pictures can be taken indoors or in dim
light condition.
ISO 100-200 film for general purpose

One film maybe rated ISO 100, and another film ISO- 200. This means that the 200 films are twice as fast (
twice more sensitive to light ) than the ISO-100 film. Hence, it would only require half the amount of light to produce a
satisfactory negative. Each time the film speed is doubled, it is equal to one f / stop higher. For instance, in the
example given, if ISO-1 is exposed at f / 8, then ISO-200 should be exposed at f / 11 to produce the same negative
image quality. Any film above ISO-200 can be considered grain. The suggested uses of the following film exposure
under varying conditions are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ISO 25 slowest speed that natural condition will permit, for best color and sharpness.
ISO 100 to ISO 200 for general purpose
ISO 100 slow speed film; needs sufficient light and low shutter speed; has fine grains of silver halides;
produce sharp image.
ISO 200 twice as fast and as sensitive as ISO 100; has large grains; produce large sharp image.
ISO 400 for dim light or with moving subject
ISO 1000 and up for extremely low light conditions or for fast moving objects

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When DX is attached to the film speed, it means that the film automatically sets the film speed dial
(ASA dial).

E. FILM SIZE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

110 for cartridge loading pocket cameras


126 for older and larger cartridge loading type
120 variation of the 2.25 inch-wide roll film that was first introduced for box cameras a decade ago and now
used in professional medium format cameras like the Hasselbald or Mamiya.
135 commonly known as the mm. so named because the film is 35 mm wide
220 the same with 120 but twice as many exposure

FILM AND LIGHT


An alteration in the spectral response of a photographic material brought about by a change in the spectral
distribution of energy in the light source used for exposure is a difference in a relative brightness in which different
colors are reproduced by the photographic material.
A comparison of the relative brightness in which the different colors of the original are produced by two light
sources shows that the employment of tungsten illumination with its greater abundance of long wave radiation, has
resulted in yellow, orange and red being produced relatively lighter, and violet and blue darker, than with sunlight. The
relative brightness in which different colors are reproduced depends on the distribution of spectral sensitivity with the
particular light source used for the exposure. The greater the effective sensitivity in any particular part of the spectrum,
the greater the density of the negative and the lighter the tone of gray in which the corresponding color sensation is
represented in the print.
EXPOSURE
Photographic exposure is defined as the product of illumination and time. The unit of exposure is usually in
meter candle second which is equivalent to exposure produced by a light source of one candlepower, in the second at
a distance of one meter from the surface of the sensitive material.
When light is brought in its focus by the camera lens and strikes the front surface of the film emulsion, a
number of tiny crystals of light sensitive silver halide rendered developable forming later the image is known as the
latent photographic image. This image becomes visible by chemical development. This image conforms to the shape of
the object points in the subject according to the capability of the lens and film.
While at this point the light had done all that it has to do, however it continue to penetrate the emulsion layers
throughout whose depth lie suspended millions of other light sensitive halide crystals. As the ray moves deeper and
deeper into the emulsion, it moves farther and farther away from its original point of entry into the emulsion, and parts
are scattered off in every direction. During this travel it has struck and therefore made developable, many more light
sensitive crystals than it originally affected to form the latent image at the surface of the emulsion. Finally, it bumps into
the anti- halation backing and is absorbed.
FILTERS
Filters made of gelatin or glass; filters are used in front of a camera lens to alter the color balance of light,
to change contrast or brightness, to minimize haze, or to create special effects. In black-and-white photography,
color filters are used with panchromatic film to transmit light of the matching color while blocking light of a
contrasting color. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter, for example, some of the blue light of the sky is
blocked, causing the sky to appear darker and thereby emphasizing clouds. Under a blue sky, a yellow filter
produces a less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film. The No. 8 yellow filter is often used
for outdoor black-and-white photography because it renders the tone of a blue sky in much the same way that the
human eye perceives it.
Conversion filters, light-balancing filters, and color-compensating filters are all widely used in color
photography. Conversion filters change the color balance of light for a given film. Tungsten films, for example, are

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designed and balanced for the color temperature of amber tungsten light. Exposed in daylight, they will produce
pictures with a bluish cast. A series 85-conversion filter can correct this. Daylight film, on the other hand, balanced
for sunlight at noon, which has a greater concentration of blue wavelengths than tungsten light, will have a yellowamber cast when exposed under tungsten light. A series 80-conversion filter corrects this problem.
Light-balancing filters are generally used to make small adjustments in color. These pale-toned filters
eliminate undesirable colorcasts or add a general warming hue. Color-compensating (CC) magenta filters can
balance greenish fluorescent light for daylight or tungsten film. Another type of filter, the polarizer, is used primarily to
reduce reflection from the surface of shiny subjects. Polarizing filters are also used in color photography to increase
color saturation.
Photographic filters maybe divided into four classes: a) color filters b) viewing filters c) neutral density filters
and d) polarizing filters
COLOR FILTERS Are used to control the relative tone values in which colors are rendered by the
photographic process, to lighten or darkened particular colors or to obtain color separation records for color
photography works.
A color filter maybe defined as an optically homogenous filter in which the absorption of light and
transmission of light varies with the wavelength.

Blue Filters A blue filter can be used effectively when photographing blood in black and white. When used
outdoors as blue filters will make the sky, or any blue object appears white in photograph.
Green Filters Are now used in place of blue filters for photographing blood.
Yellow Filters Yellow filters cut through haze to certain extent and can be used with good results to
photograph an accident on a hazy day.

VIEWING FILTER Are designed to show by direct observation the relative values in which colors will be
reproduced by a particular type of sensitized without or with a given filter.
NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTER Are used to reduce the light intensity to prevent over exposure.
POLARIZING FILTER Are used primarily to control light reflected from highly polished surfaces, metallic
objects and others.
The Principle of Color Filters
Objects are distinguished from their surroundings by the contrast, which may be the result of a difference in
brightness or color. At times parts of a subject may differ slightly in brightness yet the contrast due to difference in color
is very marked to the eye. For example red and green colors show a striking difference to the eye yet when photograph
on a panchromatic film the brightness difference is very slight to be notice by the eye. To show the difference the use of
a green filter will render the green color lighter and the red color darker (in the print or positive).
To render a color lighter in effect than it would appear, a filter, which selectively transmits light of the same
color, should be used. To render a color darker a filter, which absorbs the color, should be used. To transmit means to
allow or to pass through while to absorb means to stop partially or wholly.
Filter Factor
A photographic material exposed to such filtered radiation will receive a small amount of light than one
without any filter. To compensate for the loss of radiation because of the absorption of the filter, the shutter speed
should be increased or a longer time in opening and closing or wider lens aperture, or an increase in the intensity of
the light source is necessary. Filter factors depend upon:
1. Absorption characteristics of the filter.
2. The subject
3. The spectral sensitivity of the emulsion

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4.

The processing conditions.

The general effects of filter may be given as below:


Color of Subject
Red
Green
Blue
Magenta
Yellow
Orange

Rendered Lighter

Rendered Darker

Filters F, A or G
G, X-1, X-2
Filter A
Filter F or A
Filter F or G
Filter G or A

Filter B or C-5
Filter A or C-5
A, F, G, or B
Filter B
Filter C-5
Filter C-5

Filter Guide
G---B---X-1, X-2 - - A or F - - - -

Deep Yellow
Green
Lighter Green
Shades of Red

SENSITIZED PAPER (PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER)


The result of photography in its final form is the photograph. The materials necessary to produce a
photograph (POSITIVE PRINT) are a sensitized paper. It has emulsion that is coated with opaque material like paper.
A. STRUCTURE OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER
After the process of producing the negative image is produced from the negative, which is a true presentation
of the relative brightness of all parts of the object and is now called a print. A print is ordinarily made on paper that is
coated with light sensitive emulsion. This emulsion is similar to the. Basic layers of printing paper are:
1. Emulsion Layer the layer containing minute silver suspended in gelatin; the layer of chemical needed to
reproduce the opposite tone of the negative print.
2. Baryta Layer a gelatin layer containing Baryta crystals (barium oxide particles) to increase the reflectivity of
the paper.
3. Base made of hardened white paper, which must be chemically pure to ensure that it will not interfere with
the chemical processes to which the emulsion is subjected. Available either in single or double weight paper.
1.
2.
3.

In the preparation of photographic papers, there are three important factors to be considered, the:
Type of emulsion
Contrasting light rays and
Physical characteristics

Each type of emulsion has its own substance and use in the preparation of photographs. The types of
emulsion use in photo papers are:
1. Silver Chloride emulsion
2. Silver Bromide emulsion
3. Silver Chlorobromide emulsion
B. TYPES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS
BASED ON EMULSION USED

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1.
2.

3.

4.

SILVER CHLORIDE PAPER contains silver chloride emulsion; grained and produce deep black images;
used for contact printing. Its sensitivity to light is low. Generally, the size of the positive print is the same as
the size of the negative used and usually it will give blue-black tone if properly developed.
SILVER BROMIDE PAPER contains silver bromide emulsion. Light sensitivity of this type is faster than the
silver chloride paper. This photographic paper is used for projection printing or enlarging process wherein the
negative image is projected or enlarged. If properly developed, the silver bromide paper will give a black
tone.
SILVER CHLOROBROMIDE PAPER contains a combination of silver chloride emulsion; its emulsion
speed lies between that of chloride and bromide papers; used both for contact and projection printing. The
sensitivity of this paper is either slow or fast. The slow emulsion is used for contract printing while the fast
emulsion is used for projection printing.
VARIABLE CONTRAST PAPER combines the contrast ranges in one paper, it uses a special
Chlorobromide emulsion that produces varying contrast responses upon exposure to different colored light.

The manufacturer of the films according to their own ideas classifies the contrast range of photographic
paper. They produce different photographic papers intended for the specific contrast of the negatives to be printed.
Generally, this contrast range is classified into four: They are the following:
1. Low Contrast
2. Normal and Medium Contrast
3. Hard Contrast
4. Very Hard or Extra Hard Contrast
The low contrast paper is usually suitable to a very contrast negative to produce a normal print or
photograph. On the other hand, the high or hard contrast is suitable to a very low contrast paper is suitable to a very
low contrast negative to compensate for lack of brilliance and produce a normal print or photographs.
Photographic papers are made with different characteristics. They are the combination of thickness and
finish. The texture maybe smooth, rough or linen, its finest maybe glossy with a very smooth surface texture. Other
type of textures may produce a mate or semi-glossy finish in rough or linen texture.
The paper base of the photographic paper maybe either white or tinted. Its weight or thickness maybe either
lightweight or single-weight or double-weight.
The choice of photographic paper for printing will depend upon the purpose of the photographs to be made.
Black and White object are usually printed in a white base photographic paper. Reproduction of photographs would
give satisfactory results if printed on glossy white photographic paper. For portrait photograph, a cream paper base
photographic paper is recommended and for law enforcement photography, the smooth photographic paper is
necessary so that the detail of the image appear and appreciated by the viewers.
ACCORDING TO CONTRAST
No. 1 ---- No. 2 ---- No. 3 ---- No. 4
Photographic papers are supplied in different grades. Numbers and or descriptive names, # 4 or hard, # 3
or medium, # 2 or normal, # 1 or soft contrast designates them. The type of paper to be used is frequently the opposite
in the name to the type of negative. For instance, hard paper is used for thin, and normal paper is used for the socalled normal negative.

ACCORDING TO PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS


Photographic paper is made with different characteristics. They are the combination of thickness and finish.
Photographic papers are supplied according to weight or thickness of the base, surface, color and contrast.

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1. WEIGHT
A.

Light Weight are used when the thickness of the paper is not a consideration and
high degree of flexibility is necessary. Intended for purposes, which involve folding.
B.
Single Weight are paper used for small print or print which need to be mounted on
solid and fine details are necessary in the production. Used only for ordinary photographic
purposes.
C.
Double Weight generally used for large prints because they stand up better under
rough treatment.
2. SURFACE TEXTURE
A. Glossy Papers are preferred where fine detail and brilliant images are required.
B. Semi mate Papers are with decided textures which obscure fine details
C. Rough Papers used for large prints or where breadth rather than detail is necessary.
3. COLOR
A. White are preferred for cold effect
B. Cream are preferred for pictorial effect, portraits, landscapes or when warmth effect is desired.
C. Buff Papers are preferred for tone prints.
The choice of photographic paper for printing will depend upon the purpose of the photographs to be made.
Black and White object are usually printed in a white-based photographic paper. Reproduction of photographs would
give satisfactory results if printed in glossy white-based photographic paper. For portrait photograph, a cream based
photographic paper is recommended. For law enforcement photography, the smooth photographic paper is necessary
so that the details of the image appear and appreciated by the viewer.
GRADE OF PRINTING PAPERS
Because of the fact that all negative do not print best on one kind of paper, and in order to permit printing for
special effects, photographic papers is made in several different grades of contrast and surface texture. Velox paper
made by Kodak offers six degrees of contrast and glossy surface.
VELOX No. 0 used for printing from extremely contrast negatives, the low contrast in the paper sensitizing
counteracts the high contrast in the negative to give a new print.
VELOX No. 1 used for high contrast negative
VELOX No. 2 a paper for normal contrast used with normal negatives
VELOX No. 3 used for negatives that have weak contrast
VELOX No. 4 provides for sufficient contrast to compensate for very thin or weak negatives. It is useful in
printing pictures which high contrast is desired
VELOX No. 5 for flat negative that is unprintable
oo
QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
GENERAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A. DOCUMENT. Any material containing marks, symbols, or signs either visible, partially visible that may present
or ultimately convey a meaning to someone, maybe in the form of pencil, ink writing, typewriting, or printing on
paper.

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The term document applies to writings; to words printed, lithographed, or photographed; to maps or plans;
to seals, plates, or even stones on which inscriptions are cut or engraved. In its plural form, documents may
mean; deeds, agreements, title, letters, receipts, and other written instruments used to prove a fact.
Latin word documentum, means lesson, or example (in Medieval Latin instruction, or official
paper), OR
French word docere, means to teach.
According to Microsoft Encarta Reference Library (as a noun):
1. formal piece of writing
2. object containing information
3. computer file
As a verb, Microsoft Encarta gives the following definition:
1. record information in or on media
2. support a claim with evidence
B. QUESTIONED. Any material which some issue has been raised or which is under scrutiny.
C. QUESTIONED DOCUMENT. One in which the facts appearing therein may not be true, and are contested
either in whole or part with respect to its authenticity, identity, or origin. It may be a deed, contract, will,
election ballots, marriage contract, check, visas, application form, check writer, certificates, etc.
D. DISPUTED DOCUMENT. A term suggesting that there is an argument or controversy over the document,
and strictly speaking this is true meaning. In this text, as well as through prior usage, however, disputed
document and questioned document are used interchangeably to signify a document that is under special
scrutiny.
E. STANDARD a.k.a. STANDARD DOCUMENT - Are condensed and compact set of authentic specimens
which, if adequate and proper, should contain a cross section of the material from a known source.
"Standard" in questioned documents investigation, we mean those things whose origins are
known and can be proven and which can be legally used as examples to compare with other matters in
question. Usually a standard consist of the known handwriting of a person such case, "standard" has
the same meaning as is understood by the word "specimen" of handwriting.
F. EXEMPLAR. A term used by some document examiners and attorneys to characterize known material.
Standard is the older term.
G. HOLOGRAPHIC DOCUMENT. Any document completely written and signed by one person; also known as
a holograph. In a number of jurisdictions a holographic will can be probated without anyone having
witnessed its execution.
H. REFERENCE COLLECTION. Material compiled and organized by the document examiner to assist him in
answering special questions. Reference collections of typewriting, check writing specimens, inks, pens,
pencils, and papers are frequently maintained.

LEGAL ASPECT OF DOCUMENTS


A. LEGAL BASIS OF DOCUMENTS:
1. In the case of People vs. Moreno, CA, 338 O.G. 119: any written document by which a right is established or
an obligation is extinguished.
2. In the case of People vs. Nillosquin, CA, 48 O.G. 4453: every deed or instrument executed by person by
which some disposition or agreement is proved, evidenced or setforth.

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3.

In relation to Criminal Jurisprudence under the Best Evidence rule: any physical embodiment of information
or ideas; e.g. a letter, a contract, a receipt, a book of account, a blur print, or an X-ray plate (Blacks Law
Dictionary).

B. KINDS OF DOCUMENT:
1. PUBLIC DOCUMENT - notarized by a notary public or competent public official with solemnities required
by law.(Cacnio vs. Baens, 5 Phil. 742)
2. OFFICIAL DOCUMENT - issued by the government or its agents or its officers having the authority to do so
and the offices, which in accordance with their creation, they are authorized to issue and be issued in the
performance of their duties.
3. PRIVATE DOCUMENT -executed by a private person without the intervention of a notary public or of any
person legally authorized, by which documents, some disposition or agreement is proved, evidenced or set
forth (US vs Orera, 11 Phil. 596).
4. COMMERCIAL DOCUMENT - executed in accordance with the Code of Commerce or any Mercantile Law,
containing disposition of commercial rights or obligations.
Take Note:
A private document may become a public or official document when it partake the nature of a public or
official record. So if the falsifications committed on such document that is, when it is already a part of the public record,
falsification of public or official document is committed. However, if such private document is intended to become a part
of the public record, even though falsified prior thereto, falsification of a public document is committed.
WRITINGS WHICH DO NOT CONSTITUTE DOCUMENTS - based on some Supreme Court Rulings.
1. A draft of a Municipal payroll which is not yet approved by the proper authority (People vs. Camacho, 44 Phil.
484).
2. Mere blank forms of official documents, the spaces of which are not filled up (People vs. Santiago, CA, 48
O.G. 4558).
3. Pamphlets or books which do not evidence any disposition or agreement are not documents but are mere
merchandise (People vs. Agnis, 47 Phil. 945).
CLASSES OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS
1. Documents with questioned signatures.
2. Questioned documents alleged to have been containing fraudulent alterations.
3. Questioned or disputed holographic wills.
a. HOLOGRAPHIC WILL - will entirely written in the handwriting of the testator
b. NOTARIAL WILL - signed by the testator acknowledge before a notary public with 3 witnesses.
4. Documents investigated on the question of typewriting.
a. with a view of ascertaining their source
b. with a view of ascertaining their date
c. with a view of determining whether or not they contain fraudulent alterations or substituted pages.
5. Questioned documents on issues of their age or date.
6. Questioned documents on issues of materials used in their production.
7. Documents or writings investigated because it is alleged that they identify some persons through
handwriting.
a. anonymous and disputed letters, and
b. Superscriptions, registrations and miscellaneous writings.
DOCUMENT AND QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
ADDITION - Any matter made a part of the document after its original preparation may be referred to as addition.
CONCLUSION - A scientific conclusion results form relating observed facts by logical, common-sense reasoning in
accordance with established rules or laws. The document examiner's conclusion, in legal term is referred to as
"opinion".

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DOCUMENT EXAMINER. One who studies scientifically the details and elements of documents in order to identify
their source or to discover other facts concerning them. Document examiners are often referred to as handwriting
identification experts, but today the work has outgrown this latter title and involves other problems than merely the
examination of handwriting.
ERASURE - The removal of writings, typewriting or printing, from a document is an erasure. It maybe accomplished
by either of two means. A chemical eradication in which the writing is removed or bleached by chemical agents (e.g.
liquid ink eradicator); and an abrasive erasure is where the writing is effaced by rubbing with a rubber eraser or
scratching out with a knife or other sharp with implement.
EXAMINATION - It is the act of making a close and critical study of any material and with questioned documents, it
is the process necessary to discover the facts about them. Various types are undertaken, including microscopic,
visual photographic, chemical, ultra violet and infra-red examination.
EXPERT WITNESS. A legal term used to describe a witness who by reason of his special training or experience is
permitted to express an opinion regarding the issue, or a certain aspect of the issue, which is involved in a court
action. His purpose is to interpret technical information in his particular specialty in order to assist the court in
administering justice. The document examiner testifies in court as an expert witness.
INSERTION OR INTERLINEATION - The term "insertion" and "interlineations" include the addition of writing
and other material between lines or paragraphs or the addition of whole page to a document.
NON-IDENTITIFICATION (Non-identity) as used in this text it means that the source or authorship of the
compared questioned and standard specimens is different.
OBLITERATION - the blotting out or shearing over the writing to make the original invisible to as an addition.
OPINION. In legal language, it refers to the document Examiner's conclusion. Actually in Court, he not only
expresses an opinion but demonstrates the reasons for arriving at his opinion. Throughout this text, opinion and
conclusion are used synonymously.
QUALIFICATION. The professional experience, education, and ability of a document examiner. Before he is
permitted to testify as an expert witness, the court must rule that he is qualified in his field.
REASON FOR QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
Generally, examination of questioned documents is restricted to Scientific Comparison which means that
determination of authenticity, genuineness, falsification or forgery lies on the availability of known standards for
comparison. After thorough comparison, the following principle of identification is applied:
When two items contain a combination of corresponding or similar and specifically oriented characteristic of
such number and significance as to preclude the possibility of their occurrence by mere coincidence and
there are no unaccounted for differences, it may be concluded that they are same in their characteristics
attributed to the same cause.

DIVISIONS OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION


A. Criminalistics Examination. This involves the detection of forgery, erasure, alteration or obliteration of
documents.

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Dr. Wilson Harrison, a noted British Examiner of questioned documents said that an intelligent police
investigator can detect almost 75% of all forgeries by careful inspection of a document with simple magnifiers
and measuring tools.
B. Handwriting Investigation/Analysis. This is more focused in determining the author of writing. It is more
difficult procedure and requires long study and experience.
FORMS/ASPECTS (SUBJECTS) OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
A. Handwriting Examination (Graphology/Graphoanalysis)
1. examination of signatures and initials
2. examination of anonymous letters
3. hand printing examination
B. Examination of Typewritings and typeprints.
C. Examination of Inks
D. Examination of Erasures, alterations or obliterations, etc.
1. Detection of alteration
2. Decipherment of erased writings
3. Restoration of obliterated writings
E. Counterfeiting
1.
Examination of currency bills and coins and the like.
2.
Examination of fake documents
F. Miscellaneous aspects
1. Determination of age of documents
2. Identification of stamps
3. Examinations of seal and other authenticating devices
DOCUMENT EXAMINATION (In General)
A. VALUE 1. In the commission of a crime, the criminal often finds it necessary to employ one or more documents in
furtherance of his act.
2. In some crimes, such as forgery, the document is an integral part of the crime.
3. In others, such as false claims against government, documents often play an important part in proving the
commission of the crime.
4. Proof of the fact that a document was altered or made by a particular individual may show that:
a. He committed the crime.
b. He had knowledge of the crime.
c. He was present in a certain locality at a specified time.
B. PURPOSE - A document may be examined to know the following:
a. Identity of the author.
b. True contents of the document.
c. Origin of the instrument or paper used in making the document.
d. Alterations or erasures which have been made.
e. Authenticity of the document.

THE LOGICAL PROGRESS OF INQUIRY IN DOCUMENT EXAMINATION


A. FIRST - ASCERTAIN THE FACTS: to select "QUESTIONED", "DENIED" or "ADMITTED", "AUTHENTIC", and
"DOUBTFUL" documents.

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1. Concerning the Document in Questioned.


a. Is only one signature in questioned?
b. Is any part of the document in question?
c. Is the date of the document in questioned?
d. Is the paper or the typewriter used in the document in questioned? Etc.
2. Regarding the Standards:
a. Make sure that there are sufficient numbers of authentic documents for comparison submitted. If there
are inadequate standards, obtain more.
b. Determine whether the standards are authentic ones, on which a foundation can be built for admitting
them in evidence.
B. SECOND - ANALYZE THE DETAILS: Synthesize the elements, date, circumstances, conditions, technical
problems and the like.
1. The examiner after ascertaining the facts, should have detailed information as to the circumstances of the
document in questioned, the condition of an alleged writer, or of any condition that may have affected the
writing or typewriting or any facts that are part of the technical problem with the document that is submitted to
the expert.
2. He should inquire about the circumstances and conditions as far as the client knows, such as; was the document signed sitting on the wall, on the lap, or lying in bed? Sitting on bed, lying on his back or side? For
example, a document could have been signed in a moving automobile or while having a drink at the bar.
C. THIRD - QUALIFY THE CASE:
1. How much time is needed for the examination?
2. Is it possible to complete the study from the original papers, or is it necessary to make special photo-enlargements for proper examination?
3. If it is possible to make arrangements with the client for photo-enlargement, is it advisable to do so?
4. Photo-enlargements are always useful for demonstrating the reasons on which the opinion is based,
especially in Court.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
A.Analysis (Recognition) - properties or characteristics, observed or measured.
B.Comparison - Properties or characteristics of the unknown determined thought analysis are now compared
with the familiar or recorded properties of known items.
C.Evaluation- Similarities or dissimilarities in properties or characteristics will each have a certain value for identification, determined by its likelihood of occurrence. The weight or significance of each must therefore be
considered.
The criteria of scientific examination of documents are:
A. Accuracy correspondence between results obtained and the truth.
B. Precision measure of the consistency of results obtained in repeated study or experimentation.
In scientific study of signatures/handwritings, we learn the basic facts and then reason carefully and
logically from these facts according to established and recognized rules in order to form an opinion or
conclusion as to whether a questioned signature/handwriting is genuine or forged

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF DOCUMENTS


It is the initial examination conducted on a document to determine whether it is genuine or not. It is not a
misnomer, for in reality it consists of painstaking analysis more than looking at a document and expressing an off-hand
opinion.

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A. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT:


1. ensures preparedness;
2. avoidance of delay; and
3. ensures success of the case.
B. Principal points for consideration in the PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION of questioned documents. Please
note that these questions may not be applicable in every case.
1. Is the signature genuine?
2. Is the signature in a natural position?
3. Are the signatures of the witnesses genuine and were they written in the order as they appear?
4. Does the signature touch the other writings? Or was it written last?
5. Are there remains of pencil or carbon marks which may have been an outline for the signature of other
writings?
6. Is the signature shown in an embossed form on the back of the sheet?
7. Is the writings written before the paper was folded?
8. Is the signature written before or after the paper was folded?
9. Is more than one kind of ink used in the preparation of the document?
10. Are the several sheets of the document exactly the same sizes, thickness and colors?
11. Is the paper torn, burned or mutilated in any way, and if so, for what purpose?
12. Is the paper unnecessary soiled or crumpled?
13. Does the document contain abrasion, chemical/pencil erasures, and alterations/substitutions of any kind?
14. Does the document show abrasion, erasure or lack of continuity when viewed by transmitted light?
15. Has the document been wet in any way and if so, for what purpose?
16. If typewritten, are the contents of the document all written on the same machine?
17. Was each sheet written continuously at one time without being removed from the typewriter?
18. Are there added figures, words, clauses, sentences, paragraphs or pages written on a different typewriter?
19. Do the perforations agree with the stubs from which the alleged document came?
20. If the document is a carbon copy, does it conform in the size, position, and arrangement of matters with
original letterheads?
21. If the document is a letter, does postmark, postage stamps, manner of sealing and opening of envelope have
any significance?
22. Are there indentations in the paper from handwriting or typewriting on a sheet placed above the paper
examined?
23. Is the rubber-stamp impression if any appears made from a genuine stamp?
24. Is the attached seal of proper date or the seal impression made from a genuine seal and is it made in proper
sequence?
C. Who Conducts the Preliminary Examination? It should be conducted by a QUESTIONED DOCUMENT
EXPERT.
D. Who is a Questioned Document Expert? A Questioned Document Expert is one who has:
1. Attained the appropriate education and training;
2. Sufficient knowledge on the technical, scientific, and legal aspects of document examinations; and
3. A broad experience in handling questioned document cases.
E. REASONS FOR UTILIZING A QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXPERT:
1. Assurance of preparedness;
2. Trial fiscal or judges are infrequently confronted with document cases; consequently, they do not possess the
knowledge of the documents expert's ability of the various methods that exist for determining forgeries.
3. Avoidance of an OFF-HAND opinion.
F. What is an OFF-HAND OPINION? Off-hand opinion is usually a conclusion that is not based on thorough
scientific examination.

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G. THE DANGER OF OFF-HAND OPINIONS - It has happened in some cases that an off-hand opinion, has sent
an innocent man to prison, while a murderer was given a chance to escape.
INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS USED IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATIONS
A. MAGNIFYING LENS Bank personnel and other people involved in currency examinations usually use and
ordinary hand-lens; the maximum diameter of which is four inches, and this appears big with its wide frame it
has a magnifying power of two times the original only. Magnifying lenses of five times or more magnifying
power, with built-in-lighting are more useful.
B. SHADOWGRAPH a pictorial image formed by casting a shadow, usually of the hands, upon a rightful surface
or screen.
C. STEREOSCOPIC BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE a tri-dimensional (3D) enlargement is possible.
D. MEASURES AND TEST PLATES (TRANSPARENT GLASS) those used for signatures and typewritings.
E. TABLE LAMPS WITH ADJUSTABLE SHADES (Goose Neck Lamps) used for controlled illumination;
needed in sidelight examination wherein light is placed at a low-angle in a position oblique to plane or
document.
F. TRANSMITTED LIGHT GADGET a device where light comes from beneath or behind glass on document is
placed.
G. ULTRA VIOLET LAMP this is usually used in the detection of counterfeited bills but can actually be used to
detect security features of qualified documents.
H. INFRARED VIEWER primarily used to decipher writings in a charred document.
I. COMPARISON MICROSCOPE similar to that of the bullet comparison microscope.
TECHNIQUES IN THE EXAMINATION OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS
A. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION - Any examination or study which is made with the microscope in order to
discover minute physical details. Stereoscopic examination with low and high power objectives is used to
detect retouching, patching and unnatural pen-lift in signature analysis. With proper angle and intensity or
illumination, it aids in the decipherment of erasures, some minute manipulations not perfectly pictured to the
unaided eye and the sequence of entries done by different writing instruments.
B. TRANSMITTED LIGHT EXAMINATION In this examination, the document is viewed with the source of
illumination behind it and the light passing through the paper. Documents are subjected to this type of
examination to determine the presence of erasures, matching of serrations and some other types of alterations.
C. OBLIQUE LIGHT EXAMINATION - An examination with the illumination so controlled that it grazes or strikes
the surface of the document from one side at a very low angle. Decipherment of faded handwriting,
determination of outlines in traced forgery, embossed impressions, etc. are subjected to this type of
examination.
D. PHOTOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION - This type of examination is very essential in every document examination.
Actual observations are recorded in the photographs.
E.

ULTRA-VIOLET EXAMINATION - Ultraviolet radiation is invisible and occurs in the wave lengths just below the
visible blue-violet end of the spectrum (rainbow). These visible rays react on some substances so that visible
light is reflected, a phenomenon known as FLOURESCENCE. This type of examination is done in a
darkroom after the lamp has been warmed up in order to give a maximum output of the ultra-violet light.
Exposure to the ultra-violet light should be to the minimum duration in order to avoid fading of some writing ink
and typewriter ribbon.

F.

INFRARED EXAMINATION - This examination of documents employs invisible radiation beyond the red portion
of the visible spectrum (rainbow) which is usually recorded on a specially sensitized photographic emulsion.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION


A. PURPOSES OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN QDE:

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

serve as record of the initial condition of a disputed document;


make clear what otherwise may be hidden or indistinct;
enlarge a writing in question so that every quality and characteristics of it can be clearly and properly
interpreted whether the facts so shown point to genuineness or to forgery;
enable any number of accurate reproductions of document, thus affording unlimited opportunity for study,
comparison and evaluation by any number of examiners, which would not be possible by using the
document alone;
allow cutting apart as may be desired and the various parts classified for comparisons;
can show delicate discolorations due to chemical erasures or other fraudulent changes, which may
otherwise be overlooked, or misinterpreted;
can show very clearly any erasures by abrasions made by ordinary rubber eraser and it can record in
permanent form with the paper placed obliquely to the plane of the lens and plate and inclined at just right
angle of reflection so as to show differences in the reflected light from different portions of the paper
surface; and
with transmitted light, photographs is useful in:
a. examination of watermarks
b. determining the identity, or the differences in paper by showing arrangement of the fibers and the
markings of the wire gauze and dandy roll
c. showing the continuity of strokes and
d. determining retouching or patching of a writing by showing clearly the presence of added ink film and
the uneven distribution of ink in interrupted strokes.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMINATIONS
A.ERASURES - One of the common inquiries in questioned document is whether or not an erasure was actually
made on a document. In cases like this, the following examinations are made:
1. Physical inspection: using ultraviolet light, observation with light striking the surface at a sharp angle, and
observation under the microscope maybe considered.
2. Fuming with iodine may cause an almost negligible stain, but in most instances not the slightest
semblance of a stain remains.
B.INDENTED WRITING - Indented writing is a term usually applied to the partially visible depressions appearing on
a sheet of paper underneath the one on which the visible writing appears. These depressions or indentation are
due to the application of pressure on the writing instrument and would appear as a carbon copy if a sheet of
carbon paper had been properly inserted. Indentation may also appear on a blank sheet of paper if such is
used as a backing sheet while typing out a message on a typewriter. Methods of examination are:
1. Physical methods maybe used by passing a strong beam of nearly parallel light almost horizontally over
the surface of the paper.
2. Fuming the document maybe of values in some cases.
3. Powders of various kinds maybe used without changing the document.
C.BURNED OR CHARRED PAPER - A piece of paper maybe subjected to the action of a limited amount of heat,
causing it to become scorched and retaining a certain amount of its identity or it maybe subjected to intense
heat, reducing it to ashes and losing its identity. However, if the combustion is incomplete, a certain amount of
success maybe realized provided the pieces are large enough to form a coherent message.
The following methods maybe applied to decipher the original message contained thereon:
1. Photographic methods, using various types of filters and different angles of illumination may determine the
writing contained thereon without changing the appearance of the charred fragments.
2. Chemical methods, such as spraying, painting, or bathing charred pieces with solutions of different chemical
reagents.

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3. Photographic plates maybe utilized by allowing the charred paper to remain in contact with the emulsion
sides in total darkness from one to two weeks.
D.ADDING MACHINES - The construction of an adding machine differs greatly from the typewriter but the methods
and principles of identification are related.
Manufacturers use different types of numerals and from time to time change their design. The spacing
between columns is also not standardized for all machines. Those factors form the basis of determining the make of
the machine and for estimating the period in which it was built. Another kind of approach is the ribbon impression, for
the ribbon is made and operates very similarly to the typewriter.
HANDLING OF DOCUMENTS AND QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS
A. THE CARE OF DISPUTED DOCUMENTS AND DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

It is a basic requirement, that when a document becomes disputed and deposited in court or with the
attorney, in order to maintain its original condition, it should be kept UNFOLDED AND IN A SEPARATE,
PROPER SIZE ENVELOPE OR FOLDER. This is true not only for the disputed documents, but for many
other important documentary evidence.
It is also advisable that right after the document becomes disputed, or questioned, it is important to make
not only the usual photo static copy (Xerox), but also a proper photograph or photo-enlargement, done if
possible by the document expert or under the supervision of the document expert.
When working in the preparation of case, it is often necessary for the lawyer or court to handle
repeatedly the disputed document. Should this be necessary, instead of handling and working with the
original document, the photograph should be used.
Every touching, folding, refolding or pointing to certain parts of a document, can change the physical
condition of the case. For example, touching with wet hands or fingers can create smearing in the ink,
pointing with a pencil can leave marks that create a suspicion of previous pencil marks, or experiments as
proof of attempted forgery.
Pointing a document with any other instruments, such as sharp stick, can cause slight damage which
although it can not be seen by the naked eye, can show definite marks under the microscope or on the
enlarged photograph.
No test should be made to alter the conditions of the document; for example, the old-fashioned ink test,
which was used to determine the age of the ink-writing.
Should any test be necessary, insist that it should be done in the presence of a chemist, or in court, or in
front of both parties involved the case.

B. DO's and DON'T's in the CARE, HANDLING AND PRESERVATION OF DOCUMENTS


1.

DOS
a. Take disputed papers to Document Examiner's Laboratory at the First Opportunity.
b. If storage is necessary, keep in dry place away from excessive heat strong light.
c. Maintain in consequential document, unfolded and in transparent plastic envelope or evidence
preserver.

2.

DONTS
a. Do not underscore, make careless markings, fold, erase, impress rubber stamps, sticker, write on, or
otherwise alter any handwriting.
b. Do not smear with fingerprints powder or chemicals.
c. Do not carry handwriting document carelessly in wallet, notebook or brief case on grounds of interviews.
d. Do not handle disputed papers excessively or carry then in pocket for a long time.
e. Do not marked disputed documents (either by consciously writing instruments or dividers)
f. Do not mutilate or damage by repeated refolding, creasing, cutting, tearing or punching for filing
purposes.
g. Do not allow anyone except qualified specialist to make chemical or other tests; do no treat or dust for
latent finger prints before consulting a document examiner.

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C. HANDLING CHARRED DOCUMENTS


1.
2.
3.

Those extremely fragile must be handled as little as possible and transporting them to the laboratory requires
extra-ordinary care. With forethought and caution they can be brought from the distant fire scene to the
laboratory.
They should be moved in the container in which they are found whenever possible. When
the fragments are not packed tightly, they should be padded with lightweight absorbent cotton. If jarring can
not be entirely eliminated jarring the box must be kept to a minimum.
Thus every precaution must be taken in handling and transporting the charred residue in order to prevent the
large pieces from becoming unnecessarily and badly broken. The fragment must be held firmly without
crushing and prevent movement or shifting when finally packed in a sturdy container.

HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION


HANDWRITING - It is the result of a very complicated series of facts, being used as whole, combination of
certain forms of visible mental and muscular habits acquired by long, continued painstaking effort. Some defined
handwriting as visible speech.
I. KINDS OF WRITINGS:
A.Cursive connected; writing in which one letter is joined to the next.
B.Script separated or printed writing.
C.BLOCK all CAPITAL LETTERS.
II. BASIS OF HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION
A.In Wignore's Principles of judicial Proof, handwriting is defined as a visible effect of bodily movement which is an
almost unconscious expression of fixed muscular habits, reacting from fixed mental impression of certain ideas
associated with script form.
B.Environment, education and occupation affect individuals so variously in the formation of these muscular habits
that finally the act of writing becomes an almost automatic succession of acts stimulated by these habits.
C.The imitation of the style of writing by another person becomes difficult because the other person cannot by mere
will power reproduce in himself all the muscular combination from the habit of the first writer.
Take Note:
Is handwriting/signature identification an exact science?
In the hand of a qualified examiner operating under proper conditions, identification by means of
handwriting/signature is certain. Proper conditions include:
1. sufficient questioned writing
2. sufficient known writing
3. sufficient time
4. use of scientific instruments

III. PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF HANDWRITING


In writing the pen functions as an extension of the hand. The fingers transmit to the paper, the directive
impulse and the variation in muscular tension that according to the nature of tie writer's nervous organization occur
during the act or writing. This center near the motor area of the cortex is responsible for the finger movement
involved in handwriting. The importance of this center is that when it becomes diseased as in a graphic, one loses the

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ability to write although he could still grasp a fountain pen, ball pen or pencil. Thus, the ability or power to hold a
fountain pen or pencil to form symbols and words can be said to emanate from its cortical center.
Two Groups of Muscles Involve in Handwriting:
1.
2.

extensor muscles - push up the pen to form the upward strokes


flex muscles which push the pen to from the downward strokes.

Generally speaking, four groups of muscles are employed in writing - those which operate the joints of
the fingers, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. The delicate way in which the various muscles used in writing work together to
produce written form is known as motor coordination.
IV. VARIATIONS IN HANDWRITING
A more or less definite pattern for each is stored away in the subjective mind but the hand does not always
produce a stereotyped duplicate of that pattern. The hand ordinarily is not an instrument of precision and therefore we
may not expect every habitual manual operation to be absolutely uniform. The greater this skill in the art of penman ship, the less the variations there will be in the form of individualize letters as well as in the writing as a whole.
CAUSES OF VARIATION
1.
2.
3.

Function of some external condition i.e. influence of the available space.


Abnormal conditions such as physical injury, toxic effects, inebriation's, emotion and deception.
Position of letter - all the letters are to be found initially, medially, and finally. The fact of a different position,
especially in combination with another and particular letter,
may modify any of them in some way or
another.

IMPORTANCE OF VARIATION
1.
2.
3.

Personal variation encountered under normal writing conditions is also a highly important element of
identification. The qualities of personal variation include both its nature and its extent. It becomes necessary
to determine the amount, extent, and exact quality of the variations.
It is improbable that the variety and extent of the variation in handwriting will be exactly duplicated in two
individuals that such a coincidence becomes practically impossible and this multitude of possible variations
when combined is what constitutes individuality in handwriting.
With a group of signatures of a particular writer, certain normal divergence in size, lateral spacing and
proportions actually indicate genuineness. Variation in genuine writing is ordinarily in superficial parts and in
size, proportions, degree of care given to the act, design, slant, shading, vigor, angularity, roundness and
direction of stroke.

Take Note: The most common error in the identification of handwriting is due to the fact that the evidence of
actual forgery is executed on the ground that there is variation in genuine writing.
V. DEVELOPMENT OF HANDWRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL
1.
2.
3.
4.

Children learn writing by following the school copy or model.


After acquiring some degree of skill the children no longer follow the school model.
As speed increases, conscious design and regularity begin to break down.
In the course of trial and error, modification are made, simplification and elaborations, addition and omissions
occur.
a.
The writing pattern of each child embodies unique combinations of such deviation from the
standard letter forms or school model, and becomes his personal habits.
b.
Although thousands learn the same system and that the natural result is identity, but facts
show that it is not because those who were taught the same system or school copy a class of
writers, but such impairs does not by any means produce a slavish uniformity.

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c.

Variation begins as soon as writing begins and continues until each writer in the way that seems
best and easiest to him.

VI. SCHOOL COPYBOOK FORM (school model) - refers to the standard of handwriting instruction taught in
particular school. Classes of copybook depend on the standard school copy adopted by a writer.
A. SYSTEMS of Early American Handwriting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Old English round hand - an Italian hand popular in 1840.


Modified round hand - early edition of the Spencerian, and the Payson, Dunton, and Scribners copybook 1840 -1860.
Spencerian - there is simplification by the omission of extra strokes and flourishes. And a general tendency
toward plainer letters than the preceding system, some of which were very ornate - 1860-1890.
Modern Vertical writing 1890-1900
The arm movement writing - the manner or method of writing, instead of the form alone is especially
emphasized.

Out of these five divisions of early handwriting, the modern commercial hand systems developed. This is
characterized by free movement. And the forms adopted are best suited to easy rapid writing. These are the Zaner
and Blozer system of arm movement writing and the Palmer system of American arm movement. The last great
revolution in American handwriting was the adoption of vertical writing which was in fact a reversion to the old system
of slow but legible writing. The connecting stroke is based on the small circle and is the most distinctive "round hand"
ever devised. It was very slow compared with writing based on the narrow ellipse like the Spencerian in which all
connections were almost points instead of broad curves. Most commercial handwritings tend toward straight
connecting strokes and narrow connections.
B. SOME MODERN SCHOOL MODEL FORMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Palmer Copybook
DNealian Copybook
British Copybook
French Copybook
German Copybook

C.SIGNIFICANCE OF SCHOOL COPY FORMS or System Characteristics as Basis in the Identification of


Handwriting
1.
2.
3.
4.

Similarities of form are not indicative of identity unless they concern unusual form or what are termed
deviations from the normal. Similarities are bound to occur in different writings but such similarities exist only
in letters which are normal in form, the fact bears no significance.
All differences in form are indicated of non-identity
The likeness in form maybe general and simply indicate the class or genus or the difference that does
not differentiate maybe nearly superficial.
In many systems of writing, the date and influences of system of writing have an important bearing on the
question of genuine or of forgery and in other cases, the presence of European characteristics in handwriting
is a vital and controlling fact.

D. IMPORTANCE OF THE DESIGN OF THE LETTERS (System of Writing)


1.
2.
3.
4.

To the nationality of the writer.


To the system learned.
To the date when the writing was acquired and
To some of the influences that have surrounded the writer.

TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATIONS

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ALIGNMENT - Is the relation of parts of the whole of writing or line of individual letters in words to the baseline. It
is the alignment of words or the relative alignment of letters.
ANGULAR FORMS Sharp, straight strokes that are made by stopping the pen and changing direction before
continuing.
ARCADE FORMS Forms that look like arches rounded on the top and open at the bottom.
CHARACTERISTICS - any property or mark which distinguishes and in document examination commonly called
to as the identifying details.
COLLATION - side by side comparison; collation as used in this text means the critical comparison on side by
side examination.
COMPARISON - the act of setting two or more items side by side to weigh their identifying qualities; it refers not
only a visual but also the mental act in which the element of one item are related to the counterparts of the other.
DISGUISED WRITING - A writer may deliberately try to alter his usual writing habits in hopes of hiding his identity.
The results, regardless of their effectiveness are termed disguised writing.
DOWNSTROKE The movement of the pen toward the writer.
FORM The writers chosen writing style. The way the writing looks, whether it is copybook, elaborated,
simplified or printed.
GARLAND FORMS A cup-like connected form that is open at the top and rounded on the bottom.
GESTALT The German word that means complete or whole. A good gestalt needs nothing added or taken
away to make it look right. Also a school of handwriting analysis that looks at handwriting as a whole picture.
GRAPHOANALYSIS - the study of handwriting based on the two fundamental strokes, the curve and the straight
strokes.
GRAPHOMETRY - analysis by comparison and measurement.
GRAPHOLOGY - the art of determining character disposition and amplitude of a person from the study of
handwriting. It also means the scientific study and analysis of handwriting, especially with reference to forgeries
and questioned documents.
HANDLETTERING. Any disconnected style of writing in which each letter is written separately; also called
handprinting.
LETTER SPACE The amount of space left between letters.
LINE DIRECTION Movement of the baseline. May slant up, down, or straight across the page.
LINE QUALITY - the overall character of the ink lines from the beginning to the ending strokes. There are two
classes: Good Line quality and Poor Line quality. The visible records in the written stroke of the basic movements
and manner of holding the writing instrument is characterized by the term "line quality".
It is
derived from a combination of actors including writing skill, speed rhythm, freedom of movements, shading and
pen position.
LINE SPACE The amount of space left between lines.
MANUSCRIPT WRITING. A disconnected form of script or semi-script writing. This type of writing is taught in
young children in elementary schools as the first step in learning to write.

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MARGINS The amount of space left around the writing on all four sides.
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION - Any study or examination which is made with the microscope in other to
discover minute details.
MOVEMENT It is an important element in handwriting. It embraces all the factors which are related to the
motion of the writing instrument skill, speed freedom, hesitation, rhythm, emphasis, tremors and the like. The
manner in which the writing instrument is move that is by finger, hand, forearm or whole arm.
NATURAL WRITING - Any specimen of writing executed normally without any attempt to control or alter its
identifying habits and its usual quality or execution.
NATURAL VARIATION - These are normal or usual deviations found
of any individual handwriting.

between repeated specimens

PEN EMPHASIS - The act of intermittently forcing the pen against the paper surfaces. When the pen-point has
flexibility, this emphasis produces shading, but with more rigid writing points heavy point emphasis can occur in
writing w/out any evidence of shading; the act intermittently forcing the pen against the paper with increase
pressure.
PEN HOLD The place where the writer grasps the barrel of the pen and the angle at which he holds it.
PEN POSITION - relationship between the pen point and the paper.
PEN PRESSURE - the average force with which the pen contacts the paper. Pen pressure as opposed to pen
emphasis deals with the usual of average force involved in the writing rather than the period increases.
PRINTSCRIPT A creative combination of printing and cursive writing.
PROPORTION or RATIO - the relation between the tall and the short letter is referred as to the ratio of writing.
QUALITY. A distinct or peculiar character. Also, quality is used in describing handwriting to refer to any
identifying factor that is related to the writing movement itself.
RHYTHM The element of the writing movement which is marked by regular or periodic recurrences. It may be
classed as smooth, intermittent, or jerky in its quality; the flourishing succession of motion which are re corded in a
written record. Periodicity, alternation of movement.
SHADING - Is the widening of the ink strokes due to the added pressure on a flexible pen point or to the use
of a stub pen.
SIGNIFCANT WRITING HABIT Any characteristic of handwriting that is sufficiently uncommon and well fixed to
serve as a fundamental point in the identification.
SIMPLIFICATION Eliminating extra or superfluous strokes from the copybook model.
SIZE May refer to the overall size of the writing or the proportions between zones.
SKILL - In any set there are relative degrees or ability or skill and a specimen of handwriting usually contains evidence of the writer's proficiency; degree, ability, or skill of a write proficiency.
SLOPE/SLANT - the angle or inclination of the axis of the letters relative to the baseline. There are three classes:
Slant to the left; Slant to the right; and Vertical Slant.
SPEED OF WRITING - The personal pace at which the writers pen moves across the paper.

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SPEED (SPEEDY) WRITING - Not everyone writes at the same rate so that consideration of the speed of writing
may be a significant identifying element. Writing speed cannot be measured precisely from the finished
handwriting but can be interpreted in broad terms of slow, moderate, or rapid.
SYSTEM (OF WRITING) - The combination of the basic design of letters and the writing movement as taught in
school make up the writing system. Writing through use diverges from the system, but generally retains some
influence of the basic training.
TENSION The degree of force exerted on the pen compared to the degree of relaxation.
THREADY FORM An indefinite connective form that looks flat and wavy.
VARIABILITY The degree to which the writing varies from the copybook model.
VARIATION The act or process of changing.
WORD SPACE The amount of space left between words.
WRITING CONDITION Both the circumstances under which the writing was prepared and the factors
influencing the writers ability to write at the time of execution. It includes the writers position (sitting, standing,
abed, etc.), the paper support and backing, and the writing instrument; writing ability may be modified by the
condition of the writers health, nervous state, or degree of intoxication.
WRONG-HANDED WRITING. Any writing executed with the opposite hand that normally used; a.k.a. as with the
awkward hand. It is one means of disguise. Thus, the writing of a right-handed person which has been executed
with his left hand accounts for the common terminology for this class of disguise as "left-hand writing".
WRITING IMPULSE The result of the pen touching down on the paper and moving across the page, until it is
raised from the paper.
MOVEMENT IN HANDWRITING
A. KINDS OF MOVEMENT
1. Finger Movement - the thumb, the first, second and slightly the third fingers are in actual motion. Most
usually employed by children and illiterates.
2. Hand Movement - produced by the movement or action of the whole hand with the wrist as the center of
attraction.
3. Forearm Movement - the movement of the shoulder, hand and arm with the support of the table.
4. Whole Forearm Movement - action of the entire arm without resting. i.e., blackboard writing.
B. QUALITY OF MOVEMENT
1. Clumsy, illiterate and halting
2. Hesitating and painful due to weakness and illness
3. Strong, heavy and forceful
4. Nervous and irregular
5. Smooth, flowing and rapid

C. SPEED - Slow and drawn; Deliberate; average; and rapid


D. DIFFERENT MOVEMENTS EMPLOYED AFFECT WRITING IN Smoothness; Directness; Uniformity;
Continuity of strokes; and Connecting or curves between letters

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MOTOR COORDINATION
It is the special way in which the various muscles used in writing work together to produced written forms.
The Characteristics of Motor Coordination are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Free, smelt rounded curves


Speed and gradual changes of directions
Pressure is always in a state of change, moving from light to heavy or from heavy to light.
The shading impulse is distributed over a considerable length of the line whereas in writing produced with a
slow motion as in the finger movement, the shading often has a "bunchy" appearance, in which the maximum
width of the shaded line is attained abruptly.

Faulty motor coordinations are characterized by the following:


1.
2.

Wavering and very irregular line or strokes with uncertain and unsteady progress. There is no freedom of
movement along the strokes of the letter-forms. The writing is obviously very slow and is typical of the writing
of a young child or for any one who painstakingly draws a picture of an unfamiliar form.
Angular Line - a very common fault of coordination. Curves, large and small are not smoothly rounded and
there is no gradual change of direction. On the contrary, and angle marks almost every change are direction
in the line. Investigation has disclosed that angles are accompanied by a lessening of writing speed.

RHYTHM IN HANDWRITING
Rhythm is a succession of connected, uniform strokes working in full coordination. This is manifested by
clear-cut accentuated strokes, which increase and decrease in which like perfect cones. Pressure is always in a state
of change moving from light to heavy or from heavy to light.
A. LACK OF RHYTHM - Characterized by a succession of awkward, independent, poorly directed and
disconnected motions.
B. IMPORTANCE OF RHYTHM - By studying the rhythm of the succession of strokes, one can determine if the
writer normally and spontaneously or write with hesitation as if he is attempting to for another signature.
C. LETTER OF CONNECTIONS - Determine the essential expression of the writing pattern. It is a mean indicator
of the neuromuscular function. Words are formed by connection letters to one another. Even letters are formed
by the joining of the upward and downward strokes. These types of connections are:
Arcade - a rounded stroke shaped like an arch. It is a slow mode of connection resulting from controlled
movements.
Garland - Links the downward stroke to the upstrokes with a flowing curve swinging from left t right. It is
an easy, effortless mode of connection, written with speed.
Angular connective form- When the downward strokes and upward strokes meet directly, angular
connection is formed. This type of connection imposes a check on the continuity of movement which is
characterized by an abrupt stop and start in each turning point.
The threadlike connective form - the joining of downward and upward strokes is slurred to a threadlike
tracing or where rounded turns used at both top and bottom produce a double curve. These forms appear
both in the shaping of letters within the word.

HANDWRITING STROKE
STROKE is a series of lines or curves written in a single letter; one of the lines of an alphabet or series of
lines or curves within a single letter; the path traced by the pen on the paper.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

ARC a curved formed inside the top curve of loop as in small letters h, m, n, & p.
ARCH - any arcade form in the body of a letter found in small letters which contain arches.
ASCENDER - is the top portion of a letter or upper loop.
BASELINE - maybe actually on a ruled paper, it might be imaginary alignment of writing; is the ruled or
imaginary line upon which the writing rests.
BEADED - Preliminary embellished initial stroke which usually occurs in capital letters.
BEARD - is the rudimentary initial up stroke of a letter.
BLUNT - the beginning and ending stroke of a letter (without hesitation).
BODY - The main portion of the letter, minus the initial of strokes, terminal strokes and the diacritic, of any.
Ex: the oval of the letter "O" is the body, minus the downward stroke and the loop.
BOWL - a fully rounded oval or circular form on a letter complete into "O".
BUCKLE/BUCKLEKNOT - A loop made as a flourished which is added to the letters, as in small letter "k &
b", or in capital letters "A", "K","P"; the horizontal end loop stroke that are often used to complete a letter.
CACOGRAPHY - a bad writing.
CALLIGRAPHY - the art of beautiful writing.
DESCENDER - opposite of ascender, the lower portion of a letter.
DIACRITIC - "t" crossing and dots of the letter "i" and "j". The matters of the Indian script are also known as
diacritic signs; an element added to complete a certain letter, either a cross bar or a dot.
ENDING/TERMINATE STROKE OF TOE - the end stroke of a letter.
EYE/EYELET/EYELOOP - a small loop or curved formed inside the letters. This may occur inside the oval of
the letters "a, d, o"; the small loop form by stroke that extend in divergent direction as in small letters.
FOOT - lower part which rest on the base line. The small letter "m" has three feet, and the small letter "n"
has two feet.
HABITS - any repeated elements or details, which may serve to individualize writing.
HESITATION - the term applied to the irregular thickening of ink which is found when writing slows down or
stop while the pen take a stock of the position.
HIATUS/PEN JUMP - a gap occurring between a continuous stroke without lifting the pen. Such as
occurrence usually occurs due to speed; may be regarded also as a special form of pen lift distinguish in a
ball gaps in that of perceptible gaps and appear in the writing.
HOOK - It is a minute curve or a ankle which often occurs at the end of the terminal strokes. It also
sometimes occurs at the beginning of an initial stroke. The terminal curves of the letters "a", "d", "n", "m",
"p", "u", is the hook. In small letter "w" the initial curve is the hook; the minute involuntary talon like formation
found at the commencement of an initial up stroke or the end terminal stroke.
HUMP - Upper portion of its letter "m","n","h" ,"k" - the rounded outside of the top of the bend stroke or curve
in small letter.
KNOB -the extra deposit of ink in the initial and terminal stroke due to the slow withdrawal of the pen from the
paper (usually applicable to fountain pen).
LIGATURE/CONNECTION - The stroke which connects two stroke of letter; characterized by connected
stroke between letters.
LONG LETTER - those letters with both upper and lower loops.
LOOP - A oblong curve such as found on the small letter "f", "g", "l" and letters stroke "f" has two. A loop
may be blind or open. A blind loop is usually the result of the ink having filled the open space.
MAJUSCULE - a capital letter.
MINUSCULE - a small letter.
MOVEMENT IMPULSES - this refer to the continuity of stroke, forged writing is usually produced by
disconnected and broken movements and more motion or movement impulses than in genuine writing.
PATCHING - retouching or going back over a defective portion of a written stroke. Careful patching is
common defect on forgeries.

Take Note:
1.

AIRSTROKE The movement of the pen as it is


raised from the paper and continues in the same direction in the air.

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2.

COVERING

STROKE

stroke

that

unnecessarily covers another stroke in a concealing action.


3.

FINAL The ending stroke on a letter when it is


at the end of a word.

4.

UPSTROKE Movement of the pen away from


the writer.

5.
6.
7.

SEQUENCE OF STROKES - The order in which


writing strokes are placed on the paper is referred to as their sequence.
SUPPORTED STROKES Upstrokes partially
covering the previous down strokes. Originally taught in European schools.
TRAIT STROKE a school o handwriting
analysis that assigns personality trait manners to individual writing strokes.

QUALITIES OF THE STROKES


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Expansion - whether the movement is extended or limited in its range with respect to both vertical
and horizontal dimension.
Co-ordination - whether the flow of movement is controlled or uncertain, smooth or jerky, continuous or
interrupted.
Speed - whether the movement has been rapid or slow and whether the pace has been steady or
variable.
Pressure- whether the pressure exerted in the movement and its upward and downward reach.
Direction- Left ward and right ward trend of they movement and its upward and downward reach.
Rhythm - in the sequence of movements that weave the total pattern, certain similar phases recur at
more or less regular intervals.

HANDWRITING PROBLEMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality is genuine and corresponds perfectly to
the ordinary, and habitual signatures of that person.
A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality was written by him but in a way which was
different from the ordinary manner and which is more or less different from the common genuine signatures
of that person.
A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality was written by a third person and which is a
forgery written in an attempted imitation of a model.
A spurious signature/handwriting written by somebody who did not attempt to imitate the signature of a
person and who uses a fictitious name and this to give his work the appearance of a signature.
An uncontested signature/handwriting, in fact, genuine but written by an unknown person whose name must
be deciphered by the document examiner.

GENERAL CLASSES OF QUESTIONED WRITING


1.
2.

Forged or simulated writings in which the attempt is made to discard ones own writing and assume the exact
writing personality of another person.
Those writings that are disguised and in which the writer seeks to hide his own personality without adapting
that of another.

HANDWRITING CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER IDENTIFYING FEATURES


Writing Habits - Writing by all its thousand of peculiarities in combination is the most personal and individuals
thing that a man does that leaves a record which can be seen and studies. This is what constitutes individuality in
handwriting.
A. GENERAL(CLASS) CHARACTERISTICS - These characteristics refer to those habits are part of basic writing
system or which are modifications of the system of writing found among so large a group of writes that have only
slight identification value.

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B. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS - They are characteristics which are the result of the writer's muscular control,
coordination, age, health, and nervous temperament, frequency of writing, personality and character. They are
found in Writing movement, Form and design of letters, Motor Coordination, Shading, Skill, Alignment, Pen
pressure, Connection, Pen hold, Rhythm, Disconnections or pen lifts between letters, Speed, Slant as a writing
habit, Proportion of letters as an individual characteristic or habit, Quality of stroke or line quality, Variation and
Muscular control or motor control a. Loose writing - this is characterized by too much freedom of movement and lack of regulation. This is
noticed especially in tall letters forms.
b. Restrained writing - there is lack of freedom and inhibited movements. It gives you the impression that
every stroke was made with great difficulty.
This writing is small. There is distortion of
letter forms which may lead to illegibility.
Indications of speed (speedy) writing
a. Smooth, unbroken strokes and rounded forms.
b. Frequent signs or tendencies to the right.
c. Marked uncertainty as to the location of the dots of small letters "I", "j" & crosses of small letter "t".
d. Increased spontaneity of words or small letter "t" connected with the following words.
e. Letters curtailed or degenerated almost to illegibility towards the end of words.
f. Wide writing - width of letters is greater than the connecting spaces adjoining it.
g. Great difference in emphasis between upstrokes and down strokes.
h. Marked simplification of letters especially capital letters.
i. Rising line.
j. Increased pen pressure.
k. Increase in the margin to left at the beginning of the line.
Indications of slow writing
a. Wavering forms and broken strokes.
b. Frequent signs or tendencies to the left.
c. Conspicuous certainly as to the location of the dots of small letters "I","j","or "t" crosses with scarcely
perceptible deviation from the intended direction.
d. Frequent pauses by meaningless blobs, angles, divided letters and retouches.
e. Careful execution of detail of letters, toward the end or names.
f. Narrow writing.
g. No difference in emphasis in upstroke and down stroke
h. Ornamental or flourishing connections.
i. Sinking lines
C. EXAMPLES OF COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
1. Ordinary copy-book form
2. Usual systematic slant
3. Ordinary scale of proportion or ratio
4. Conventional spacing
D. CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Permanent characteristics - found always in his handwriting.
2. Common or usual - found in a group of writers who studied the same system of writing.
3. Occasional - found occasionally in his handwriting.
4. Rare - special to the writer and perhaps found only in one or two persons in a group of one hundred
individuals.
E. HOW INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS ARE ACQUIRED
1. Outgrowth of definite teaching
2. Result of imitation
3. Accidental condition or circumstances

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4.

Expression of certain mental and physical traits of the writer as affected by education, by environment and by
occupation.

F. EXAMPLES OF SOME OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS


1. Hook to the right and hook to the left
2. Shape, position, size and angle of "i" dots "t" crossing
3. Idiosyncrasies
4. Bulbs and distinctive initial and final pen pressure
5. Embellishment, added strokes and free movement endings
6. Abbreviation of letters
7. Simple and compound curves and graceful endings
8. Labored movement producing ragged lines
9. Terminal shadings and forceful endings
10. Presence and influence of foreign writing, with the introduction of Greek "e"
PRINCIPLE IN HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION
1.

2.
3.
4.

When any two specimens of handwritings contain a combination of corresponding or similar and specifically
oriented characteristics of such number and significance as to preclude the possibility of their occurrence by
mere coincidence, and there are no unaccounted for difference, it may be concluded that they are similar in
writing characteristics and therefore written by one and the same person.
Handwritings are fixed habits.
These writing habits like habits of speech become so automatic and unconscious that even by the most
strenuous effort, it is almost impossible to change them. It is one of the most permanent of human habits.
No duplication of handwriting by two individuals.

CORRECT CONCLUSION
1.

2.
3.

To reach the conclusion that two writings are written by the same hand, characteristics or "dents" and
scratches" should be in sufficient quantity to exclude the theory of accidental coincidence; to reach the
conclusion that writings are by different hands, we may find numerous likeliness in class characteristics
but divergences in individual characteristics or we may find divergences in both but the divergence must be
something more than mere superficial differences.
If the conclusion of identifying is reached, there must not remain significant differences that
cannot reasonably be explained. This ignoring of the differences or the failure properly to account for them is
the cause of the errors in handwriting identification.
Although there is no specific approach, the document examiner always observed: Analysis; Comparison;
and Evaluation.

POINTS TO CONSIDER IN EXAMINING EXTENDED WRITING (Anonymous, threat, poison letters)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Uniformity- Does the questioned writing have smooth, rhythmic and free-flowing appearance?
Irregularities - Does the questioned writing appear awkward, ill-formed slowly drawn
Size & Proportion- Determine the height of the over-all writing as well as the height of the individual
strokes in proportion to each other.
Alignment - Are they horizontally aligned, or curving, uphill or downhill.
Spacing - Determine the general spacing between letters, spacing between words. Width of the left and right
margins, paragraph indentations.
Degree of Slant- Are they uniform or not.
Formation and Design of the letters, "t" (-) bars, "i" dots, loops, circle formation.
Initial, connecting and final strokes.

HANDPRINTING
The procedure and the principle involved are similar to that of cursive handwriting. In block capital and
manuscript writings, personal individual rests principally in design, selection, individual letter construction, size ratios

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and punctuation habits. The initial step in handwriting examination is to determine whether the questioned handwriting
and standards were accomplished with:
1.
2.

A fluency of movement and a certainty of execution indicative of familiarity with and a measure or skill in
handwriting of conversely.
A conscious mental effort and non-rhythmic execution denoting either unfamiliarity with or disguise in the
subjects handwriting.

STANDARDS OR EXEMPLARS
STANDARD - They are known writings, which indicate how a person writes. A writer manifests fixed habits in
his writings that identify him. This fact provides the basis for an opinion of conclusion regarding any writing
identification problem.
EXEMPLARS - Specimen of the writing of suspects are commonly known as exemplars. The term standards is
a general term referring to all authenticated writings of the suspects while exemplars refers more especially to a
specimens of standard writing offered in evidence or obtained or request for comparison with the questioned writing.
SAMPLE - A selected representative portion of the whole is known as a sample. In this text, the term
"sample" follows closely the statistical usage.
TYPES OF HANDWRITING "STANDARDS"
1.

2.
3.

Collected Standards are KNOWN (genuine) handwriting of an individual such as signature and
endorsements on canceled checks, legal papers letters, commercial, official, public and private document
and other handwriting such as letters, memoranda, etc. Written in the course of daily life, both business and
socials.
Request standards are signature or other handwritings (or hand printings) written by an individual upon
request for the purpose of comparison with other handwriting or for specimen purposes.
Post Litem Motan Exemplars - writings produced by the subject after evidential writings have come into
dispute and solely for the purpose of establishing his contentions.

TYPES OF STANDARDS DESIRABLE FOR COMPARISON USE IN THE TWO MOST COMMON TYPES OF
QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS PROBLEMS
1. Submit collected and request standards signature from both individual case.
2. When anonymous letter writings other than signature are in questioned:
a. Submit request standards writings of general nature from both victim and suspect's (as much standards
writing as possible to obtain within reason).
b. Submit request standards of the questioned text written (or printed) - at least 3 writings by the suspect/s
and in some instanced by the victim.
SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR TAKING REQUEST HANDWRITING STANDARDS IN ALL TYPES OF
QUESTIONED-DOCUMENT PROBLEMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Have subject seated in a natural position at table or desk having smooth writing surface.
Furnish subject with paper and writing instrument similar to those used in questioned writings, lie; paper
should be same size, and ruled or unruled; as questioned document: if questioned document is in written
furnish subject with pen and ink, etc.
Never permit the subject to see any writing on the questioned document.
Dictate material to be written (or printed, if questioned material is hand printed): give no assistance in
spelling or arrangement on page. Dictate at a rate of speed, which will produce the subject natural writing
habits.
Remove each specimen upon completion by subject number in consequence, date, time and identify by
initiating each, and request subjects to sign each specimen.
Observe all writing done by subjects and indicate any attempt of disguise, and whether subjects appears to
be normally right or left handed, etc.

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SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR TAKING REQUEST HANDWRITING STANDARDS WHERE CHECKS FORGERY IS
CHANGED OR SUSPECTED
1.
2.

Furnish subjects with check blanks similar to the questioned check/s.


Dictate the entries to be made on specimen checks as follows:
a.
Date - Same as shown on questioned check
b.
Payee - do c.
Amount- do d.
Signature- do e.
Any other handwriting shown on questioned check
Give subjects to help or suggestions in completing specimen checks.

3.

MISCELLANEOUS
1.

The laboratory should be informed of the age apparent health and physical condition of the time standards
are written.
Do not fold, staple or pin document: handle questioned documents with care.
Indicate in the sample handwriting the time, place, date signature of writer as well as witness of the
handwriting.

2.
3.

SOME SOURCES OF SIGNATURES WRITTEN IN THE COURSE OF DAILY AFFAIRS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Canceled Checks
Signature cards for saving, checking and charge accounts and safe deposit boxes.
Credit applications and cards
Signature on sales slips, on job orders slips, requisition slips and purchase slips.
Court records and affidavits, such as naturalization papers, bankruptcy proceedings, divorce papers.
Probated wills and estate files, powers of attorney, etc.
Passports, marriage application, license and affidavits.
Driver automobile chauffeur, and other types of licensee applications
Application for gas, electricity, water and telephone services
Loan application and receipts
Records from currency exchanges, check-cashing agencies and pawnshop
Time sheets, payroll, pay receipts and personal forms
Barangay registration, petitions
Signature for certain drug purchases, hotel registrations
Church, club and professional society record
Veteran records
Fingerprint records
School or University class records and cards
Application for firearm and licenses
Application for export and import and dollar allocations
ID cards

HOW TO PREPARE AND COLLECT HANDWRITING STANDARDS?


Factors to Consider in the Selection of standards
A. THE AMOUNT OF STANDARD WRITTEN
B. SIMILARLY OF SUBJECT MATTER. If the questioned writings are hand printed, then get hand printed
standard or exemplar.
C. RELATIVE DATES of the questioned and the standards writing standard signatures or writing must be those
written five (5) years before or five (5) after the date of the questioned signature or writing.
1.

The importances of contemporaneous standards are:


Helps to determine or trace gradual changes on ones handwriting or signature.

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2.

Aids in tracing the development of any writing variation

D. CONDITION UNDER WHICH BOTH THE QUESTIONED AND THE STANDARD ARE PREPARED. Look for
standards prepared under comparable circumstances such as: paper rested on the knee; standing; sitting; lying
down; and/or while on moving vehicle.
E.

WRITING INSTRUMENT AND PAPER. Same instrument used in the preparation of the questioned document
must be obtained in the standards

HANDWRITINGS/SIGNATURES THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO SOLVE - Some problems are complicated and harder to
solve that includes:
Type of Signature
1. Signature of the careless or highly erratic writer.
2. Receipt Signature.
3. Near - Illiterate Writer.
4. Signatures of Physical Impaired Writer
a. The intoxicated signature
b. Old age deterioration
c. The sick bed signature.
5. Disguised signature or writing

Remedy (Required Standards)


Collected standards
Other receipt signatures
Requested standards if writer is still living
a. Collect standards written in the same situation
b. Collect 2 or 3 times more standards
c. Similar to old age deterioration
Specimen written in normal condition could not be
used therefore consider collected and requested
standards.

DISGUISES IN HANDWRITING
A. COMMON DISGUISES
1. Abnormally large writing.
2. Abnormally small writing.
3. Alteration in slant (usually backhand).
4. Usually variation in slant within a single unit of writing (with in a single signature).
5. Printed forms instead of cursive forms.
6. Diminution in the usual speed of writing.
7. Unusual widening or restriction of lateral spacing.
B. KINDS OF DISGUISES
1. Change of slant - from right to left or vice versa.
2. Change of letter, either from cursive to block style or vice-versa.
3. Change from cursive (conventional style) to block form or vice-versa.
4. Change of style from small to big or vice versa.
5. Deteriorating one's handwriting.
6. Using the wrong hand (AMBIDEXTROUS).
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL IN HANDWRITING
A. PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS - Intoxication affects the physiological being of an individual hence, the
manner of handwriting is also affected.
B. EVIDENCE OF ALCOHOLIC INTOXICATION IN HANDWRITING - Bizarre letter forms, Greatly enlarged
writing, Illegible forms and writing generally, Uneven baseline, Meaningless blobs or extraneous strokes in the
writing, Inconsistency in slant of writing, Inconsistency in the form of repeated letters.

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ADMISSIBILITY OF STANDARD WRITINGS


The following are standard writings which are admissible for comparison purposes:
Standard writings witnessed, Standards writings admitted, Record Maintained in Regular Course of Business as
Standard Writings, Government Document as standard Writings, Ancient writings, Other Writings Standards Among writings admissible as standard are signature on spelling motion or other instruments, such as an appearance
bond, which may without further proof of genuineness be used as a standard. Familiarity sometimes establishes
standard writings.
Take Note
Opinion Evidence - The court seem to be in general agreement that proof of the genuineness of a standard
cannot be established by the opinion of experts testifying from a comparison of the writing sought to be used as
standard with another writing.
Genuineness of standard decided by court - The sufficiency of the proof of the genuineness of a standard of
writing is a matter to be decided by the court.
INVESTIGATION AND DETAILED EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURES
SIGNATURE defined It is the name of a person written by him/her in a document as a sign of
acknowledgement. Or, it is a name or a mark that a person puts at the end of a document to attest that he is its author
or that he ratifies its contents. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library has these to say about signature: signed name,
signing of name, distinctive characteristic.
SIGNIFICANT TERMS
A.

B.

C.
D.
E.

F.
G.
H.

CROSS MARK. Historically, many who


could not write signed with a cross mark or crude X. This authenticating mark is still used today by illiterates,
and if properly witnessed, it can legally stand for a signature. Ballot marks are also referred to as cross marks
because of the common practice of marking with an X.
EVIDENTIAL SIGNATURE - Is not simply a
signature - it is a signature, signed at a particular time and place, under particular conditions, while the signer
was at particular age, in a particular physical and mental condition, using particular implements, and with a
particular reason and purpose for recording his name.
FRAUDULENT SIGNATURE. A forged
signature. It involves the writing of a name as a signature by someone other than the person himself, without
his permission, often with some degree of imitation.
FREEHAND SIGNATURE. A fraudulent
signature that was executed purely by simulation rather than by tracing the outline of a genuine signature.
GUIDED SIGNATURE. A signature that is
executed while the writers hand or arm is steadied in any way. Under the law of most jurisdictions such a
signature authenticates a legal document provided it is shown that the writer requested the assistance. Guided
signatures are most commonly written during a serious illness or on a deathbed.
IMITATED SIGNATURE. Synonymous with
freehand forgery.
MODEL SIGNATURE. A genuine signature
that has been used to prepare an imitated or traced forgery.
THEORY OF COMPARISON - The act of
setting two or more signature in an inverted position to weigh their identifying significance, the reason being
that those we fail to see under normal comparison may readily be seen under this theory.

THE EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURES IS CONSIDERED A SPECIALIZED BRANCH OF HANDWRITING


IDENTIFICATION, FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS:

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A signature is a word most practiced by many people and therefore most fluently written.
A signature is a means to identify a person and have a great personal significance.
A signature is written with little attention to spelling and some other details.
A signature is a word written without conscious thought about the mechanics of its production and is written
automatically.
A signature is the only word the illiterate can write with confidence.

TYPES OF SIGNATURES
A. FORMAL (a.k.a. CONVENTIONAL or COPYBOOK FORM) - complete correct signature for an important
document such as will.
B. INFORMAL (CURSORY) - usually for routine documents and personal correspondence.
1. Personalized
2. Semi-personalized
C. CARELESS SCRIBBLE - for the mail carrier, delivery boy or the autograph collector.
FORGERY
Forgery is, strictly speaking, a legal term which involves not only a non-genuine document but also and
intent to fraud. However, it is also used synonymously with fraudulent signature or spurious document.
CLASSES OF FORGED SIGNATURES (CATEGORIES OF FORGERY OF SIGNATURES)
A. SIMULATED OR FREEHAND IMITATION FORGERY executed purely by simulation rather than by tracing
the outline of a genuine signature can be referred as freehand imitation or simulated forgery. Or it refers to the
free-hand drawing in imitation of model signature.
1. SIMULATED WITH THE MODEL BEFORE THE FORGER
a. DIRECT TECHNIQUE - forger works directly with ink.
b. INDIRECT - forger works first with pencil and afterwards covers the pencil strokes with ink.
2. SIMULATED FREE HAND FORGERY (TECHNIQUE) - used by forgers who have a certain skill in writing?
After some practice, the forger tries to write a copy of the model quickly.
B. TRACED FORGERY (TRACED SIGNATURE)
1. DIRECT TRACING - tracing is made by transmitted light.
2. INDIRECT TRACING - forger uses a carbon paper and place document on which he will trace the forged
signature under the document bearing the model signature with a carbon paper between the two.
The types of Traced Signatures are:
1. CARBON PROCESS
2. INDENTATION PROCESS
3. TRANSMITTED LIGHT PROCESS
C. SPURIOUS SIGNATURE (SIMPLE FORGERY) - Forger does not try to copy a model but writes something
resembling what we ordinarily call a signature. For this, he uses a false (spurious) name and makes a rapid
stroke, disturbing his usual writing by adopting a camouflage called disguise.
D. FORGERY BY MEANS OF A STAMPED FACSIMILE OF A GENUINE OR MODEL
E. FORGERY BY COMPUTER SCANNING

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SUGGESTED STEPS IN THE EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURE


STEP 1 - Place the questioned and the standard signatures in the juxta-position or slide-by-side for
simultaneous viewing of the various elements and characteristics.
STEP 2 - The first element to be considered is the handwriting movement or the manner of execution (slow,
deliberate, rapid, etc). The fundamental difference existing between a genuine signature and an almost perfect forgery
is in the manner of execution.
STEP 3 - Second elements to examine is the quality of the line, the presence or tremors, smooth,
fluent or hesitation. Defect in line quality is only appreciated when simultaneous viewing is made.
STEP 4 - Examine the beginning and ending lines, they are very significant, determine whether the appearance
blunt, club-shaped, tapered or/vanishing.
STEP 5 - Design and structure of the letters - Determine as to roundness, smoothness, angularity and direction.
Each individual has a different concept of letter design.
STEP 6 - Look for the presence of retouching or patching.
STEP 7 - Connecting strokes, slant, ratio, size, lateral spacing.
STEP 8 - Do not rely so much in the similarity or difference of the capital letters, for theses are the
often changed according to the whim of the writer.
CHARACTERISTICS PRINCIPLES THAT SUPPLY MOST CASES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Pen pressure
Movement
Proportion
Unusual distortion of the forms of letters
Inconspicuous characteristics
Repeated characteristics
Characteristics written with speed

INDICATIONS OF GENUINENESS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Carelessness
Spontaneity
Alternation of thick and thin strokes
Speed
Simplification
Upright letters are interspersed with slanting letters
The upward strokes to a threadlike tracing
Rhythm
Good line quality
Variation

INDICATIONS OF SIMULATED (Direct & Indirect Techniques) and TRACED FORGERIES


1.

Tremulous and broken connecting strokes between letters, indicating points at which the writer has
temporarily struck.
2. no rhythm
3. carefulness or unusual care and deliberation
4. no contrast between upward and downward strokes
5. slow writing- angular writing
6. blunt beginning and endings
7. placement of diacritical marks just over the stem of letters
8. absence of spontaneity - lack of smoothness of letters
9. restrained writing - there is lack of freedom or "inhibited" movements THAT gives the impression that every
stroke is made with great difficulty. This writing is small.
10. no variation

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INDICATIONS OF SIMPLE OR SPURIOUS FORGERY


1.

Writing habits of the writer (forger) is evident in the forged signature.

INDICATIONS OF FORGERY BY MEANS OF STAMPED FACSIMILE OF A GENUINE SIGNATURE


1.
2.
3.
4.

flat strokes
no contrast between upstrokes and down strokes
deposit of ink at the junction of two strokes or where two strokes cross each other.
no variation - All signature will superimpose over each other.

PROCEDURE IN THE COMMON SIGNATURE PROBLEMS


A. Genuine Signature which the writer refuses to admit not genuine. Generally presence of tremors,
remnants of carbon, retouching (patching) indicates forgery. Produced, the probability of genuineness
B. Genuine Signature Deliberately Modified. Examination of this kind of signature is confidently discover that
the modification is only on the prominent features of the letter designs that are pointed out by the disclaimer,
while the rest appear to be normal. There are unnatural tremors and retouching. The minute details in genuine
signatures are present.
FORGERY, COUNTERFEITING AND FALSIFICATION
A. COUNTERFEITING - It is the crime of making, circulating or uttering false coins and banknotes. Literally, it
means to make a copy of; or imitate; to make a spurious semblance of, as money or stamps, with the intent to
deceive or defraud. Counterfeiting is something made to imitate the real thing used for gain.
B. FALSIFICATION The act/process of making the content/s of a document not the intended content.
C. FORGERY The act of falsely making or materially altering, with intent to defraud, any writing which if genuine,
might be of legal efficacy or the foundation of a legal liability.
Take Note: In forgery, every person who, with intent to defraud, signs the name of another person, or of
fictitious person, knowing that he has no authority to do so, or falsely makes, alters, forges or counterfeits any checks, drag - due bill for the payment of money or property - or counterfeits or forges the seal forged, or
counterfeited, with intent the same to be fake, altered forged, or counterfeited, with intent to prejudice, damage or
defraud any person.... is guilty of forgery.
MAKING OF PAPER MONEY
A. ENGRAVING It is the process by which the line to be printed are cut into pieces of metal by hand or with a
machine. Ink is rubbed over the plate to fill the cuts in the metal and the extra ink wiped-off the top. The
pressure of the paper on the plate causes the ink in the holes to be lifted on the surface of the paper. The ink
lines will be felt to be raised above the surface. The engraving process is used for the production of all genuine
bank notes.
B. LETTERPRESS PRINTING is the most common form of printing books, magazine, letterheads and the usual
printing in common uses. In the process, the letters are made on raised pieces of metal which covered with ink
and then impressed upon the paper in the same form as a rubber stamp or clich. The serial numbers of a bank
note are usually added by this letterpress process after the note has been produced by an engraving.
C. OFFSET PRINTING is the method a photograph is taken of the desire material and a print is made on a
specially prepared aluminum plate. The plate is kept wet with water. When ink is applied, it sticks only these
parts of the plate where printing is desired. The aluminum plate is then put in contact with rubber roller which

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transfers the ink to the papers. The offset process is quite used in small printing plants. Because it was
photographic process, it is the most common modern used by counterfeiter to make false paper money.

BANK NOTE PAPER


Paper bank notes get a lot of handling. If a good grade of paper is not used, they would soon wear out and
have to be replaced. Even with the best paper, the old two peso bill usually wears out and has to be replaced at the
end of thirty days. Government buy the very best grade of paper they can get, in order that the paper will last as long
as possible. Special paper also makes it difficult for the counterfeiter to duplicate it. It is usually the use of wrong paper
that causes the counterfeited bank note to be detected by ultraviolet light.
Take Note: In most modern printing, papers have chemicals added to make look whiter. These chemicals
cause brilliant fluorescence under ultraviolet light. Bank notes paper does not have this filler and does not show.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GENUINE AND COUNTERFEIT PAPER NOTE/BILL
GENUINE

COUNTERFEIT

MAIN PRINT
Distinctive feel & embossed effect
1. The fingers will readily feel the the main print on the
front & back on fairly new notes.
2. This is due to the measurable thickness of the ink
deposited on the paper which gives the prints an
embossed effect.

Generally smooth
1. The fingers will hardly feel the main prints of the front &
back even on new notes.
2. This is brought about by offset print the most common
process employed by counterfeiters
3. The prints are mere stains on the coating of the sensitized
paper which is glossy.

PORTRAIT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Appears life-like
The eyes sparkle.
The tiny dots and lines (Vignette) forming the
details of the face, hair, etc. are clear, sharp and
well defined.
Each portrait stands out distinctly from
background. This is noticeable along the
shoulders.
The background is composed of multi-colored fine
pattern of lines in varying tones and shades
interlacing with each other. These shadings or
toning are intricately printed in such a way that the
contrast or shifting of colors creates the
impression of life & vividness to the notes.

1.
2.
3.
4.

It appears dead.
The eyes do not sparkle.
It appears blurred, dull, smudgy and poorly printed.
Hair is lifeless.

5.

The face and/or forehead are often naturally white or


pale due to absence of most of the details.

6.

The concentric lines depicting the eyes often merged into


solid printed areas.
The background often blends with the portrait and is
usually scratchy.
The lines are thick with rough edges.
The multi-colored prints on genuine notes are extremely
difficult to duplicate and as a result, counterfeit notes are
usually off-color & not of the right shade or tone.

7.
8.
9.

WATERMARK
1.
2.

The watermark underneath the security


lacework on the right hand side of the note is
the same on the colored portrait.
The design is placed by means of dandy roll
during the manufacture of the paper.

1.

This is imitated by printing white ink or dry block on the


finished paper.

2.

Sometimes wax or other oily medium is stamped to give


transparency to the portion where the designing appears.

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3.

Sharp details of the outline or the light &


shadow effect are discernible when viewed
with the aid of transmitted light.
The relief of the features can be felt by running
the finger on the design.

4.

3.

Printed outline is placed on the inner sheet where merely a


paper cutout is placed inside. As a result course or harsh and
occasional irregular lines & sometimes-opaque areas are very
obvious.

1.

Counterfeit by means of printing on the back of the note, on


the inner side of the paper, insertion of twin thread or simply
folding the note vertically where the thread appears on the
genuine bill.

METTALIC THREAD
1.
2.

This is a special thread placed vertically on


the paper during manufacture.
On the surface of the paper where this thread
is located are patterns of short vertical lines.
COLORED FIBERS OR SECURITY FIBERS

1.

2.

These fibers are scattered on the surface of


the paper (front & back) at random & can be
readily picked off by means of any pointed
instrument.
The colors of these fibers are red & blue.

On counterfeit, this is simulated by printed lines, cannot be


picked off, but can be easily erased with ordinary rubber or by
agitating with wet fingers.

LACEWORK DESIGN
The geometric pattern which looks like a
delicate lacework along the border on both
surfaces, embellishing the portraits, value panel &
vignettes are multicolored & composed of harp
lines, which are, continuous & traceable even at
the joints.

On counterfeit, these geometric patterns are often blurred,


round on the edges & blotch on the joints. Its continuity could not
be traced. The color appears faded.

COLOR OF EACH DENOMINATION


Genuine notes have polychrome background with one predominant color for each denomination. You should
know whose portrait is/are printed on each bill.
PhP 1,000.00
Blue
- Jose Abad Santos, Josefa Llanes Escoda, Vicente Lim
500.00
Yellow - Benigno S. Aquino
200.00
Green (Dark in one side and light in another side)
100.00
Mauve - Manuel A. Roxas
50.00
Red
- Sergio Osmena
20.00
Orange - Manuel L. Quezon
10.00
Brown - Apolinario Mabini & Andres Bonifacio
5.00
Green - Emilio Aguinaldo
SERIAL NUMBERS
The prefix letter/s & numbers (Six of them
except on replacement note) are clearly
printed.
2. They have peculiar style & are uniform in size
& thickness.
3. Spacing of the numbers is uniform & alignment
is even.
1.

1.

VIGNETTE
The lines & dots composing the vignettes are
fine, distinct & sharp.

1.

On counterfeit, the letters & numbers are poorly printed. They


are usually of different style.

2.

Most often, they are evenly spaced & poorly aligned.

3.

The numbers are too big or too small, too thick or too thin & in
certain cases shaded on the curves.

1.

On counterfeit usually dull & poorly printed.

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2.

The varying color tone gives a bold look to the


picture that makes it stands out of the paper.

2.
3.
4.

It appears dirty.
The lines are comparatively thicker with rough edges.
There is no variation in color tone so that the picture appears
flat.

CLEARNESS OF PRINT
The registry of the different printed features is
perfect. The lines are very clear & sharp. There are
no Burrs clinging to the sides.

In general, a spurious not exhibits a Second hand look. It is


dirty due to the sputtering of ink on the interior area. Over-inked
areas are visible instantly. The shadings & ornamentations of the
letters & figures are thick & usually merged.

EXAMINATION OF SUSPECTED COUNTERFEIT BANKNOTE


1.
2.
3.

As well as inspection under ultraviolet light, the investigator should look at the banknote with a hand lens.
He should pay particular attention to the quantity of the portrait in the bank note. This is the one extremely
fine detail of a good engraved plate.
The color of the ink should be compared with the color of a genuine banknote. It is very difficult for
counterfeiter to match exactly the same shade of ink by a genuine manufacturer.

CHARACTERISTICS OF U.S. PAPER MONEY


A. TYPES:
1.
2.
3.

Federal Reserve note with GREEN treasury seal and serial number.
United States Note with RED treasury seal and serial number.
Silver Certificate with BLUE treasury seal and serial number.

B. FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES - Each Federal Reserve Note also carries a regional seal at the left of the
portrait on the face of the bill. This seal is printed in black and bears the name of the Federal Reserve Bank of
issue. Numbers and letters representing the Federal Reserve District in which that bank is located, are:
1 - Boston
2 - New York
3 - Philadelphia
4 - Cleveland
5 - Richmond
6 - Atlanta

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E
- F

7 - Chicago
8 - St. Louis
9 - Minneapolis
10 - Kansas
11 - Dallas
12 - San Francisco

- G
- H
- I
- J
- K
- L

C. SALIENT FEATURES COMMON TO ALL TYPES: Portrait every denomination has the following
$1
$2
$5
$10
$20

- Washington
- Jefferson
- Lincoln
- Hamilton
- Jackson

$50
$100
$500
$1000
$5000

- Grant
- Franklin
- McKinley
- Cleveland
- Madison

COINS
These are pieces of metal stamped by government authority, for use as money or collectively referring to
metal currency.
MAKING OF COINS

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CASTING is the most common method of making gold coins. Plaster molds bearing an image of gold coins
are filled (within a low temperature) with alloy made with lead or tin. Some molds are used for high temperature metal
such as copper or silver alloy.
STRIKING OR STAMPING is the making of an impression of a coin or metal blank by pressure.
COIN CHARACTERISTICS
A.

Genuine coins show an even flow of metallic grains. The details of the profile, the seal of the Republic of the
Philippines, letterings & numerals are of high relief, so that it can be readily felt distinctly by running the
fingers on theses features. The beadings are regular & the readings are deep & even.

B.

Counterfeit coins feel greasy & appear slimy. The beading composed of tiny round dots surrounding the
genuine coin appear irregular & elongated depressions & are not sharp & prominent as in the genuine. The
letterings & numerals are low & worn out due to the lack of sharpness of details. The readings are uneven &
show signs of filing.

COUNTERFEIT METAL MONEY OR COIN


1.
2.

Coin made of gold was to widely use but are not now often see. Government kept their gold in the form of
heavy bars called bullions and then issue papers for the value of gold.
Metal coins issued nowadays are mostly in amount for less than its face value. In most countries, the
possession of gold coins is now forbidden except for coin collectors.

EXAMINATION OF COUNTERFEIT COINS should be examined by a magnifying lens; comparing it with a known
coin
DEFECTS IN CAST COIN ARE USUALLY CAUSED BY: formation of air bubbles, or removal of small parts of the sole
along with the coin. The best place to examine a counterfeit coin is on the edge since there are usually special milling
marks or designs which are added to a genuine coin by machinery.
COUNTERFEIT PASSPORT
Passports are rarely counterfeit, because they are quite complicated in design and manufacture. The most
usual method of forgery is to steal a genuine passport and make change in it. Many safety features are incorporated in
passport and are easily detected by close inspection. Ultraviolet light is very useful in this type of examination. The
investigator should look particularly at the photograph in any passport as identification card. This is always necessary
because sometimes forgers remove and change or substitute the picture. Hence, the position of perforation caused by
staples and another pasting device should be studied carefully.
LEGAL ASPECT OF FORGERY, COUNTERFEITING AND FALSIFICATION
(Pursuant to Title Four, Chapter One, Revised Penal Code Crimes against Public Interests)
A.

FOREGERIES - What are the crimes called forgeries?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Forging the seal of the government, signature or stamp of the chief Executive (Art. 161).
Counterfeiting coins (Art. 163).
Mutilation of coins (Art. 164).
Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents payable to bearer (Art. 166).
Counterfeiting instruments not payable to bearer (Art. 167).
Falsification of legislative documents (Art. 172).
Falsification by public officer, employee or notary or ecclesiastical minister (Art. 171).
Falsification by private individuals (Art. 172).
Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone messages (Art. 173).
Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or service (Art. 174).

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B.

ACTS PUNISHABLE UNDER ART. 161: Forging the great seal of the Government of
the Philippines; Forging the signature of the President; Forging the stamp of the President.

C.

What are the crimes under counterfeiting coins? They are: Making and importing
and uttering false coins (Art. 163); Mutilation of coins importation and utterance of mutilated coins (Art. 164);
and Selling of false or mutilated coin, without connivance (Art. 165).

D.

Reason for punishing forgery - Forgery of currency is punished so as to maintain the


integrity of the currency and thus insure the credit standing of the government and prevent the imposition on the
public and the government of worthless notes or obligations.

E.

ACTS OF FALSIFICATION (Art. 171 & 172)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting, signature, or rubric;


Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so
participate;
Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or proceeding statements other than those in fact
made by them;
Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts; Altering true dates;
Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document which changes its meaning;
Issuing in an authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of an original document when no such
original exists, or including in such copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine
original; or
Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol, registry, or official book.

WRITING MATERIALS
A. ANACHRONISM It refers to something wrong in time and in place. This means that the forger has trouble
matching the paper, ink, or writing materials to the exact date it was supposed to have been written.
B. PAPER These are sheets of interlaced fibers - usually cellulose fibers from plants, but sometimes from cloth
rags or other fibrous materials, that is formed by pulping the fibers and causing to felt, or mat, to form a solid
surface.
C. WATERMARK - Certain papers are marked with a translucent design, a watermarks impressed in them during
the course of their manufacture.
D. WRITING MATERIALS Any material used primarily for writing or recording such as papers, cardboard, board
papers, Morocco paper, etc.
WRITING MATERIALS IN QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS - The common (probable) questioned on paper is its age,
whether the actual age of the paper corresponds with the alleged date of preparation of the questioned document.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
A. PAPYRUS - This came into use about 3,500 B.C. - people of Egypt. Palestine, Syria, and Southern Europe
used the pith (soft spongy tissue of the stem) of the sedge (grass-like herb) CYPERUS PAPYRUS to make a
writing material known as PAPYRUS.
B. PARCHMENT - writing material made from skin of animals primarily of sheep, calves or goats - was probably
developed in the Middle East more or less contemporaneously with papyrus. It came into wide use only in the
2nd century B.C. in the city of PERGAMUM in ANATOLIA.
C.

VELLUM - writing materials from fine skins from young calves or kids and the term
(name) was often used for all kind of parchment manuscripts, it became the most important writing material for
bookmaking, while parchment continued for special manuscripts. Almost every portable surface that would
retain the marks of brush or pen was also used as a writing material during the early period.

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D. DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER MANUFACTURING


1. It is widely claimed that invention of paper is generally attributed to a Chinese court official, CAI LUN (TSAI
LUN), in about A.D. 105. He is the first to succeed in making paper from vegetable fibers, tree barks
(mulberry tree), rags, old fish nettings.
2. The art of papermaking was kept secret for 500 years; the Japanese acquired it in the 7th century A.D.
3. In A.D. 751, the Arab city of Samarkand was attacked by marauding Chinese and some Chinese taken as
prisoners were skilled in papermaking and were forced by the city Governor to build and operate a paper
mill and Samarkand soon became the papermaking center of the Arab world.
4. Knowledge of papermaking traveled westward, spreading throughout the Middle East, the Moorish invasion
of Spain led to the invention (A.D. 1150) or erection of the first European paper mill, at JATIVA, province of
VALENCIA.
5. Knowledge of the technology spread quickly and by 16th century, paper was manufactured throughout most
of Europe.
6. The first paper mill in England was established in 1495.
7. The first such mill in America in 1690.
8. The first practical machine was made in 1798 by the French inventor Nicholas Louis Robert. The machine
reduced the cost of paper it supplants the hand-molding process in paper manufacture.
9. Robert's machine was improved by the British stationers and brothers Henry Fourdrinier and Sealy
Fourdrinier, who in 1803 produced the first of the machines that bear their name.
10. The solution of the problem of making paper from cheap raw material was achieved by the introduction of the
groundwood process of pulp making about 1840 and the first of the chemical pulp processes approximately
ten years later.
11. CHLORINE - This was introduced in the 19th century for bleaching and colored linen could already be
manufactured for paper.
12. ESPARTO This is a grass grown in Libya, also in Spain and North Africa was first introduced in England in
1861.
13. STRAW This was used to make paper in 1800.
14. SULPHITE This is a paper from wood was not attempted until 1869 and paper called SULPHITE (modern
type) was first used between 1880 and 1890.
15. OLDEST MANUSCRIPT - Letters dated A.D. 874 have been found in Egypt and the oldest manuscript in
England on cotton paper dated AD 1890.
TRACING THE AGE OF PAPER (DOCUMENT)
The age of the document may be estimated from paper. Four cases were reported by Lucas where the age
of the document was established from the compositor/composition of the paper. In one of these cases, a document
dated 1213 A.H. (A.D. 1798) was found to be written on paper composed entirely of chemically prepared wood
cellulose. Considering that this type of paper was not introduced not until about 60 years later, the document is
obviously a fake one.
WATERMARKS
1.

Definition It is a term for a figure or design incorporated into paper during its manufacture and appearing
lighter than the rest of the sheet when viewed in transmitted light. The earliest way of identifying the date of
manufacture of the paper is by the WATERMARK - a brand put on the paper by the manufacturers.

2.

How watermark is made? The watermark was made when the semi-fluid paper pulp (mixture of cotton or
other fibers) was being drained on a grid of laid (warp) and chain (woof) wires. Fine wires forming the
desired design were tied on top of the grid and impressed into the pulp. This impression made the paper
thinner, and therefore, more transparent, where it appeared.

3.

Origin. Watermarks first appeared on papers produced in Italy around 1270, less than 100 years after the
art of papermaking was introduced to Europe by Muslims from the Middle East. Early in the 19th century,
papermakers began to solder the watermark wires to the grid frame, thus insuring uniformity of impression
and aiding in the detection of counterfeiting and forgery. The first British postage stamps of 1840 bore a
watermark, but stamps of the United States were not so marked until 1895. When paper began to be

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machine-made, the watermark wiring was simply transferred to the grid cover of the dandy roll, a turning
cylinder that passed over the paper.

4.

Concept of documents age detection thru watermarks.


a. Sometimes a LIMIT may be placed to the age of the document by means of watermark, the earliest
known dating from 1282. Unfortunately, however, not all papers contain watermarks.
b. It is impressed into the paper by wires on the rollers called DANDY ROLL that make the paper,
and these designs are changed from time to time.
c. Usually watermarks are requested by their owners/manufacturers with the patent office.
d. If present, watermark is one of the most reliable means of tracing the age of the paper. However, the
questioned documents examiner's finding is limited only to the APPROXIMATE DATE (YEAR) of the
paper manufacture.
e. In determining the age of the paper by watermarks, it is necessary to ascertain the owner of the
watermark in question or its manufacturer.
f. In the FBI, this is done by checking the reference file of the laboratory. Once the manufacturer is
determined, then consideration is given to changes in design and defects of individual design.
g. In recent years, some large manufacturers have cleverly incorporated inconspicuous changes in their
watermark design in order to date their products.
h. Obviously, document is fraud if it contains a watermark that was not in existence at the time the
document purports to have been executed.

5.

In case the watermark did not change, the following is applied:


a. Consider any defect in the individual design may furnish a clue as to the age of the paper.
b. The dandy roll, through constant usage, will somehow be damaged. This damage is also known as
caused by WEAR AND TEAR which becomes progressively more and more as time goes by.
c. The damage on the dandy roll will leave some peculiar markings on the watermark of the paper
manufactured or all papers that will pass through the damaged dandy roll.
d. The investigator, carefully determining the distinct markings caused by the dandy roll's damaged
surface, will coordinate with the paper manufacture regarding when such damage occurred on the
dandy roll used.

DISCOLORATION
One way of tracing the age of the paper is through the observance of the changes in its physical
characteristics particularly DISCOLORATION. Naturally, a paper will discolor after a passage of time due to numerous
environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, dust, etc. In case of papers out of wood pulp, they start to
discolor at edges from 2 to 3 years. While RUG-SHIP QUALITY papers, they are very old before discoloration starts.
CAUSES OF DISCOLORATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

due to process of oxidation brought about by natural means.


brown spots due to mold that are very obvious characteristics both in appearance and distribution.
exposure to dust and dirt.
occasional staining of fruit juice, grease.
excrete of rats, mice and other insects.
may also due to heat, partial burning, etc.

DETAILED EXAMINATION OF WRITING MATERIAL


1.
2.

Collect standard document from the issuing institution, company or individual and compare. Consider the
physical characteristics of both questioned and standard documents such as the size, the thickness, the
surface (glossiness, opacity, etc.) and the general texture of the paper.
Check with the issuing institution, company or individual about the dissimilarity of writing material used in the
questioned document.

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3.

Conduct further physical or chemical examination such as folding endurance test, folding test, bursting test,
etc.

WRITING INSTRUMENTS
A. FLEXIBILITY OF PEN POINT - One quality of the nib pen is its pliability. This quality varies which different pens
and can be measured by the amount of pressure necessary to cause a spreading of the nibs or a given degree
of shading.
B. FOUNTAIN PEN - A fountain pen is a modern nib which contains a reservoir of ink in a specially designed
chamber. After complete filling the pen is capable of writing a number of pages without refilling.
C. INK - is a fluid or viscous marking material used for writing or printing.
D. PEN - A tool for writing or drawing with a colored fluid, such as ink; or a writing instrument used to apply inks to
the paper is a pen. It came from the Latin word "PENNA", meaning feather.
E. PEN NIBS - The tow divisions or points which from the writing portion of a pen are its nibs.
F. QUILL PENS - It is a hollow, horny part of large feather usually from goose and was used for writing on
parchment. Poland, Germany, Russia, and the Netherlands were the largest producers of quill.
G. WRITING INSTRUMENTS (WRITING IMPLEMENTS) - Writing Implements, manual devices used to make
alphanumeric marks on or in a surface.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
A. REED PENS/SWAMP REED
1. It came from especially selected water grasses found in Egypt, Armenia and along the shores of the
Persian Gulf, were prepared by leaving them under dung heaps for several months.
2. It was the first writing tool that had the writing end slightly frayed like a brush. About 2,000 years B.C.,
this reed pen was first used in NEAR EAST on papyrus and later on parchment.
B. QUILL PEN
1. Although quill pens can be made from the outer wing feathers of any bird, those of goose, swan, crow and
(later) turkey, were preferred. The earliest reference (6th century AD) to quill pens was made by the
Spanish Theologian ST. ISIDORE OF SEVILLE, and this tool was the principal writing implement for
nearly 1300 years.
2. To make a quill pen, a wing feather is first hardened by heating or letting it dry out gradually. The
hardened quill is then cut to a broad edge with a special pen knife.
3. The writer had to re-cut the quill pen frequently to maintain its edge. By the 18th century, the width of the
edge had diminished and the length of the slit had increased creating a flexible point that produced thick
and thin strokes by pressure on the point rather than by the angle at which the broad edge was held.
C. STEEL POINT PENS (BRAZEN PENS)
1. Although pens of bronze may have been known to Romans, the earliest mention of "BRAZEN PENS" was
in 1465. The 16th century Spanish calligrapher JUAN DE YCIAR mentions brass pens for very
large writing in his 1548 writing manual, but the use of metal pens did not become widespread until the
early part of the 19th century.
2. The first patented steel pen point was made by the English engineer BRYAN DONKIN in 1803.
3. The leading 19th century English pen manufacturers were WILLIAM JOSEPH GILLOT, WILLIAM
MITCHELL, AND JAMES STEPHEN PERRY.
D. FOUNTAIN PENS
1. In 1884, LEWIS WATERMAN, a New York insurance agent, patented the first practical FOUNTAIN PEN
containing its own ink reservoir. Waterman invented a mechanism that fed ink to the pen point by capillary
action, allowing ink to flow evenly while writing.

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2.

By the 1920's, the fountain pen was the chief writing instrument in the west and remained so until
the introduction of the ball point pen after WORLD WAR II.

E. BALL POINT PEN:


1. JOHN LOUD, in 1888, patented the first ball point writing tool. A ball point pen has in its point a
small rotating metal ball that continually inks itself as it turns.
2. The ball is set into a tiny socket. In the center of the socket is a hole that feeds ink to the socket from a
long tube (reservoir) inside the pen.
3. As early as the 19th century, attempts had been made to manufacture a pen with a rolling ball tip, but not
until 1938 did Hungarian inventor brothers LADISLAO and GEORG BIRO invent a viscous, oil-based ink
that could be used with such a pen. Hence, they are attributed for the invention of the first practical
ballpoint pen.
4. Early ball point pens did not write well; they tended to skip, and the slow-drying oil-based ink smudged
easily. However, the ball-point pen had several advantages over the fountain pen:
a. the ink was waterproof and almost un-erasable;
b. the ball point pen could write on many kinds of surfaces;
c. could be hold in almost any position for writing; and
d. the pressure required to feed the ink was ideal for making carbon copies.
5.

Ink formulas were improved for smoother flow and faster drying, and soon the ball-point replaced the
fountain pen as the universal writing tool.

F. FIBER TIP PENS 1. In 1963, fiber tip markers were introduced into the U.S. market and have since challenged the ball point as
the principal writing implement.
2. The first practical fiber tip pen was invented by YUKIO HORIE of Japan in 1962. It was ideally suited to the
strokes of Japanese writing, which is traditionally done with a pointed ink brush.
3. Unlike its predecessors, the fiber tip pen uses dye as a writing fluid. As a result, the fiber tip pen can
produce a wide range of colors unavailable in ball point and fountain pen inks. The tip is made of fine nylon
or other synthetic fibers drawn to a point and fastened to the barrel of the pen. Dye is fed to the point by
elaborate capillary mechanism.
G. Felt-tip markers are made of dense natural or artificial fibers impregnated with a dye. These markers can
be cut to a variety of shapes and sizes, some up to an inch in width. A modification of the ball point pen using a
liquid dye fed to a metal/plastic ball was introduced in the U.S. from Japan in 1973.
COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INKS
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Indian Inks - The oldest form of Indian ink consisted of a suspension of carbon black (soot or lampblack) in
water to which glue or a vegetable gum was added. Inks of these compositions are still on the market mostly
in the shape of sticks or cakes.
Log wood Inks - These inks which were used extensively about a century ago, have now because obsolete
and are no longer manufactured. They were made from an aqueous extract of logwood chips and
potassium chromate. These inks will be found only on old.
Iron Gallotanate Inks - This ink has been used as writing for over a thousand years. Formerly it was made
of a fermented infusion of gall nuts to which iron salts were added. The ink was composed of suspension of
the black, almost insoluble ferric tannate.
Fountain Pen Inks - These inks are regarded as special fountain pen inks, and consisting of ordinary iron
gallotannate inks with a lower iron content in most cases but with a higher dyestuff content than normal
inks.
Dyestuff Inks - These inks are composed of aqueous solutions of synthetic dyestuffs, to which a
preservative and a flux are added.

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6.
7.
8.

9.

10.
11.

12.

13.

14.

Water Resistant Writing and Drawing Inks - These inks are special group of dyestuff inks. They consist
of a pigment paste and a solution of shellac made soluble in water by means of borax, liquid ammonia or
ammonium bicarbonate.
Alkaline Writing Inks - These are quick drying inks which possess a ph of from 9 to about 11. They
penetrate quickly through the size of the paper allowing the ink to penetrate quickly into the paper. The
dyestuff in these inks consists of acid dyes, sometimes combined with phthalo cyanide dyes.
Ballpoint Pen Inks - The ballpoint pens did not appear on the European market before 1945. The
development of the present pen was accomplished during World War II because the Army and the Air Force
needed a writing instrument which would not leak at high altitude and which supplied quick drying water
resistant writing.
a. In principle, the construction of all ballpoint pens is the same. The differences are in the finish, the
precision with which the instrument is made, the size and the material of the ball, and the
composition of the ink.
b. As a rule, the diameter of the ball lies between 0.6 and 1.0 mm, the cheapest makes having
the largest diameter. The ball is made of steel while the more expensive makes of sapphire.
c. The quality of the pen is chiefly to be judged by the writing angle. The best writing angle for a
ballpoint pen is 90 degrees, but a normal hand of writing seldom uses this angle.
d. The cheaper makes have a minimum writing angle of 55-60 degrees. If one writes at too small an
angle, the brass socket holding the ball will scratch a lined into the paper, parallel with the ink line.
Stamp Pad Inks - They are made with the acid of substances such as glycerol, glycol, acetin or benzyl
alcohol and water. Airline dyes are added as coloring matter. For quick drying stamp pad inks, more volatile
organic solvents are used as acetone, ethanol, etc. As a vehicle, dextrine, gum arabic, or tannin
is sometimes added. Through the addition of tannin, the stamp impression becomes water resistant after
drying.
Hectograph Inks - These inks very much resemble stamp pad inks and are exclusively made with basic
dyes. To the dyestuff solution several other substances are added such as glycerol, acetic acid and acetone.
Typewriter Ribbon Inks - These inks are usually composed of a blend of aniline dyes, carbon black and oil
such as olein or castor oil. The two-tone ribbons however contain no dyes, but pigments suspended in oil
base. This is necessary because aniline dyes tend to bleed and would cause the sharp division between the
differently colored halves of the ribbon to merge.
Printing Inks - Printing inks often consist of a mixture of colored pigments, carbon black and a "base" which
may consist of oil, resins, synthetic resins or a mixture of these. It is possible to remove printing ink from a
document by scrubbing the document with an aqueous solution of a suitable detergent. The rubbing and
breaking up of the surface of the ink and the detergent facilitates the suspension and eventual removal of the
carbon and other ingredients by the water.
Canceling Inks - These inks often contain carbon and this fact should be burned in mind when it is required
to decipher faint cancellation marks on a postage stamp and wrappers. Carbon is opaque to infra-red
sensitive plate and be relied upon to improve the legibility of any marking affected by a carbon containing
canceling ink. Erasure of canceling ink on valuable stamps is usually affected by attack on the medium
which bind the carbon to the surface of the stamp and it is to be regretted that many canceling inks are
manufactured with media which offer resistance to attack so that the resistant carbon can simply be
swabbed off. This can be usually be detected by infrared photography which will reveal the traces of carbon,
which almost invariably remain on the stamp.
Skrip Ink - These are manufactured by W.A. Chaffer Pen Company since 1955. The inks contain a
substance that is colorless in visible light and has a strong affinity for the fibers of the paper, and yet is not
bleached by hypochlorite ink eradicators or washed out by soaking on water.

THE EXAMINATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF INK


1.
2.

In most cases the inks to be examined are not available in liquid form. One kind of examination centers on
the question as to whether the ink of some writings or of alterations in a police blotter is identical with the ink
found in the possession of the suspect.
For this reason, the examination of questioned documents is restricted to a comparative examination of
certain properties of these inks. However the examination carries with it certain difficulties as the quantity of
material available for examination is small and the examination can be done only one.

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3.

It is necessary then that before a chemical examination is attempted, which results in a partial destruction of
writing, an exhaustive examination by non-destructive methods be carried out.
These non-destruction methods include visual examination with the aid of a binocular microscope as
well as photographic examination. They should be used first before any chemical examination is resorted
to.
It is necessary therefore to be acquainted with the composition and developmental history, method of
manufacture of the types of ink most commonly used. Sometimes, antedating can only be proven by
identifying a component of the ink, which was not yet included in inks at the alleged date of the document.

4.
5.

THE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF INK


A. THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION AND SEPARATION OF THE DYESTUFFS IN THE INK
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

This is restricted to a comparison of the dyestuffs in the ink but sometimes it is also possible to identify one
or more of the components of the dyes.
Regarded as the principal method of ink examination.
To identify a dyestuff, it is necessary to possess a collection as complete as possible of the various dyes
used in the manufacture of inks.
The chromatographic separation of the dyes maybe carried out by paper chromatography.
Procedure:
a. Collection of the ink material
(1)
Extraction of the inks stroke by scraping fragments from the ink stroke. Dyestuff inks can as a
rule can be extracted with water. Ball point ink can be extracted with organic solvent such as
ethanol, acetone or butanone. Pyridine is the best solvent for ball point inks.
(2)
It is also possible to cut a small pocket at starting line in the chromatographic paper into which
the ink fragments are placed. The pocket is firmly pressed.
b. The vessel which is a beaker or a flask is filled with the solvent; then the filtered paper strip containing
the ink material is lowered into the vessel with the ends just touching the surface of the solvent and
let it hang on the side of the vessel for 15-20 minutes.
c. The chromatography should be carried out in shaded light.

B. DETERMINATION OF THE AGE OF THE INK


1.

2.

In general, in order to determine the age of writing or the difference in the ages of different writings, the
document examiner makes use of a property of the ink writing which changes in the course of time. This
selection of properties will be determined by the composition of ink and the circumstances under which the
writing ages.
Procedure:
a. Ball Point Pen Inks
(1) If a document has been written with a ballpoint pen, the writing in question is bound to date in all
probability from a point of time later than 1945.
(2) The analysis of ballpoint inks may yield an important clue to the age of the ink.
(3) The first ballpoint inks were practically without exception based on oleic acid. These inks will flow
out when a drop of benzene or petroleum ether is applied to them.
(4) Not until 1950 were these inks made on a basic of polyethylene glycols, which are resistant to
treatment with benzene or petroleum ether.
(5) However, the presence of oleic acid is not yet proof that the writing in question is old for oleic acid
is sometimes also used in modern ballpoint inks.
(6) In the later case, however, the ink will as a rule not flow out with the petroleum ether because these
inks, no water soluble coloring matter is worked out. Instead pigments and dyestuffs are used that
will not dissolve in petroleum ether.
(7) The presence of phthalocyanine dyestuff is an indication of an ink produced later than 1954-1956.
(8) Thus it is not possible to determine the absolute age of ballpoint inks. Neither it is possible to
determine the relative ages of two ballpoint ink writings, not even if they are of the same kind. The
ink dries rather quickly because the base is absorbed by the paper.

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(9) Recent ballpoint writing can be offset, and efforts have been made to use the copying power for
age determination.
b.

Dyestuff Inks
(1) The dyestuff inks lack properties that would permit age determination but the presence of an
obsolete or modern dyestuff may indicate age of writing.
(2) If a phthalocyanine dye is found in the ink, it would be improbable for the document to be dated
prior to 1953.

c.

Iron Gallotannate Inks - These inks show a remarkable change of color in maturing. This based on the
chemical change of ferrous to ferric in the course of time. The following are the methods used to show
the gradual change of inks:
(1)
Method based on the change of the Color of the Ink This method is useful in
those cases where the ink writing received for examination is too recent that the process of
maturing can be observed visually. The kind of ink must be known and one or more writings of
known age must be available for comparison.
(2)
Methods based on the Solubility of the Ink The solubility of iron gallotannate ink
decreases considerably as the ink matures. As with the color change, it can only be applied
successfully to a very recent writing. This method can establish a difference in the age of writings
on one and the same document. The solubility is determined by a visual estimate of the quantity of
ink which can be withdrawn with a drop of water from a stroke. It is necessary however that the
drop of water be applied to ink stroke of the same intensity.
(3)
Method based on the amount of ferrous iron in the ink In iron gallotannate ink,
the iron is mainly present in the complex bound ferrous form. As the manufacturing process goes
on, the ric gallotannate is formed. A drop of aa 1-dipyridyl reagent (1% of aa1-dipyridyl in 0.5N HCL
(normal hydrochloric acid)) is applied to the ink stroke. The reagent is left in contact with the ink for
1 minute and then recovered with a piece of filter paper. If ferrous iron is still present in the ink, the
paper will show a red zone of ferrous aa1-dipyridyl around the stain of blue dyestuff. By repeating
this test daily, it is possible to check the decrease in the ferrous iron in the ink by the changes in
the coloration of this red zone. However, this method is applicable when the questioned writing is
not more than a few days old.
(4)
Estimation of age based on the detection of the dyes Iron gallotannate inks
contain an organic dye, (soluble blue) which is oxidized or at least becomes insoluble complete or
partially as the ink ages. It is claimed that the organic dye becomes completely insoluble in four to
five years. However, the application of this method appears to yield results in practice.

TYPEWRITER AND TYPEWRITING IDENTIFICATION


TYPEWRITER - A writing machine with a keyboard for reproducing letters, figures, symbols and other
resembling printed ones; a machine that can reproduce printed characters on papers or that can produce printed
letters and figures on paper; a machine designed to print or impress type characters on paper, as a speedier and more
legible substitute for handwriting. .
SIGNIFICANT TERMS
A. ALIGNMENT - Alignment defects include characters which write improperly in the following respects:
A twisted letter, horizontal mal-alignment, vertical mal-alignment, and a character "Off its feet".
B. ALIGNMENT DEFECT - Include character which write improperly in the following respects: A twisted letter,
horizontal mal-alignment, vertical, mal-alignment and a character special adjustment to the types block.
C. CARBON IMPRESSION- Any typewriting which is placed on the paper by the action of the type faces
striking thought carbon paper is classed as a carbon impression. Generally, carbon impressions are
"carbon copies", but sometime original typewriting is made directly through a carbon ribbon.
D. CHARACTER - In connection with typewriting identification, the term "Character" is used to include letters,
symbols, numerals, or points of punctuation.

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E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.

L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.

CLOGGED (DIRTY) TYPEFACES - With use the type faces becomes filled with lint, dirty and ink,
particularly in enclosed letters such as the o,e,p, and g.
DEFECTS - The term defect describes any abnormality or maladjustment in a typewriter which is reflected in
its works and which leads to its individualization or identification.
NATURAL VARIATIONS - These are normal or usual deviations found between repeated specimens of
any individuals handwriting or in the product of any typewriters.
OFF ITS FEET - The condition of a typeface printing heavier on one side or corner than over the remainder
of its outline.
PERMANENT DEFECT - Any identifying characteristics of a type-writer which cannot be corrected by simply
cleaning the type face or replacing the ribbon is classified as a permanent defect.
PLATEN - The cylinder which serve as the backing of the paper and which absorbs the blow on the type face
is known as a platen.
PROPORTIONAL SPACING TYPEWRITING - A modern form of typewriting which resembles printing in that
all of the horizontal space as they do with the conventional typewriter. For example, the "i" occupies two
units. The "o" - three and the "m" - five. A typewriter of this design is known as a proportional spacing
machine.
REBOUND - A defect in which a character prints a double impression with the lighter one slightly offset to the
right or left.
RIBBON IMPRESSIONS - Typewriting which is made directly through a cloth ribbon is called ribbon
impression.
RIBBON CONDITION - Typewriter ribbons gradually deteriorate with use and the degree of determination is
a measure of the ribbon condition.
TRANSITORY DEFECT - Any identifying typewriter characteristics which can be eliminated by cleaning
the machine or replacing the ribbon is described as a transitory defects. Clogged type is the most common
defects in this class.
TWISTED LETTER - Each letter and character is designed to print a certain fixed angle to the base line,
due to wear, and damage to the type bars and the type block, some letters become twisted so that they
lean to the right or left of their correct slant.
TYPE FACE - The printing surface of the type block is known as the type face, with most modern typewriter
this block is attached at the end of a movable arm or type bar which propels the type face against the
ribbon and paper to make the typewriter impression.
TYPE FACE DEFECTS - Any peculiarity of typewriting caused by actual damage to the type face metal is
known as type face defect. These defect may be actual breaks in the outline of the letter where the metal
has been chipped away sometimes referred to as broken type, or they may be distorted outlines of the
letter where the type face metal has become bent or smashed, they can only be corrected by replacing the
type block.

EVOLUTION OF TYPEWRITERS
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

The first patent, however, was granted by QUEEN ANNE of England to HENRY MILL in 1714 for a machine
designed to reproduce a letter of the alphabet.
In 1829, WILLIAM AUSTIN BURT of Detroit, invented the TYPOGRAPHER.
In 1833 a French patent was given to the French inventor Xavier Progin for a machine that embodied for
the first time one of the principles employed in modern typewriters: the use for each letter or symbol of
separate typebars, actuated by separate lever keys.
In 1843, American inventor Charles Grover Thurber invented a typewriter which prints through a metal ring
that revolved horizontally above the platen and was equipped with a series of vertical keys or plungers
having pieces of type at the bottom. The machine was operated by revolving the wheel until the correct letter
was centered over the printing position on the platen, and then striking the key.
Several other inventors attempted to produce machines designed to make embossed impressions that could
be read by the blind. One such machine, developed by the American inventor Alfred Ely Beach in 1856,
resembled the modern typewriter in the arrangement of its keys and typebars, but embossed its letters on a
narrow paper strip instead of a sheet.
A similar machine created by the American inventor Samuel W. Francis, and patented by him in 1856, had
a circular arrangement of typebars, a moving paper holder, a bell that rang to signal the end of a line, and an

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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

18.

inked ribbon. The keyboard arrangement of Francis's machine resembled the black and white keys of a
piano.
The development of the first practical typewriter begun in 1866 by CHRISTOPHER LATHAM SHOLES and
was patented in 1868. He developed the first practical typewriter in cooperation with two fellow mechanics,
CARLOS GLIDEN and SAMUEL SOULE'.
Six years later (1874), Christopher Latham Sholes entered an agreement with ELIPHALET REMINGTON
AND SONS, GUNSMITHS & SEWING MACHINES MANUFACTURERS, the company produced the
REMINGTON MODEL I
Four years later, REMINGTON MODEL II was introduced having both the lower and upper case of the
alphabet.
MARK TWAIN (Samuel Clemens) was among the first to buy a typewriter and the first to submit a typewritten
manuscript to a publisher.
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW recognized the importance of typewriter when he became the first playwright to
use it as a stage prop in Candida in 1897.
When THOMAS EDISON visited Sholes to see his machine, he forecasted that typewriters would one day
be operated by electricity.
Soon afterwards, Edison built such a typewriter. He used a series of magnet, which made the machine
cumbersome and too expensive to be marketed.
The first practical electric typewriter was invented in 1914 by JAMES F. SMATHERS of Kansas City.
In 1933, the International Business Machines, Inc. (IBM), introduced the first commercially successful electric
typewriter to the business world.
The latest development in electric typewriter is one which not only eliminates type bars and movable
carriages but can use six interchangeable type of type faces.
The first basic change in typewriting operation appeared in 1961. Despite of the revolutionary advances
in typewriting capabilities, one essential element has remained unchanged since the first Remington. The
keyboard arrangement, nicknamed QWERTY for the top line of letters, was designed to make it easier for
salesmen to use the machine.
A much more efficient arrangement was devised in 1936 by AUGUST DVORAK. The process of
changing over the DVORAK seemed so difficult that it was never even begun.

IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF TYPEWRITTEN QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS


HAGAN in 1894, made the first comment on typewriting examination. He wrote that all typewriter machines
even when using the same kind of type become more or less peculiar by use as to the work done by them. These
peculiarities positively connect them with the printing done by the machine.
This exposition of the principles of typewriting identification was followed in 1900 by AMES who wrote that
the identity of writing by different operators as well as that done on different machines can be done with considerable
degree - Different operators have their own peculiar methods which differ widely in the location of date, address,
margins, punctuation, spacing, signing as well as impressions from touch.
In several articles written between1901 to 1907, ALBERT S. OSBORNE, the foremost document examiner
of the early 20th century, defined the principles of typewriting identification used today. He called it THE LANDMARKS
IN TYPEWRITING IDENIFICATION.
THE LANDMARKS IN TYPEWRITING IDENTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.
4.

The type faces used by the different type writer manufacturer can be
differentiated on the basis of design and have dating significance.
Through usage, typewriters develop individuality which can serve to
identify the typewriting of a particular typewriter.
The gradual development of typewriting individuality plus ribbon condition
and typeface. Cleanliness can be used to date a document of fix it written a period of time.
Horizontal and vertical alignment, tilting characters, lack of uniformity of
impression (off-footedness); type-face score, breadths, defects and deformities all serve to identify the type
writing of a particular machine.

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5.
6.

Peculiar habits of striking the type writer keys, spacing, arrangement,


punctuation, mistakes, corrections, can be used to identify a typist or differentiate typists.
A sheet of paper cannot be reinserted in a typewriter in exact register with
previous typing done on the sheet of paper.

TYPES OF TYPEWRITERS
A.CONVENTIONAL TYPEWRITERS USING TYPE BARS
1. Pica Type - 10 letter/inch
2. Elite Type - 12 Letters/inch
3. 6 Letters/inch
4. Teletype Machine
5. 14-16 letter/inch - specials typewriters
B.TYPEWRITER USING SINGLE ELEMENT OR BALL - A machine, capable of typing 10 or 12 characters per
inch. Change of horizontal spacing is done easily by the flip of a switch.
C.TYPEWRITER USING A PRINT WHEEL (ELECTRONIC TYPEWRITER) This has a disc type device called a
print wheel, The printwheel contains all of characters represented on the typewriter keyboard. This machine has
the capability of typing 10, 12 and 15 letters per inch.
CLASSIFICATION OF TYPEWRITERS BASED ON LETTER DESIGNS
A. The small w depending on the presence or absence of a center serif, height of central peak and design of
the two central diagonals.
w-1 central peak is the same height as the top of the outside stroke and is capped by serif.
w-2 same with w-1 but has no central serif.
w-3 central joining is below the top of the sides.
w-4 low center but the two central diagonals join the sides well above the base of the letter.
B. Crossbar of small letter t cross bar is either longer on the right or on the left side and or equidistant on each
side. The curved lower extension of the t is either turn upward at a point the left of, to the right of, or about
even with the right terminus of the crossbar of the t.
C. The small letter g upper oval is either much smaller or the same and/or different or the same in shape than
the lower oval. Upper and lower ovals are either very closely spaced or not.
D. Small letter r right arm is either long with very small curve at its end or a long right arm with full curve at the
end and/or the right arm is short with its curve moderate to full.
E. Small letter y has three distinctive designs:
lower stroke has a broad turn which forms a very shallow trough.
lower stroke has a deep full curve which clearly curves right ward.
Lower stroke turns sharply upward like forming a narrow trough.
F. Small letter i has two distinctive designs:
center of the dot is aligned with the central line of the vertical staff.
Center of the dot is set off to the left of the central line of the vertical staff.
G. Upper and Lower Strokes of Capital Letter E maybe equal or the bottom stroke maybe longer than the upper
stroke. The serif is either vertical or oblique. The small e may have its straight stroke either horizontal or
oblique.
H. Figure 7 horizontal stroke is either straight or curve.

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I. Figure 5 horizontal stroke is either straight or slightly or fully curved.


J. The comma , tail may extend to the left of the dot or only very slightly to the left of the dot.
K. Parentheses may vary in curvature.
Take Note: Two typewritten documents are said to be typed from one and the same typewriter if they agree in
type face style, design, spacing, alignment and three or four scars or damaged type faces.
IDENTIFICATION OF TYPEWRITER BY THE DEFECTS OF THE STROKE
Each typewriter has its own individual characteristics that enable one to differentiate the typed characters from
a similar machine of the same make. Typewriter of the same make and model but of different age have differences
attributed to wear.
WHAT TO CONSIDER?
1.
2.

A typewriter coming out fresh from the factory has already some defects which give its own personality.
Whatever the quality of the manufacture, a typewriter is never absolutely perfect.
Later, through faults of the typist and also by wear, the typewriter will acquire a stronger individuality by new
defects which become more and more prominent and in time, progressively overcome the initial ones.

PROCEDURE
1.
2.

Conduct preliminary examination of the questioned document to determine the make and model of the
typewriter.
Then study the defects of the stroke which will distinguish the suspected typewriter from the others.

The defects of the typewriter maybe compared to ailment or sickness and congenital deformation while
its translation on the paper be compared to symptoms of the defects. This comparison has the advantage of sorting out
the exact conditions of the control of questioned typewritten documents as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

First, it will show the actual state of the typewriter and consequently that the aspect of the stroke is
not immutable but evolves progressively so that a good identification needs the comparison of documents
from sufficiently adjacent period.
The health of a typewriter tends to change and the defect become more and more numerous and
characteristics. From time to time, an overhead or repairs may help the ailment definitely or at least give
a temporary or partial healing.
It will show that the expert does not see the defect of the typewriter right away but only its translation on the
paper by a writing anomaly of which he must appreciate the cause
Lastly it will explain that certain anomalies are not even ascribable to an organic cause of the type writer but
to a phenomenon outside it. For example, an error of manipulation by the typist may give some anomalies of
the stroke and have no connection with the mechanism of the typewriter itself. Others are due to a
temporary sickness such as a torn ribbon which will give an incomplete impression of the
character or dust which may choke the mechanism of the stroke. It is only the permanent faults which
permit of a positive identification.

DEFECTS OF A TYPEWRITER
Defects of the Character
a

The character may show a distortion in its engraving, a "break" which is shown by an alteration of
the design. Exceptionally, it means a defect of manufacture. Most often, the break occurs when the
machine is working. The metal is locally damaged by the continued striking of the letter against hard
surfaces and according to the general direction of the striking will dented or deviated. In the first case
the altered sign will print an incomplete design with broken or interrupted lines, in the second case it

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b
c

prints a deformed sign. The predominant cause of the defect is that corresponding bars one behind the
other; the character of corresponding bars strikes the back of the first and crashes on it.
Twist of the printing surface which comes in the course of manufacturing. Irregular tempering gives an
abnormal contraction of the metal for the bearing of the character again the plated and gives a local
impression more intense and more heavily inked.
Misalignment of the two signs engraved on the same character so that they are not set exactly one
under the other. This defect may be due to a bad engraving of the mold.

Positioning of the Character on the Type-bar


a
b

A bad position of the bar on the plate of the soldering apparatus, results in a bad portioning of the
character. It will be bent forward, backward or sideways.
Sometimes a solder fails in the course of typing. The character turns over the slides along its support.
The changes of alignment become grater and greater growing in frequency in proportion with the collar
of the solder. This defect is detected in the writing by the fact that the top and the bottom of the letter
are not printed with the same intensity and mostly, the vertical misalignment has a tendency to vary at
each stroke and becomes so important that often a part of both signs of the deficient characters are
impressed at the same time.

Defects of the Type-bar - The deformations of a type-bar modify the position of the character in connection
with the platen and alter the originally correct writing.
a
b
c

Any error of place position of the bar in the basket gives an incline to its head and to the character.
The type-bars are outer sinuous. Under the effect of an intensive working, the bends are modified, so
that the type-bar elongates or shorten and its head inclines forward or backward. This deformation
causes a misalignment of the character and no longer allows a uniform impression of its surface.
Twist of the type-bars is caused by mistakes of the typist. In depressing, by error, two neighboring keys,
two corresponding bars are moved towards the type-bar guide 1, each bar undergoes the lateral strike
of the other and bends along its longitudinal axis. One error in manipulation does not great damage but
its repetition certainly develops the defect. The type-bar thus bent no long offers a perfectly vertical
surface to the axis of the platen and the character strikes the paper more or less off its feet.

Defects of the Ring - On a worn type writer it is not exceptional to find that the more active type-bars have
depressed the metal of the ring at their point of contact. It no longer has any effect on the type-bars corresponding to
the depression, it no longer stops them in their travel and it does not send them back to their original position.
These bars strike directly at the platen, stoop their momentarily and fall back by their own weight giving by
this very slow motion a vibration to the character in the vicinity of the platen. At this time the escapement has
already moved and the character gives two impressions instead of one. The second impression, displaced in
connection with the first and much paler seems to be its shadow. The name given to it is 'veiled stroke'.
Disorder of the Type bar guide - If the position of the type bar guide is modified for some reason, the result
is a complete disorder of the writing. A guide moved to the right will raise all signs on the right of the keyboard and will
lower all the signs on the left. If it is moved to the left, it will cause the opposite effect.
Alteration of the Platen - The rubber of the platen gets old and hardens, the surface formally smooth
becomes more and more irregular and rough and does not offer anymore intimate contact with all surface of the sign.
The writing becomes inconsistent and the same sign will print itself partially or entirely and with a greater intensity and
more intensively on the tight or the left, on the bottom or the top.
General Wear of a Typewriter - The typebars are subjected to a lateral play particularly felt at the top. This
gives poor accuracy at the point of impact of the character. The same signs print themselves on the right or on the left
of their theoretical point of impact.
TYPEFACE MISALIGNMENTS synonymous to alignment defects:

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1.

2.
3.

Vertical Misalignment - A character printing above or below its proper position. Possible causes are:
a. a character soldered too high or too low on the typebar;
b. an unsoldered character;
c. a typebar having lost its correct curvature;
d. a type bar having an oval of axis bearing;
e. misalignment of the typebar guide to the right or to the left; and
f. disorder of the capital letter shift lock.
Lateral or Horizontal Misalignment - An alignment defect in which the character prints the right or left of its
proper position is known as horizontal alignment.
Oblique Misalignment The character leans towards the right or towards the left.

TYPEWRITING STANDARDS OR EXEMPLARS the procurement of typewriting exemplars are grouped as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Study of the questioned document by the investigator;


Procurement of the regular course of business typewriting;
Preparation of exemplar typewriting by the suspected writer;
Preparation of typewriting exemplar by the investigator on suspected typewriter; and
The procurement of the suspected typewriter itself by the investigator.

OBTAINING KNOWN TYPEWRITTEN EXEMPLARS - Properly prepared known typewriting samples not only facilitate
the examination in the laboratory but they aid immeasurably in the demonstration in the court room.
HOW TO OBTAIN EXEMPLARS OF TYPEWRITING?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

If the typewriter ribbon is obviously new, remove it from the typewriter and send it to the laboratory with the
typewriting exemplars prepared from another ribbon.(the text of the material in question may still be
discernible of the ribbon)
Use paper of about of about the same size as the questioned material, type out a full word for word copy of
the message in question, typographical errors, using as nearly as possible the same degree of touch as
that used in typing the questioned material.
After placing the typewriter in a stencil position or removing the cloth ribbon, obtain samples of each
character on the keyboard by typing through carbon paper which has been inserted carbon side down
over a piece of white bond paper.
Make certain that each specimen contain the make, model and serial number of the typewriter from which it
was produced as well as the date and initials of the officer.
Typewriter specimens should be taken from suspected typewriter/s. It is usually not necessary to
forward the typewriter to the laboratory if complete known exemplars are obtained.
If possible, after a typewritten exemplar is obtained from a suspected typewriter, the investigation
should insure that the typewriter is kept in its current condition.
With evidence thus obtained from typewritten documents, the laboratory experts is in position to lend
valuable assistance to the solution and subsequent prosecution of many cases.

PHOTO MECHANICAL PRINTING PROCESS


METHODS OF PRINTING
A. RELIEF PRINTING (LETTERPRESS)
In this method of printing, the image characters are raised above the level of the non-printing areas. The ink
is applied to a raised surface that in turn is applied to paper. The letterpress process is the oldest of all printing
procedures. It prints with cleaner and sharper letters.
After the type has been set, the next step is the actual printing which is made on one of three principles:
1. The platen or flatbed press opens and closes like a clam shaft; it has raised type on one flat surface and
paper on another flat surface and the two are pressed together. Small hand presses are generally platen
presses.
2. Cylinder presses roll the paper around a cylinder and then across the flat surface of inked type.

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3.

Rotary presses pass the paper between two cylinders, one of which holds the curved printing plates.

B. INTAGLIO (GRAVURE PRINTING) There are four types of printing which employ the Intaglio principle of placing
ink in an area, which has been cut out or etched.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Gravure This is a process in which the ink in recessed or sunken letters is drawn out or sucked out under
pressure. The process produces high quality reproduction of photographs and half-tone illustrations, but the
letters of type reproduced have slightly fuzzy edges. The printing is done from large copper plates or copper
covered cylinders on presses of two kinds; sheet-fed gravure presses and web-fed rotogravure presses for
longer runs. The copper plates or cylinders are produced by making film positives of the art work to be
reproduced.
Engraving The paper her is forced into the sunken areas of a metal plate where the ink is. A special plate
is made by the artist who removes or scratches areas in the metal itself into which the ink is placed. The
actual printing process is very slow, and after the paper is removed from the plate, time must be allowed for
the drying of the ink to prevent smudging.
Planographic Lithography is the most well known printing process which employs the principle of putting
ink on a chemically treated surface. The commercial application of lithography is known as offset. In this
process, the copy is placed in front of a big camera and photographed so that the film is the exact size that
the final result is to be. The film is in turn placed over a sensitized plate make of paper, albumen or
chemically treated metal) and exposed to a strong light.
Stencil Stencil sheets on which the copy is typed or drawn are made of a porous lease tissue, covered
with a coating which is impervious to ink. The typing or drawing pushes the coating aside and exposes the
porous tissue. This stencil wrapped around an inked cylinder and the cylinder is rolled across the paper,
forcing the ink through the porous parts of the stencil.

C. PLANOGRAPHIC (LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING) In planographic printing, the image characters are in the same
general plane as the non-printing areas. The ink is applied to a dead level plate which has been chemically
treated such as lithograph and offset.
D. STENCIL It is a process where the letters or image are holes cut in a sheet, or a sheet is made more porous in
the area of the letters and ink is applied to paper through the holes or porous areas such as mimeograph.
E. HALFTONE BLOCK PRINTING This is offset-related and is used for the reproduction of pictures and
illustrations in little covers. To prepare a halftone block, the model is photograph and its image is transferred to
a metal surface by photo-printing.
IDENTIFYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PRINTING
A. LETTERPRESS
1. Study of this printing shows that the edges of the letters are more sharply defined than offset printing.
2. Careful microscopic study and measurement may reveal different runs of letterpress printing which have
been made from the same set-up; the y type face may exhibit evidence of damage and the spacing and
alignment may be different due to pressure applied by the frame.
B. OFFSET
1. The edges of the letters are more irregular than in letterpress;
2. The middle portion and the edges of the letters are more or less of the same density; and
3. There is no indentation of the paper in the area of the printed letters as is sometimes found in letter press
printing.
IDENTIFICATION OF PRINTING The identification of printing is based on the general principles which consider the
existence of an adequate combination of class and individual characteristics exceeding the limits of an accidental
coincidence.
A.
1.

CLASS CHARACTERISTICS maybe grouped under body size and type face designs.
Body size of a type responsible for the width of a line and depth of a column.

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2.
3.
4.
B.
1.
2.

Unit measurement six picas making an inch.


The body size in metallic type varies from six points up to seventy points, larger ones being made mainly in
wood.
According to the type face there are eight main designs
INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS These come into existence as a result of:
Defective setting in relative space positioning, slant and weight of type faces; or
Due to mutilations and imperfections in the type faces.

ADDITIONAL NOTES ON QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS


HANDWRITING
Graphology, the study of handwriting to determine one's personality traits, is not handwriting analysis. It's not
even considered a science; more like a parlor trick. True handwriting analysis involves painstaking examination of the
design, shape and structure of handwriting to determine authorship of a given handwriting sample. The basic principle
underlying handwriting analysis is that no two people write the exact same thing the exact same way. Every person
develops unique peculiarities and characteristics in their handwriting.

Handwriting analysis looks at letter formations, connecting strokes between the letters, upstrokes, retraces,
down strokes, spacing, baseline, curves, size, distortions, hesitations and a number of other characteristics of
handwriting. By examining these details and variations in a questioned sample and comparing them to a sample of
known authorship, a determination can be made as the whether or not the authorship is genuine.
Graphology systems tend to be one of three (3) types: (1) those based on individual letter formations; (2)
those based on stroke analysis; and (3) those based on an holistic/gestalt method. Over 3000 private business
companies use it routinely (to screen employees), and it enjoys a growing sense of scientific respectability. The courts
appear to be waiting to see college psychology courses on it. It probably has the most validity with the following
domains: (1) intelligence; (2) attitude toward work; and (3) interpersonal skills. Recent developments have focused on
"profiling" of uncaptured criminals and sex offenders (where handwriting analysts say they can spot a "perversion", not
exactly the best word for it).
There's some precedent in art therapy and projective psychological testing for graphology. Many convictions
of child sex offenders have occurred because of what the child victim portrayed in a drawing, and with psychological
testing, there's the famous "Draw a Pig" assignment, which apparently contains everything you need to make a
subjective personality assessment from: where placed on paper; the size of the pig; the pressure applied; the direction
the pig is facing; attention to details; line quality; angular or curved strokes; and emphasis on head of pig.

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TYPEWRITING
All typewriters of a particular make and model are pretty much the same but, through use, the develop
defects that translate to paper when the machine is used. These defects on the typed page can be matched back to
the typewriter that was used to create it.
These defects in the type face are revealed in a number of ways. If the type bar is bent (the bar on which the
letter element is attached and hammered down to the page) the letter is misaligned or 'off its feet.' Misalignments can
also cause non-printing areas of a specific letter, such as losing the loop on the bottom of a g. The letter can be
displaced horizontally or vertically. Little clumps of plastic can adhere to the type key during manufacture and are
made permanent by the coating process. This defect is called 'flashing.' As wear and tear increases, the defects
become more exaggerated.
Just looking at the type style, or font, the spacing (horizontal and vertical) and type size allows for
determining the make and model of the typewriter. Ribbons are a major evidentiary component. It is possible to read a
ribbon to see what it has been used to type.

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HANDWRITING AND FINGERPRINT EXPERTS


Illustrations Concerning Forged Signatures in thumb impressions, typed matter, alleged alterations &
interpolations etc.

The upper disputed signature marked Q is a forged signature in 'Devnagari Script' of Hon'ble Ex-Prime
Minister " Sh. Chandrashekhar" on a cheque as compared with his admitted signature marked A-1.

The disputed signature marked Q-3 across the revenue stamp is a forged signature as compared with the
genuine signature marked A-1.

The upper signature marked Q-2 is a forged signature as compared with the admitted signature marked A-2.

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The upper signature marked Q across the revenue stamp is a forged signature in 'Telugu Script' as
compared with the specimen signature marked S-4.

The upper fingerprint marked Q is a latent fingerprint developed from the object of burglary and found to be
identical with the specimen fingerprint (S-78) of the suspect on scientific comparison.

The fingerprint marked X developed with Chemical Powders from the object of burglary was found to be
identical with the specimen fingerprint D-5 of the suspect.

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A highly enlarged photograph of a clear rolled fingerprint


oo

POLYGRAPHY (LIE DETECTION)


BASIC CONCEPTS
What is Polygraphy? It is the scientific method of detecting deception with the use of a polygraph
instrument. This is the new name of LIE DETECTION.
What is a Polygraph? It is a scientific diagnostic instrument used to record physiological changes in the
blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration and skin resistance of an examinee under controlled condition.
What is Lie Detector? It is the popular but misleading name of the Polygraph. In Greek, Polygraph means
many writings and the instrument was so named because it make various ink recordings of a persons body functions.
What is the other name of the Polygraph? It is also called Truth Verifier since statistics show that is the
vast majority of the instances the instrument verifies an innocent persons truthfulness.
What are the Concepts of Polygraph Examination?
1.
2.
3.

Used to test an individual for the purpose of detecting deception or verify the truth of statement
Records identifiable physiological reactions of the subject, such as; blood pressure, pulse rate,
respiration and skin resistance.
The effectiveness of the polygraph in recording symptoms of deceptions is based on the theory that a
conscious mental effort on the part of a normal person to deceive causes involuntary physiological
changes that are in effect a bodys reaction to an imminent danger to its well being.

What are the objectives of a Polygraph Examination?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Obtain additional investigation leads to the facts of the case/offenses.


Ascertain if a person is telling the truth
Locate the fruits or tools of the crime or whereabouts of wanted persons.
Identify other persons involved.
Obtain valuable information form reluctant witnesses
Eliminate the innocent suspects.

What are the Principal uses of the polygraph?

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Aid in investigation
Speeds up processing of investigation
Eliminates innocent suspects
Pre-employment screening
Honesty test (Periodic test)

What is the significance of understanding Lie Detection?


In every criminal investigation, the truth must be established to ensure proper prosecution of offenders.
Criminal investigators must exert all effort to determine lying not only on the part of the suspect but as well as to
everyone involved in the criminal act witnesses, victims, etc.
In establishing the truth, criminal investigators apply various methods such as: observation; mechanical lie
detection; use of drugs that inhibits the inhibitor; hypnosis; and interrogation.
What is Lie? Any untruthful statement; Falsehood; Anything that deceives or creates false impression; to
make untrue statements knowingly, especially with intent to deceive; To give an erroneous or misleading impression;
Lie is also synonymous to Deceit; deception; fabrication; falsehood; and untruth.
What is the meaning of Detection? The act of detecting, discovery, perceiving, finding, or uncovering
something obscure
What are the Kinds of Lie?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

White Lie or Benign Lie - the kind of lies used to protect or maintain the harmony of friendship or any
relationship.
Pathological Lie - this is a lie made by persons who cannot distinguish right from wrong.
Red Lie
- this involves political interests and motives because this is a part of communist
propaganda strategy. This is
prevalent in communist countries or communist infested nation.
Lies of means of propaganda-brain-washing and
blackmail via espionage and treason.
Black Lie
- a lie accompanies pretensions and hypocrisies, intriguing to cause dishonor or discredit
ones good image.
Malicious or Judicial Lie
- this is very pure and unjustifiable kind of lie that is
intended
purely to mislead or obstruct justice.

What are the Types of Liars?


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Panic Liars - one who lies in order to avoid the consequences of a confession, He/She is afraid of
embarrassment to love ones and it is a serious blow to his / her ego, He/She believes that confession
will just male the matter worst.
Occupational Liars - Is someone laid for spare years, this person is a practical liar and lies when it has
a higher pay off than telling the truth.
Tournament Liars - Loves to lie and is excited by the challenge of not being detected, this person
views an interview as another contest and wants to win, this person realizes that he or she will probably
be convicted bur will not give anyone the satisfaction of hearing him or her confesses, he wants that
people will believe that the law is punishing an innocent person.
Psychopathic Liars - the most difficult type, this person has no conscience. He shows no regret for
dishonestly and no manifestation of guilt,
Ethnological Liars - is one who is taught not to be a squealer, *squealer to cry or to shrill voice, used
by underworld gang in order for their member not to reveal any secret of their organization.
Pathological Liars - A person who cannot distinguish right from wrong (his mind is sick.), Is an insane
person.
Black Liars - A person who always pretends, (What he thinks of himself, what kind of person he is, and
what he is.)

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CONCEPT OF DETECTING LIES


What is the theory of lie detection?
It must be recognized that there is no such thing as an instrument that will detect lies. The popular name, Lie
Detector, given to a collection of certain medical instruments, is somewhat misleading. No collection of inanimate
objects including the very finest and complicated modern computers, can detect lies on the part of any human being.
The students can understandably ask, Well, what does this do called lie detector do? The answer to that
question is that the lie detector records certain physiological activities of the body. These activities are constantly in
operation as long as the person is alive. The student should be aware that the most common lie detectors record a
breathing pattern of inspiration and expiration, a continuous pattern of relative blood pressure and pulse rate, and a
pattern of electro dermal activity.
It is well known that the body adapts itself as efficiently as possible to its environment. If the environment
changes, the body will rapidly adjust itself to these changes. This is done by a complicated system of internal checks
and balance primarily involving the autonomic nervous system. This ability to adjust is necessary if the organism if the
organism or body is to survive in a constantly changing world. Those organisms that cannot adjust rapidly die out.
Historically, early human beings have their own way of determining lying or guilt on the part of the accused
and accuser. Their common method is thru the application of ORDEAL.
What is Ordeal?
A severe test of character or endurance; a trying course of experience, A medieval form of judicial trial in
which the accused was subjected to physical tests, as carrying or walking over burning objects or immersing the hand
in scalding water, the result being considered a divine judgment of guilt or innocence.
It is also a term of varying meaning closely related in the Medieval Latin Dei Indicum meaning Miraculous
decision. Ordeal is also an ancient method of trial in which the accused was exposed to physical danger which was
supposed to be harmless if he was innocent.
What are the Early Methods of Detecting Lies?
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

Red hot iron ordeal - Practiced on the hill tribe of Rajhmal in the North Bengal; Accused placed his tongue
to a red hot iron nine times (9) unless burned sooner; If burned, he is put to death. Not only that (licking the
iron), he is also made to carry the metal into his hands. It is doubtful whether the ordeal is meant to
determined the physiological changes occurring in description for if this so, many false observations must
have been made.
Ordeal by balance - Practiced in the Institute of Vishnu, India; Scale of balanced is used; In one end of the
scale, the accused is placed in the other end, a counter balance; The person will step out of the scale
listened to a judge deliver an extortion is the balance and her back in. If he were found to be lighter than
before then he should be acquitted.
Boiling water ordeal - Used in Africa; the method was that the subject will plunged their right arms into the
boiling pot to the elbow and step into the other side of the fire. All are told to undergo the test without a
murmur. And when all are finished, they are told to return at the same tine the next afternoon. The one who
by that time had lost some or showed blisters would prove the thief (Point out who is the one who steal
among his tribe mates).
Ordeal by rice chewing - Practiced by Indians; It is formed with a kind of rice called sathee, prepared with
various incantations; The person on trial eats, with his face to the and then spits upon an eyeful leaf; If the
saliva is mixed with blood or the corner of his mouth swell or he trembles, he is declared then a liar.
Ordeal of the red water - Used in a wide region of Eastern Africa; The ordeal of the sassy bark or red
water is used; The accused is made to fast for twelve hours; The swallow a small amount of rice; Then he will
be imbibed in dark colored water. This water is actually an emetic and if the suspects ejects all the rice, he is
considered innocent of the chare, Otherwise, the accused is guilty.

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

16.
17.

Combination of Drinks and Food Ordeal -The accused first fasted for 12 hours and the given small
amount of rice to ear followed by large amount of black colored water. If the concoction was vomited, the
accused was pronounced innocent; Otherwise, guilty. And practiced by West African Regions.
Trial by Combat - A fight between the accuser and the accused, whoever lost the battle will be the adjudged
guilty. Originated from India and one of the examples of this: a rich man or accuser could hire somebody or
bigger one to fight the accused. After the fight the loser is adjudged guilty of crime.
Trial by Torture - The accused was put into a severe physical test.
Drinking Ordeal - The accused was given a decoction to drink by a priest if innocent; no harm befalls him,
but if guilty, will die. Practiced in Nigeria and India.
Trial of the Eucharist - This trial is reserved for the clergy, and administered with pomp and ceremony. If the
accused was guilty, the Angel Gabriel will descend from heaven and prevent the accused from swallowing
the food given to him. Practiced in the European countries.
Ordeal by heat and fire - The accused was compelled to walk bare footed through a fire; if he remains
unhurt then he is innocent. Practiced in East Germany, Early Scandinavian Countries and early England.
Ordeal of Boiling Oil or Water - The accused was forced to dip his hands into the boiling water or oil and
ask to pick up stone in it. If he remains unhurt then he is innocent. Practiced in Asian Countries.
Ordeal of Red hot Needle - Red hot needle was drawn through the lips of the accused, if innocent; no blood
will be seen flowing out. Practiced in Wanaka, East Africa.
Ordeal of the Tiger - Accuser and accused were placed together in the same and a tiger set loose upon
them. If both were spared, further elimination followed. Practical in Siam.
Ordeal by Combat - Accuser and accused report to a duel where the winner was adjudged innocent. Those
not proficient in weapons and those who could not afford to do so could hire champions in the field to do the
fighting for them. This type of ordeal is vividly dramatized in the movie Ivanhoe based on the novel of the
same title (became the only legal ordeal). Practiced in England, time of King Henry III.
Test of the Cross ordeal - The accuser and accused each were made to stand with arms crossed on their
breasts. The one who endured the longest was deemed to have told the truth, the other, is the liar. Practiced
in Europe.
Donkeys Tail Ordeal - Psychological theory, the donkey placed in one room alone and observed it, and if
the donkey cried is a judged of guilty of crimes, because deep in side and conscience he is guilty.

What are the Common Countries that Practiced Ordeal?


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Burma - The accuser and accused were given each identical candle and both were lightened at the same
time.
Borneo - The accuser and accused were presented by shell fish placed on a plate. An irritating fluid was
then poured on the shell fish and the litigant whose shell fish moved first was adjudged the winner.
Greece - A suspended axe was spun at the center of a group of suspects. When the axe stopped, whoever
was in line with the blade as supposed to be guilty as pointed out by the divine providence.
Nigeria - The priest greased a clocks feather and pierced the tongue of the accused. If the feather passed
through the tongue easily, the accused was deemed innocent. If not, the accused is guilty. Another Method
(same country) Pour corrosive liquid into the eyes of the accused who was supposed to remain unharmed if
innocent. Pour boiling oil over the hand of the accused with he usual requisites for guilt or innocence (if
remain unharmed, he is innocent).
Europe and Early United States (17th Century) - Trial by water was commonly used on those accused of
witchcraft. The accused was bound (hand and foot) and then cast into the body of water. If the accused sank,
he was hauled to the surface half-drowned and deemed innocent. If the floated, he was deemed guilty and
burned to death.

Detecting Lies through Observation Methods


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Through Facial Expression


Blushing, paling or profuse sweating of forehead.
Dilation of the eyes, protrusion of eyeballs and elevation of upper eyelids.
Squinting of the eyes (showing envy, distrust, etc.).
Twitching of the lips.
Excessive winking of the eyes.

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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Failure to look the inquirer straight into the eyes.


Excessive activity of the Adams apple and the vein at the temple due to dryness of throat and mouth.
Quivering of nose or nostrils.
A peculiar monotone of the voice.
A forced laugh.
Rolling of eyeballs from one direction to another
Through Postural Reaction
Fidgeting, tapping or drumming of fingers on the chairs or the other surfaces.
Swinging of legs or one leg over the other.
Unnecessary movements of hands and feet (like scratching, nail biting, thumb or finger sucking).
Pulsation of the artery in the neck.
Incoherence, trembling and sweating of the whole body.

Detection through Regular Police Methods


Police methods sought to answer the legal investigative process to the following: The five Wives and One
Husband (5 Ws and 1H) which stand for: WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, and HOW. The Three Eyes (3 Is) which
stands for: Information gathering through record Check, Surveillance and Intelligence Check, Investigation through
Interrogation or Interview for Admission or Confession, Instrumention or Criminalistics (Police Sciences) with the use of
the different Investigative Forensic Sciences such as Medico Legal or Forensic Medicine, Forensic Chemistry, Police
or Investigative photography, Forensic Ballistics (Firearm Identification), Questioned Documents Examination,
Dactyloscopy, Police or Investigative Communication, Polygraphy /Deceptography
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF POLYGRAPHY
In the middle of the 19th century, Dr. Hans Gross, an Austrian known as the Father of Criminalistics, defined
search for truth as the basis and goal of all criminal investigations. He asserted that a large part of the criminalists
work is nothing more than a battle against lies. He has to discover the truth and must fight the opposite. He meets the
opposite at every step.
The searches for truth and attempts at uncovering falsehood have been a universal and almost constant
endeavor dating back at ancient times. In their attempt to discover deception, primitive societies developed complex
procedures founded on magic and mysticism. The doors to the truth, divine creatures sent messages through fire,
boiling water and torture. In some instances, faith in this powerful mysticism miraculously allowed the innocent to go
unscathed while the guilty bore the mark of guilt.
Some of these rituals were based on sound physiological principles. Oriental people for example
distinguished truth form lying by having the entire accused chew dry rice and then spit it out. While this was a simple
task for the honest, those who were deceiving have difficulty in accomplishing this task and were then judged to be
guilty and punished accordingly. This practice recognized that fear slows the digestive process, including salivation.
Thus, the deceptive were unable to spit out the dry rice, while the innocent, having faith in the power of their deity to
clear them of the unjust accusation, felt little fear in contrast to the guilty who know they would be discovered.
Throughout the centuries, man continued to experiment with more scientific methods in determining truth and
deception with the following scientists having contributed much in the development of the polygraph instrument:
A.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARDIOGRAPH COMPONENT


ANGELO MOSSO 1895
1. Studied fear and its influence on the hearth and his observations subsequently formed the basis for
the technique.
2. Developed the SPHYGMAMOMANOMETER and the SCIENTIFIC CRADLE, which he used in
studying fear on the heart.
CESAR LOMBROSO 1895

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1.
2.

Employed the first scientific instrument to detect deception. This instrument known as
HYDORSPHYGMOGRAPH, measured changes in pulse and blood pressure when suspects were
questioned about their involvement in or knowledge of a specific response.
Procedure on the use of the HYDROSPHYGMOGRAPH in detecting deception: Subjects hand
placed in a water filed tank sealed with membranes of rubber; Subject will be shown pictures
connected with the crime or mention will be made to relevant facts of the crime; Pulsation of blood
in fist was recorded on smoked drum.

WILLIAM MARSTON 1915


1. He dealt with the sphygmomanometer which was used to obtain periodic discontinuous blood
pressure readings during the course of an examination;
2. He also experienced with and helped to develop the pneumograph, which records breathing
patterns, and the galvanometer, which registers changes in skin resistance.
JOHN LARSON 1921
1. Developed the polygraph, an instrument capable of continuously records blood pressure, pulse,
and respiration.
2. The polygraph instrument which he developed was polygraphic apparatus in a portable form. Had
published more than anyone in this field.
THE LARSON POLYGRAPH - This is the first assemblage of apparatus and some of his co-workers in the
Berkeley Police Department. A strip of paper on which the tracings are recorded is mounted on two drums, which are
turned by a spring mechanism known as a kymograph. The paper is smoked to reduce the friction of the styluses or
recording levers which are actuated by Marey Tambours. A manometer is placed on the right shoulder of the subject,
the function of whish is to indicate the pressure in the bag, the pressure bag, encased in a leather cuff, is strapped
pneumograph is strapped around the chest to record respiration. This type of pneumograph or respiration applicator is
sill being used in some of the modern instruments. In a later model developed by Larson, a Jaquet polygraph replaced
the kymograph and smoked paper, and the pens moved horizontally instead of vertically as in the original apparatus. In
a further modification, metal tambour stacks were substituted for the Erlanger capsule and rubber covered tambours.
LEONARD KEELER 1926
1. Continued research and development of the polygraph. In 1949, he invented the Keeler Polygraph
with components that simultaneously recorded changes in blood pressure, pulse and respiration,
as well as the newly developed galvanic skin reflex.
2. He devised the chart roll paper, a better method of questioning, and incorporated the kymograh.
3. He also devised a metal bellows.
THE KEELER POLYGRAPH - In 1925, Keeler developed a compact portal instrument using a modification of
the Erlanger pressure reducer that permitted the blood pressure changes to be recorded over a greater range. He later
made further improvement by substituting metal bellows or diaphragm capsules in place of the Erlanger type pressure
reducer. The instrument is housed in a steel case with wrinkle finish and chromium trim. The cover is attached to case
by means of slip hinges and can be removed when the instrument is to be used. Opening of the cover permits hinged
doors at each end of the case to open outward for access to the chart at one end and the accessories at the other. All
connections to the instrument are made directly under the right end of the panel, which include the hose connection for
the cuff inflation bulb, the tube from the blood pressure cuff, a connector for the hand electrodes of the electro dermal
recording unit, an extension cord, and a tube from the pneumograph. Space is provided directly below the attachments
for storage of the accessories, and they may be stored without disconnecting the accessories form the instrument.
B.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PNEUMOGRAPH COMPONENT


VITTORIO BENUSSI 1914
1. Successfully detected deception with a pneumograph, an instrument that graphically measures an
examinees inhalation and exhalation.
2. He demonstrated that changes in breathing patterns accompany deception.
HAROLD BURTT 1918

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1.
2.
C.

Determined that respiratory changes were indicative of deception.


Found out that changes in systolic blood pressure were of greater value in determining deception
than changes in respiration.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GALVANOGRAPH COMPONENT

GEORG STICKER 1897


1. First to suggest the use of the galvanograph for detecting deception based on the work of several
predecessors.
2. Theorized that the galvanic skin phenomena was influenced by exciting mental impressions and
that the will have no effect upon it.
OTTO VERAGUTH 1907
1. First to use the term PSYCHOGALVANIC REFLEX.
2. Believed that the electrical phenomenon was due to the activity of the sweat glands.

D.

OTHER PERSONALITIES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE POLYGRAPH AS KNOWN TODAY


HUGO MUNSTERBURG (1908)
1. Proposed that lie test based on lie detector should be admissible as evidence in court.
2. The detection is based on using blood pressure variations for deception detection.
3. He advocates the used of lie detection in court.
4. But it was not known if the same was followed.
CHARLES SAMSON FERE (1888)
1. French Scientist who discovered that electro dermal response is caused by an increase in the
action of the heart and vital energy converted with human emotions.
2. He asserted that human body has the ability to generate store, discharged high voltage of static
electricity.
JACQUES DARSONVAL (1851-1940)
1. French Scientist who declared that electricity is generated by the body and named External Friction
as source of generation.
2. He assorted those sweat glands which the body at times store the electricity and at other times
discharged them.
3. His works helped in the development of the galvanometer.
PAUL WILHELM AND DONALD BURNS (1951)
1. Michigan City, Indiana, USA, (Independent Lie Detector Specialists) who invented the Electronic
Psychometric using Electrodermal Response as a basis for lie detection.
2. Both have proven that results of lie detection test (during) using their instrumental 95% accurate.
CHESTER W. DARROW (1932)
1.
Made a third modification to the Larson Cardio-Pneumo Psychograph, by adding a
galvanometer. The new instrument included a psycho-galvanometric record, electrodes on the
palm and back of the hand, as well as a continuous blood pressure record, and a pneumographic
record.
JOHN E. REID (1945)
1.
Devised an instrument for recording muscular activity.
2.
The recording made simultaneously with blood pressure pulse respiration tracings, renders
much more accurate any diagnosis based upon these later phenomena.

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SIR JAMES MACKENZLE (1906)


1.
Generally overlooked in that history of the lie detector technique is the fact that so called
polygraph was in existence at least as early as 1906.
2.
Its invention, however as not for lie detection purposes, rather for the use in medical
examination.
3.
Nevertheless, it did contain the essential features of present day instrument and first
construction was based upon the same principle.
4.
Its inventor was Sir James Mackenzle, the famous English Heart Specialist which articles
entitled The Ink Polygraph which appeared in 1908 number of the English Journal.
CLEVE BACKSTER (1947)
1. Develop the control question technique which introduces a lie in the polygraph chart to establish a
yard sticks so that one would know what the reaction really means.
2. If this person responds to this control lie to a greater extent than does to the actual questions under
investigation we assume and establish the subject is telling the truth at that point.
3. If the reverse is true we state that he is not telling the truth at that point.
THE LEE PSYCHOGRAPH - This instrument was designed by Captain Clarence D. Lee and known as the
Berkeley Psychograph. It consists essentially of four units:
a) Chart drive or recording unit
b) Pneumograph or respiration unit
c) Cardiograph or pulse-blood pressure unit
d) Stimulus signal unit
PSYCHOLOGY OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION
Psychology of the Lying Person
The polygraph technique uses the principle that the bodily functions of a person are influenced by his mental
state. The physiological changes accompanying deception are capable of being recorded, measured and interpreted
with reasonable certainty.
Telling a lie is usually an emotional experience. A conscious act of lying causes the mind of the examinee,
which produces an emotion of fear or anxiety, manifested by fluctuations in pulse rate, blood pressure, breathing and
perspiration. The physiologic fluctuations that come with the emotion are in nature automatic, self-regulating and
beyond conscious control because they affect the functioning of the internal structures that prepare the body for
emergency.
The underlying psychology here includes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The lying person fears detection, causing physiological changes to take place in his body.
Fear of detection must be experienced by the subject; otherwise no physiological changes will occur.
A person tunes in that which indicates trouble or danger by having his sense organs and attention for a
particular stimulus, and he tunes out that which is of a lesser threat to his self-preservation or general wellbeing.
In a series of questions containing relevant and control questions, the lying subjects will tune in on the most
intense relevant questions and tune out the control question and may not be materially affected by other
weak relevant questions.
The truthful subject will direct his attention to the control question wherein he consciously knows he is
deceptive and tune out the relevant ones.

Theory of Polygraph Examination


A conscious mental effort of a mentally normal person lie causes physiological changes within his body. The
physiological changes could be recorded by the Polygraph Instrument and diagnosed of evaluated by the polygraph
examiner.

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The physiological effector mechanism in polygraph examination is the Autonomic Nervous System. The
autonomic nervous is the one responsible for regulating mechanism that corrects the slightest deviation from a
particular standard within very fine limits. Sleeps, oxygenation of the blood temperature, levels of potassium, sodium,
calcium magnesium and all the essential chemical substances that maintain the activity of all cell membranes are finely
adjusted. This is found at the center of the brain and its central controls is in the hypothalamus a group of nerve
cells of the brain that reflexes those that we cannot control consciously such as our heart beat, pulse rate, increase
and decrease in blood pressure and the expansion and constriction of arteries are governed by the autonomic nervous
system. When one of our senses detects a threat to our well-being, it sends a signal to the autonomic nervous system,
which activates its sympathetic division regardless whether threat is physical or psychological.
In polygraph testing, the receptor is the ear of the subject, which receives the threatening question or
stimulus from the polygraphist. The stimulus is transmitted from the ears via sensory neurons into the brain where the
hypothalamus analyzes, evaluates and resolves that particular question. It makes a decision for the subject as to
whether it is threatening situation. If affirmative, the hypothalamus immediately activates the sympathetic subdivision of
the autonomic nervous system. When the sympathetic system is activated, it immediately prepares the body for the
fight or flight by the situation by causing the adrenal glands to secret hormones known as epinephrine and
norepinephrine, so that the blood will be distributed to those areas of the body where it is most needed to meet the
emergency, such as the brain and the larger muscle group. The chemical norepinephrine causes the arterioles in
certain parts of the body to constrict. Thereby preventing blood from entering those areas where it is not immediately
needed. Other obvious effect took place when the sympathetic system is activated, the heart pumps blood harder and
faster, increasing blood pressure, pulse rate, and strength, thus furnishing more oxygenated blood to those areas of
the body where it is vitally needed to meet the emergency, such as the brain when increased mental activity is
demanded. The second division of the autonomic nervous system is the parasympathetic nervous system. It is
functionally antagonistic to the sympathetic nervous system. Its role is to maintain the homeostasis of the body
necessary for normal functioning. Therefore, it follows to re-establish the chemical balance of the body.
What are the Tripod Foundations of Polygraph Technique?
1.
2.

3.

The Mechanical Leg Basic Premise - The polygraph machine is mechanically capable of making graphical
records containing reliable information regarding physiological changes
The Physiological Leg Basic Premise - Among the physiological changes that may be recorded and
identified are those that automatically occur only following the stimulation of specific nervous system
component and from which stimulation of those specific nervous system components can be reliably
diagnosed.
Psychological Leg Basic Premise - Under the polygraph leg premise, the specific nervous system
component whose stimulation can thus be diagnosed are so stimulated by the involuntary mental and
emotional processes of the individual who is consciously attempting concealment of deception specially if
that individual has something at stake and the prevailing circumstances lead him to believe that exposure to
detection is quite possible though undesirable.

GOALS, USES AND PURPOSES OF POLYGRAPH TECHNIQUE


What is the ultimate objective of conducting Polygraph examination?
The ultimate objective of Polygraph Examination is to obtain the Subjects ADMISSION or CONFESSION of
the offense committed.
General Purposes of using Polygraph
Polygraph Examination is generally used an investigative aid/technical aid in the investigative process. It is
used to verify if the statement of the victims/complainant, establish the credibility of the witnesses, evaluates the
truthfulness of the suspects. It is also used for pre-employment screening and loyalty check of personnel.
Generally, it deals with

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Security risk Leakage of Information Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence.


Criminal Law Infraction Murder, Robbery, Theft, Rape etc.
Personnel Screening
Misconduct
Medical Measurements

Importance of Polygraph to a Law Enforcer


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Most effective way of establishing the truth.


Guilt is separated from truth (guilty separated from innocent)
If scientifically determined (lie) the investigator can evaluate the evidence.
Saves time, efforts and money
Measures the efficiency and effectiveness of the law enforcer.

What is the Accuracy of the Polygraph Exam Result?


This has been the unending question among many of us. However, practitioners have agreed that the
accuracy of the polygraph results ranges from 85% to 100% depending upon the factors that affect it.

Factors that Affects the Accuracy of the Polygraph Results


1.
2.
3.
4.
1.

Generally, the following are factors affecting polygraph examination accuracy:


The instrument.
The condition of the Subject.
The condition of the examination room.
The qualification and skills of the examiner.
Specifically, the 25% errors of lie detection test come from the following circumstances:
Nervousness or extreme emotional tension experienced by a subject who is telling the truth regarding the
offense in question but who is nevertheless affected by:
a. Apprehension induced by the mere fact that suspicion or accusation has been directed against
him.
b. Apprehension over the possibility of an inaccurate lie detector test result.
c. Over-anxiety to cooperate in order to assure an accurate test result.
d. Apprehension concerning possible physical hurt from the instrument.
e. Anger resentment over having to take a lie detector test.
f. Over-anxiety regarding serious personal problems unrelated to the offense under investigation.
g. Previous extensive interrogation, especially when accompanied by physical abuse.
h. A guilt complex or fear of detection regarding some other offense which he had committed.

2.

Physiological abnormalities such as:


a. Excessively high or excessive low blood pressure.
b. Diseases of the heart.
c. Respiratory disorder.

3.

Mental Abnormalities such as;


a. Feeblemindedness as in idiots, imbeciles and morons.
b. Psychosis or insanities, as in maniac-depressives, paranoids, schizophrenia, paretics, etc.
c. Pschoneurosis and psychopathia, as among the so-called peculiar or emotionally unstable
persons those who are neither psychotic or normal.

4.

Unresponsiveness in a lying or guilty subject because of:


a. No fear of detection.
b. Apparent inability to consciously control response by means of certain mental sets of attitudes.

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c.
d.
e.

A condition of sub-shock or adrenal exhaustion at the time of test.


Raionalization of the crime in advance of the test to such an extent that lying about the offense
arouses little or no emotional disturbance.
Extensive interrogation prior to the test.

5.

Attempt to beat the machine by controlled breathing or by muscular flexing.

6.

Unobserved application of muscular pressure which produces ambiguities and misleading indications in the
blood pressure tracing.

What are the limitations of the Polygraph?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

It is an invaluable investigative aid, but never a substitute for investigation.


It is not a lie detector; it is a scientific diagnostic instrument.
It does not determine facts, it record responses to that which the subject knows to be true.
It is only as accurate as the examiner is competent.
The test will not be given until enough facts have been established to permit the examiner to prepare a
complete set of suitable questions.
6. The test will not be given without the voluntary consent of the subject.
7. No indication will be given to any person or placed in any report that a person will be considered guilty
because he refused to take the test.
8. A test will not be given until the accusations have been explained with the subject.
9. No attempt to use Polygraph for mental or physical evaluation of any person.
10. No examination will be conducted on unfit subject.
What are the Barriers to the Polygraph Examination?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

There are instances where it is impossible to make an analysis of polygraph tests because of the following:
Pathological liar (a person who cannot determine right and wrong).
Mental cases.
Persons under the influence of intoxicating liquor.
Narcotics related cases.
Various heart and other organic troubles.

Problem encountered by Law Enforcement Officer during investigation and interrogation


1. Determination whether subject is telling the truth regarding the crime index investigation.
2. Obtaining admission or confession from a suspect after his guilt has been established.
3. In cases of witnesses, informer and informant who are in possession of helpful information who are willing
but fearful or reluctant to disclose it to interrogator.
Qualities of a Good Examiner (Backster)
1. To make himself understand and not resented by subject, by his very exposure to him.
2. Ability to establish or create a rapport with the subject.
3. Much investigative experience as possible.
4. Interrogation Experience.
5. Must be deeply involved in his work (even beyond the call of duty).
What kind of man should be conducting the Polygraph Test? (Fred Inbau)
1. Good educational background
2. Intelligent and some degree of maturity
3. Possessed with sense of values
4. Adequate period of training under someone who is experienced and skilled in the technique.
THE POLYGRAPH INSTRUMENT

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The instrument used in the proper application of the polygraph technique is essentially a pneumatically
operated mechanical recorder of changes in respiration, blood pressure/pulse heat supplemented with a unit for
recording galvanic skin reflexes, or an additional unit for recording abdominal respiration; muscular movements and
pressures; or a plethymograph for recording changes in blood oxygenation. Attachments for the human body
comprises of a rubber convoluted tube for the chest area, a blood pressure arm-cuff on one bicep, and, in some
models, an electrode on two fingers or on the palmer side of one hand. These attachments act as the detectors of the
physiological changes and transmit the same to the instrument where it is connected into mechanical impulses and
transformed into tracings of the respiration, blood pressure and skin resistance or the likes.
How Does the Polygraph Instrument Work?
The polygraph simultaneously records various physiological phenomena by means a horizontal kymograph.
The resulting polygram indicates tracing of external respiration in the thoraxic and abdominal cavities by means of a
pneumograph tambour assembly, systolic and diastolic contraction of the heart, as well as pulse fluctuations with the
resistance of a phygmonometer and psycho-galvanic skin response by means o instrument connected electronics
sensors fixed to the person. Each phenomenon is recorded by a hallow-tube ink styles moving across horizontally and
vertically ruled being driven by a synchronous electronic motor.
What are the Major Components of the Polygraph?
A. Pneumograph this occupy the two/upper pens of the instrument which records the thoraric and abdominal
breathing patterns of respiration. This is accomplished through the use of a pneumograph consisting of two
hollow corrugated tubes about seven inches in length, each attached to a unit by a rubber hose not longer
than six feet and not larger than one quarter inch in diameter. This breathing or pneumo unit is a low
pressure unit. The inhalation/exhalation of the subject causes the tubes to expand and contract, thereby
reflecting the change through billows to the pen into the chart.
B. Galvanometer this is the longest and the third pen of the instrument. The electrodes are attached to the
index finger and the ring finger of the left hand, or to the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the left hand. The
electrodes used for obtaining the recording of the GSR or electro-dermal responses, are fastened to the
hand or finger by means of the passage of an imperceptible amount of electrical current through the hand or
finger bearing the attached electrodes, a galvanometer unit provides recording of the variation in the flow of
the electrical current.
C. Cardiosphymograph this is the fourth and the bottom pen of the instrument. This cardio unit is a
mechanically operated unit. It is a high pressure system. This system records changes in mean blood
pressure, rate and strength of pulse beat by means of a medical blood pressure cuff containing a rubber
bladder that is wrapped around the upper arm, in a manner that places the bladder against the brachial
artery. The bladder is connected to the rubber hose, past a pressure indicating gauge to a very sensitive
billows and its connected lever system that powers the pen. The polygraphist inflates the bladder with a hand
pump to a constant air pressure that will provide tracing amplitude of 0.75 to 1 inch with a dichotic notch
situated about the middle of the diastolic limb of the tracing.
D. Kymograph This is the chart recording unit of the instrument. It has a synchronized motor that drives the
charts at the rate of six inches per minute and its speed constant is vital because the vertical lines, which are
spaced either at one-half or one inch interval, represents five or ten seconds interval on the chart. This
provides the polygraphist with a means of determining pulse rater and question spacing.
What are the Detachable Parts and Accessories?
1. KYMOGRAPH or chart driving mechanism:
a) Chart roll arbor - Idler roller - Pen table - Paper guides - Sprocket roller - Cutter bar - Off and on
power switch - Synchronous motor
2. Pen and Inking System:
a) Capillary pen
b) Ink well plates
c) Ink dropper
d) Cuct bill

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3. Pneumograph section:
a) Rubber jellows
b) Beaded chain
c) Rubber flexible tubing
d) Pneumograph tube connection
e) Pneumograph connecting tube
f) Pneumograph distributing ink
g) Pneumograph pipe line
h) Vent valve and vent bottom
i) Tambour assembly
j) Sphygmomanometer
k) Resonance control
4. Cardio section:
a) Pump bulb assembly
b) Blood pressure pump connection
c) Blood pressure cuff assembly
d) Connector block
e) Sphygmomanometer pipe line
5. Galvanograph section:
a) Hand electrode
b) Electrode jellow
c) Galvanometer
Electrodes and Controls
1.
2.
3.

RESONANCE CONTROL It allows you to clear up or make a better pattern when you have too much pulse
pressure of the subject.
HAND ELECTRODE This is fastened to the hand by a stretched band. Function is to make electrical
contact with the subject.
PANEL CONTROL to allow the operator to control or adjust the operation of the galvanograph.
There are other five important controls:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Off and on power switch on switch is to energize the galvanograph section.


Subjects resistance control is to balance the galvo section to the skin resistance of the subject.
Reactivity control to adjust sensitivity of the galvo section.
Self-centered normal switch is to select either mode of operation.
Self-centering mode is when the circuit electronically centers the pen itself after every excursion.

CONTROL OF THE CARDIO-SPHYGMOGRAPH SECTION


1.
2.
3.

Manual centering knob used to place cardio in its proper place on the chart.
Vent Valve is used to left atmospheric pressure into the system and used to release pressure all or parts of
the pressure.
Resonance control is used to decrease the amplitude of the cardio tracing and used to sharpen the
diacrotic notch.

HOW TO OBTAIN BLOOD PRESURE PATTERN OR TRACING (CARDIO)


Pen balance is critical. Pen is to be held on paper by friction of the. Inflate pressure until you reach subjects
mean pressure. The mean pressure is the midway between the systolic and the diastolic is the lowest pressure. In

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order to get the arithmetic mean pressure, add the diastolic and systolic and the sum divided it by two. To get the
geometric mean pressure, plus diastolic, watch your sphyg-dial when inflating the pressure, for maximum deflection.
CONTROLS OF THE PNEUMOGRAPH SECTION
1.
2.
3.

Manual centering knob used to position base line of the pneumo tracing on the upper heavy horizontal line.
Vent with the vent down, the system is closed and unoperative. With the vent up, the system is open and
ready for use.
Uses of the vent:
a) To stop the pen between the tests and to prevent possible tambour assembly.
b) To prevent pen from possible jam by moving up or down in one place of the chart paper.
c) To stop pen during the tube adjustment.
d) To assists in gaining amplitude.
e) To let atmospheric into the system.

HOW TO OBTAIN PROPER TRACINGS OF THE PNEUMO


First observe subject for point of maximum chest motion. Placed tube at point where maximum motion is
observed. The tube must be smug. A tube that is too loose will result in a distorted pattern. A tube is too tight will be
uncomfortable and distort the pattern. With female subjects the tube is almost, always placed above the breast. Some
females are abdominal breathers and tubes will have to be lowered.
CAUSES OF REACTION ON EXURSION OF THE PEN
1. Sudden noise
2. Interruption
3. Extraneous thoughts
4. Sudden movements
HOW TO OBTAIN PROPER TRACING IN MODEL 63 KEELER MACHINE: (GALVO)
Turn power switch from off and on position. Then the galvo pen fails to the bottom of the chart, and then
galvo section is then ready for operation from 15 to 18 seconds after you have turned the switch to an on position.
APPLICATION OF THE ELECTRODES TO THE SUBJECT
Position of hands or tip of fingers for convenience, adjust the sensitivity - Sensitivity test - Have subject take
a deep breath, Touch subject ear or neck, Quick motion within subjects line of vision.
TECHNICAL PRODUCTION OF THE CARDIO TRACING
1.

The ascending limb pulse wave causes an expansion of the arterial wall and an increase surface
pressure against the cuff bladder thus forcing air from the bladder through the tubing into the tambour. The
increasing air volume in the tambour increases pressure against the bellows and forces the bellows forward.
This forward movement provides power to move the penfork in the attached pen in a lateral clockwise or
upward direction pen in a lateral clockwise or upward direction of the chart surface.

2.

Descending limb when a pulsed wave passes beyond cuff bladder attendant drop in a surface pressure
against bladder reverses this processes permitting the below to return to or toward its original position. This
return of the bellows to its original position is transmitted to the penforks and attached pen as a lateral
counter clockwise or downward stoke on chart surface.

3.

Diacrotic notch is cause by the minor secondary pulse wave passing under and beyond the blood
pressure cuff. In the wake of subsiding primary wave which momentarily halts or slow down the decrease in

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the surface pressure against the bladder in turn causing a hesitation in the bellow movement back to or
towards its original position.
TECHNICAL PRODUCTION OF THE PNEUMOGRAPH TRACING
1.

Ascending limb with the expansion of the chest during the inhalating, the air capacity in the pneumograph
tube is increased creating a vacuum within the system, which reduces the internal surface pressure against
the bellow. Thus moving the bellows backward causing a lateral clockwise or upward stroke of the pen.

2.

Descending limb cause by the exhalation thus reversing this process causing an increase in internal
surface pressure against the bellows, thus moving the bellow to or toward its original position and producing
a lateral counter-clockwise or a downward movement of the pen.

TECHNICAL PRODUCTION OF THE GALVO TRACING


1.

The ascending limb it is caused by the decrease of the subjects resistance which throws the established
circuit out of balance and modifies the electric current flow through the magnetic field surrounding the pivotmovement of the recording pen.

2.

Descending limb:
a) Physical cause is caused by a reverse in the subject resistance toward the original position thus
bringing the circuit back to or toward balance again producing a lateral clockwise or downward
movement of the pen.
b)

Mechanical cause the fine coil springs attached to the pivot mountain pen cradle serve as counter
balance for pen movement either above or below the established base line and assists in returning the
pen cradle to or towards the original position.

COMPUTING RATE
Graph paper is lined and spaced in seconds. It is moving under pens at a uniform rate of six inches per
minute. Rate is kept uniform through medium of synchronized motor. From one heavy vertical line constitute a five
second period. It is also one half inch. Cont the beats inside any five seconds scale multiply by twelve. This gave you
number of heartbeats at any point in the test. For greater accuracy you count the beats in two five seconds area
multiply by six.
THE EXAMINER
Basis to all that has been said with regards to the utilization and accuracy of the polygraph technique is the
matter of the examiner qualifications and skills.
An Examiner must be an intelligent person, with reasonably good educational background preferably
college degree. He should have an intense interest in the work itself, a good practical understanding of human nature,
and suitable personality traits which may be evident from his otherwise general ability to get along with people and to
be well liked by his friends and associates. No amount of training or experience will overcome lack of these necessary
qualifications.
THE SUBJECT
Types or kinds of Subjects for Polygraph Test are:
1. Subject whose guilt is definite or reasonably certain.
2. Emotional offender
3. Person who commit crimes in the heat of passion
4. Person whose offenses are for accidental in nature
5. Non-Emotional offender
6. Person who commit crimes for financial gain

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7.

Subject whose guilt is doubtful or uncertain

Three (3) General Types of Subjects


1. Victim or Complainant
2. Witness
3. Suspects
Take Note: All Subjects must be in good physical and mental condition before he/she may be submitted for
polygraph examination. The following may not be submitted for Polygraph Test:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Person who has extreme nervousness


Person who has physiological abnormalities such as high blood
pressure/hypertension, heart disease, respiratory disorder, toothaches, severe headaches and
practically any painful ailments.
Person with mental abnormalities
Unresponsive persons, such as person who suffer mental fatigue or under the
influence of drugs or alcohol.
Pregnant woman
Person below 18 years of age.

THE POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION


THE EXAMINATION ROOM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Lie-detector test should be conducted in a quiet private room.


Select a room with none of the usual police surroundings and with no distraction within the subjects view.
Select a room without any windows at all.
The interrogation room should contain no ornaments, pictures or other objects which would distract the
attention of the person being tested or interviewed.
This suggestion refers to the presence within the subjects reach of small loose objects such as papers, clips
or pencils that he may be inclined to peck up and further distract during the course of the interrogation.

(EFFECT) Tension relieving activities of this sort detract from the effectiveness of this interrogation, especially
during the critical phase when a guilty subject may be trying desperately to suppress an urge to confess.
6.

Estrange noise such as the ringing of a telephone or the conversation of persons outside the examination
room, of the presence of the arresting officers or other spectators in the room itself, may produce
disturbances and distractions which will interfere with a satisfactory diagnosis of deception.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
When conducting the polygraph examination:
1.
2.
3.

In order to conduct a satisfactory lie-detector test, kit is advisable for the examiner to obtain from the
investigators interested in the case, all the available facts and circumstances forming the basis of the
accusation or suspicion directed against the person to be examined.
This will include, of course, the details of the case itself. Such information is essential to the examiner so that
he will be in a position to know questions should be asked of the subject during the test.
The subject who is about to be tested should be informed of the nature of the test and purpose of it. The
instrument should be pointed out to him as one which is capable of determining whether or not a person is
telling the truth about a given matter. He should be informed that it records certain bodily changes and that

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4.

5.

the instrument will not cause any physical pain except for a slight temporary discomfort occasioned by the
blood pressure cuff.
The writer made it a practice, at this point in the proceeding to tell to the subject somewhat as follows: If you
are telling the truth you have nothing to worry about, this instrument will indicate you are telling the truth, and
Ill report the fact to the officers who requested me to make the test. The machine itself will show it; and Ill tell
you so, and then Ill ask you to let me hear the truth. That is fair enough, isnt it? And you dont mind taking
the test, do you?
Experience has indicated that such statement tends to relieve the emotional tensions in a person who is
telling the truth, and at the same time they offer no relief to the liar. Moreover, the asking of as regarding the
subjects consent has proved worthwhile in those cases where the criminal confessions are obtained as a
result of the test.

IMPORTANT REMINDERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Do not wait until the last minute to ask a person to take the test.
Do not tell the subject everything that you know about the offense or about him.
Do not fail to investigate the case before you ask a person to take the test.
If for some reasons, it must be temporarily taken, the investigator must continue investigating the case.
Do not depend on mass screening of possible suspects to produce a real or the guilty one.
Do not tell anyone that the lie detector will decide whether one is innocent or guilty. The court will make the
decision.
If the test indicates that the person did not tell the truth or if the person confesses after the test, do not think
that the investigation is over.

FOUR (4) PHASES OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION


1.

PHASE I (PRELIMINARY PREPARATIONS) - Initial Interview with the investigator handling the
case or person requesting it. The group involve in this stage are the Victim / Complaint, Suspects, Witnesses.
This stage includes obtaining and evaluation of facts, determining the areas the subjects needs to be asked
and the investigator must furnish the examiner of the following:
a. Sworn statement of the suspect / witnesses/ victim/ complainant, Incident or spot report, B.I. of the
suspect, witnesses, and victim / complainants, rough sketch or pictures of the crime scene and
other facts such as Specific article and exact amount of money stolen.
b. Peculiar aspect of the offense or any strange set.
c. Exact time the offense was committed.
d. Known facts about the suspects action or movement.
e. Facts indicating any connection between the suspects, victim and witnesses.
f. Exact type of weapon, tool or firearms used.
g. Result of laboratory test.
h. Unpublished facts of the offense known only by the victim, suspects and the investigator.

2.

PHASE II - PRE-TEST INTERVIEW with the subject - The primary purpose of the pre-test
interview of to prepare or condition the subject for the test.
a. The appraisal of subjects constitutional right.
b. Obtain subjects consent to undergo polygraph test by signing a statement of consent.
c. The taking of personal data of the subject.
d. Determining his/her suitability as a subject.
e. Evaluating the psychological preparation of the subject.
f. Informing the subject of his involvement with the case.
The following rights of the subject must be informed clearly to him/her:
a. The right to remain silent
b. Anything he/she say may be used in favor or against him/her
c. The right to have a lawyer of his/her own choice
d. Right to refuse

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As earlier noted, subjects will not be scheduled for examination when they:
a. are obviously fatigued or in ill health.
b. are physically injured or in pain.
c. their judgment is obviously influenced by or impaired by drugs or alcohol.
d. have just suffered emotional trauma.
The examiners interview with the subject prior to the test is of considerable importance, both for the purpose
of conditioning the subject for the examination and also in order to provoke and observe the helpful indications of guilt
and innocence which are often forthcoming at this time.
The following is the detailed outline of the pre-test interview which has been found to be effective. (We are
assuming in the case illustrated that the subject has already been advised of the fact that he is to be given a liedetector test.)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

3.

As the examiner enters the waiting room to request the subject to accompany him into the
examination room, the greeting which the examiner extends should be cordial, but firm.
Upon entering the examination room the subject should be requested to sit down in a chair
alongside the instrument, and immediately thereafter the examiner should proceed to the taking of
the consent of the subject.
Then fill up the necessary data asked in the interrogation log.
Afterwards inquire from the subject whether he has been on a lie detector test before. No further
comment should be made by the examiner but he should listen carefully to whatever the subject
himself may say.
If the subject has not told of the purpose of his appearance in the testing laboratories, the examiner
should explain that a lie detector test is desired of him as part of the investigation regarding the
case. Much time should be spent in the preliminary interview as the circumstances reasonably
warrants.

PHASE III (THE EXAMINATION/INSTRUMENTAL TEST) The conduct of Instrumentation and


Actual Test.

After the pre-test interview, the examiner should proceed to place the attachment on the subject. The first to
be attached is Pneumograph, then the Cardiosphymograph and the Galvanograph. Review all the questions with the
subject before the actual examination is made. The examiner should discourage any comments or statement by the
subjects. Test instrument must be given to the subject.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

f.
g.

Upon completion of the necessary preliminary preparation the instruments is attached to the subject.
The blood pressure pulse cuff is wrapped around snugly around the subjects upper arm and the
pneumograph tube adjusted around the chest.
If female subjects or around the body, if male subjects or around the torso of male subjects.
The cuff is then inflated to a point approximate midway between the systolic and diastolic blood
pressure. That is midway between the pressure produced by the output action of the heart and that
maintained at the time of the hearts intake action.
The synchronous motor carrying the paper upon which blood pressure pulse respirations recording are
made is then set in motion, the motor being so timid that the paper moves along at the rate of a out six
inches per minute, then ten to fifteen seconds after the instrument has been set in motion, the inked
filled pens of the instruments are permitted to make their blood pressure pulse respiration tracings
before the question are asked of the subject.
During the test period the subject is informed that he will be asked several questions which should be
answered by either yes or no answers, and that they are so brief and to the point.
Approximately five to ten seconds after this instruction first question is asked and then the other
questions follows after or at the interval of fifteen or twenty seconds.

Take Note: The questions may be written in advance of the test or in the course of the test during the
intervals between the asking of each question. The phraseology of the test question is an extremely important aspect

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of the examination. The questions, and every word used in the questions must be unambiguous, unequivocal, and
thoroughly understandable by the subject. The questions must be states as simply as possible, and with a complete
avoidance of such double inquires as Did you shoot him and then run into the house? All questions must have only a
single, unambiguous meaning. Avoid lengthy questions and avoid legal terms such as rape, murder, embezzlement,
etc.
Limiting Scope of Questions - The relevant test questions used in any examination should be confined to a
single case investigation. The Polygraph technique is not effective for stimulation testing regarding two or more
unrelated occurrences. With all the gadgets attached to the body of the subject, the instrument will start running by
applying pressure on a button. The subject then will be asked to answer the following standard test questions:
a.
Irrelevant questions (unleaded/immaterial questions) these are questions which have no
bearing to the case under investigation.
b.
Relevant questions (leaded/material questions) these are questions pertaining to the issue
under investigation. It is equally important to limit the number of relevant questions to avoid discomfort
to the subject. Relevant questions must be very specific to obtain an accurate result.
c.
Control questions These are questions unrelated to the matter under investigation but are of
similar nature although less serious as compared to those relevant questions under investigation. The
use of control question is considered by many polygraphists to be the most reliable and effective
questioning technique. These are usually asked if there is doubt in the interpretation of the subjects
response to relevant and irrelevant questions.
4.

PHASE IV POSTTEST INTERVIEW/ INTERROGATION - This includes all consideration that


bears on the examination. This is done just after the instrument is turned off. If the Polygraph test result
indicates deception, the examiner will then proceed to conduct short interrogation. The purpose of which is
to obtain confession. However, if the Polygraph indicates that the subject is innocent; the examiner will just
release the subject cordially and thanks him/ her for his/her cooperation.
The purposes of further questioning after the test are:
a.
b.
c.

to clarify the findings;


to learn if there are any other reasons for the subjects responding to a relevant question, other than the
knowledge of the crime; and
to obtain additional information and an admission for law enforcement purposes, if the results suggest
deception.

THE TEST CONSTRUCTION AND PROCEDURES


The polygraph test consists of asking the subject/ person though the transducer of the instrument, a list of
prepared questions in a planned sequence; comprising of not more than twelve. At least 3 test charts are taken, each
lasting not more than four (4) minutes with a rest interval of five (5) to ten (10) minutes between charts.
There are two general types of questions to be constructed and maybe supplemented by other types of
questions:
1. General Question Test most commonly applied.
2. Peak-of-Tension Test usually used as supplementary test.
There are five set of tests that maybe applied:
Test I General Question Test - Purposes: To get the standard tracing of the subject and to establish a
true telling pattern for the initial part of the record.
Test II Number Test (Psychological Test) - To check the possible deliberate distortion when the chosen
number is asked and to obtain a chart wherein the subject is not under stress.
Test III Spot Responder - To determine the responsiveness of the subject to crucial question on spot
responses.
Test IV Mix Question - To compare the degree of reaction between control and relevant question.

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Test V Silence Answer Test (SAT) - It is a confirmatory test with the silence answer test.
THE GENERAL QUESTION TEST (GQT)
This consists of a series of Relevant & Irrelevant Questions asked in a planned order. Questions are so
arranged as to make possible a comparison of responses to relevant questions with a subjects norm made during the
answering of irrelevant questions. There are other types of questions asked in the GQT:
a.

Weak Relevant Question it concern some secondary element of the crime or problem and deals with
mostly in guilty knowledge and partial involvement.

b.

Strong Relevant Question it is defined as verbal stimulus of primary important projected in the form of a
question which overcome a psychological excitement level and causes pneumograph, cardiosphygmograph,
and galvanograph tracings changes from the subjects physiological norms.

c.

Evidence Connecting Question it is designed to stimulate the guilty subject and focus his attention on the
probability of incriminating proof that would tend to establish his guilt.

d.

Knowledge Question this question is designed or begun to probe whether the subject possess
information regarding the identity of the offender, the location of evidences or items of secondary element of
the case.

There are rules to be followed in the formulation of questions such as the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Questions must be simple and direct.


They must not involved legal terminology such as rape, murder, etc.
They must be answerable by yes or no and should short as possible.
Must be short as possible.
Their meaning must be clear and unmistakable phrase in a language that the subject can easily understand.
They must not be in the form of accusation.
Question must never contain an inference which presupposes knowledge on the part of the subject.
All questions must refer to one offense only.
All questions must refer to only one element of an offense.
They must not contain interferences to ones religion races or belief.

General Question Test (GQT) Sample


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Have you ever been called by the name Allan? (Irrelevant)


Is today Monday? (Irrelevant)
Do you have anything to do with the robbery at SM/ Shoemart last night? (Weak Relevant)
Are you over 20 years of age? (Irrelevant)
Were you one of those who robbed the SM/ Shoemart last night? (Strong Relevant)
Have you been involved in a robbery case this year? (Control Question-Relevant)
Do you drink water? (Irrelevant)
Was the pair of gloves found at SM yours? (Evidence Connecting-Relevant)
Do you know of anyone involved in the robbery at SM/ Shoemart last night? (Knowledge QuestionRelevant)

10.
11.

Have you ever been involved in any robbery in your entire life? (Secondary Control - Relevant)
Have you deliberately lied to any question I have asked you? (Relevant-Check Question (optional))

OTHER QUESTIONS
1.

Check Question last question asked in the lie test. It is direct question that relates to the fact that the
subject has told the truth to all questions asked in the lie test.

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2.

Fishing Expedition Test Question Used to vagrants or loiters for routine interrogation. No idea about
what offense has been committed. Examples: a. Have you ever been arrested before? b. Are you wanted
anywhere now by the police? c. Have you stolen anything since you have been in tour?

SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS
Aside from the standard tests described above, the following special tests may be performed and
incorporated as part of the procedure or may be used as supplementary tests depending upon the result of the
standard test in order to draw a better conclusion.
A. PEAK-OF-TENSION TEST (PTT)
The subject may be given this test if he is not yet informed of the details of the offense for which he is being
interrogated by the investigation, or by other persons or from other sources like the print media. This valid test is only
made possibly when there is no widespread publicity about a crime where intimate details as to the methods of
commission or certain facts of the case is known from the victim and investigator.
The questions formulated are similar in nature and construction, only one of which is true and the perpetrator
who would naturally be in possession of such unpublicized knowledge will usually exhibit a rise in the tracing up to that
particular question followed by a decline thereafter, caused by the relief of knowing that a dreaded question dangerous
to his well-being, is past.

Examples of Peak-of-Tension Test:


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Do you know whether the stolen watch from Allan is a Seiko? (This is an introductory phrase plus padding
question)
Is it an Omega? (Padding)
Is it a Rolex? (Padding)
Is it Timex? (Relevant question)
Is it Alba quartz? (Padding)
Is it a Citizen? (Padding)

B. GUILT COMPLEX TEST (GCT)


This test is applied when the response to relevant and control questions are similar in degree and in
consistency and in a way that the examiner cannot determine whether the subject is telling the truth or not. The subject
is asked questions aside from the irrelevant, relevant and control questions, a new series of relevant questions dealing
with a real incident and that which the subject could not have committed.
If the subject does not respond to the added relevant questions, it indicates that the subject was being
deceptive as to the primary issue under investigation. However, no conclusion can be drawn if the response to added
guilt complex is similar to the real issue questions.
C. SILENT ANSWER TEST (SAT)
This test is conducted in the same manner as when relevant and control questions are asked but the subject
is instructed to answer the questions silently, to himself, without making any verbal response causes distortion in the
tracing such as sniff or clearing the throat.
KINDS OF SPECIFIC TESTING
Known Solution Peak of Tension - This is administered when a fact relating to the event is known only to
the perpetrator of the offense and the victim, police and client. This material fact, whether it be particular sum of

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money, a particular make of weapon, etc. is inserted into test comprising a list of similar items, the examinee is tested
to determine his guilty knowledge.
Proving Peak of Tension - This is administered to obtain information that might prove valuable to an
investigation. It is designed to determine the location, disposition, modus operandi and amounts on the list of
possibilities.
Pre-employment Test - This test seeks to verify information contained in a job application and develop
relevant information deliberately committed by the subject.
Periodic Testing - This is conducted for the purpose of determining the honesty of employees assigned to
sensitive position. It also acts as a constant deterrent to employees dishonesty.
SIX (6) STEPS OF CHAIN REACTION THAT PRODUCE VISUAL RESPONSE
Step 1. The stimuli
Step 2. The absorption of the stimuli by the body senses which consist of hearing, seeing, smelling, feeling,
testing and extra-sensory faculties. (Body senses)
Step 3. The complicated process that takes place in human being manifested itself in what is called emotion.
Step 4. The action of the automatic nervous system
Step 5. The actual physiological changes that takes place with in the body as a result of the autonomic nervous
system and the well of the subject.
Step 6. The final occurrence in the reaction chain (Electro dermal Response)
DECEPTION DETECTION TRACED ON BODY RESPONSE
Voluntary Response - Include those over which the subject has definite control and include breathing rate
and amplitude. Eye movements, facial expressions, muscular movements-contraction and relaxation, oral or implied
answers, and the expressions of stipulated emotions.
Semi-Voluntary Response - Include metabolism changes emotional expressions reaction time in replies
and eye-movements. The average subject has some control over these.
Involuntary Response - Include electro dermal response, perspiration rates, adrenaline flow rates, blood
pressure and pulse rate chemical changes of the body fluids, psychological reactions, brain electrical currents, saliva
flow rates, body temperature changes, genuine emotion, face color changes, tremor and polarization of body
currents. The average subject has no control over these phenomena.
What are the Physiological Phenomena as basis of Detecting Deception?
A. Blood Pressure and Heart Beat Frequency
Increase of blood pressure and heartbeat frequency following relevant questions and the suppression in
breathing are the criteria for detecting deception.
Ink curves as shown on the heartbeat recorded on a moving graph paper of a polygraph represent the beat
frequency (pulse) and the two pressures (blood pressures) - a. Systolic or high pressure - They exist when the heart
is contracted and the values are open with the blood rushing into the arteries, b. Diastolic or Low pressure - This
exists when the values are closed and the heart relaxed.
Take note: Normal blood pressure is 120/80
The Heart is an automatic organ that continues to bat even when removed from the body of provided with
proper blood. The rate and force of the heart beat as regulated by two sets of nerves a. the sympathetic set - which
accelerate the beat and b. the cranial Autonomic system - which retard the beat.

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It is also known that adrenaline - a certain hormone increases the heartbeat frequency.
B. Breathing as a means of detecting deception. Breathing consists of two steps:
Inspiration - caused by the contraction of the diaphragm and expansion of the chest cavity those results in
the air rushing into the lungs.
Expiration caused by a relaxation of the diaphragm and contraction of the chest cavity resulting in the air
rushing out of the lungs.
Take Note: The following affects the breathing rates:
1.
muscular exercise (muscle movement/jogging)
2.
anticipation of muscular exercise (thinking to perform heavy work)
3.
recalling mentally emotional experience
4.
mental activity
5.
anxious expectancy
6.
shock
7.
surprise
C. Electrodermal Response
This is the most current popular name for the human body phenomenon in which the body, mainly the skin,
changes resistance electrically upon the application of certain external stimuli. It consists of two categories - Normal
Response and the Abnormal Response.
Examples of Abnormal Responses
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

Machine Fright Response - Interference abnormal response that originates in Step 2


(fright to the machine) of the reaction chain or situational fright. It appears on the first question or so and no
longer appears throughout the test.
Physical Movement Response - Interfering response caused by voluntary physical movement by the
subject during the lie test and is found between steps 4 and 5 of the reaction chain. The result of such
physical movement causes physiological (muscle) changes to take place within the body that shows up
electrodermal response.
Outside Interference Response - Interfering response originating in step 1 of the reaction chain in the form
of unwanted auditory or stimuli. The slamming of the door or the ringing of telephone, a cough or sneeze by
spectators in the room or any unusual noise to which the subject is not accustomed at the location, will
usually produce outside interference response.
Mental Tie-up Response - Interfering response which originates between step 2 (machine fright) and step 3
(emotion) in the reaction chain. Other name is guilt complex.
Deception Response - Abnormalities as a result of telling a lie (more on psychological and such also is
accompanied by physical changes).

CHART MARKING
To facilitate evaluation and interpretation of test charts, markings are made with the use of signs and symbols
to enable the examiner to determine the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

exact time the test commenced and terminated


initial and final blood pressure and galvanograph readings
particular point where each question asked started and ended. Corresponding identification of the question,
and the type and time of answer given by the subject
duration and amplitude of reaction patterns
any instruction given or repetition of question made
any movement, cough tracing by the suspect or outside distractions that occurred

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7.
8.
9.
10.

mechanical adjustment or re-adjustment made


extraneous factors affecting test chart such as paper jams
time interval between questions; and
chart number, name of subject, time, date, and place taken

SIGNS AND SYMBOLS (commonly used in Chart Marking)


X / 60 / 1.5 A
XX / 60 / 1.5 A
X
XX
60
1.5
A or M
| |
+
A
T
R
C
N
S
PJ
SN
BI
OS
M
IM
L
B
C+
CY
IS
CT

- first markings of the examiner on the chart


- examiners mark after the test
- start of the test
- end of the test
- millimeter of mercury shown in sphygmamometer dial
- ohms of skin electrical resistance
- refers to automatic or manual galvo amplifier used
- point where each question begins and end (also called stimulus mark)
- Yes answer to question
- No answer to question
- adjustment
- subject talked instead of answering with single Yes or No
- subject request for repetition of question
- coughing
- noise
- sigh by the subject
- paper jam
- subject sniffed
- breathing instruction
- tracing changed caused by outside stimulus
- movement
- movement instruction
- laugh
- used to signify belch
- increase in galvo sensitivity
- decrease in galvo sensitivity
- yawn
- ink stop
- clearing of throat

CHART INTERPRETATION
A. The accuracy of instrumental detection of deception is dependent upon the examiners ability to
diagnose truth or deception by reading and interpreting a subjects charts. The polygraph chart is the composite record
of the pneumograph, cardiograph and galvanograph tracing from one series of questions. The chart is ruled vertically
to represent time element at an interval of either in second, five seconds of ten seconds division and horizontally in
fractions of inch for amplitude measurements. There are three heavy spaced horizontal lines that serve as the
guideline for the 3 tracings. The motor that pills the chart under the recording pens has a constant speed of either 6 or
12 inches per-minute. A single test may consist of three or more charts taken from one series of questions.
B. The pnuemograph tracing normally, found at the top of the chart, is a record of a subjects respiratory
action during the questioning process and is classified as normal or abnormal. The pneumograph pattern consists of
inhalation and exhalation strikes with a normal amplitude of form to inches. The normal cyclic rate is from 13 to
18 breaths per minute and may vary in reasons of exceptional physical build condition or respiratory defect. The
classification of abnormal is generally applied to those patterns that deviate from the norm established by the
individual.
Descriptive types of breathing are:
Normal; Rapid; Slow; Shallow; Deep; Serrated inhalation / or both;

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Deviations caused by coughing and mechanics of answering


Pneumograph changes from the individual norm which may be indicative of deception are:
Change in rhythm or regularity; Change in amplitude or volume; Change in the inhalation / exhalation
ratio; Notched or serrated inhalation / exhalation strokes; Change of base line; Loss of base line;
Hyperverventilation; Suppression; Respiratory block
C. The galvanograph tracing, normally located at the center position. If the chart, when properly
balanced takes from of as lightly wavering line across the middle portion of the chart with a minor response to spoken
stimuli. Galvanic tracings which may be indicative of deception are:
1. Vertical rise at point of deception
2. Double saddle response
3. Long duration and / or degree of response following point of deception
4. Plugging salvo tracing
D. The cardiosphygmograph tracing normally found at the bottom of the chart, is the three
physiological phenomena, a systolic stroke, a diastolic strokes and a dichotic notch. Normal pulse rate of the average
individual is 72 to 80 beats per minute and may vary due to the emotional tone of the subject. Amplitude or volume is
also subject to variation and dictated by the physiological structure of the person and the cuff pressure. Tracing taking
the form of specific responses indicative of deception are:
1. Increase or decrease in blood pressure
2. Increase or decrease in pulse rate
3. Increase or decrease in amplitude
4. Change in position or disappearance of dichotic notch
5. Extra systoles (premature contradiction of an auricle or ventricle while fundamental rhythm of the
heart is maintained)
E. In the interpretation and analysis of charts taken in a Peak of Tension Test, the following area
considered in the evaluation of the level tracings:
1. An increase or decrease to point of deception then a level tracing.
2. An increase to point of deception and the an increase
3. A decrease to point of deception and then an increase
4. Level tracing to point of deception and then a decrease or increase
5. Erratic to point of deception and then an erratic tracing
6. Smooth to point of deception and then an erratic tracing
7. Any changes that may occur at point of deception
F. Other factors; that specific response to be considered as possible deception in chart evaluation
1. Distribution of reactions
2. Degree of reactions
3. Trend of gross curve
4. Rate of change of the curve
5. Latent period of reaction
6. Duration of reaction
G. For an effective chart interpretation, the following rules must be followed:
1. There must be a specific response
2. To be specific, it must form a deviation from norm
3. It must appear in at least two (2) test charts
4. The best indication of deception is the simultaneous specific responses in the three (3) tracings of
the chart.
LEGAL STATUS OF POLYGRAPH
When does the Polygraph Result is Admissible in Court?
1.

When the examination is conducted upon a court order.

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2.
3.
4.

When business suffers economic loss and the employee of that business who refuses the exam is
implicated.
When the polygraph is made a condition or precedent to employment in continuous employment.
When the nature of the subjects relation to the public so demand. (Public Trust is paramount).

What Law or Jurisprudence give the Basis of Admissibility?


The first appellate court decision upon the admissibility the results of a deception test was rendered in 1923
by a federal court in Fry V. United States, in which the accused (on trial for murder) offered as evidence the results of a
Marston systolic blood pressure test. The trial court refused to permit Dr. Marston to testify concerning his results,
and upon appeal this ruling was affirmed. The reason which impelled the court to arrive at the conclusion of
inadmissibility are very clearly stated in the following except from its reported opinion.
Ten years after the Fry case decision the Wiscons Supreme Court was called upon to consider the
admissibility of the results of a Polygraph examination. In this case, State V. Bohner, defense counsel offered to prove
that the results of a Polygraph examination established the truthfulness of the defendants alibi to a robbery charge,
which offer the trial court refused. Upon appeal the Wiscons in Supreme Court sustained the trial courts ruling and
held that although the Polygraph technique may have some utility at present, or may ultimately be of great value in the
administration of justice a too hasty acceptance of it during this stage of its development may be assumed to have.
Two cases regarding the admissibility of the results of tests conducted with a galvanic skin reflex recorder
were decided by the New York court in 1938. One of the cases, People V. Kenny, was a trial court decision; the other,
People V. forte, a decision of New Yorks highest court, the Court of Appeals. In the Kenny case the defendant (on trial
of robbery) offered in evidence the testimony of the late Father Summers of Fordham University regarding the results
of a test conducted with a galvanometer. Over the objection of the prosecuting attorney, the trial court admitted the
evidence and permitted the jury to consider the witness opinion as to the defendants innocence or guilt. The court in
the Kenny case apparently was impressed with Father Summers assertion to the effect that this pathometer was
effectively 100 percent efficient. Moreover, the effect of the Kenny case must viewed in the light of the latter and more
authoritative decision of the New York Court of Appeals in the Forte case.
In the case the defendant (on trial for murder) requested the courts permission to be tested on the same
instrument and by the same examiner (Summers) as in the Kenny case. This request was denied on the ground that
despite the view taken by the court in the Kenny case, the validity of such a test judicial acceptance. Upon appeal the
trial courts ruling was affirmed by the New York Court of Appeals.
COLLATERAL ASPECT OF POLYGRAPH
1.

Pre-employment Screening it provide a safe method in verifying statements of a job applicant, prevent
false evaluation and false judgment as reported by previous employer who carry a personal grudge against
him Done when the subject is applying for a job.

2.

Periodic Screening conducted to organic employees only, act as constant deterrent to employees
dishonesty and create a bond of mutual strength among employees. We call it as personnel check.

3.

Intelligence Testing provide a scientific method of testing the intelligence of a person.

ADVANTAGES OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT SCREENING FOR THE EMPLOYEE


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Prevent false evaluation and unfair judgment due to personality conflicts reported by a previous supervisor or
employer.
It does away with lengthy waiting while employment application is being check, telephone, telegram or letter.
Eliminate the potential hazard of a person knowing to work along side with other who might endanger their
live or job security.
Provides a safe method for a person to be cleared of unwarranted suspicion and unjust accusation and
malicious gossip.
It will create a bond of mutual strength between employees.

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6.

It create a desire for incentives

ADVANTAGES OF THE PRE-EMPLOYMENT SCREENING FOR EMPLOYER


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Provides an accurate method, whereby the employment background of an applicant and relevant issues
collateral thereto can be immediately checked and verify at a negligible cost.
Detect the chronic alcoholic job jumper and accident prone person.
Reveals some of the unusual aspect concerning the psychologically mal-adjusted agitator amateur and
professional theft in private industry.
Reduces costly personnel turnover by helping management put the right person on the job and ascertaining
an applicant attitude toward job permanent.
Acts as constant deterrent to employee dishonesty and permit basically honest employee to work in greater
harmony with basically honest employee.

USE OF THE WORD ASSOCIATION TEST


Lists of stimulus and non-stimulus word are read to the subject who is instructed to answer as quickly as
possible. The answers to the question may be yes or no. Unlike the lie detector, the time interval between the
words uttered by the examiner and the answer to the question is recorded
When the subject is asked questions with reference to his name, address, civil status, nationality, etc. which
has no relation to the subject-matter of the investigation, the tendency is to answer quickly. But when the questions
bear some words which have to do with the criminal act the subject allegedly committed, like knife, gun or hammer
which was used in the killing, the tendency is to delay the answer.
The test is not concerned with the answer, be it a yes or no. The important factor is the time of response
in relation to stimulus or non-stimulus words.
Like the use of the lie detector, the subject cannot be compelled to be subjected to the test without consent.
USE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS EVALUATOR (PSE)
When a person speaks, there are audible voice frequencies, and superimposed on these are the inaudible
frequency modulations which are products of minute oscillation of the muscle of the voice mechanism. Such
oscillations of the muscles or micro tremor occur at the rare of 8 to 14 cycles per second and controlled by the central
nervous system.
When a person I under stress as when he is lying, the micro tremor in the voice utterance is moderately or
completely suppressed. The degree of suppression varies inversely to the degree of psycho logic stress on the
speaker.
The psychological stress evaluator (PSE) detects, measures, and graphically displays the voice modulations
that we cannot hear.
When a person is relaxed and responding honestly to the question, those inaudible frequencies are
registered clearly on the instrument. But when a person is under stress, as when he is lying, these frequencies tend to
disappear.
Basic Procedure
a.
b.

The examiner meets the requesting party to determine the specific purpose of the exanimation and to begin
formulation of relevant questions.
A pre-test interview is conducted with the subject to help him or her feel at ease with the examiner, to
provide an opportunity to specify matters, to eliminate outside issues, and to review questions that will be
asked.

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c.
d.
e.

An oral test of about 12 to 15 yes or no questions is given which is recorded on a tape recorder. The
questions are a mixture of relevant an irrelevant questions.
Immediately following the test or are a late time, the tape is processed through the Psychological Stress
Evaluator for analysis of answer.
If stress is indicated, the subject is given authority to provide additional clarification. A retest is given to verify
correction and clarification.
Advantages of Psychological Stress Evaluator over the Lie Detector Machine

a.
b.
c.

It does not require the attachment of sensors to the person being tested.
The testing situation need not be carefully controlled to eliminate outside distraction
Normal body movement is not restricted.

USE OF DRUGS THAT INHIBIT THE INHIBITOR


ADMINISTRATION OF TRUTH SERUM
The term truth serum is a misnomer. The procedure does not make someone tell the truth and the thing
administered is not a serum but is actually a drug.
In the test, byosine hydro bromide is given hypodermically in repeated doses until a state of delirium is
induced. When the proper point is reached, the questions truthfully. He forgets his acts or may even implicate others.

NARCOANALYSIS OR NARCOSYNTHESIS
This method of deception detection is practically the same as that of administration of truth serum. The only
difference is the drug used. Psychiatric sodium amytal o sodium pentothal is administered to the subject. When the
effects appear, questioning starts. It is claimed that the drug causes depression of the inhibitory mechanism of the
brain and the subject talks freely.
The administration of the drug and subsequent interrogation must be done by a psychiatrist with a long
experience on the line. Like the administration of truth serum, the result of the test is not admissible in court.
INTOXICATION WITH ALCOHOL
The apparent stimulation effect of alcohol is really the result of the control mechanism of the brain, so
alcohol, like truth serum, and narcoanalytic drugs inhibit the inhibitor.
The ability of alcohol to reveal the real person behind the mad which all of us are said to wear (mask of
sanity) is reflected in the age-old maxim, In vino veritas (In wine there is truth). (Pathology of Homicide by Lester
Adel son, Charles Thomas, 1974, p. 895)/
HYPNOSIS
It is the alternation of consciousness and concentration in which the subject manifests a heightened of
suggestibility while awareness is maintained. Not all persons are susceptible to hypnotic induction. The hypnotic state
is characterized by:
a.
b.
c.

That it is a comfortable state or complete relaxation in which the subject will readily and willingly to
cooperate in every way with the hypnotizer.
That it is not actually a sleep.
That the subject will do whatever he is told to do.

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d.
e.

That the hypnotizer will not order him to do anything injurious.


After the test, the subject will wake up with feeling of comfort and refreshment.

The result of this method is not acceptable in court due to the following reasons:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

It lacks the general scientific acceptance of the reliability of hypnosis per in ascertaining the truth
from falsity.
The fear that the truer of fact will give uncritical and absolute reliability to a scientific device without
consideration of its flaw in ascertaining veracity.
The possibility that the hypnotized subject will deliberately fabricate.
The prospect that the state of heightened suggestibility in which the hypnotized subject is
suspended will produce distortion of the fact rather than the truth.
The state of the mind and professionalism of the examiner are too subjective to permit admissibility
of the expert testimony.

OBSERVATION
A good criminal investigator must be keen observer and a good psychologist. A subject under stress on
account of the stimulation of sympathetic nervous system may exhibit changes which may be used as a potential clue
of deception. And since just one or a combination of the following signs and symptoms is not conclusive or a reliable
proof of guilt of the subject, their presence infers further investigation to ascertain the truth of the impression.
Signs or Clues of Deception
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Swearing to God.
Failure of subject to look straight into examiner eyes.
Rapid movements of adams apple among males. Hysteria among females or woman.
Shedding tears of both sexes.
Arrogance or indifference to interrogation.
Bitting upper and lower lips after a hot stimulus is profounded.
Changes on the color of the face.
Complete and total denial of the case under investigation. Questioning accuracy on the polygraph
machine.
Sarcastic laugh of the subject.
Force laugh of the subject.
Restlessness of the subject.
Show of the unnecessary movements of legs and head.
Changing seats from chair to chair.
Frequent excuses to go to the comfort room.
Asking the examiner for a drink or a smoke.
Over perspiration despite of an air-conditioned room.
Answering questioning by beating around the hush when questioning and answered yes or no.
Asking the examiner to repeat the question although propounded clearly.
Asking counter remark who me.
Making reference to prominent people and mutual friends.
Shifting blame to someone else.
Pointing the guilt to other.
Refusal to submit to polygraph examination. Consenting to polygraph examination but refuse to
sign the consent (written).

Physiological and Psychological Signs and Symptoms of Guilt


1.
2.
3.
4.

Sweating
Color Change
Dryness of the mouth
Excessive activity of the Adams apple

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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Fidgeting
Peculiar feeling inside
Swearing in the truthfulness and assertion
Spotless past record
Inability to look at the investigator straight in the eye
Not that I remember expression

oo

FINGERPRINTING (DACTYLOSCOPY)
NATURE OF FINGERPRINTS
A FINGERPRINT is a composite of the ridge outlines which appears on the skin surface of the bulbs on the
inside of the end of joints of the fingers and thumbs. The ridges appearing in a fingerprint are commonly referred to as
papillary or frictional ridges. The ridges have a definite contour and appear in definite individual details by which
positive identification can be made.
Take Note:
Ridge literally, the top of long hill
Ducts these are little pockets underneath the skin where oils or sweats are carried by small holes to the
surface of the skin.
Ridge Destruction: Creases little white lines that are found on a fingerprint that look like sears
(burn/blister). These are not permanent, and will not show any turning or puckering. Skin conditions such as warts
and blisters of temporary impairments caused by certain occupations, e.g. bricklayers, carpenters, have no permanent
effect and the individual characteristics revert to their natural alignment once the temporary skin condition has been
corrected.
HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS INVOLVING FINGERPRINTS
Are there any ancient records concerning the use of Finger and Palm Prints?
1.
2.

On the face of a cliff in NOVA SCOTIA, there has been found prehistoric Indian picture writing of a hand
with crudely marked ridge patterns.
Scholars refer to the impression of fingerprints on clay tablets recoding business transactions in ancient
Babylon and clay seals of ancient Chinese origin bearing thumbprints. Some of these seals can be seen in

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.

14.

15.
16.

17.
18.

the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, WASHINGTON, D.C. Chinese documents identified with the Tang
Dynasty (618-907) refer to fingerprint being impressed upon business contracts. It is conjectural as to what
extent these earlier instances of fingerprinting were intended for actual identification of the persons
impressing the prints. History shows that Emperor Te In Shi was the first on to use fingerprint in China.
In the Bible, Apostle Paul concludes in one of his epistles with the words, The Salvation of Paul with my
own hand, which is the token in every epistle, so I write. Some have inferred from these words that Paul
used his finger impressions as a distinctive signature.
In Persia, 14th century, various government papers were reportedly impressed with fingerprints, and a
government official who was also a physician made the observation that no fingerprints of two persons were
exactly alike.
In Holland and China, identification of individuals was by means of branding, tattooing, mutilation, and also
manifested by wearing clothes of different designs.
In Old Mexico, the Aztecs impressed their hands accidentally or intentionally on the molded and still soft
clays of their hand-made idols to serve as their trade marks. The authorities stamped their hands on the
death warrants for the men and women who offered their lives to sacrifice for their idol-gods.
In France, numerous rock carvings and paintings featuring hand designs and fingerprints have been found
on the granite wall slabs in the Neolithic burial passage of the Llle de Gavrnis. Other specimens were also
found in the Spanish Pyrunees caverns, the numerous digital relics left by Indiana at Keuimkooji Lake in cliff
dwellings in Nova Scotia, in the Balearic Islands, Australis, New England coasts and in Africa.
In Babylonia, the first use of fingerprints for personal identification originated when Babylonian Magistrates
ordered their officers in making arrests and property confiscation to secure the defendants fingerprints.
Kom Ombo Plain, on the east bank of river Nile, Egypt, lump of hundred much found in Sebekian deposit
which shows a portion of an adult palm during 12,000 B.C.
In Judea, Paul, the Apostle, used his own fingerprints to sign his letters (II Thessalonians 3:17 I, Paul,
greet you with my own hand. This is the mark in every letter. Thus I write.). Other significant quotations are
found in Job 37:7 He sealeth up the hand of all men, that every one may know his works. Revelations
13:16 It will cause all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond, to
have mark on their right hand or on foreheads.
In Jerusalem, fingerprint relics were found in clay lumps during the 4 th and 5th centuries of the Christian Era.
The excavation of Palestine by the late Dr. Bade yielded fragments of such specimens (fingerprints).
In China, fingerprint is called Hua Chi. The value of fingerprints for purposes of identification was found on
a Chinese clay seal made not later than the 3rd century B.C.
During the Tang Dynasty, fingerprints were used in connection with the preparation of legal documents. Kia
Yung-yen, an author during this time stated that, Wooden tablets were engraved with the full terms of the
contract, and notches were cut in the sides where they were identical so that the tablets could later be
matched or tallied, thus proving them genuine.
The code of domestic relations as described in the Chinese Law Book of Yang Hwui states: To divorce a
wife, the husband must write a bill of divorcement and state the reasons or grounds that are due for
action, and then impress his palmprint thereon. For contracts, fingerprints were also used as signatures
of those who were illiterates, who could neither read nor write. This was under the subject of Land Tenure.
Early in the 12th century, in the novel, The Story of the River Bank, fingerprinting found itself already in
the criminal procedure of China; and in the 16 th century, a custom prevailed in connection with the sale of
children.
In Japan, deeds, dotes, and certificates to be used as proofs were sealed by the mark of the hand (Palmprint) called Tegata. In the treatment of criminals, the imprint of the thumb (bo-in or bo-an) was taken.
The criminal signed only by thumb-print with regard to his sentence and it was considered as an inferior sort
of signature.
In Constantinople, in a treaty of ratification, the sultan soaked his hand in a sheeps blood and impressed it
on the document as his seal.
In England, Thomas Bewick, an English engraver, author, and naturalist engraved the patterns of his own
fingers on every wood-work he had finished to serve as his mark so as to establish its genuineness.

Are there any early publication concerning Fingerprints?


1.

1684-Nehemiah Grew published a report which was read before the royal society of London, England. He
described the ridges and pores of the hands and feet.

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2.
3.

1685-G. Bidloo published a treaty describing sweat pores and ridges.


1685-Midle wrote a book, Human Anatomy, in which he included a drawing of the thumb print showing
the ridge configuration of the whorl pattern.
4. 1686-Professor Marcelo Malpighi, an Italian anatomist (GRANDFATHER OF DACTYLOSCOPY according
to Dr. Edmond Locard Father of Poroscopy), commented in his writings on elevated ridges on the
fingertips and alluded to diverse figures on palmar surfaces.
5. 1751-Hintzo wrote on the ridge formation, but dealt with the subject from the viewpoint of anatomy rather
than identification.
6. 1764-Albinus followed along the same lines as Hintzo had written.
7. 1788-J.C.A. Mayer stated in his book (Anatomische Kupfertafein Nebst Dazu Geharigen) that although the
arrangement of the skin ridges is never duplicated in two persons, nevertheless, the similarities are closer
among some individuals.
8. 1823-Johannes Evangelist Purkinje, (FATHER OF DACTYLOCOSPY) a Czechoslovakian professor of
anatomy at the University of Breslau, published a thesis in Latin (Commentio de Examine Physiogico
Organi Visus Et systematis Cutansi A Commentary of the Physiological Examination System: Dec.
22, 1823, Breslau, Germany) describing the ridges, giving them names and established certain rules for
classification (nine groups). He involves vague differentiation of fingerprints or use them for identification.
9. 1856-Herman Welcker took the prints of his own palm. In 1897, (forty one years later) he printed the same
palm to prove that the prints do not change. (Principle of Permanency).
10. 1883-Kollman, an anthropologist who wrote his book on ridges and pores. He did not associate fingerprints
with identification.
What are the historical events concerning Fingerprints as Method of Identification?
1.

1858-Sir William J. Herschel (FATHER OF CHIROSCOPY), in Hoogly, district of Bengal, India, he used
fingerprints in India to prevent fraudulent collection of army pay account and for identification of other
documents. He printed the palms of natives in order to avoid impersonation among laborers. Prints of the
entire palms were used instead of signatures. The first person Herschel printed appears to have been one
RAJYADHAR KONAI.
2. 1880-Dr. Henry Faulds, an English (Scottish) doctor stationed in Tokyo, Japan, wrote a letter to the English
publication, NATURE On the Skin Furrows of the Hand, (dtd Oct. 28, 1880) on the practical use of
fingerprints for the identification of criminals. He recommended the use of a thin film of printers ink as a
transfer medium and is generally used today.
3. 1880-Sir Francis Galton, a noted British anthropologist and a cousin of scientist Charles Darwin began
observation which led to the publication in 1882 of his book Fingerprints. Galtons studies established the
individuality of classifying fingerprint patterns.
4. 1882-Gilbert Thompson, a U.S. geological surveyor in charge of a field project in New Mexico used his own
fingerprints in commissary orders to prevent forgery.
5. Isaiah West Taber A photographer in San Francisco advocated the use of the system for the registration of
the immigrant Chinese.
6. 1883-An episode in Mark Twains life on the Mississippi relates to the identification of a murderer by his
thumbprint.
7. Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) further developed his theme. Eleven (11) years later, he causes the publication
of Puddin Head Wilson, a novel based on dramatic fingerprint identification demonstrated during a court
trial. His story pointed out the infallibility of fingerprint identification.
8. 1888-Sir Edward Richard Henry, succeeded Sir William J. Herschel at his post in India. He became
interested in fingerprints and devised a classification of his own and published his work in book form and
titled it Classification and Uses of Fingerprints.
9. 1889-Sir Richard Henry at Dove, England read a paper detailing his system before the British association
for Advancement of Science.
10. 1891-Juan Vucetich, an Argentinean police official, installed fingerprints files as an official means of criminal
identification; based his system of the pattern typed by Sir Francis Galton; and he also claimed the first
official criminal identification by means of fingerprints left at the scene of crime.
11. In 1892, at La Piata, Argentina, a woman named Rojas who had murdered her two sons and had cut her
own throat, though not fatal, blamed the attack on a neighbor. Bloody fingerprints on a door post were
identified by Vucetich as those of the woman herself which led to her confession.

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12. 1892-Sir Francis Galton, an English Biologist, wrote his first textbook. He devised a practical system of
classification and filing. 1894-Sir Francis Galtons report on fingerprint as a method of identification, along
with his system, was read at Asquith Committee of London, England. His system was officially adopted on
February 12, 1894.
13. 1900-Alphonse Bertillons system of body measurement had by this time spread throughout the world.
14. 1901-Sir Edward Richard Henry was appointed assistant commissioner at Scotland Yard. His system was
so applicable that Henry emerged as the Father of Fingerprints, at least as the first man to successfully
apply fingerprints for identification. 1901-marked the official introduction of fingerprinting for criminal
identification in England and Wales.
15. The system employed was developed from Galtons observation and devised by Edward Richard Henry, the
Inspector-General of Police in Bengal, India. He later became commissioner of Londons Metropolitan
Police.
16. 1914-Fingerprints were officially adopted in France, replacing Bertillon age.
What are the important dates concerning the development and use of fingerprint in the United States?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

1882-Gilbert Thompson of the Us Geodetic survey used thumb print for camp orders on an expedition to
New Mexico. This was not official but it was proven useful (the record was dated Aug. 8, 1882).
1902-Sir Henry P. Forest, chief Medical examiner of New York Civil Service Commission and an American
preacher in fingerprint science in the US for the New York Civil Service commission to prevent applicants
from having better-qualified persons to take the test for them.
The New York Civil Service Commission, on Dec. 19, 1902 required all civil service applicants to be
fingerprinted. Dr. Henry P. Forest, put the system into practice.
1903-New York State Prison in Albany claims the first practical, systematic use of fingerprints in the US to
identify criminals.
1903-Fingerprints identification was adopted in the following penitentiaries: Singing Sing, Napanoch,
Auborn and Clinton prisons
Captain James Parke of the institution installed the identification system where the fingerprints of prisoners
were taken and classified and the fingerprint system was officially adopted in June of the year. Today, New
York State uses the American system that is similar to the Henry System and represents the system initiated
by Capt. Parke in 1903.
1904-Maj. R. Mccloughry, the warden of the Federal Penitentiary of Leavenworth when the office of the Atty.
General of the U.S. granted permission to establish a fingerprint bureau therein. It was the first national
government use of fingerprints.
1904-John Kenneth Ferrer (Perrier) of the Fingerprint Branch of the New Scotland Yard, attended the St.
Louis Missouri Worlds Fair. He had been assigned to guard the British Crown Jewels. American police
officials became interested in fingerprint through him and he became their instructor.
1904-The City of St. Louis Missouri, became the first city to adopt fingerprint. The police department
officials adopted the system on October 29, 1904.
1905-Fingerpritning was officially adopted by the U.S. Army. It was known as the first military use of
fingerprint.
1907-Fingerprinting was officially adopted by the U.S. Navy (January 11, 1907).
1908-Fingerprinting was officially adopted by the U.S. Marine Corps.
1910-Frederick A. Brayley published what appears to be the first American book in fingerprints.
1911-The State of Illinois, made the first criminal conviction based solely upon fingerprint evidence. It was
known as the first judicial ruling on such evidence, (People vs Jennings, 252 Illinois 543-96 NE 1007, 43
LRA (NS) 1206 for 1991).
1915-The International Association for Criminal Identification was founded. The word criminal was
later dropped from the Associations name. It is the first organized body of professional identification experts.
1916-The Institution of Applied Science established at Chicago, Illinois was the first school to teach
fingerprint identification (June 16, 1916).
1916-Frederick Kuhne published a book entitled The Fingerprint Instructor, which probably the first
authoritative book in fingerprint to be circulated in the U.S. Munn and Co., served as the publisher.
1919-Marked the publication of Fingerprint and Identification Magazine (Chicago). The first monthly
journal devoted exclusively to fingerprint science, (July 1919).

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19. 1920-The Exceptional Arch, a new pattern, was adapted to Henrys system by American experts. The
pattern was added after the study made by the assembly members at annual convention of the International
Association for Identification in 1920.
20. 1922-Haken Jersengen, the sub-director of police in Copenhagen, Denmark introduced first a long distance
identification to U.S. at a police conference here. The method was adopted and published in a magazine
entitled Publications of the International Police Conference, (New York City Police Department, 1932).
21. Mary K. Holland the first American Instructress in Dactyloscopy.
22. 1924-The Identification Division of the FBI was established after J. Edgar Hoover was appointed Director.
23. 1924-The book entitled Single Fingerprint System by T.K. Larson, was first published in U.S., (Berkley,
Police Monograph Series) D. Application and Co., New York City.
24. 1924-The First National Bureau of Identification was created by the act of Congress. The bureau was
established within the U.S. DOJ (Washington DC).
25. 1925-Harry J. Myers II installed the first official fact fingerprint system for infants in Jewish Maternity
Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
26. 1925-The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania used compulsory foot and fingerprinting of new born infants
and mothers which was enacted into law by Act of General Assembly as approved on April 20, 1925.
27. 1932-The International Exchange of Fingerprint date was initiated with a number of other nations on
February 15, 1932.
28. 1933-The Bureau of Identification, U.S. Department of Justice, adopted the single fingerprint identification
system. The first national use of single print for identification purposes for certain crimes only, (Feb. 1933).
29. 1933-Latent fingerprints section, for making technical examination of latent prints or have inked prints on an
individual basis was instituted on November 10, 1933. The Civil Identification on Section was established.
30. 1937-The Institute of Applied Science installed Photographic and Firearms Identification (Forensic
Ballistics) laboratories. The institute was the first private school in U.S. which installed laboratories for
instructional purposes only.
31. 1938-A book by Harry J. Myers II, History of Identification of fingerprints in U.S. was published in
Fingerprint and Identification Magazine (Chicago, Illinois, Vol. 20, no. 4, Oct. 1938).
32. 1946-the 100th millionth fingerprint card was received in the identification division of the FBI. The total grew
to 152 million in May 11, 1959.
33. 1967-Minutiae was initiated by the FBI, a computerized scanning equipment to read and record fingerprint
identifying characteristics.
34. 1972-the prototype automatic fingerprint reader was delivered.
35. 1973-implementation of the first phase of the automated Identification System (AIS-1), which was to
establish the database consisting of the name, description, and criminal record of all first offenders with
birthdates of 1956.
36. 1978-Journal of Forensic Science reported that certain properties of perspiration and body oils contained
in latent print residue will luminesce without pre-treatment and to a degree that photographs could be taken
when activated by continuous Argon-ION Laser. Hence, the FBIs Latent Print Detection System was put
into use.
37. 1979-AIS-2 replaced AIS-1. This phase involved the automated searching by name and other descriptor
information of incoming fingerprint cards against the database.
38. 1979 (Oct. 17, 1979)-A latent fingerprint was developed and lifted from the hand of a victim in Miami, Florida
murder resulting in identifying the suspect. This was the first known case where a fingerprint from a human
skin was used in the identification, prosecution and conviction of a perpetrator of a crime.
39. 1982-Missing Children Act was signed into law which requires the Attorney General to acquire, collect,
classify, and preserve any information which would assist in the location of any missing person (including an
unemancipated person as defined by the laws of the place of residence of such person) or assist in the
identification of any deceased individual who have not been identified.
40. 1983-Completion of the conversion of the FBI criminal fingerpint searching from manual to automated
searching. Also, AIS records became available by mail upon request of the National Crime Information
Centers (NCICs) interstate identification index (III) an interstate record exchange.
41. 1984-AIS records became available ON-LINE through the NCIC program. Records from the NCIC and
AIS, and participating state and local telecommunication networks became available w/in seconds to
authorized criminal justice agencies.

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42. 1985 (Jan. 2) a contract was awarded for building the final phase of the Identification Division Automated
System (IDAS).
43. 1989-IDAS implementation. Its features are: integrated document transport equipment; on-line automated
technical fingerprint search; and simplified processing flow. All, for expeditious response time of fingerprint
cards.
What about Historical Development of Fingerprints in the Philippines?
1. 1900-Mr. Jones was the first to teach fingerprints in the Philippines in the Phil. Constabulary.
2. 1918-The Bureau of Prisons records show that carpetas (commitment and conviction records) already bear
fingerprints.
3. Under the management of Lt. Asa N. Darby during the American occupation in the Philippines, a modern and
complete fingerprint file has been established for the Philippine commonwealth.
4. 1937-The first Filipino fingerprint technician employed by the Phil. Constabulary was Mr. Generoso
Reyes. Capt. Thomas Dugan of New York City Police Department and Mr. Flaviano C. Gurrero of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI) gave the first examinations in fingerprints.
5. 1933-The first conviction based on fingerprints was handed by the Supreme Court of the Phil. in the case
People vs. Medina and this case is considered the leading judicial decision in the Philippine jurisprudence
concerning fingerprinting (December 23).
6. The science of fingerprinting was first offered as a subject in the Philippines through the effort of the Plaridel
Educational Institution.

STUDYING FINGERPRINTS
What are the basic principles of Fingerprint Science? (3 dogmatic Principles)
1.

Principle of Individuality (Variation) There are no two fingerprints that are exactly alike unless taken from
the same finger.

2.

Principle of Permanency (Constancy/Perennial/Immutable) The configuration and details of individual


ridges remain constant and unchanging till after the final decomposition of the body.

3.

Principle of Infallibility That fingerprint is a reliable means of personal identification and all courts accept
and adopt fingerprint as a means of personal identification.

What are the two main layers of the Skin?


1.
2.

Outer scarf or Epidermis


Inner Scarf or Dermis

Take Note:
1.
2.
3.

Stratum Malpighi or the layer of the Malpighi the ridges are formed into patterns by virtue of the
fact that the epidermis is penetrated and molded by the dermal papillae
Damage to the epidermis alone does not result to permanent ridge destruction, whereas damage
to the dermis will result to permanent ridge destruction
We can identify many fingerprints which we cannot classify.

State the principal uses of fingerprints - Some of the uses of fingerprinting include:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Identification of criminals whose fingerprints are found at the scene of the crime
Identification of fugitive through a comparison of fingerprints
Assistance to prosecutors in presenting their cases in the light of defendants previous records
Imposition of more equitable sentence by the courts

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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Furnishing identification data to probation and parole officers and to parole boards for their
enlightenment in decision making
Exchanging of criminal-identifying information with identification bureaus of foreign countries
in cases of mutual interest
Means of personal identification
Recognition by the government of honored dead
Identification of unknown deceased
Prevention of hospital mistakes in the identification of infants
Identification of persons suffering from amnesia where fingerprints are on file
Identification of missing person
Personal identification of victims of disaster works
Identification of unconscious persons; and
Licensing procedures for automobile, firearms, aircraft and other equipment.

Give some important Events, Dates or Personalities showing the basis of the Legality of Fingerprinting
1.

In 1911, an Illinois court, in the case of the People vs. Jennings (252 Ill. 534, 96NE 1077 (1911) ) pass upon
the admissibility of fingerprint evidence.

2.

In that case, fingerprint evidence was admitted as a means of identification may give their opinions as to
whether the fingerprints found at the scene of the crime correspond with those of the accused. The courts
conclusion were based on a comparison of the photographs of such prints with the impressions made by the
accused, there being no question as to the accuracy or authenticity of the photographs. It was stated that
the weight to be given to the testimony of experts in the fingerprint identification is a question for the jury.

3.

Following the Illinois case was one in New Jersey, State vs. Cerciello, in which fingerprint evidence was
permitted to be introduced.

4.

In the Cerciello Case, the defendant argued that it was an error to allow the testimony by experts explaining
the comparison of fingerprints obtained from the defendant voluntarily with those fingerprints found upon a
hatchet near the body of the deceased when the body was discovered. The New Jersey Court of Errors and
Appeals held, in principle, its admission as legal evidence is based upon the theory that the evolution in
practical affairs of life, whereby the progressive and scientific tenderness of the age are manifested in every
other department of human endeavor, cannot be ignored in legal procedure.

5.

In the case of State vs. Conners (87 N.T.L. 419, 94 Atl. 812 (1915) ) it was held competent to show by a
photograph the fingerprints upon the balcony post of a house entered, without producing that post in court,
and to show by expert testimony hat the fingerprints found on the post were similar to the fingerprints of the
defendant.

6.

In the case of Lamble vs. State (Lamble V. State, 96 N. T. L. 231; 114 ATL. (N.J.) 346 (1921) ) which
involved the discovery of fingerprints on the door of an automobile, the court was of the opinion that it was
not necessary to produce the door as an evidence. The court stated that a photograph of the fingerprints
noted on the door should be sufficient along with the identification of the fingerprints by an expert to show
these of the defendant. The court referred the case of States V. Conners (Supra).

7.

In the case of Commonwealth vs. Albright, (101 Pa. Sup. C.L. 317 (1931) ) a fingerprint expert testified
that the fingerprint on a piece of glass, establish to be from a pane in a door that had been broken to effect
entrance to the house was the same as the impression of the defendants left index finger and he explained
in detail the points of identity which led him to that judgment. The court stated, it is well settled that the
papillary lines and marks on the fingers of every man, woman and child possess an individual character
different from those of any person and that the chances that the fingerprints of two different persons may be
identical are infinitesimally remote.

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8.

In a California case, People vs. Coral (224 cal. 2d300 (1964( ), the court stated, it is completely settled law
that fingerprints are the strongest evidence of the identity of a person. This Doctrine was reasserted in
another California case, People V. Riser (47 cal. 2d566 (1956) ) in which the court stated, fingerprint
evidence is the strongest evidence of identity and is ordinarily sufficient alone to identify the defendant.

9.

The US Supreme Court in the case of Schmerber vs. California (Schmerber v. California, 384 us, 757, 763
764 (1966) ), held that the introduction into evidence of fingerprint impressions taken without consent of the
defendant was not an infringement of the constitutional privilege against self incrimination. The high court
held that it is constitutional to obtain real or physical evidence even if the suspect is compelled to give blood
in a hospital environment, submit to fingerprinting, photographing or measurement, write or speak for
identification, appears in court, stand or walk, assume a stance or make a particular gesture, put on a cloth
that fits him, or exhibit his body as evidence when it is material. The Schmerber case points out the fact that
the privilege against self-incrimination is related primarily to TESTIMONIAL COMPULSION.

10. In the Philippines, several decided cases could be cited where fingerprint evidence was admitted, considered
and appreciated by the appellate courts with even lesser number of ridge similarities. In the BILANGAWA
vs. AMADOR case, (Court of Appeals No. 37320-b), a fingerprint expert and constabulary sergeant testified
and successfully defended fingerprint evidence based on eight identical ride points.
11. People vs. Medina (59 Phil. 330) - The first leading judicial decision in the Philippine jurisprudence on the
science of fingerprinting.

Admissibility of Fingerprint Testimony


Experts testimony as to the identity of thumb marks or fingerprints is admissible. The method of identifying
fingerprints is a science requiring close study. Where thumb impressions are blurred and many of the characteristic
marks far from clear, thus rendering it difficult to trace the features enumerated by experts as showing the identity of
the impressions, the court is justified in refusing to accept the opinion that a distinct similarity in some respects
between the admittedly genuine thumb mark and the questioned thumb mark is evident.
This method of identification of persons has become a fixed part of our SYSTEM OF JURISPRUDENCE.
Proof of the accused found in the place where the crime was committed under such circumstances that they could only
have been impressed at the time when the crime was committed may be sufficient proof of identity to sustain
conviction.
Number of Ridge Characteristics as Basis for Absolute Identity
There are no national or international rules or laws that fix the number of ridge characteristics that must be
present in both the questioned and standard prints that should be used as a basis for establishing absolute identity.
Experts of different countries differ in the requirements of the minimum number. In England, the minimum is 16 and
in USA, the minimum requirement is 12. However, fingerprint experts in these countries believe that identity can be
established in lower number of guidelines laid down by the famous French Criminalist Dr. Edmond Locard:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Clearness of the pattern.


Rarity of the type
Presence of core or delta in the decipherable part
Presence of pores
The perfect and clear identity of the width of ridges and furrows, of the direction of the lines, and the
angular value of the furrows.

Weight of Fingerprint

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The weight to be given to evidence of correspondence of fingerprint when offered to prove identity of the
accused as the person committing a crime is for the determination of the court in the light of all the surrounding facts
and circumstances.
To warrant a conviction the fingerprints corresponding to those of the accused must have been found in the
place where the crime was committed under such circumstances that they could only have been impressed at the time
when the crime was committed.
Can Fingerprint be destroyed?
John Dellinger, a notorious gangster and a police character, attempted to erase his fingerprints by burning
them with acid but as time went by the ridges were again restored to their natural feature. The acid he applied
temporarily destroyed the epidermis of the bulbs of his fingers but re occur later.
Locard and Witkowsji of Lyons, who performed rather painful experiments on themselves by burning their
fingertips with boiling water, hot oil and hot metal had shown that after the healing of the epidermis (outer skin), the
original patterns of fingerprints reappeared.
Can Fingerprints be forged?
The authorities conducted various experiments and although they could almost make an accurate
reproductions till there is no case on record known or have been written that forgery of fingerprints has been a
complete success.

Give the reasons why Fingerprints is one of the most Infallible Means of Personal Identification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Fingerprints are already formed about 3 to 4 months of intra-uterine life and will remain unchanged
throughout life until the final decomposition of the body.
The pattern formation formed by the papillary ridges contains peculiar characteristics upon which a
person can always be identified by fingerprint examiners.
Almost every police and law enforcement agencies throughout the world accept, adopt and utilize the
fingerprint system as a means of absolute identification of a person.
The court and other authorities had taken cognizance of its importance and reliability as a means of
identification.
That fingerprint will speak for itself as it shows the owner thereof in accordance with the principle of re
ipso liquitor (a thing will speak for itself).

FINGERPRINT CHARACTERISTICS AND FORMATIONS


Allied Sciences of Fingerprints
Dactyloscopy identification of persons through examination and comparison of fingerprint. Taken from
Greek words: Dactylos a finger and skopien to examine
1.
2.
3.

Poroscopy Science of palm print identification.


Chiroscopy Science of palm print identification.
Podoscopy Science of foot print identification.

Pattern Interpretation
1.
2.
3.

Arches 5%
Loops 60%
Whorls 35%

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Take Note: According to studies, the appearance of arches is less followed by whorls and the loops.
What are the Types of Ridge Formation?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Recurving ridge is a ridge that curves back in the direction in which it started.
Converging Ridges Two or more lines forming an angle, a ridge whose closed end is angular and
serves as a point of convergence.
Diverging ridges Two ridges running side by side and suddenly separating, one ridge going one way
and the other ridge, another way.
Bifurcating ridges A single ridge which splits into two ridges forming a Y shape formation or
structure.
Island, Eyelet, lake or Eye it is a single ridge which bifurcates where the bifurcating ridges converge
at a certain point to form again into a single ridge.
Dot or Series of Dots They are fragmentary ridges formed like a dot or dots.
Short or Series of Short Ridges they are fragmentary ridges formed by short or series of short
ridges.
Ridge Ending - It is a termination or ending of ridge or ridges.
Fragmentary Ridges They consist of disconnected sequences of short ridges embodied intensely.
These ridges are considered in the classification of fingerprints if they appear as dark and as thick as the
surrounded ridges within the pattern area.
Ridge Hook It is a ridge that divides to form two ridges which are shorter in length than the main
ridge.
Ridge Bridge This is a connecting ridge between two ridges.
Incipient or Nascent Ridge This is a kind of ridge which is madly formed, thin, short or broken which
appears in the depressions between two well formed ridges.
Sufficient Recurve The space between shoulders of a loop, free of any appendage, and a butting at
right angle.
Appendage A short ridge at the top or summit of a recurve usually at right angle.
Core It is a point on a ridge formation usually located at the center or heart of a pattern.
Delta or Triradial Point It a point on the first ridge formation at or directly in front or near the center of
the divergence of the type lines.
Envelop Is a single recurving ridge enclosing one or more rods or bars.
Friction ridges Are strips of skin on the inside of the end joints of our fingers and thumbs by which
fingerprints are made. They are also called papillary ridges or epidermal ridges.
Furrows Are depressions or canals between the ridges which maybe compared with the low area in a
tire tread.
Rod or Bar is a single ending ridge at the center of a recurving ridge of a loop pattern.
Up thrust - Is an ending ridge of any length rising at a sufficient degree from a horizontal place.
Dissociated ridges are unusual ridge structures having no well defined patterns; the ridges are
extremely short, appear like a series of patches caused by a disturbance of developmental process at early
fetal life of the individuals.
Shoulder of a loop It is that point at which the recurving ridge definitely turns or curves.
Puckering As growth ceases at several ends, the ends curl slightly.
Creases Are thin, usually straight narrow white lines running transversely or formed side to side,
across the print, causing the puckering of the ridges.
Staple Single recurving ridge at the center of the pattern area.
Spike an ending ridge at the center of a pattern which forms the up thrust.

Type Lines and Pattern Area


1.
2.

Type line basic boundaries of most fingerprints.


Pattern area The part of the fingerprint which lies within the area surrounded by the type lines.

What are the Rules on Core and Delta Location?

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The rules in CORE location are:


1.
2.
3.
4.

The core is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient recurve.


When the innermost sufficient recurve contains ending ridges or rod rising as high as the shoulder of the loop
further from the delta. The exemption to this rule is when both shoulders are equidistant to the center of the
sufficient recurve.
When the innermost sufficient recurve contains an uneven number of rods rising as high as the shoulders,
the core is placed upon the end of the center rod whether it touches the looping ridge or not.
When the innermost sufficient recurve contains an even number of rods rising as high as the shoulders, the
core is placed upon the end of the further one of the two center rods, the two rods being treated as though
they were connected by a recurving ridge.
Take Note - Always base on the entrance of the pattern in the fingerprint.
The rule in DELTA location is:

1.

A dot can be a delta when there is no other alternative.

Rules in Delta location when there is a choice between two or more Delta
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The delta may be located at a bifurcation which does open towards the core.
When there is a choice between a bifurcation and another type of delta, equally close to the point of
divergence, the bifurcation is selected.
When there is a series of bifurcation opening towards the core at the point of divergence of two type
lines, the bifurcation nearest to the core is chosen as the delta.
The delta may not be located in the middle of the ridge running between the type lines toward the cores
but at the nearer end only. The location of the delta depends entirely upon the point of origin of the ridge
between the type lines toward the core.
If the ridge enters the pattern area from the point below the divergent type lines. The delta must be
located at the end nearer (inner terminus) to the core.

Ridge counting and Ridge tracing


1.

Ridge Counting It refers to the process of counting the intervening ridges that touch or cross an imaginary
lien drawn between the core and the delta.
Take Note - It applies only to loops.

2.

Ridge Tracing Is the process of tracing the ridges that emanate from the lower side of the left delta
towards the right delta to see where it flows in relation to the right delta.

Divisions of Fingerprint Patterns


A.

LOOPS
1.
2.

ulnar
radial

B.

ARCHES
1.
2.

Tented
Plain

1.
2.
3.
4.

Plain whorl
Central pocket loop whorl
Double loop whorl
Accidental whorl

C.

WHORLS

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RULES ON FINGERPRINT PATTERNS


1.

Radial Loop - R - derived its name from the radius bone of the forearm; it is one type of fingerprint
patterns in which the ridges run its direction to the radius bone or to the thumb.

2.

Ulnar Loop is one type of fingerprint pattern in which the ridges flow toward the ulnar bone or little finger.
Ulnar loop therefore derived its name from the ulna bone of the forearm, or little finger. Its symbol is letter
U in classification purposes.
Take Note - A pattern to be a loop must have the following four (4) essential requisites:
a.
It must have a core
b.
It must have a delta
c.
An imaginary line must pass between the core
and the delta
d.
It must have a ridge count of a minimum of at
least one (1)

3.

Plain Whorl - Symbolized by letter W in the classification. It is a fingerprint pattern which there are two (2)
deltas and in which at least one (1) ridge makes a turn through one complete circuit, an imaginary line drawn
between the two (2) deltas must touch or cross at least one (1) of the circuiting whorl ridges within the
pattern area.

4.

Central Pocket Loop Whorl - Symbolized by letter C in the classification. It is a fingerprint pattern which
for the most part of a loop, but which has a small whorl inside the loop ridges, sometimes called a composite
pattern, which means that it is made up of two (2) patterns in one, a whorl inside a loop.
It has two (2) deltas, one of which appears as the edge of the pattern area, as in plain loop. And one shows
inside the pattern area just below the counterpart ridges.

5.

Double Loop Whorl - Symbolized by letter D in the classification. A double loop whorl is a pattern
consisting of two (2) separate and distinct loop formations. One of the loops surrounds or overlaps the other,
also called COMPOSITE PATTERN, like the central pocket loop whorl. It arises from the fact that these
patterns are a composite or combination of two 92) patterns in one, with two cores and two deltas.

6.

Accidental Whorl - Symbolized by letter X in the classification.


two or more different types of pattern except in the PLAIN ARCH.
two or more different types of pattern except in the PLAIN ARCH.
whorl, a loop and a central pocket loop whorl, or any combination
type patterns.

7.

Plain Arch - Symbolized by letter A in the classification. It is a fingerprint pattern in which the ridges enter
on one side of the pattern and flow towards the other side with a rise at the center with not more than one of
the four (4) essential requisites for loop pattern and with no recurving ridge, no angular formation and no
upward thrust.

It is a pattern which is a combination of


It is a pattern which is a combination of
It can be a combination of a loop and a
of two or more different loops and whorl

Take Note - It enters to the left and flows towards the right.
8.

Tented Arches - Symbolized by letter T in the classification. It is a variety of arch family, but their ridge
formations are not simple as those of the plain arch, also considered TRANSITIONAL PATTERN between a
plain arch and a loop. Generally speaking, TENTED ARCHES are formed in any of these three (3) way
formations, to wit:
a.
b.
c.

One or several ridges in the center of the form an up thrust.


The ridge or ridges in the center formed a well defined angle.
The pattern may have two or three or four essential requisites of a loop pattern.

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Take Note - An up thrust must have an ending ridge.


REAL FINGERPRINT IMPRESSIONS
Real Impressions - Impressions of the finger bulbs with the use of the printing ink on the surface of the
paper. Any other coloring materials may be used but less visible and indelible.
Methods of Producing Real Impressions
1.
2.

Plain Method.
Rolled Method

Methods of Recording real Fingerprints


Step 1- Ink the roller. Apply a small amount (about inch long stream) of fingerprint ink on the right side of
the slab, toward the back. Roll out a two to three inch wide layer of ink on the back portion of the slab-lifting the roller
off the slab after each stroke and return to the starting point (do not use a back-and-forth motion with the roller).
Repeat several times until a thin film of ink forms on the roller.
Step 2 - Next, using the same roller motion (without rolling back and forth), spread the layer toward the front
edge of the slab, until a smooth, uniform coating of ink forms. The front edge is where the fingerprints are rolled.
When the ink on the front edge becomes too thin, replenish the ink roller on the back edge of the slab and repeat step
two.
Porelon Pad Method - No advance preparation is needed to use the Porelon pad. However, the pad
surface should be cleaned occasionally to remove oil and dirt deposits by wiping the surface lightly with a soft, dry, lintfree cloth.
Print Matic Method - Like the slab and roller method, the Print matic method requires that the ink is
embedded within the Print Matic roller, and coating the slab requires only a few passes of the roller in the same
direction to apply a thin, even layer of ink.
Equipment Used in Preparation for Taking Fingerprint using Slab and Roller Method
1.
2.
3.
4.

INKING PLATE A 12 inches plate is long enough for most set of 0 fingers. The width of the plate should not
be less than 8 inches, ten (10) is a better width. A 10 inch plate is also wide enough to ink a complete palm
in one operation whenever it becomes necessary.
CARD HOLDER The simplest is a U-shaped spring clamp. Made of spring steel, stainless steel or brass of
gauge sufficient to hold its shape in heavy usage.
ROLLER 6 inches long, and 2 inches in diameter. The handle should have supporting posts or legs to
suspend the rubber roller from developing flat sides and to keep unused portions of the plate and table top
from being smeared with ink.
INK - black printers ink is the most commonly used for taking fingerprint impression. It is a consistency
suitable for rolling into a thin film and it is quick drying when transferred to a card as an inked impression.
Yet it does not dry too fast. Usable for several hours after a film has been rolled.
What are the reasons why FOUNTAIN PEN INK, COLORED INK AND STAMP PAD INK are
objectionable to be used as fingerprint ink?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

They are too thin


Dry too quickly
Stamp pad smears easily
Impressions using stamp pad reproduce weave of the pad stamp covering the inked
impression.
Unsatisfactory for comparison purposes.

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5.
6.

FINGERPRINT STAND 32 inches high, the inking surface of a fingerprint stand should be approximately 12
inches above the top of an ordinary desk making the printing surface approximately 44 inches from the floor
for the average person.
STANDARD EIGHT BY EIGHT INCHES FINGERPRINT CARD It is found to be adequate for receiving five
rolled impressions across the card the size convenient for handling and filing.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN TAKING LEGIBLE FINGERPRINTS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Cleanliness of equipment
The right kind and correct amount of ink.
Proper distribution of ink on the glass slab or inking plate.
The distance of the subject from the inking on the fingerprint card.
The advice of the operator to the subject to relax and never to aid in the operation.
The pressure exerted must be slight and even the rolling be continuous movement including lifting.
The nail of the fingers should be at rights angle to the slab or to the card before starting the rolling and
always roll the fingers until the other side of the nail is reached (180 degrees).
The inking and printing must always reach below the first of the fingers.
The thumbs should be rolled towards the subjects body and all other fingers away from the subjects body.

STEPS IN TAKING FINGERPRINTS


1.
2.
3.

The first and most important step is clear the plate thoroughly.
A daub of printers ink is deposited near the edge of the plate away from the operator.
The subjects hand and fingers must be relaxed.

STANCE FOR TAKING PRINTS


Most operators stand on the left side of the person whose prints are being taken for the simple reason that
more people are right handed and then normally work more efficiently and do better advantage toward the right.
Therefore, most fingerprint stands are made so that the printing is done on the left front corner.
Take Note:
Rolled Impression the subject must be relaxed
Plain Impression the subject may not be relaxed
FINGER DISABILITIES THAT NEED EXTRA-ATTENTION IN TAKING PRINTS
1.

Temporary Disabilities
a.
b.
c.

2.

fresh cuts or wounds or bandaged fingers


Occupational marks (dry skin) carpenters, bricklayers, etc.
Excessive perspiration

Permanent Disabilities
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

lack of fingers in-born or amputated


crippled fingers bent or broken
deformities webbed, extra fingers (poly dactyl)
old age
split fingers/thumbs

EXTRAORDINARY TAKING OF REAL FINGERPRINT IMPRESSIONS

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1.

Excessively sweating fingers - Impressing shall be made after temporarily suppressing sweating by
wiping fingers with a lightly squeezed piece of gauze to which formalin alcohol liquid (100 ml. of ethyl alcohol
liquid containing 1-3 ml. of formalin pharmacopoeia) is applied.

2.

Fingers with stiff joints - Impressing shall be made after shaking a subjects hand grasped by the wrist
up and down several times to smoothen the joint movement. In this case, if the impressing plate and the
glass plate are placed somewhat higher while having the subject stand somewhat away from the table,
handling would be easier.

3.

Fingers with stiff surface skin, coarse fingers and fingers suffering from dermatophytosis - Wrap
fingers in a steamed towel for several minutes then impress. In this case, somewhat denser ink and
somewhat weaker impressing will be better.

FINGERPRINT IMPRESSING TECHNIQUE FOR A DEAD BODY


1.

Fingers soon after death - Wipe out fingers with a piece of gauze containing alcohol if they are stained. In
case where satisfactory roll impressions are not obtainable by the ordinary impressing technique, the
impression paper shall be cut to a proper size, and impressing shall be made onto it using such aids as a
fingerprint taking pallet from a dead body.

2.

Stiff fingers of a clenched fist - Impressing shall be made using an aid such as a spatula for taking
fingerprints from a dead body.

3.

Blanched and wrinkled fingers


Take Note:

Finger without percolate - Wipe them with a piece of alcohol containing gauze, soften them thoroughly
with your finger tips, stretch wrinkles, and then impress.
Fingers with percolate - Take their mold with silicon after drying with lycopodium powder. In order to obtain
fingerprint impressions from silicon molds, strippable paint or cortex shall be used this technique is as follows:
Fingers with peeled-off surfaced skin - Wind that surface skin around the operators finger. Apply ink to it
and impress. When the true skin is exposed, take photo after applying ink to the true skin or drying it with an aqueous
marker in water or alcohol.
Finger of Charred Body - In case where it is feared that they will disintegrate by even the slightest, their
photo shall be taken as they are.
Mummified fingers. Take their mould with silicon, make films with strippable paint or cortex, and impress.
CHANCE FINGERPRINT IMPRESSIONS
Chance Impressions - These are fingerprints which are imprinted by mere chance or without any intention
to produce the print. Chance print may be
1.
2.
3.

Plastic impression impressions made by chance on cellophane tapes or any plastic materials.
Visible prints impressions made by chance and visible without chemical treatment.
Latent prints impressions which are visible grossly but made visible by the addition of some
substances. These are fingerprints found at the scene of a crime.

Search for Scene of Fingerprint Impressions

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In order to collect scene fingerprints, it is necessary to clarify where they were impressed. Most scene
fingerprints are usually found at the points of entry, and departure, places ransacked, etc. Therefore, searching for
scene fingerprints should be made with emphasis on such places but be thoroughly made on their surroundings.
Further, there may be cases where a suspect uses gloves, wipes out his fingerprint after committing a crime, or makes
other actions in connection with fingerprints. Thus, even when glove impressions or other traces of actions have been
found as result of a fingerprint search, it is necessary not to give up but to make a thorough search all over the scene
of the crime.
How to collect Chance Fingerprints?
The methods of collecting fingerprints are roughly classified into eight, i.e., solid method (powder method),
liquid method, gas method, lifting method, flame method, molding method, photographing method and development
with lasers.
SOLID METHOD (POWDER METHOD)
This solid method is also called the powder method since powder is used, and is the most basic method.
The kinds and properties of powders commonly used are as follows:
Name

color

adhesiveness

composition

Aluminum
Powder (gray)
Highnium

silver
white
silver
Grayish
grayish

extremely
strong
moderately
strong
weak

crushed
aluminum foil
charge-proof
processed gray
resin and areic
Acid processed
Aluminum powder

Black
Powder
Brown powder
(black powder B-5)
White powder

black

weak

sepia

weak

sepia

weak

Lead
Carbonate
Lycopodium
Powder
Yellow powder

pure
white
light
yellow
yellow

weak

mixture of
carbon black and graphite
manganese
dioxide powder
powder mixture
of zinc oxide and talc
Basic lead carbonate

Red lead

vermilion

weak

Indigo
Fluorescent
Powder
Magnetic
Powder

purple
yellow

weak
weak

blackish
gray

weak

Ultranium

extremely
weak
weak

spores of club
moss (lycopodium)
yellow color, or
Lycopodium yellow color
trilead
Tetroxide Powder
Indigotin (for drying)
organic zinc
sulfide or Zinc sulfide
carbon-added
electrolytic Iron powder

Each powder has its own properties of color, adhesiveness, grain size, delineability, etc. A suitable powder is
selected and used according to the conditions of impression and object. Sometimes, two or more kidns of powder are
used in mixture. This is called mixture powder. By using mixture powder, color and adhesiveness can be adjusted.
For example, by mixing lead carbonate with indigo, the disappearance of fingerprints lifted to gelatin paper can be
prevented, while by mixing aluminum powder (gray) with lycopodium, the excessive adhesion of aluminum powder
(gray) can be prevented.

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POWDERING METHODS
Powdering methods include the brushing method, rolling method, spraying method and light hitting method
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

The brushing method is a method where, after affixing powder to an object to be examined with a
brush (developing brush) to whose tip a small quantity of powder has been affixed a fingerprint is developed
by lightly sweeping it with another, powder less brush (finishing brush) to remove excessive powder.
The rolling method is method where, after placing a proper quantity of powder on an object to be
examined, lightly moving it by bending and tilting, spreading out powder all over the object to have powder
adhere to the fingerprint, the fingerprint is developed by flipping the back side of the object to remove excess
powder.
Also, there is another method called the sprinkling or tapping method where, after having powder
adhere to a fingerprint by lightly tapping the object to be examined, the fingerprint is developed by lightly
tapping a part of the object with ones fist, etc. to remove excess powder.
The spraying method is a method where, after evenly spraying powder over the object to be
examined from a distance of approximately 30 cm, the fingerprint is developed by removing excess powder
by an air spray or with a brush, etc. This method is suitable for cases where development is made from a
porous or solid object using lowly adhesive powder.
In cases where development has been made by using fluorescent powder, the effect is doubled if
observed by utilizing an ultra-violet ray emitter.
The light-striking method is a method where, after having powder adhere to a fingerprint by, say,
lightly striking the object to be examined with a brush tip to which powder has been applied, the fingerprint is
developed with another brush to which no powder is applied or by air blowing with a blower-brush or a spray
to remove excess powder. This method is suitable for development from an object with a porous or adhesive
surface.

LIFTING METHOD
Collecting method by lifting fingerprint developed with powder include methods employing cellophane tape,
vinyl tape or other adhesive tape, and methods employing silicon rubber.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

The lifting technique with gelatin paper or lifter is as follows:


Cut gelatin paper or lifter to proper size.
Pull off the backing.
Direct the adhesive face toward the fingerprint.
Press on corner to the paper firmly to the object.
Press the rest of the paper to the object in stages, from the point already affixed towards the fingerprint.
Press it lightly and evenly with your palm, etc. Less air should be trapped.
Peel it off after lifting.
Stick it to the backing in the same manner of lifting.

The lifting method using silicon rubber follows the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Stretch the above thinly and evenly onto a proper-sized piece of paper or cloth.
Add 5-10% by volume of hardener to silicon base.
Mix them thoroughly.
Stretch the above thinly and evenly onto a proper-sized piece of paper or cloth.
Apply above to a fingerprint to be lifted.
Press lightly and evenly with a palm, etc. to prevent bubbles from being trapped.
Pull off after silicon has hardened.

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Take Note: Method of Restoration - When the fingerprint collection by solid method is over, the object
should be restored to its original state by removing powder which has been affixed to it. This is called restoration.
Wipe the object lightly with a piece of cloth or a brush which contains 0.5-1% synthetic cleanser liquid or 2-5% soap
liquid.
LIQUID METHOD
1.
2.
3.

Affix some chemicals to latent or visible fingerprint to cause a chemical change in the excreta elements.
Develop or clarify it.
Record the print by photographing it.

This method is effective for developing a latent print from an object such as paper, wood or metal and to
collect a visible fingerprint such as a blood fingerprint. This is a chemical collecting method whose principle is that the
element of the chemical liquid reacts to the element in excreta or blood by changing color.
1.
2.

Reagent (chemical liquid) - Reagents commonly used are ninhydrin, silver nitrate, etc.
Method to affix reagent - Method to affix reagent include the painting method, soaking method and spraying
method.
a. The painting method is a method where an object is painted evenly with a brush 9flat brush for
liquid) with ample reagent to affix the reagent to the fingerprints. This method is suitable for a large
or solid object to be examined.
b. The soaking method is a method to affix reagent to fingerprints by soaking an object to be
examined into regent in a tray or other vessel. This method is suitable for cases where a small
object is to be examined for development.

The spraying method is as follows:


1.
2.

Fill a sprayer for liquid with reagent.


Spray evenly over the object to be examined about 30 cm. From the nozzle for affixing the reagent to the
object.
a.

This method is applicable to three-dimensional as well as flat-surfaced objects either


large or small.

b.

The sprayer used for the thin method should be capable of spraying as fine as mist as
possible.

c.

A ninhydrin sprayer is an aerosol-type sprayer exclusively for fingerprints which sprays


the reagent (0.5% acetone solution of ninhydrin) by means of pressurized gas. Meanwhile, since silver
nitrate reagent corrodes the metallic portions of a sprayer, it should not be used in development by
spraying method.

Take Note: Method of Restoration - When the fingerprint collecting work by the liquid method is complete,
the article should be restored to its original state by removing fingerprints impressed thereon and stains produced by
development, this is called restoration. Restoration methods vary according to types of reagent used for development.
For restoration of a case using silver nitrate reagent, the object shall be washed in water after being soaked in 2%
alcohol liquid of corrosive sublimate. There is another method of soaking in saturated solution of sodium thiosulphate
after soaking in saturated solution of iodine or of potassium ferry cyanide.
For restoration of a case using ninhydrin reagent, the object shall either be applied with Osyfull oxygenated
water) and be warmed, or be applied with 3% solution of ammonium, or be soaked in hot water at 80 degrees or over.
GAS METHOD
This is a method where a latent fingerprint is developed by means of coloring by affixing gasified reagent or
by causing chemical change in elements of excreta, and then collected by photographing or by lifting onto lifting
material. This method is suitable for developing fingerprints from papers, unpainted wood and textiles.

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Iodine is exclusively used as a reagent. The developed pattern disappears with in a few minutes.
Therefore, reduction is unnecessary.
a.

b.
c.

The methods of affixing the reagent include a method where gas is blown on to an object to be
examined using an iodine gas generator or a method where gas is filled up into a box in which an object
has been placed. Also, there is another method where gas is blown into a vinyl bag in which an object
has been placed.
Since the fingerprint developed disappears within a few minutes, it is collected by being
photographed.
One of the recently developed method is to develop a fingerprint in white by affixing gas generated
from cyan acrylic instant adhesive. It proves effective for developing fingerprints from a blackish object,
especially the adhesive face of adhesive tape.

This method follows the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Apply cyanoacrylate to a plastic or similar plate.


The place on which a fingerprint is supposedly impressed shall be placed and fixed face to face about 3
mm above the plate.
Leave it under a cover.
The fingerprint is developed about 3 minutes later at the earliest.
The developed fingerprint shall be collected by being photographed.

LIFTING METHOD
This method includes a method where a visible fingerprint is directly lifted to lifting material, a method where
a fingerprint which has been directly lifted is processed with powder, chemical liquid, etc., and a method where a
fingerprint is lifted using lifting material processed in advance with chemical liquid, etc., and then preserved as it is or
photographed. These are effective for collecting dust fingerprints, oil/grease fingerprints, and blood fingerprints.
Lifting material - All lifting materials used for lifting under the solid method, gelatin paper, lifter, cellophane
tape, transparent vinyl tape, and other adhesive tapes can be used; but in most cases, gelatin paper is used.
Lifting method - The method of lifting directly to the lifting material is mostly used for collecting a dust
fingerprint or oil/grease fingerprints.
The method using processed lifting material is to lift the material to whose surface chemical liquid etc. has
been applied in advance. This method is used for collecting an oil/grease fingerprint and a just fingerprint.
Major collecting methods by tape of visible fingerprint are as follows:
a.

Dust fingerprint - In cases where dust quantity is small, a fingerprint shall be lifted directly to
gelatin paper (black). Whenever the fingerprint has become unclear after lifting, the transparent plate
shall be peeled off and photograph shall be taken by lighting from the rear side, or the fingerprint shall
be developed by having lycopodium stick to the peeled backing by rolling method 7-9 days after lifting.
Also if the transparent plate is peeled off after lifting, its impressed face is turned upwards, and the plate
is soaked in ethyl alcohol for 1-3 minutes, its gelatin film hardens and further change is prevented.

b.

Blood fingerprint - In cases where a blood fingerprint has just been impressed on an
unabsorptive object, it shall be directly lifted on gelatin paper. In cases whir lifting is difficult as it has
become slightly dryer, it is better to apply gelatin paper to and lightly press the blood fingerprint following
the technique of lifting, to peel off the paper after moistening the blood, to stick aluminum powder or
gray to the blood fingerprint by brushing, and to lift it onto other gelatin paper.

c.

Oil/grease fingerprint - When the surface is dry, it shall be collected by lifting it onto Binio roll lifter
as it is. If not dry, it shall be lifted after drying in the shade. Meanwhile, in cases of fluid oil/grease, a
fingerprint cannot be collected by this method.

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FLAME METHOD
This is a method of developing or clarifying by affixing soot to a latent or unclear fingerprint. The developed
fingerprint shall be collected by lifting in onto lifting material or by photographing. This method is suitable for collection
from metal or other object with a porous surface.
Soot-generating materials (burning material) include magnesium (photo flash powder), camphor, pine resin,
benzene, kerosene, edible oil, paraffin and candles.
MOLDING METHOD
This is a method of collecting visible fingerprints with a molding material, and is suitable for collecting from an
object with so complicated and uneven a surface that lifting with lifting material is unfeasible. This is also suitable for
collecting a latent fingerprint developed from a heated object.
The molding materials include silicon rubber, plaster, Aljix, strippable paint, paraffin was, and plastic liquid.
Collection shall be made by taking a photograph or just preserving the mold.
PROTOGRAPHING METHOD
Space age technology is being used to enhance latent prints that heretofore were of insufficient quality to be
used. While image processing has been used for some time, the high cost of computers precluded the use of such
technology in most crime laboratories. Major advances in the microchip industry and the resulting proliferation of
relatively inexpensive microcomputers have placed this technology within the budgets of many laboratories.
DEVELOPMENT WITH LASERS
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The use of lasers for detection of latent fingerprint is
relatively new and dates from 1976. By 1985, approximately 50 forensic science laboratories, or approximately 15
percent of the crime laboratories in North America, used lasers.
With nonporous items (e.g., plastic bags, glass, and so forth), the evidence is first fumed with cyanoacrylate.
If prints are not visible by means of normal techniques employed, the material is washed with a methanol solution of
rhodamine. Excess rhodamine is washed off with methanol, using a laboratory plastic wash bottle. If prints are
present, the small amount of excess rhodamine will adhere to them and show up under laser illumination can be used.
A zinc chloride solution is used to change the Ruhemans purple coloration, caused by the reaction of ninhydrin with
the amino acids present in the prints, to a yellow-orange color. The color change is luminescent in laser light, and
visible prints may be photographed.
On porous items of evidence (e.g., paper, cardboard, and the like), evidence is treated in the usual way with
ninhydrin. If prints are visible but have insufficient ridge detail, laser illumination can be used. A zinc chloride solution
is used to change the Ruhemanns purple coloration, caused by the reaction of ninhydrin with the amino acids present
in the prints, to a yellow-orange color. The color change is luminescent in laser light, and visible prints may be
photographed.
At this time there are three types of lasers used in latent print work: the argon ion laser, copper vapor laser,
and neodymium: YAG laser.
LATENT FINGERPRINTS ON HUMAN SKIN
Techniques for developing latent fingerprints on human skin have been devised, but have been successful
only in rare instances. They may be attempted in certain cases. The procedures are simple to use, inexpensive, and
can be accomplished by evidence technicians. The procedures work on both living and deceased subjects.
The Kromekote card is used to lift the print from the skin surface by placing the card over the skin in the
suspected area and applying pressure for about 3 seconds. The card is carefully removed and then dusted with black

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fingerprint powder to develop the print transferred onto the card. The fingerprint obtained is the mirror image of a
normal print, which can be reversed through photography. After the Kromekote technique is used, fingerprint powder
can be applied directly to the skin to develop prints. The literature reports that the Magna-Brush gives results superior
to a fiberglass filament brush. If a print is developed by this method, it must be photographed and then may be lifted
using cellophane lifting tape.
Fingerprints on skin surfaces appear to last about 1-1/2 hours on living victims. Deceased victims should be
examined for latent prints on the skin as soon as possible. The technique is still somewhat experimental, but the
simplicity and ease of use of the methods will result in greater use through experience on the part of investigators.
FINGERPRINT EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE PRESERVATION OF CHANCE FINGERPRINTS
1.
2.

3.

Whenever scene fingerprints have been found, confirmation by a witness shall be made prior to collection.
Whenever scene fingerprints have been found, they shall be developed and photographed prior to collection in
order to clarify the position of an object and positions of fingerprint impressions. Picture taking shall be made by
providing the fingerprinted object with a label containing the name of incident, date and hour taken, place,
witnesses, signatures, collectors affiliation and name, etc.
Whenever fingerprints are collected by lifting (printing0 then the grain of wood, pattern, or other characteristics
original to the object near the fingerprints shall be lifted at the same time with lifting tape, etc. to clarify the place
where the fingerprints are impressed. In addition, the name of incident, date and hour collected, object of
collection, place of collection, signature of witness, and collectors affiliation and name shall also be entered on
the back of the lifting paper.
a.
b.
c.

A scene fingerprint collection report shall be prepared to clarify the relationship between the
incident and the place of collection.
On the scene fingerprints collection report, all scene fingerprints collected should be numbered in
serial order, and be entered so as to clarify which fingerprint was collected at which place by
attaching a scene sketch.
Meanwhile, for those fingerprints collected without taking photographs, it necessary to clarify the
impressed positions and directions by solidly illustrating objects of collection portions thereof, etc.

PRESERVATION BY PHOTOGRAPHY - Prints found at the scene of a crime preferably should be preserved
by photography. This procedure has many advantages, including its leaving the object intact so that further
photographs can be taken if the first are unsuccessful. It also makes it easier to produce the evidence before a court
of law if the print has been recorded since parts of the object that carry the print will be seen in the picture.
PRESERVATION OF PLASTIC FINGERPINTS - When a fingerprint has been left in material that has
hardened or is able to withstand transport, and when it is on an object that is small and easily transportable, it may be
sent directly to the crime laboratory. If removing the plastic print poses some special problem, it should be
photographed using oblique light to bring out as much detail as possible. The fingerprint impression may then be
preserved by an appropriate casting material.
PRESERVATION WITH FINGERPINT LIFTERS - Frequently, curved surfaces, such as doorknobs, with
latent fingerprints present are difficult to photograph or do not lend themselves to the use of cellophane lifting tape. For
such surfaces, elastic or rubber lifter material works well. Rubber lifters are commercially available items made of thin,
rubbery material coated with an adhesive. The adhesive is protected by a transparent celluloid material removed prior
to use and replace onto with different fingerprint powders.
PRESERVATION WITH FINGERPINT LIFTING TAPE - The most common method of collecting latent
fingerprint evidence today is by special transparent cellophane tape. The material is supplied in rolls and is usually 1
or 2 inches wide. After the surface is dusted with fingerprint powder, the tape is placed over the print. Care must be
taken to prevent any air pockets. The tape is smoothed down over the print with the aid of a signer and then drawn off.
Particles of fingerprint powder adhere to the sticky surface of the tape and thereby transfer the fingerprint pattern. The
tape is finally placed onto a card of suitable color, contrasting with the powder used.

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How long does a Fingerprint remain on an object?


Plastic prints remain for any length of time provided that the object on which they are left or the substance in
which they are formed is itself stable. In investigations, it sometimes happens that police officers find fingerprints that
give the impression of having been made in dust, but on closer examination are found to be dust-filled plastic prints in
oil paint made years earlier.
Prints that have resulted from contaminated with blood, pigments, ink, and oil are more resistant and can be
kept for a long time under favorable conditions. Latent prints on glass china, and other smooth objects can remain for
years if they are in a well-protected location. On objects in the open air, a print can be developed several months after
it is made. Fingerprints on paper are very stable and will last for years provided the paper does not become wet and
deteriorate.
What is the effect of temperature on the possibility of developing fingerprints?
When objects on which there may be fingerprints are found outdoors in ice or snow, they must be thawed
slowly and placed so that the thawed water does not run over and destroy the prints. A suitable method of treating is to
scrape away as much snow and ice as possible, with the greatest care, before the object is brought to a warm place.
Only when the object is dry should the print be developed.
When plastic fingerprints are present in oil or grease, the thawing must be allowed to proceed slowly and
under close scrutiny since the print may easily be destroyed by heat. Such prints should be photographed when they
appear.
Damp objects should be dried in a room at ordinary room temperature. As a general rule, never examine
cold objects, especially metal, until they have been kept for at least some hours at room temperature. In indoor
investigations in a cold house, the rooms should first be heated. The heating should be done slowly so that water from
thawing does not run off frosted objects of places.
What is the concept of fingerprint identification?
The identification of a fingerprint is to compare two fingerprints with each other, to indicate their
characteristics, and to determine whether they match or do not.
Since latent fingerprints are often partial and unclear, their identification often encounters difficulties.
Therefore, those who are engaged in identification should make a correct identification. This also applies to the
identification of palm prints, middle phalange prints, basic phalange prints and footprints.
What is the method of identification?
Method of identification include those for comparing characteristics (type and position) of friction ridges, of
sweat pores (sweat gland outlets appearing on friction ridges like eyes of needles) and of friction ridge edges (straight,
projecting, arch, pocket, table, etc.). In general, however, a method by characteristics of friction ridge which are
understandable easily and objectively is used.
In identification, the following matters should b examined with the identification material:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Conditions of collection (method of collection, situation of both the object impressed and the fingerprint left on
the scene, time elapsed, etc.).
Kind of pattern, position impressed.
Kind of finger.
Situation of impression (whether slipped, twisted, duplicated or not; either surface or true skin; and reversal
fingerprint).

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In comparison and pointing out of characteristics, the characteristics of a latent fingerprint and of the formally
impressed fingerprint shall be compared, and matching points of characteristics shall both be noted by indication lines
with numbers for referencing. The indication lines and numbers shall be entered in red.
A letter of identification shall be prepared bye entering therein such necessary matters as the kind (latent
fingerprints, finger seal, formally impressed fingerprints, or so) and number of pieces of identification material,
identification item, identification process, identification result, identification date and identifier.
Meanwhile, in general, a photograph showing the identification material enlarged three times is attached
indicating on the photograph matching characteristics by indication lines and numbers for easy comprehension.
Is there any electronic identification of fingerprints?
The computer has greatly affected how fingerprints can be taken. An Automated Fingerprint Identification
System (AFIS) can digitize fingerprint information to produce inkless fingerprints. Latent fingerprints are scanned and
converted into an electronic image that is stored in a data base for rapid retrieval.
The live-scan method of fingerprinting stores and transmits fingerprints digitally. The new method allows
police to place a suspects finger on a glass plate, which is then read by a special device to produce a digital image of
the prints. The image can then be transmitted over telephone lines to computerized criminal records centers.
Laser fingerprinting eliminates the mess of inked fingerprints and also many of the problems associated with
them.
Take Note: Fingerprint evidence is maintained by:
1.

2.

For laboratory examination - Recording made upon receipt of


a. Name of agency requesting for scientific assistance or submitting latent print.
b. Date or receipt.
c. Inventory of latent fingerprint evidence.
For field laboratory work - It is maintained by following the procedures below:
a. Crime scene search for latent.
b. Develop the print by developing materials.
c. Photograph developed prints by powder on original.
d. Lifting latent prints.

Further maintenance is done by lifting the number of fingerprint evidence, their descriptions, quantity and
quality.
COURT PRESENTATION OF FINGERPRINT EVIDENCE
In testifying to fingerprint identification, the expert often prepares charts to visually aid the court and jury in
understanding the nature of his testimony. Many times it is undoubtedly difficult for the laymen to perceive, from a
vocal explanation alone, the full import of an experts testimony, due to its technical nature; consequently, some graphic
representation of the facts presented is amply justified and rewarded.
The preparation of the charts is ultimately the sole responsibility of the expert using them. As matter of
interest to law enforcement personnel engaged in fingerprint work, a brief explanation of such charts follows, along with
suggestions and remarks based on long experience in these mattes.
Aside from the photographic equipment, what are other the needed materials?
A roll of scotch photographic tape -1 inch wide to outline the areas of the fingerprints on the negative to be
used: some stiff cardboard approximately 1/32 inch thick on which to mount the prepared charts, a tube of rubber
cement and a bottle of translucent ink, other than black or white.

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A light-box on which to view the negatives while blocking, and a lettering set to draw the lines and numbers
uniformly on the charts, while not absolutely essential, are helpful conveniences. A light-box is basically a frosted pane
of glass with a light beneath it to produce soft, even, none glaring illumination. If no light-box is available, a clear
window may be utilized in blocking the negatives.
If the expert finds it necessary to have an outside source prepare his photographs, he should retain personal
custody of the evidence during the operation. The original latent print and inked print with which it is identical can be
photographed 25 times the actual size. This procedure eliminates guesswork in enlarging both the same degree.
Whatever areas of the two prints are deemed requisite to illustrate the method of identification are then outlined
(blocked) on subsequent enlargements.
Generally, if the legible area of the latent print is small, it is well to show the complete print. If the area is
large, however, as in a palm print, an area which will not make the chart too bulky or unwieldy may be selected.
In blocking, the negative is affixed to the window pane or light-box by means of strips of photographic tape
across the corners, with the side to be blocked up. This prevents constant shifting of the negative while it is prepared.
The latent print should be blocked first. Corners of the blocked areas should be square.
If the latent print was developed or photographed as a light print on a dark background, a reverse-color
negative should be prepared and blocked in order that both print may appear as black ridges on light. This is done by
placing the original negative adjacent to a new sheet of film and exposing it. The resultant negative contains the same
image as the original except that the color of the image has been reversed.
If the negative is a photograph of an opaque lift the print appears in reverse position; that is, as a mirror
image, and the negative will accordingly have to be blocked from the dull or emulsion side in order for it to appear in a
position comparable to that of the inked prints. Failure to present the prints in question in the same color and position
may confuse the observer and nullify the purpose for which the chart is made.
The degree of enlargement is not important in itself so long as the ridge of the latent print is readily
distinguishable by the eye. Ten diameters have been found adequate, although any enlargement from 5 to 30 will
serve. It should be remembered however that small enlargements are difficult to see a few feet away and that large
ones lose some of the contrast between ridges and background. A white border of at least 1 inches or a width equal
to one-third the enlarged area should be left for charting purposes.
All of the ridge characteristics are ample to illustrate for, identification, but it is neither claimed nor implied
that this number is required. All fingerprint identifications are made by observing that two impressions have the ridge
characteristics of similar shapes which occupy the same relative positions in the patterns.
Method involving super imposition of the prints are not recommended because such a procedure is possible
only in a very few instanced, due to the distortion of ridges in most prints through pressure and twisting. Such a
procedure is not necessarily a test of identity. Likewise, presenting charts with the shapes of the characteristic drawn
in the margin is not recommended. Individual ridge characteristics may vary slightly in actual shape or physical position
due to twisting, pressure, incomplete inking condition of latent print when developed, powder adhering to background
etc.
Identifications are based on a number of characteristics viewed in a unit relationship and not on the
microscopic appearances of single characteristic. The chart will present a clearer, nearer and more pleasing
appearance if it is numbered clockwise and the numbers are evenly spaced. It is necessary however, to place the
numbers evenly around the photograph. Ordinarily, the numbers are placed on three sides and the type of print (latent
or ink) noted at the bottom. In any case, the manner of numbering should be subservient to an explanation of the
characteristics in an orderly sequence; and, if the situation warrants all of the points may be illustrated on a single side
of the photograph.
A single line should be drawn from each characteristic to a numbered point on the march. Care should be
taken to draw the beyond it or obscuring it. Erasures should be avoided. If the ink runs or blots, it is sometimes
possible to remove it with a cloth in denatured alcohol, without damaging the photograph.

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If the enlargement is great, that is 25 or 30 diameters, it might be well to draw a small circle around each
characteristic and then draw the line from a circle to the number, since the ridge will be much thicker than the
illustrating line. All lines and numbers should be checked for absolute accuracy. The expert should also study the
enlargements for apparent discrepancies in the prints, which he might be called upon to explain.
The chartered enlargements are readily mounted on stiff cardboard with rubber cement, which may be
purchased in small tubes. After cementing the photograph to the cardboard, it should be placed under a heavy glut
object which will cover the entire surface to prevent wearing and wrinkling.
CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS
CLASSIFICATION IN GENERAL, in this context, refers to the sorting things into division or group so that they
can at later time be quickly located.
What are the steps in fingerprint classification?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Recording Simply means the taking of fingerprint impressions, either rolled or plain impression.
Interpretation Simply means the naming or interpreting of a fingerprint pattern. Loop (either radial or
ulnar), Arch (plain or tented) or whorl (plain, central pocket loop) whorl, double loop whorl or accidental
whorl).
Blocking This applies only to loop pattern either as ulnar or radial loop. It means designating by symbol
the type of patterns which each finger and thumb bears and recording for each respective finger and thumb.
Classification This refers to the classification proper this time you need a complete set of ten (10)
fingerprint patterns to obtain the necessary classification.

What are the patterns that require special attention?


1.
2.
3.
4.

Doubtful interpretation is very difficult.


Questionable a doubtful pattern
Borderline whereby in either case, it can be the combination of different kinds of fingerprint pattern. And
the classification of such is confused as to its proper interpretation.
Approximating sometimes the same as to that of doubtful.

Important points to remember in classifying fingerprints


1. Division for purposes of classification and filing, all the type patterns are divided into two groups; the
numeral and the non-numeral.
2. Numerical the numerical group is composed of set of prints containing whorl pattern.
3. Non-numerical the non-numerical group is composed of sets of prints in which no whorls are present.
4. Fingerprint analysis the analysis of fingerprint is the identifying and distinguishing of fingerprint pattern
according to their design and formation.
5. Classification formula is the result of combining all the patterns of the fingerprints and recording them in a
specific order or manner at the top right of the fingerprint card. It represents the patterns of all ten fingers of
both hands combined.
6. Filing is an orderly manner of starting the card and grouping each card and filing in a specific sequence
according to the final classification formula.
7. Pockets the fingerprint cards are grouped according to the classification formula and the classification of
the extension used in the bureau.
8. Searching means an attempt to locate in the file a print identical to the current print and thus established
identification.
9. Denominators meaning in primary classification the denominator written below the line constitute the total
numerical value of the finger in which the whorls appear, is the natural sequence of numbers from one to
thirty two (1 to 32).
What are the basic rules for tracing whorls?
1. Tracing always begins at the left delta and goes toward the right delta.

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2.
3.
4.
5.

An uninterrupted ridge can be traced from the left delta to the right delta.
When the tracing ridge suddenly ends, the tracing is continued on the ridge below it. A ridge must definitely
end before the tracing may be continued on the ridge below.
When a ridge bifurcates, the tracing is continued on the lower branch or the bifurcation.
When the delta is dot, the tracing begins on the type line, which is the ridge immediately below the delta.

What are the rules for beginning and ending ridge count?
1. Ridge tracing begins at the extreme left delta and stops at the point directly in front of the right delta.
2. In a double loop whorl, the tracing begins at the extreme left delta. When the tracing passes inside the right
delta, one stops at the nearest point to the right delta on an up thrust.
3. In an accidental whorl having three deltas, the tracing begins at the extreme left delta and goes towards the
extreme delta. Any other delta encountered is ignored.
4. If no up thrust is represented, one continues the tracing until a point opposite the right delta, or the left delta
itself, is reached.
What are the symbols in Blocking?
FINGERPRINT PATTERN
Arches (Plain)
Arches (tented)
Radial loops
Ulnar loops
Plain Whorls
Central Pocket Loop Whorl
Double Loop Whorl
Accidental Whorl

INDEX FINGER
A
T
R or /
U or \
W
C
D
X

OTHER FINGERS
a
t
r or /
u or \
w
c
d
x

Take Note:
1.
2.

If a finger appears to be amputated (cut off) just place the symbol or simple abbreviation as AMP and the
date of amputation on the box of the finger actually amputated.
In case of partial amputation, place the abbreviation symbol TIP AMP.

THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CLASSIFICATION


What is the Pure Henry System of Classification?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Primary
Secondary and small letter groups
Sub-secondary
Final
Major
Key

PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION
Procedure to be followed in obtaining primary classification
Numbering in natural sequence. The first step in classifying fingerprints is the numbering of the finger and
thumbs. The natural sequence, starting with the right thumb as one and ending at the left little finger as ten is followed:
Right hand 1 2 3 4 5
Left hand 6 7 8 9 10

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ODD FINGERS: The odd fingers are 1 (right thumb) 3 (right middle finger) 5 (right little finger) 7 (left index
finger) 9 (left ring finger).
EVEN FINGERS: The even fingers are 2 (right index finger) 4 (right ring finger) 6 (left thumb) 8 (left middle
finger) 10 (left little finger).
Numerical Value of Whorls - Designated Value of Each Finger with Whorls
The Henry system designated the value of whorl according to the finger or thumb on which they appear, and
in the following sequences.
Right hand
16
16
8
8
4
Left hand 4
2
2
1
1
Total Whorl for Primary - In a set of prints, the numerical value is represented by two (2) distinct totals. First: all
whorls appearing on the odd fingers; and second, all whorls appearing on the even fingers. The two totals obtained
constitute the primary classification. ODD and EVEN finger must never total together. The ODD numbered fingers
shall constitute as the denominator and the EVEN numbered fingers as the numerator.
Arbitrary count of one (1) ADDED - To each total, an arbitrary count of one is added. The purpose of the arbitrary
count of one is to avoid a classification of zero over zero in a set of print in which no whorls appear; this might be
mistaken for the letter O which has another specific meaning in the classification.
Number of Possible Combinations in the Primary - There are one thousand and twenty four (1,024) possible
combinations of primaries, beginning with one over one and ending with thirty-two over thirty-two
Take Note: After getting the Primary Classification, you must file the fingerprint in the following manner:
1/1
- Lowest Classification
32/32
- Highest Classification
Illustration:
1.
2.
3.
4.

1/1, , 1/3, , 1/5, 1/6.. 1/32


2/1, 2/2, 2/3, 2/4, 2/5, 2/6 . 2/32
3/1, 3/2, 3/3, , 3/5, 3/6 3/32 TILL
32/1, 32/2, 32/2, 32/4, 32/5, 32/6 .... 32/32

Rules on Amputation and Fingerprint Missing at Birth


1.

If one finger is amputated (AMP) or missing at birth (FMB) the classification is based on the opposite finger
with the numerical value.
Take Note: The numerical value of the (AMP) FMB) must not be changed.

2.

If both fingers are amputated or missing at birth they are treated as whorl with the respective numerical value
and with meeting (M) tracing.

SECONDARY CLASSIFICTION
Rank The secondary classification follows the primary classification.
Position of Secondary The secondary classification appears just to the right of the fraction which
represents the primary.
Meaning of Secondary The numerator (WRITTEN ABOVE) indicates the type of pattern appearing on the
index finger of the right hand.

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Denominator Meaning The denominator (WSRITTEN BELOW) Indicate the type pattern appearing on the
index finger of the left hand.
Basic Types of Pattern that can Appear
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Arch (A)
Tented Arch (T)
Radial loop (R)
Ulnar loop (U)
Whorl (W)
Central Pocket Loop Whorl (C)
Double Loop Whorl (D)
Accidental Whorl (X)

Sequence - Just as in the sequence of the primary classification, in filing, the denominator does not change
until the numerator has exhausted all the changes of pattern in their orderly sequence.
Small Letter Groups - The small letter group of the primary classification includes prints having plain
arches, tented arches and radial loops on fingers other than the indexes.
What constitute a small letter? For purposes of blocking a set of fingerprints, the patterns of the index
fingers are designated by a capital letter and the patterns on other fingers and thumbs are designated by small letter.
Blocking - For purposes of blocking a set of fingerprints, the patterns of the index fingers are designated by
a capital letter and the patterns on other fingers and thumbs are designated by small letter. These are placed in their
respective blocks.
Writing the Formula - For the purpose of writing the classification formula, the same rule held true the
capital letters designated on index fingers and the small letters designated other fingers. The classification formula is
written at the top of the fingerprint card.
Sequence in writing letter into Formula - The small letters are written into the classification formula in their
natural sequences as they appear on the hands.
A small letter in the thumb will produce the writing of the classification of the index fingers. Small letters in
the middle, ring, and little fingers will follow the writing of the classification of the index fingers.
This aRa would mean a thumb arch, and index radial, and a middle finger arch on the TUr right hand, and
thumb tented arch, and index ulnar, and a middle finger radial on the left hand.
Importance of small letters - The absence of small letter groups are of vital importance to the classification
system as the small letter occurs relatively infrequently.
Frequency - The small letter groups, after the index fingers have been grouped (small) in the following
sequence:
1st: The denominator by count (the lesser number of small letters proceeding the greater).
2nd: By position (small letter to the left of the index finger proceeding these at the right).
3rd: By type (a,t, r).
SUB-SECONDARY AND FINAL CLASSIFICATION
Sub-Secondary The sub-secondary classification is the grouping of prints according to the ridge count of
loops and ridge tracing on whorls.

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Reason fort Subdivision The sub-secondary classification is the group of print within the secondary
classification, thus facilitating searches since it limits the search to smaller groups of the fingerprint cards.
Position of Formula The sub-secondary classification is placed on the classification line immediately to
the right of the secondary classification
Recording Ridge Count The ridge count of the loops are recorded as I (inner) and O (outer).
Recording Whorl Tracing The whorl tracing are recorded as follows:
INNER (I)
MEETING (M)
OUTER (O)
Fingers Considered - In the sub-secondary classification, six fingers are considered they are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Right index finger


Right middle finger
Right ring finger
Left index finger
Left middle finger
Left ring finger

Established Number of Ridge Counts


INDEX FINGERS:
One (1) to Nine (9) ridges I (Inner)
Ten (10) or more ridges 0 (Outer)
MIDDLE FINGERS:
One (1) to Ten (10) ridges I (Inner)
Eleven (11) or more ridges ... O (Outer)
RING FINGERS:
One (1) to thirteen (13) ridges .. I (Inner)
Fourteen (14) or more ridges. O (Outer)
Loops and Whorls in Sub-Secondary - In a set of prints having loops and whorl only the sub-secondary
classification may include two (2), but not more than three (3) fingers of each hand.
M SYMBOL - The symbol (M) meeting appearing in a sub-secondary classification, indicates a whorl in the
figures being considered, since only a whorl can have a meeting tracing.
I and O SYMBOL - The symbols I and O in a sub-secondary classification may relate to a set of
prints having loops and whorls or all loops or whorls. Whether the prints are loops, whorls or loops and whorls may be
ascertained from the primary classification since one over one indicates no whorls, thirty-two indicates all whorls
and other primaries indicates both loops and whorls.
Filing: The filing of prints within the sub-secondary classification is done according to the following
sequences:
First I (inner) in loops
Second O (outer) in loops
First: I (Inner) in whorls

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Second: M (meeting) in whorls


Third: O (outer) in whorls
As in all other components set of the classification formula, the denominator does not change until the
numerator has exhausted the entire sequence.
Summary of the Rules:
1.
2.

For AMP and FMB-Apply the rule on primary classification.


Whorl-Apply Ridge Tracing.

For loops (Ridge Counting)


Index Finger
1-9 ridge count I (Inner)
10 or more.. 0 (outer)
Middle Finger
1-10 ridge count I (Inner)
11 or more. 0 (outer)
Ring Finger
1-13 ridge count. 1(Inner)
14 or more ridge count 0 (outer)
For Arches
Use small letter (t) for tented arch.
Use small letter (a) for plain arch
If the index finger, middle finger, and ring finger are all plain arches just put three dashes in the sub
secondary classification and A2a in the Secondary Classification. (Same is true when both index and middle
fingers are the same).
If the index finger, middle finger and ring finger are all tented arches just put three dashes in the sub
secondary classification and T2t in the Secondary Classification. (same is true when index and middle finger
are the same).
For Whorl Tracing
Meeting (M) = 0, 1, 2, ridges either from the left delta or the right delta.
Outer (O) = 3 or more ridges below the right delta.
Inner (I) = 3 or more ridges above the right delta.
Take Note:
1.
2.

If the ridges in the whorl pattern is ulnar it is OUTER.


If the ridges in the whorl pattern is radial it is INNER.
a.
b.

Take only the loop excluding the whorl inside it.


Left Delta will always be the one to drop. And in counting its ridges include ending ridges and
bifurcation.

FINAL CLASSIFICATION
The final classification is the ridge count on the loop (ulnar and radial) appearing in the right little finger.

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Position - The final classification is indicated at the extreme right of the numerator.
No Loop in the Right Little Finger - If a loop does not appear in the right little finger, a loop in the left little
finger may be used. The little finger position in the formula remains unchanged, except that the ridge count is noted as
a denominator rather than as a numerator.
Arch or Tented Arch - If an arch or tented arch appears in the little finger, it is indicated in the classification
formula by a small dash (-). If such a formation appears in both little fingers, final classification is not obtainable. The
Arch or Tented Arch appearing in either or both little fingers is not ignored in the classification formula since it is
incorporated and designated as a small letter in the secondary classification.
Both Little Fingers are used - Both little fingers are considered by some bureaus and the ridge counts of
both are recorded. However, the count of the right little finger governs the sequence for filing within the final
classification.
Whorl - If no loops appear in the little fingers but a whorl appears instead. A final classification may be
obtained by a ridge count of the whorl. Making a ridge count of whorls (in either or both little fingers) is required in
connection with a large collection or group of prints, such as prints having a primary classification of thirty two over
thirty two.
Search - When a search is made within a group of cards, and when the final is designated, only prints having
the same final count or count are examined. Some bureaus allow a count of three on either side of the final
classification.
Little Fingers used only for Final Classification - The ridge of the little finger is used exclusively for the
final classification.
Little Fingers not used for Key Classification - At no time can the ridge count of either of the little fingers
be used for the key classification.
Importance of Final Classification - The final and the key classifications may be considered the CONTROL
FINGERS for filing and searching. They limit the number of the prints to be examined each group.
Final not Possible - If the type pattern of either little finger is an arch, as a tented arch, no final classification
is obtained. This is indicated by a small dash (-).
MAJOR CLASSIFICATION
The major classification represents only the thumb of each hand. It is the ridge count of the loop and/or the
tracing of the whorl appearing in the thumb of each hand (if such whorls appear).
Position - The major classification is placed immediately to the left of the primary in the classification
formula.
Right and Left Thumbs: Numerator and Denominator - The thumb of the right hand appears in the
classification formula as the numerator, and the thumb of the left hand as the denominator.
Symbol for Major Classification - The major classification is written with specific symbols, which indicates
the respective patterns of the thumb as being either whorls or loops.
Ridge Tracing or Ridge Counting - These symbols are governed by the ridge tracing for whorls or the ridge
counts for the loops.
Symbols for Loops: S (small) in loops (ridge count); M (medium) in loops (ridge count); L (large) in
loops (ridge count).

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Loops Pattern in Both Thumbs - In a set of prints having loop patterns in both hands, the ridge count of the
left thumb governs the symbol for the right thumb.
Left thumb ridge count

Right thumb ridge count

1 to 11 SMALL (S)

1 to 11 SMALL (S)
12 TO 16 MEDIUM (M)
17 or more LARGE (L)

12 TO 16 MEDIUM (M)

1 to 11 SMALL (S)
12 TO 16 MEDIUM (M)
17 or more LARGE (L)

17 or more LARGE (L)

1 to 17 SMALL (S)
18 TO 22 MEDIUM (M)
23 or more LARGE (L)

Either Thumb Missing - When the thumb is missing, the missing one acquires the same pattern, ridge
count, or ridge tracing as the thumb of the opposite hand. On this assumption, the classification proceeds as usual.
Since the left thumb, real or assumed, is the denominator, it governs the classification, filing and searching.
Grouping the Prints - Because specific symbols have been given for loops and others for whorls appearing
on the thumb, the prints are grouped according to their respective patterns.
Sequence - The filing for prints follows definite within each group.
Denominator governs the sequence - As in all other groups, the denominator governs the sequence and
remains unchanged until the numerator has exhausted the entire sequence.
Sequence for Loops - Since the loops in the thumbs are indicated as small (S), medium (M), and large (L),
the sequence is as follows:
NUMERATOR
DENOMINATOR

SML
SSS

SML
SSS

SML
SSS

Sequence for Whorls - For the whorls in the thumbs indicated as Inner (I), meeting (M), and outer (O), the
sequence is as follows:
NUMERATOR
DENOMINATOR

IMO
III

IMO
III

IMO
III

Loop and Whorl in Major - When the whorl appears in one thumb and a loop in the other, a specific
sequence is used.
Reference: One Thumb Missing - Although a classification was obtained for one missing thumb, (as
described above), it is necessary to continue the search in all possible references. The original pattern of the missing
thumb might be different from the thumb of the opposite hand.
Both Thumbs Missing - If both thumbs are missing, they arbitrarily acquire the classification of meeting
whorls, and no other reference searches are necessary. No major classification is obtainable if one thumb pattern is
plain arch or tented arch. Such print will pertain to the small letter group (referring to the secondary classification).
Radial Loop on Either or Both Thumbs - The major classification is obtained if a radial loop is present on
either or both thumbs because a ridge count is possible. However, the print will be filed with the small letter group.

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KEY CLASSIFICATION
The key classification represents the ridge count of the right first loop appearing in a set of prints, beginning
with the thumb of the right hand but excluding the little finger.
Little Fingers Disregarded - The little fingers are totally disregarded in obtaining a key classification, for
they are exclusively used in the final classification.
Position - The key, no matter where it is found is always written at the extreme left of the numerator.
Importance of the Key and Final Classification - The key and final maybe considered the control figures
for filing and searching. To limit the number of prints, it is necessary to examine within a group.
Take Note: All answers obtained must be put/placed on the numerator of the key classification. Write the
Key at the Left of the entire formula, proceeding all other components of the Classification Formula.
Little Fingers not used - If not used, the little fingers (regardless of their type patterns or ridge count) as
shown by the key for which they represent, are reserved for the final.
Key no loops - Make ridge count of whorl appearing in the thumb of the right at the extreme left delta. This
may be used as a key.
Key not possible - If the entire set of prints is composed of plain arches and tented arches, the key cannot
be obtained.
CLASSIFICATION OF SCARRED PATTERNS
Emphasis should be placed upon the necessity for fully referencing all scarred patterns. In connection with
their proper classification, the following rules should be observed:
When an impression is so scarred that neither the general type of pattern nor the ridge tracing or count can
be determined with reasonable accuracy, the impression should be given both the general type value and the sub
classification value of the corresponding finger of the other hand.
When an impression is partially scarred, i.e. large scars about the core so that the general type cannot be
determined with reasonable accuracy, but the ridges allow reasonably accurate sub classification by ridge tracings or
counting, the impression should be given the primary value of the pattern of the corresponding finger and the sub
classification value as indicated by ridges of partially scarred impressions.
When an impression is partially scarred and the general type of pattern can be determined with reasonable
accuracy, but the ridges cannot be traced or counted so as to fall within the proper sub secondary classification, the
impression should be given the ridge count or tracing value of the corresponding finger of the other hand, if the
corresponding finger is of the same general type. The scarred impression should be given the probable value and
reference to all other possibilities.
When an impression is so scarred that neither the general type of pattern nor the ridge tracing or count can
be determined with reasonable accuracy, and it so happens that the corresponding finger of the other hand is similarly
scarred, corresponding finger of the other hand is similarly scarred, both patterns are given the arbitrary value of
whorls with meeting tracings.
CLASSIFICATION OF AMPUTATIONS AND FINGERS MISSING AT BIRTH
When one or more amputations appear upon a fingerprint card, it may be filed separately from those having
no amputations in order to facilitate searching. It is to be noted that before it may be filed in the amputating group, the
card must contain a definite and unequivocal statement or marking by the contributor to the effect that a certain finger

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or fingers have been amputated but which in reality were merely injured and bandaged when previous prints were
submitted.
1. If one finger is amputated, it is given a classification identical with that of the opposite finger, including
pattern and ridge count, or tracing, and referenced to every other possible classification.
2. If two or more fingers are amputated, they are given classifications identical with the fingers opposite,
with no additional references.
3. If two amputated fingers are opposite each other, both are given the classification of whorls with meeting
tracings.
When a fingerprint card bearing a notation of fingers missing at birth is classified, the missing fingers should
be treated as amputations in that they are given the identical classifications in that they are given the identical
classifications of the opposite fingers and are filed in the amputation group. As these fingers are missing from a
prenatal cause, they would bane always receive the identical classification of the opposite finger on any previous
occasion.
If all 10 fingers are amputated or missing at birth, the classification will be:
M 32 W MMM.
M 32 W MMM
If both hands are amputated or missing at birth, the footprints should be taken as they, too, bear friction
ridges with definite patterns. A footprints file is maintained by the FBI for identification purposes in instances where the
subject has all fingers amputated or missing at birth.
Partially amputated fingers often present very complex problems and careful consideration should be given
to them. The question often arises as to the appropriate groups in which they should be filed, i.e., amputations or non
amputations. As no definite rule may be applied, it is a matter of experience and judgment as to their preferred
classification.
In those instances in which a partially amputated finger has half or more than half of the pattern area
missing, it is given the classification of the opposite finger. It will be filed in the amputation group under those
conducted in all possible classifications of the opposite fingers only and are governed by the rules concerning
amputations.
Generally, a tip amputation, or one which has less than half of the first joint amputated, will always be
printed in the future. Therefore, a partially amputated finger, with less than half of the pattern area missing is classified
as it appears and is referenced to the opposite finger. It will be field in the non amputation group and reference
searches should be conducted under the classification of the opposite finger, and in the amputation group. It must be
referenced this way even though it never could have originally had the classification of the opposite finger.
CLASSIFICATION OF BANDAGED OR UNPRINTED FINGERS
If fingers are injured to the extent that it is impossible to secure inked impressions by special inking devices,
the unprinted fingers are given classification identical with the classifications of the finger opposite. If only one finger is
lacking, reference searches should be conducted in every possible classification. If more than one finger is lacking,
they should be given the classification of the opposite fingers, but no be given the classification of the opposite fingers,
but no reference searches should be conducted. If there are two lacking, opposite each other, they should be
classified as whorls with meeting racings.
If, however, in the case of an injured finger, observation is made of the ridges of the finger itself and indicated
on the print, this classification should be, insofar as it is possible, utilized. For example, a missing impression labeled
ulnar loop of about 8 counts by the individual taking the prints, should be searched in the sub-secondary as both I
and 0 but should not be referenced as a pattern other than a loop. If the finger is used as the final, or key, it should be
searched enough counts on each side of 8 to allow for possible error in the counting by the contributor using his naked
eye.

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OTHER IMPORTANT NOTES IN DACTYLOSCOPY


On Fingerprint Identification

Nova Scotia
a.
b.
c.
d.

Pre-historic picture writing of a hand with ridge patterns was discovered in Nova Scotia.
In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions.
In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals.
In Peru, aerial photographs have exposed a huge ancient drawing which can only be accurately viewed from
the air. I have exhibited one of these photos to the International Association for Identification and suggested it
as a "possible" fingerprint pattern. Aerial Photo in Peru & My Tracing (turned over)

e.

In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one
government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike.

Why Fingerprint Identification?


Fingerprints offer an infallible means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for their
having supplanted other methods of establishing the identities of criminals reluctant to admit previous arrests. Other
personal characteristics change - fingerprints do not.
In earlier civilizations, branding and even maiming were used to mark the criminal for what he was. The thief
was deprived of the hand which committed the thievery. The Romans employed the tattoo needle to identify and
prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers.
More recently, law enforcement officers with extraordinary visual memories, so-called "camera eyes,"
identified old offenders by sight. Photography lessened the burden on memory but was not the answer to the criminal
identification problem. Personal appearances change.
Around 1870 a French anthropologist devised a system to measure and record the dimensions of certain
bony parts of the body. These measurements were reduced to a formula which, theoretically, would apply only to one
person and would not change during his/her adult life.

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This Bertillon System, named after its inventor, Alphonse Bertillon, was generally accepted for thirty years.
But it never recovered from the events of 1903, when a man named Will West was sentenced to the U.S. Penitentiary
at Leavenworth, Kansas. You see, there was already a prisoner at the penitentiary at the time, whose Bertillon
measurements were nearly exact, and his name was William West.
Upon an investigation, there were indeed two men. They looked exactly alike, but were allegedly not related.
Their names were Will and William West respectively. Their Bertillon measurements were close enough to identify
them as the same person. However, a fingerprint comparison quickly and correctly identified them as two different
people.
Will and William WEST

On Fingerprint Pattern Classification


The classification of fingerprints into distinct groups based on general similarities allows the fingerprint
examiner to search for an unidentified fingerprint within a specific section of the fingerprint file rather than having to
search the whole file.
There are numerous fingerprint classification systems in use throughout the world today. These systems are
all based on three fundamental ridge formations described by Purkinje, Galton, Vucetich and Henry. They are the arch,
the loop - radial and ulnar, and the whorl.
CLASSIFICATION PATTERNS

ARCH
LOOP
IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS

WHORL

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RIDGE ENDING

BIFURCATION

DOT (or ISLAND)

Individuals generally have a mixture of pattern types on their fingertips, with some correlation between the left and right
hands. There is also evidence that the general fingerprint pattern may be genetically determined. While the loop
pattern is the most common pattern, classification of individuals by assigning a pattern type to each of the ten fingers in
an ordered fashion, serves as a first line of differentiation, however, no such classification is likely to be unique.
TYPES OF FINGERPRINT PATTERNS

PLAIN ARCH

TENTED ARCH

PLAIN LOOP

PLAIN LOOP

WHORL

CENTRAL POCKET LOOP

LATERAL POCKET LOOP

TWINNED LOOP

ACCIDENTAL

On Fingerprint Identification
Identification by fingerprints relies on pattern matching followed by the detection of certain ridge
characteristics, also so known as Galton details, points of identity, or minutiae, and the comparison of the relative
positions of these minutiae points with a reference print, usually an inked impression of a suspect's print. There are
three basic ridge characteristics, the ridge ending, the bifurcation and the dot (or island).

Island

Dot

Bifurcation

Ending Ridge

Identification points consist of bifurcations, ending ridges, dots, ridges and islands. A single rolled fingerprint
may have as many as 100 or more identification points that can be used for identification purposes. There is no exact
size requirement as the number of points found on a fingerprint impression depend on the location of the print. As an

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example the area immediately surrounding a delta will probably contain more points per square millimeter than the
area near the tip of the finger which tends to not have that many points.
In image 1 we see part of a fully rolled fingerprint. Notice that the edges are cut-off so you can safely assume
that this is not a fully rolled impression. If you take a look at image 2 you can see that I have sectioned out the centre
portion of this impression and labeled 10 points of identification. That was not all the points found but simply the ones
that could be mapped easily without cluttering up the image.

Image 2 when measured 1:1 is just over 1/4" square. If you look closely you should be able to identify 10
additional points that were not mapped with the lines. In all I counted 22 points of identification on this 1/4" square
section of the impression. One thing to note here, you might be under the impression that making a fingerprint
comparison is relatively easy but you should keep in mind a couple things.
First, image 1 and image 2 are both taken from the same image. In real life you would have impressions
made at separate times and subject to different pressure distortions. Secondly, these images are relatively clean and
clear where many of the actually crime scene prints are anything but clear. Last you have to consider that this is an
easy comparison because you are blessed with having a core pattern and a delta when in some cases you may have a
latent that could be a fingertip, palm or even foot impression.
Basic and composite ridge characteristics (minutiae)
Minutiae

Example

Minutiae

ridge ending

bridge

bifurcation

double bifurcation

dot

trifurcation

island (short ridge)

opposed bifurcations

lake (enclosure)

ridge crossing

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hook (spur)

opposed
bifurcation/ridge ending

oo

FORENSIC CHEMISTRY & TOXICOLOGY


FORENSIC CHEMISTRY
That branch of chemistry, which deals with the application of chemical principles in the solution of problems
that arise in connection with the administration of justice. It is chemistry applied in the elucidation of legal problems. It
is chemistry used in courts of law.
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
Are articles and materials which are found in connection with an investigation and which aid in establishing
the identity of the perpetrator of the circumstances under which the crime was committed or which in general assist in
the prosecution of the criminal. It encompasses any and all objects that can establish that crime has been committed or
can provide a link between a crime and its victims or a crime and its perpetrator.
SCOPE OF FORENSIC CHEMISTRY
1.
2.
3.
4.

It includes the chemical side of criminal investigation


It includes the analysis of any material the quality of which may give rise to legal proceeding.
It is not limited to purely chemical questions involved in legal proceedings.
It has invaded other branches of forensic sciences notably legal medicine, ballistics, questioned documents,
dactyloscopy, and photography

What is the Role of the Forensic Chemist in Criminal Investigation?


The forensic chemist plays an important role in the scientific criminal investigation. He may be called upon to
aid an investigation in:
1. Determining whether or not a place / location is a clandestine laboratory

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2.
3.
1.

2.
3.
4.

Examination of marked bills / suspects during entrapment (extortion case)


Taking Paraffin Test
There are four stages of work of a forensic chemist:
Collection and reception of specimen for lab. Examination
a. sufficiency of sample
b. standard for comparison
c. maintenance of individuality
d. labeling and scaling
The actual examination of specimen
Communication of the result of examine
Court Apparatus

What are the Primary reasons which may contribute to the Destruction of Physical Evidence?
1.
2.
3.

Improper packing of specimen


Failure of identification of specimen
Improper, precaution use in transmitting the specimen.

Who maybe a Witness? (Eye Witness one who saw the fatal act)
ORDINARY WITNESS - State facts and may not express his opinions or conclusions. He may testify to
impressions of common experiments such as the speed of a vehicle, whether a voice was that of a man, woman or
child. Beyond this he is closely limited.
EXPERT WITNESS - One who posses a special skill, be it in art, trade or science or one who has special
knowledge in waters not generally known to men or ordinary education and experiments; one who is skilled in some art
and trade or science to the extent that he possesses information not within the common knowledge of man.
What is the Difference between an Ordinary Witness with an Expert Witness?
1.
2.
3.

An ordinary witness can only state what is senses has perceived while an expert witness may state what he
has perceived and also give his opinions, deduction or conclusion to his perception.
An ordinary witness may not be skilled on the line he his testifying while an expert witness be skilled in the
art, science or trade he is testifying.
An ordinary witness cannot testify on things or facts he has not perceived except those provided for any law
while an expert witness must testify on things which he has seen giving his opinions, deductions or
conclusion on the statements of facts.

What are the qualifications of an Ordinary Witness?


1.
2.
3.

He must have the organ and powder to perceive.


The perception gathered by his organ of sense can be imparted to others.
He does not fall in any of the exception provided for Sec. 26, Rule 123, Rules of Court.

Take Note: In the collection of evidence, partial person to collect evidence are those who are capable of
applying knowledge or theory to practice. They maybe referred to as Person by Practice. The ideal person to collect
evidence is the Forensic Chemist.
Take Note: Standard Specimen - Are known specimens to compare with the questioned needed to aid in
establishing a suspects relationship to the crime under investigation.
What are the GOLDEN RULES in the practice of Forensic Chemistry?
In and out of the Crime Scene:
1.

Go Slowly

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2.
3.
4.
5.

Be thorough
Take note consult others
Use imagination
Avoid complicated theories

Failure to consider the golden rules will contribute to destruction of evidence/specimen. The other reasons of
forensic disaster are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Improper packing of specimen


Failure of identification of specimen
Improper, precaution use in transmitting the specimen.
Lack of precautions to prevent tampering of the specimen.

BLOOD AND BLOOD STAINS


What is the importance of studying blood?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

As circumstance or corroborative evidence against or in favor of the perpetrator of the crime.


As evidence in case of disputed percentage
As evidence in the determination of the cause of death and the length of time the victim survived the attack.
Determination of the direction of escape of the victim or the assailant
Determination of the origin of the flow of blood
As evidence in the determination of the approximate time the crime was committed.

What is BLOOD?
Blood has been called the circulating tissue of the body. It is refereed to as a highly complex mixture of cells,
enzymes, proteins, and inorganic substances. It is the red fluid of the blood vessels. Blood is opaque. On the treatment
with either, water or other reagents becomes transparent lake color. It is finally alkaline. Normally pH is 7.35 7.45.
Composition of Blood
(45%) formed elements or the solid materials consisting chiefly of cells namely:
1.
2.
3.

Red Blood Cells or RBC (ERYTHROCYTES) around 4 5 millions of red cell per cc. of blood.
White Blood Cells or WBC (LEUKOCYTES)
Blood Platelets (THROMBOCYTES)

(55%) PLASMA The fluid or liquid portion of blood where the cells are suspended. It is principally composed of:
1.
2.

Water ---- 90%


Solid ----- 10% ( largely protein in nature and consist of albumen, several globulins and fibrinogen.

In the forensic aspect of blood identification, that is blood grouping, our discussion will concentrate on the
RBC and blood serum. Serum is pale yellowish liquid just like the plasma.
PLASMA is the yellowish fluid of blood in which numerous blood corpuscles are suspended. A straw-yellow
liquid formed when blood to which oxalate has been added to prevent clotting is allowed to strand.
SERUM is a straw yellow liquid formed when clotted blood is allowed to stand for sometime and the clot
contracts.

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Problems in the Study of Blood


Blood is difficult to be searched, the collection, preservation, packing and transportation of specimen
suspected to contain blood is another. Blood offers little resistance to decomposition. It undergoes a rapid charge in its
character with the passage of time as process of clotting and drying commences almost immediately on exposure to
air. Sodium fluoride maybe added to blood to preserve it for a week at room temperature or indefinitely in a refrigerator.
Between 40 50 degrees centigrade is the ideal preserving temperature for blood and other perishable specimens.
Collection of blood stains should be done as soon as possible, mere washing of garments/clotting removes the blood.
Blood Collection
FLUID BLOOD are usually collected from victims of crimes of violence, parent and child in case of disputed
parentage.
DRIED BLOOD OR BLOOD STAINS are collected from smooth surface like walls, finished floors, table tops,
hard surface like axe, hammer, knives, stones, crowbars, glazed surface like glass, tiles, automobiles, bulky objects
like blackboard, linoleum sheets, doors, window frames, clothing, and blood absorbed by the soil
Blood Examination
1.
2.
3.
4.

PRELIMINARY TEST - determine whether the stain contains blood or another substance. Determines
whether visible stains do or do not contain blood. It is used to demonstrate the presence of blood.
CONFIRMATORY TEST - determines whether bloodstain really contains blood. Test that positively identifies
blood.
PRECIPITIN TEST- determines whether blood is a human or non-human origin, and if non human, the
specific animal family from which it originated.
BLOOD GROUPING TEST - determines the blood group of human

THE PRELIMINARY TEST FOR BLOOD (COLOR TEST)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Benzidine Test or Benzidine Color Test


Phenolphthalein Test ( also known as Kastle Meyer Test)
Guaiacum Test (Van Deen Test, Days or Schonbeins Test)
Leucomalachite Green Test
Luminol Test

Benzidine Test
This is an extremely sensitive test that can be applied to minute stain. For many years the most commonly
used preliminary test for blood. The Benzidine test never fails to detect blood even when very old, decomposed stain
with all shorts of contamination is examined. The positive result is only indicative that the blood maybe present.
REAGENT: Benzidine solution ( small amount of powdered benzidine dissolved in glacial acetic acid) and 3%
solution of hydrogen peroxide.
PROCEDURE: Place a small fragment/portion of the stained material on a filter paper. Add a drop of
benzidine solution and then drop of hydrogen peroxide solution.
POSITIVE RESULTS: Intense blue color produced immediately
LIMITATION: Benzidine test is not a specific test for blood. Positive results maybe obtained from substances
as sputum, pus, nasal secretion, plant juices, formalin, clay, gun. The reaction is weaker and produces faint coloration.
Phenolphtalein Test
This is an alternative test to benzidine test. It can detect blood in a dilution of 1:80,000,000 parts. A positive
results with this test is highly indicative of blood. The negative result is, therefore, valuable and is conclusive as to the
absence of blood.

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REAGENTS: Phenolphthalein solution (1 2 grams phenolphthalein to 100 ml of a 25% KOH in water added
with one gram zinc powder heated until colorless) and 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide.
PROCEDURE: Place a small fragment/portion of the stained materia on a filter paper. Add a drop of
phenolphthalein solution and then a drop of hydrogen peroxide solution.
POSITIVE RESULT: Rose color develops or deep pink color or permanganate coor.
LIMITATION: Test is also given by copper salts, potatoes and horseradish.
Guaiacum Test
A fairly delicate test showing the presence of fresh blood in a solution of 1:50,000 dilution. It may not react to
very old stains.
REAGENTS: Fresh tincture of guaiac resin (Few lumps of this to 95% alcohol, then filter) and 3% of
hydrogen peroxide or few drops of turpentine.
PROCEDURE: Place a small piece of the stained fabric on porcelain dish. Soak with fresh tincture of guaiac.
Add a few drops of hydrogen peroxide.
POSITIVE RESULTS: Beautiful blue color that appears immediately.
LIMITATION: The test also reacts with salvia, pus, bile, milk, rust, iron salts, cheese, gluten, potatoes,
perspiration and other oxidizing substances.
Leucomalachite Green Test
This is a test not as sensitive as the benzidine test
REAGENT: Leucomalachite Green solution ( 1 gram leucomalachite green dissolved in 48 ml. glacial acetic
acid and diluted to 250ml. water) and 3% hydrogen peroxide.
PROCEDURE: A small piece of the stained fabric on a filter paper. Add a drop of leucomalachite green
solution and after a few seconds add drop of 3% hydrogen peroxide.
POSITIVE RESULTS: Malachite green or bluish green
Take Note The principle involved in blood testing is that the peroxidase present in hemoglobin acts as
carrier of oxygen from the hydrogen peroxide to the active ingredients of the reagents (benzidine, guaiac,
phenolphthalein and leucomalachite) and produces the characteristic colored compounds by OXIDATION.
Hemoglobin is the red coloring matter of the red blood cells of the blood.
Luminous Test
It is an important presumptive identification test for blood. The reaction of luminol with blood results in the
production of light rather than color. By spraying luminol reagent onto a suspect item, large areas can be quickly
screened for the presence of bloodstains. The sprayed object must be located in a darkened area while being viewed
for the emission of light. (LUMINESCENCE). Luminol test is extremely sensitive test. It is capable of detecting
bloodstains diluted up to 10,000X. Luminol is known to destroy many important blood factors necessary for the forensic
characterization of blood, so its use should be limited only to seeking out blood invisible to the naked eye.
THE CONFIRMATORY TEST FOR BLOOD
The actual proof that stain is blood consists of establishing the presence of the characteristic of the red blood
cells of the blood.
The three (3) confirmatory tests for blood are:
1.

Microscopic Test - Useful for the demonstration of blood corpuscles for making the distinction between
mammalian, avian, piscine, and reptilian blood and for the investigation of menstrual, lochial and nasal
charges. In short it differentiates mammalian, avian, piscine and reptilian blood.

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Take Note: The Mammalian red blood cells are circular, biconcave disc without nucleus birds, fish
and reptiles red blood cells larger, oval and nucleated amphibians-animal living on land breeding in water.
Red blood cells are larger than mammals, oval and nucleated.
2.

Microchemical Test also known as Microcrystalline test which include Teichmann Hemin
Reaction/Teichman Test/Haemin Crystal Test, Haemochromogen crystal Test or Takayama Test, AcetoneHaemin Test. One of the two popular microchemical test is the Takayama Test, a delicate test for the
presence of hemoglobin.
PROCEDURE: Place a small piece of suspected material on a glass slide. Add 2 3 drops of
Takayama reagent. Cover with glass slip.
POSITIVE RESULTS: Large rhombic crystals of a salmon pink color arranged in clusters, sheaves
and other forms that appears within to 6 minutes when viewed under the low power objectives. To hasten
result heat maybe applied.
REAGENT: Takeyama reagent (3 cc. of 10% NaOH, 33 cc. pyridine, 3 cc. of saturated glucose
solution and diluted with 7 ml. of water.

3.

Spectroscope Test is the almost delicate and reliable test for the determination of the presence of blood in
both old recent stains. This is performed by means of an optical instrument known as SPECTROSCOPE.

THE PRECIPITIN TEST


It is the standard test used to determine whether the stain/blood is of human or animal origin
Reagent: Precipitin/antiserum
PROCEDURE: Scrape off blood stain if on hard material. Powder the scrapings and exact with saline
solution. If the stain is cloth, paper or similar material, cut a small portion and then place in a test tube and add extract
with saline solution. Allow mixture to stand overnight. Centrifuge to clean the solution. Dilute with saline solution. Layer
an extract of the bloodstain on top of the human antiserum/precipitin in a capillary tube.
POSITIVE RESULT: A white cloudy line or ring or band at the contact points of the fluid that appears
immediately or within one or two minutes.
LIMITATION: The precipitin reacts not only with blood proteins but also with other body proteins as those as
saliva, semen, mucus and other body fluids.
THE BLOOD GROUPING AND BLOOD TESTING
The Four Blood Groups
1.
2.
3.
4.

Group O
Group A
Group B
Group AB

Agglutinogen or Antigen
These are characteristic chemical structures or principles that the found on the surface of each red blood
cells which stimulates the production of agglutinins or antibodies. There are two different agglutinogens or antigens
classified as AGGLUTINOGEN A OR ANTIGEN A AND AGGLUTINOGEN B OR ANTIGEN B.

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Antibody or Agglutinin
These are properties or principles contained in the serum which cause agglutination or clumping together of
the red blood cells. They are antitoxic substances within the body which reacts when confronted with a specific antigen
to protect the system. There are two different agglutinins classified as Anti-A and Anti-B. Agglutinins are demonstrable
in about 50% of newly born infants.
We have the four groups because of the presence of absence of two antigens A and B in the RBC and two
agglutinins Anti-A and Anti-B in the serum.
BLOOD GROUP

ANTIGEN/AGGLUTINOGEN
PRESENT IN THE RBC

ANTIBODIES/AGGLUTINIES
PRESENT IN THE SERUM

ANTI-B

ANTI-A

AB

A&B

NO A & NO B or NONE

NO A & NO B or NONE

ANTI-A & ANTI-B

(+) Means agglutination or clumping of RBC


() Means absence of agglutination or no clumping of RBC
The Blood Typing (M-N System) of Blood
There are two agglutinogens in human red cells which defines three types of blood. Namely: Type M, Type N,
and Type MN.
(+) Means agglutination
() Means absence of agglutination
Inheritance of Blood Groups
Knowledge of genetics will make it easier to understand the principle involved in the inheritance of blood
groups. The inheritance of blood group is predetermined by the presence and absence of two facts or GENES called
Gene A and Gene B.
GENES - any of the complex chemical units in the chromosomes by which hereditary characters are
transmitted, responsible for the transmission of hereditary characteristics. They occur in pair. There are two genes or
factors called gene A and gene B. these are found in the chromosomes. Since chromosomes go in pair, each of which
carries or fails to carry one of these genes. An individuals called genotypes, where O represents the absence in the
chromosomes of either the A or B gene.
PHENOTYPES the term used to denote the expression of the inherited characteristic as found in the
individual. Actually the blood groups
GENOTYPES - Are paired genes.
Application of Blood Group Data
1.
2.

Questions of illegitimacy and relationships in may cause maybe solved by means of the blood groups as
determined by the agglutinogens A, B, M, and N.
Determination of whether a man accused of fathering a child out of wedlock could or could not be its parent.

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3.
4.
5.

Determination of whether a child born of a married woman could or could not have been fathered by her legal
spouse.
Determination of whether a child could or could not belong to a given set of parents in the case of accidental
interchange of infants in a hospital.
Determination of whether a child who has been lost and later recovered after a long interval could or could
not belong to a given set of parents.

SEMEN AND SEMINAL STAINS


SEMEN AND SEMINAL FLUID - is a whitish fluid of the male reproductive track containing spermatozoa. Its part are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

seminal fluid
formed Elements Cellular
spermatozoa
epithelial cells
crystal and choline

Usual location of semen stain as Evidence


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Under clotting
Clothing
Skin
Air
Vagina
Rectal contains of the victim
Around the genitals

Seminal Examination
There are four examinations for seminal stains or seminal fluid in the form of stains namely:
1.
2.

3.
4.

Physical Examination
Chemical Examination
a. Florence Test
b. Barberios Test
c. Acid-phospahtase Test
Microscopic Examination
Biological Examination

Collection, Preservation, Packing and Transit of Specimen


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Seizure of apparel must be done as soon as possible.


In packiging of wearing appearel there should be no friction between the apparel and the stain.
Specimen should not be rolled for transit.
Smaller objects like hair should be placed in a test tube and corked.
Specimen should be thoroughly dried before packing.
Fluid semen should be placed in a test tube. It maybe preserved by a few drops of 10% solution of formalin
during hot weather.

Determination of Spermatozoa in fresh semen


1.
2.
3.
4.

Transfers a drop of specimen to a glass slide.


Add a drop of water or saline solution and cover with cover slip
Examine under the microscope
Observe for the presence of spermatozoa

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Elements which may obstruct detection of Spermatozoa


1.
2.
3.
4.

Nature of fabric
Age of stain
Condition to which the stain was exposed reaching the laboratory
Handling of the specimen

GUN POWDER AND OTHER EXPLOSIVES


In the investigation of crimes involving the use of firearms, three most important problems may arise, the
problems of:
1.
2.
3.

Determination of whether or not a person fired a gun with bare hands within pertinent period of time
Determination of the probable gunshot range that is the distance the firearm was held from the body of the
victim at the time of discharge.
Determination of the approximate time of firing of the gun on the approximate date of last discharge.

Kinds of Gun Powder


1.

Black powder - consisting of 15% of C, 10% of S and 75% of KNO3 or NaNO3. When black powder explodes
KNO3 + c + S

2.

Smokeless powder (which consist of cellulose nitrate or glyceryl nitrate combined with cellulose nitrate and
some stabilizers. When exploded the following reaction occurs:
C12H14O4(NO3)6

3.

9CO + 3N2 + 7H2O + 3CO2

Cellulose nitrate
4C3H5(NO3)3

4.

K2S + N2 CO2

12CO2 + 10H2O + 6N2 + O2

Glyceryl Nitrate

Possible Location of Nitrates when black powder explodes


1.
2.
3.
4.

Residue of the barrel of the gun.


In or around the wound
On the clothing of the fired upon at close range
On the exposed surface of the hand of the person firing the gun

DIPHENYLAMINE-PARAFFIN TEST - test to determine the presence of nitrates, a test to determine whether
a person fired a gun or not.
Paraffin test - test performed to extract the nitrates embedded in the skin.
Diphenylamine Test or DPA Test a test that determines the presence and location of nitrate, chemical
needed is diphenylamine reagent.
Possibilities that a person maybe found Negative for Nitrates even if he actually fired a Gun
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Use if automatic pistol


Direction of wind
Wind velocity
Excessive perspiration
Use of gloves

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6.

Knowledge of chemicals that will remove the nitrates

Possibilities that a person maybe found Positive for Nitrates even if he did not actually fired a Gun
1.
2.

It is possible that the gunpowder particles may have been blown on the hand directly from the barrel of the
gun being fired by another person.
An attempt to shield the body by arising the hand in some instances result in the implanting of powder
particles on the hands of a person close to one firing a gun..

How to determine probable gunshot range


The clothing is examined microscopically for possible powder residues, singeing, burning, smudging and
powder tattooing.
Determination of the Probable time the Gun has been fired
In the examination / determination of the approximate time of last discharge we need the specimen firearm in
the examination. The barrel is swabbed with cotton and the residues examined under the microscope.
Take Note - Rust - Formation of rust inside the barrel after a gun has been fired is a good indication of the
determination of the approximate time the gun has been fired. If a gun has not fired at all, no rust can be detected
inside the barrel of the gun. If a gun has been fired, iron salts are formed and are found inside the barrel. This iron salts
are soon oxidized resulting in the formation of rust.
NITRATE - Presence of nitrate (NO2) is determined by addition of diphenylamine (DPA) reagent. If the color
becomes blue nitrates are present, and we may say that the firearm could have been fired recently.
NITRATES - Presence of nitrates (NO3) is determined by the addition of diphenylamine reagent. If the color
turned yellow green, nitrates are present, and we may say that the firearms could have been fired but not recently.
Factors Affecting the Presence and Amount of Gunpowder Residue
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Length of the barrel of the gun


Type and cal. Of ammunition
Wind velocity
Direction of firing
Distance of firing
Nature of firing
Humidity

EXPLOSIVES
Explosive is any substance that may cause an explosion by its sudden decomposition or combustion.
Explosive is also a material either pure single substance or mixture of substances which is capable of producing an
explosion by its own energy.
Classification of Explosive (as to functioning characteristics)
1.

PROPELLANT OR LOW EXPLOSIVES - Are combustible materials containing within themselves all oxygen
needed for their combustion that burn but do not explode and function by producing gas that produces
explosion. Examples are Black powder, smokeless powder, firecrackers, and pyrotechnics

2.

PRIMARY EXPLOSIVE OR INITIATORS - Explode or donate when they are heated or subjected to shock.
They do not burn. Sometimes they do not even contain the elements necessary for combustion. The
materials themselves explode and the explosion results whether they are confined or not. Examples are
Mercury fulminate, lead azide

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3.

HIGH EXPLOSIVES - Explode under the influence of the shock of the explosion of primary explosive. They
do not function by burning, in fact not all of them can be ignited by a flame and in small amount generally
burn tranquilly and can be extinguished easily. If heated to a high temperature by external heat or by their
own combustion, they sometimes explode. Examples are Ammonium nitrate, TNT, dynamite, nitroglycerine,
picric acid, plastic explosives.

HAIR AND TEXTILE FIBERS


Hair is a specialized epithelial outgrowth of the skin which occur everywhere on the human body except on
the palm of the hands and the sole of the feet. Hair is not completely round but maybe oval flattened. Its width is not
always the same along its length. It starts out pointed and narrow and then strays more or less the same.
Two kinds of Hair (among animals including human being)
1.
2.

Real hair ( generally along and stiff)


Fuzz hair ( generally short, fine at times curly and wooly)

Parts of Hair
1.
2.
3.

Roots ( portion embedded in the skin


Shaft ( portion above the surface of the skin. The most DISTINCTIVE part of the hair.
Tip ( sometimes termed point. The distal end of an uncut hair.

Parts of Shaft
1.
2.
3.

Cuticle ( outermost covering of the hair. It is consist of one layer of non-nucleated polygonal cells, which
overlaps like the scales on a fish.
Cortex ( the intermediate and the THICKEST layer of the and is composed of elongated, spindle-shaped
fibrils which cohere. They contain pigment granules in varying proportion depending on the type of hair.
Medulla or Core ( the most characteristics portion of the hair. It si the central canal of the hair that maybe
empty or may contain various sots of cells more or less pigmented and begins more and less near the root.

Take Note: Certain hair has no medulla. Therefore hair can be classified into two categories namely a) hair without
medulla b) hair with medulla.
Examination of Human Hair
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Color
Melanin (brownish-black pigment in hair, skin, etc. it is the chemical responsible for the color of the hair.
Black and brown hair differs only to the amount of melanin.
Length by actual measurement
Character of hair whether stiff, wiry or soft
Width (breadth)
Character of hair tip if present
Manner by which hair had been cut
Condition of root or base or bulb of hair

Hair Root
1.
2.

Living Root often found on hair in full growth


Dry Roots dead roots

Take note also the following:

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Character of cuticle (the size, the general shape and the irregularity of the scale)
Character of cortex (structural features are studied under the microscope)
Cortex is embedded with the pigment granules the impart hair with color. It is the color, shape and distribution
of these granules provide the chemist with important points of comparison between the hairs of the different
individuals.
Presence of dye in hair

Dye hair can be distinguished from natural hair. Under the microscope dyed hair has a dull appearance and
the color tone is constant, whereas natural hair is not and the individual pigment granules stand more sharply.
Determine also of whether naturally or artificially curled and the character of medulla.
The Medulla
The medulla and cortex are the most characteristic portion of the hair. Have more distinguishing qualities,
thus they yield the most reliable criteria in the diagnosis of hair.

Cuticle

Medulla

Cortex
Medulla or core or the central canal of the hair can be continuous or interrupted. It is continuous in large
number of animals, very often interrupted in human, monkey, and horses. Medullas diameter can be absolutely
constant. At times alternately narrow and broader. The diameter of the medulla is very little importance but the
relationship between the diameter of the medulla and the diameter of the whole hair his of great importance.
1.
2.
3.
4.

MEDULLARY INDEX or M.I (is the relationship between the diameter of the medulla and the diameter of the
whole hair. Its determination is performed under a microscope with micrometer eyepiece.
HAIR WITH NARROW MEDULLA (less the 0.5) ( belongs to human
HAIR WITH MEDIUM MEDULLA (approximate 0.5) (belongs to hair of cow, horse, others.
HAIR WITH THICK MEDULLA (greater than 0.5) ( almost all animals belong to this

Comparison between Human and Animal Hair


HUMAN
1.
2.
3.
4.

M.I. is less than 0.5


Medulla may not be present
Scale pattern is fine and each one overlaps the other more than 4/5
Pigment granules are fine

ANIMAL
1.
2.
3.
4.

M.I more than 0.5


Medulla always present
Scale is coarse and overlaps less than
Pigment granules are coarse

Other Aspects of Hair Examination

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1.

Characteristic by race
a.
b.
c.

2.

Characteristic by sex
a.
b.

3.

Male hair is generally larger in diameter, shorter in length, more wiry in texture than t hat of a female
Male hair averages approximately 1 / 350 of an inch in diameter, female hair averages approximately 1 /
450 of an inch in diameter.

The religion of the body from which the human hair has been removed
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

4.

NEGROID RACE HAIR - contains heavy pigment distributed unevenly a thin cross section of the hair is
oval in shape hair is usually kinky with marked variation in the diameter along the shaft
MONGOLOID RACE - contains dense pigment distributed more or evenly the Negroid race hair cross
section of the hair will around to oval in shape hair is coarse and straight with very little variation in
diameter along the shaft of the hair usually contains a heavy black medulla or core.
CAUCASIAN RACE - contains very fine to coarse pigment, and more evenly distributed than is found in
Negro or Mongolian. Cross section will be oval to around in shape, usually straight or wavy and not
kinky

Scalp hair ( they are more mature than any other kind of human hair
Beard Hair ( coarse, curved, very stiff, and often triangular in cross section
Hairs from eyebrow, eyelid, nose and ear-short, stubby, and have wide medulla. Eyebrow and
eyelashes are usually very short and has a sharp and has a sharp tip.
Trunk hair (very in thickness along the shaft and are immature but are somewhat similar to head hairs.
They have fine, long tip ends.
Limb hair (similar to trunk hairs but usually are not so long or so coarse and usually contain less
pigment.
Axillary Hair (is fairly long unevenly distributed pigment. They vary considerably in diameter along the
shaft and have frequently a bleached appearance. It has an irregular shape and structure. Looks like
public hair but the ends are shaper and the hair is not so curly.
Public hair-similar to axillary hair but are coarser, and do not appear bleached. More wiry, have more
constriction and twist and usually have continuous broad medulla. Has many broken ends the clotting
rubs.

The approximate age of individuals


a.
b.
c.

Infant hairs are fine, short in length, have fine pigment and are rudimentary in chapter. Childrens hair
through adolescence is generally finer and more immature than and hair but cannot be definitely
differentiated with certainly.
If it is noted that the pigment is missing or starting to disappear in the hair, it can be stated that the hair
is from adult. It is common for a relatively young person to have prematurely gray or white hair(head
hair) but not body hairs.
The root of hair from an aged person may show a distinctive degeneration

TEXTILE FIBERS
Textile fibers-fibers that can be converted into yarns.
Yarn-made of fibers which have been twisted together, linked thread.
Classification of Textile Fibers
The two divisions of fibers are Natural fiber and Synthetic or artificial fiber
Natural fibers are:

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a.
b.
c.

Vegetable fibers ( made of CELLULOSE. Examples are seed. Stem barks or bast fibers, leaf fibers, cotton,
woody fibers, fruit or nut fibers.
Animal fibers ( made of PROTEIN. Examples are wool, silk, hair.
Mineral fiber ( example is asbestos
Synthetic or Artificial Fibers are organic fiber such as

a.
b.

Cellulosic ( example rayon


Non-cellulosic ( examples nylon, casein fiber, resin fiber
and Inorganic fibers such as

a.
b.

mineral fiber ( examples glass fiber wool, glass rock, and slag wools
metallic fiber ( examples finewire filament, steel wool, tinsel threads.

Test Used for Fibers


a.

BURNING OR IGNITION TEST (A simple preliminary macroscopic examination. A test that determines
whether fiber is mineral, animal or vegetable. A single fiber is applied with flame at one end and the following
are noted:
manner of burning
odor of fumes
appearance of burnt end
color of ash
action of fumes on moistened red and blue litmus paper
effect of fumes on a piece of filter paper moistened with lead acetate

b.

FLUORESCENCE TEST frequently used to determine the general group to which a fiber belongs. It is not
reliable for positive identification of fiber.

c.

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION the fiber is placed on a slide teased and covered. In general it is the most
reliable and best means of identifying fibers.

d.

CHEMICAL TEST - Staining Test the fiber is stained with picric acid, Millions reagent, stannic chloride or
iodine solution.
Picric acid + silk ---------- dyed
Picric acid + wool -------- dyed
Picric acid ) cellulosic fiber ---------------- unchanged
Silk + millions reagent --------------------- brown
Wool + millions reagent ------------------- brown
Cellulosic fiber + millions reagent -------- no reaction
Stannic chloride + cellulose ---------------- black
Dissolution Test if the fiber is white or light colored it is treated with the following chemicals. If dyed, the
fiber is first decolorized by boiling in either 1% hydrochloric acid, acetic acid or dilute potassium hydroxide.
The fiber is then treated with the following and reaction observed.
10% NaOH
5% oxalic acid
Half saturated oxalic acid
Concentrated sulfuric acid
Concentrated and dilute ammonium hydroxide
Concentrated nitric acid

Characteristics of Common Textile Fibers

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cotton unicellular filament, flat, ribbon-like, twisted spirally to right or left on its axis; central canal is uniform
in diameter. Cell wall thick, covered by a thick, structureless, waxy cuticle. Fibers taper gradually to a blunt
or rounded point at one end.
Mercerized Cotton straight, cylindrical with occasional twist; unevenly lustrous, smooth except for
occasional transverse fold or wrinkles; cuticle mostly lacking.
Linen multicellular filament, straight and cylindrical, not twisted and flattened, tapering to a sharp point.
Cell walls thick, the lumen appearing as a narrow dark line in the center of the fiber to appear jointed
resembling bamboo.
Cultivated silk-smooth, cylinder, lustrous threads, usually single but often double, the twin filament held
together by an envelope of gum. More or less transparent, without definite structure.
Wild silk-similar to cultivated silk but broader and less regular in outline. Marked by very fine longitudinal
striations with infrequent diagonal cross markings.
Artificial silk-cylindrical, lustrous, appearing like a glass rod.
Wool-easily distinguished by presence of flattened, overlapping epidermal scales not found on silk or any of
the vegetable fibers.

CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF DOCUMENT EXAMINATION


DOCUMENT - An original or official written or printed paper furnishing information or used as proof of something else.
Packing, Preservation and Transportation of Evidence/Documents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Documents should be handled, folded and marked as little as possible.


If folding is necessary to send to the laboratory, the fold should be made along old lines. Place it in a Manila
paper envelope or brown envelope or it can be placed in a transparent plastic envelope.
On receipt the document should be placed between two sheets of plane white paper in folder.
Documents should not be touched with pencil, pen or anything that could possibly mark them.

The Examination of Questioned Documents


The essential materials in a document examination of any kind are the paper and ink or pencil or writings.
The examination of paper maybe necessary if we want to know the age of the document, the presence of alterations,
erasures and other forms of forgery.
Problems encountered in Document Examination/Analysis of Paper
1.
2.
3.

Whether two pieces of paper originated from the same source.


Determine of probable age of paper.
Determination of the composition of paper.

Composition of Paper
Paper is made of three components namely:

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1.
2.
3.

Fiber Composition
Sizing Material to improve quality of paper
Loading Material to add weight to the paper

Take Note:
EGYPTIAN PAPYRUS - one of the earliest substances used for writing. It is form the name papyrus, that the
word paper was derived.
FIBER COMPOSITION: practically all papers maybe classified form the standpoint of their basic fiber
composition into sets of fiber mixtures namely: mechanical pulp-ground wood sulfite mixture, soda-sulfite mixture, rag
sulfite
SIZING MATERIAL added to paper to improve its texture. Examples of sizing materials are rosin, casein,
gelatin, starch.
LOADING MATERIAL added to paper to give weight. It partially fills the pores between the fibers of the
paper. Examples are calcium sulfate and barium sulfate.
The Four Tests for Paper
1.

Preliminary Test - the test deals with the appearance of the document and the following are observed:
a. folds and creases
b. odor
c. impressions caused by transmitted light
d. presence of discoloration and daylight and under ultraviolet light.
Take Note: WATERMARKS it is a distinctive mark or design placed in the paper at the time of its
manufacture by a roll usually a dandy roll.

2.

Physical Test causing no Perceptible Change - A test applied on paper without perceptibly changing or
altering the original appearance of the document.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Measurement of length and width


Measurement of thickness
Measurement of weight/unit area
Color of the paper
Texture
Gloss
Opacity
Microscopic Examination

Take Note: OPACITY the quality of paper that does not allow light to pass through or which prevents dark
objects from being seen through the paper.
3.

Physical Test causing a Perceptible Change - This is done only if sufficient samples are available and if
proper authorization from the court is acquired this can be done.
a.
b.
c.
d.

4.

bursting strength test or POP test


folding endurance test
accelerated aging test
absorption test

Chemical Test - This test determines the fiber composition, the loading material and sizing material used in
the paper.

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a.
b.
c.

FIBER COMPOSITION examination is purely microscopic and it determines the material used and
nature of processing.
LOADING MATERIALS is determined by burning and ashing a portion of the paper and then the ash
examined.
SIZING MATERIAL gelatin is extracted by boiling the paper in water and the solution treated with
tannic acid; rosin is extracted by heating the paper with 95% alcohol. The alcohol evaporated and the
residue treated with acetic anhydride and strong sulfuric acid; starch is determined by addition of dilute
iodine solution; case in is determined by addition Millons reagent.

The Analysis of Ink


Some of the most important questions that arise in the analysis of inks are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Whether the ink is the same or like or different inking from ink on other parts of the same documents or other
document.
Whether two writings made with the same kind of ink were made with the identical ink, or inks of different
qualities or in different conditions.
Whether an ink is as old as purports to be
Whether documents of different dates or a succession of differently dated book entries show the natural
variations in ink writing or whether the conditions point to one continuous writing at one time under identical
conditions.

Types of Ink
1.

Gallotannic ink or iron-nutgall ink the type of ink where age maybe determined. Today the most frequently
used ink for making entries in record books and for business purposes. Gallotannic ink is made of a solution
off iron salt and nutgall. This ink can penetrate into the interstices of the fiber and not merely on the surface,
thus making its removal more difficult to accomplish.

2.

Logwood ink made of saturated solution of logwood to which very small amount of potassium dichromate is
added. Hydrochloric acid is added to prevent formation of precipitate. Phenol is added as preservative.
This ink is inexpensive and does not corrode steel pen. Will not wash off the paper even fresh, flows freely.

3.

Nigrosine Ink or Aniline Ink made of coal tar product called nigrosine dissolved in water. It easily smudge,
affected by moisture, maybe washed off from the paper with little difficulty. It is best determined by
spectrographic method.

4.

Carbon ink or Chinese ink or India Ink the oldest ink material known. Made of carbon in the form of
lampblack. Does not penetrate deeply into the fibers of the paper so that it may easily be washed off. Not
affected by the usual ink testing reagents.

5.

Colored writing ink today, almost all colored inks are composed of synthetic aniline dyestuffs dissolved in
water. In certain colored inks ammonium vanadate is added to render the writing more permanent.

6.

Ball Point Pen ink made of light fast dyes soluble in glycol type solvents as carbitol, glycol or oleic acid.
Paper Chromatography is the best way of determine this type of ink.

Test for Ink


1.

Physical Test applied to determine the color and presence of alterations, erasures, destruction of sizes with
the use of stereoscope, handlens or microscope.

2.

Chemical Test a simple test wherein different chemicals or reagents are applied on the ink strokes and the
chemical reactions or characteristic color reactions or other changes in the ink is observed. Reagents used:
5% HCI, 10% oxalic acid, tartaric acid, 2% NaOH, 10% NaOC1, C12, H2O, KCNS, water.

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3.

Paper Chromatography a reliable procedure that can be adopted to identify and compare ballpoint pen ink.

Determination of Age of Document


1.

Age of Ink no definite procedure which can be given for this determination except when the color is black,
because on the observation that within a few hours, the color of ink writings becomes darker because the
dye contain therein is influenced by the light of the room, oxygen of the air, acidity or alkalinity of the paper.
There are several methods of determining the degree of oxidation of the ink writing and apparently these
methods depend upon:
a.
b.

2.

Physical phenomena such a matching the color of the ink writing with the standard colors of with
itself over a period of time.
Chemical reaction that may reveal some information concerning the length of time the ink has been
on the paper.

Age of paper through watermarks in certain case from the composition of paper

Other Aspects of Document Examination


ILLEGIBLE WRITINGS unnecessary writings that are not capable of being read usually made on checks,
birth certificate, passport and transcript of record.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Erasure means removal of writing from the paper. Can be made chemically or mechanically.
Obliteration the obscuring of writing by superimposing ink, pencil or other marking material.
Sympathetic Ink or Invisible ink substances used for invisible writing.
Indented Writing term applied to the partially visible depression appearing on a sheet of paper
underneath the one that the visible writing appears.
Writings on Carbon Paper used sheets of carbon paper can be made readable.
Contact Writing black paper may contain traces of ink because of previous contact with some writings.

GLASS AND GLASS FRAGMENTS AND FRACTURES


What is GLASS?
Glass is a super cooled liquid that possess high viscosity and rigidity. It is a non-crystalline inorganic
substance.
Composition of Glass
Glass is usually composed of oxides like SiO2 (silica), B2O3 (boric oxide), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5).
For commercial use silica is the most important oxide. It is the base of commercial glasses. It is made of silica sand
and other metallic oxides. Oxide is for fluxing, durability and reduction of viscosity. Glass like window and plate that
are made in mass production is fairly uniform in composition. These may contain incidental impurities and the
presence of these substances in invaluable for the identification and comparison of glass by spectrographic analysis.
Glass has also presence of trace elements which maybe sufficient to establish or negate the fact of a common source
of two samples of glass.
Analysis/Test for Glass
1.

SPECTROGRAPHIC TEST an instrumental method of analysis that determines the presence of trace
element. Shows the constituent elements of a glass. It will not give sufficient information to establish the
origin of the samples examined. A rapid examination and an adequate method for glass analysis since it
requires only a small amount of sample.

2.

X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS not as effective as the spectrographic analysis. Determines the type of
pattern of glass. The type of pattern depends upon the composition of glass.

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3.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES EXAMINATION the most sensitive method of determining differences of


composition in glass samples and it depends upon the study of the physical properties of glass. Properties
like specific gravity or density, refractive index.

4.

ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT EXAMINATION determines the differences in the appearance of their fluorescence
thus indication of physical and chemical differences.

5.

POLISH MARKS optical glass and other fine glassware are usually polished. In the polishing of glass fine
marks are often left on the surface that can sometimes serve as a basis of comparison.

Glass as Evidence of Crime


In the field of Forensic Chemistry, emphasis is placed on:
1.
2.
3.

Automobile glass in case of hit and run.


Broken windows caused by pressure, blow or bullet in case of robbery.
Broken bottles, drinking glass or spectacles found at the scene of assault or other crimes of violence.

Analysis of Glass from Vehicle


Hit and run accidents represent a good percentage of crimes. If an automobile or any vehicle for that matter
is discovered in which fragments of the lens can be found, a comparison maybe made with the fragments found at the
scene of accident employing the methods of analysis for glass.
How Glass Breaks?
When the blow strikes the glass on one of its surface, the front for example. The glass first bends a little
owing to its elasticity. When the limit of elasticity if reached the glass breaks along radial lines starting from the point
where the destroying force is applied originating form the opposite surface of the glass, because this is the portion or
surface which is more subjected to stretching by bending. The front surface is only pushed. While the radial fractures
are taking place the newly created glass triangle between the radial rays also bend away from the direction of the
destroying force. By this bending the glass is stretched along the front surface and when the limit of elasticity is
reached the glass breaks in concentric cracks. These originate on the front of the glass because of stretching.
Analysis of Broken Windows
Broken windows caused by bullet holes
On one side of the hole numerous small flakes of glass will be found to have been blown away giving the
hole the appearance of a volcano crater. Such appearance indicates that the bullet was fired from the opposite
direction of the hole from which the flakes are missing.
If the shot was fired perpendicular to the window pane the flake marks are evenly distributed around the hole.
If the shot was fired at an angle from the right, the left side will suffer more flaking than the right. Excessive
flaking on the right side of a window pane would indicate a shot fired at an angle from the left.
Broken windows caused by fist or stone or hurling projectile
The direction of the blow in case a fist or stone smashed the window is quite difficult but the principles of
radial cracks and concentric cracks or fractures will apply.
The Principle of 3Rs Rule for Radial Crack
3Rs Rule Stress lines on a radial crack will be at right angle to the rear side of the glass.

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The front side is referred to as the side that was struck.


The Principle of RFC Rule for Concentric Crack
RFC Rule Stress lines on a concentric crack will be at right angle to the front side that is the side from
which the blow came, rather than the rear side.
PROCEDURE: Piece together as many as you can gather of the glass fragments as possible. Select a
triangular piece bounded by two radial cracks and one concentric crack. The triangular piece must be adjacent to the
point of impact, it this is not a available select a piece as close as possible to the point of impact.
Where there are two bullet holes in a window pane
The problem of which one was fired first becomes important to determine who the aggressor is. It will be
found that the fractures caused by the first bullet will be complete, especially the radial cracks, whereas the fractures
from the second will be interrupted and end-stopped at points where they intersect those from the first.
Fractures on Safety Glass
Laminated glass, which is now being used in automobiles, does not shatter when struck sharply. Frequently
the cracking of safety glass is not complete; the radial cracks do not extend to the side of impact and the spiral cracks
do not extend to the other side.

MOULAGE AND OTHER CASTING TECHNIQUES


What is a Casting Material?
It is any material which can be changed from plastic or liquid state to the solid condition is capable of use as
casting material.
The following are the criteria on which the value of casting material is assessed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Must be readily fluid or plastic when applied.


Must harder rapidly to a rigid mass
must not be deformable nor shrink
must be easy to apply
must have no tendency to adhere to the impression
should have of fine composition and surface
should not inquire the impression
should be easily obtainable
should be cheap.
The following are recommended formulas

1.
2.
3.

Hastening add one half teaspoonful of the table salt to the plaster.
Retarding add one part of a saturated solution of borax to ten part water to be used in making the plaster.
Hardening to give a cast a greater durability it can be place on a saturated solution of sodium carbonate,
and allowed to remain in the solution for sometime. It is then removed and dried.

Tools Impression maybe classified into Two General Classes:


These produced by such instruments like an Axe-hammer, pliers and cutters which touch the area only once
in producing the impression.

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1.
2.

Compression Marks which produced by a single application of tool is the area of contact, for example: the
impression of a single blow of a hammer.
Friction Marks which are series of scratches or striations produced by pushing a tool across the surface
such as those produced by cutters jimmy or axe.

Take Note:
Those produced by such instrument like saw or file which is applied in a repeated strokes over the same area.
Cast of Human Body is important that the temperature of the negative material should be below 110OF (43.3OC)
a temperature higher than this will be uncomfortable if not injurious to the subject. Cast of the human body is made by
the use of Negocoll and Hominit or Celert.
a.
b.
c.

Degocoll is a rubbery gelatinous material consisting essentially of colloidal magnesium scaps.


Hominit is a resinous material used for making positives from Negocoll negatives. It is a flesh color and is
used for external surfaces.
Celerit is brown and is used for backing and strengthening the hominid.

METALLURGY (AS APPLIED TO CRIME DETECTION)


METALLURGY is the art of extracting and working on metals by the application of chemical and physical knowledge.
METALLOGRAPHY is a branch of metallurgy that involves the study of the microstructures of metals and alloys.
Metallurgy is applied to criminal investigation such as in:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Robbery
Theft
Hit and run
Bomb and explosion
Nail Examination
Counterfeit coins
Restoration of tampered serial numbers

Counterfeit Coins (coins made to imitate the real thing and used for gain)
Two kinds of Counterfeit Coins
1.

CAST COINS coins made in molds or coins made by casting method. An impression of genuine coin is
taken by use of plaster of Paris, clay, or bronze. The plaster molds bearing the image of a good coin are
filled within a low temperature alloy made with lead or tin. Sand molds are used for high temperature metals
such as copper or silver alloys. Cast coin has poor imitation. It can be easily detected. The surface is
usually pitted and uneven. The edges of lettering and designs are rounded instead of sharp.

2.

STRUCK COINS made by striking or stamping method or these are coins made by means of dies.
Consists of making an impression of a coin on a metal blank by pressure. Stamping is done by way of steel
dies. Often well executed. Its detection is not easy since weight, specific gravity, composition may all be
good. Careful comparison of smaller details of the designs with those of the genuine should be made.

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Take Note: Examination of counterfeit coins is not wholly chemical.


Restoration of Tampered Serial Numbers
Tampered serial numbers are restored by the application of etching fluid.
ETCHING FLUID fluid used to restore tampered serial numbers. Choice of etching fluid depends on the
structure of the metal bearing the original number.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

For cast iron and cast steel 10% sulfuric acid and potassium dichromate
For wrought iron and forged iron-Solution 1 : hydrochloric acid + water + cupric chloride + alcohol and
Solution 2:15% nitric acid
For aluminum-glycerin + hydrofluoric acid + nitric acid
For lead 3 parts glacial acetic acid and one part water
For stainless steel dilute sulfuric acid or 10% hydrochloric acid in alcohol for copper, brass, silver, and other
copper alloys-ferric chloride + hydrochloric acid + water
For Zinc 10% sodium hydroxide
For Tin 10% hydrochloric acid
For Silver concentrated nitric acid
For Gold and Platinum 3 parts hydrochloric acid and one part nitric acid

Principle Involved in the Restoration and Tampered Serial Number


When a number or any mark is stamped on metal, the crystalline structure of the metal in the neighborhood
of the stamp is disturbed. This disturbance penetrates to an appreciable distance into the substance of the metal, but
not visible to the naked eye once the actual indentations caused by the punch have been removed. When etching fluid
are applied to this surface, the disturbed or strained particles of the metal differ in the rate of solubility than those of the
undisturbed particles and this difference in solubility makes it possible in many cases, to restore the number to such an
extent that they can be read and photographed.
Trace Metal Detection Techniques (TMDT)
A difficult problem in law enforcement is that of linking weapons ( particularly undischarged firearms), tools,
and like object to specific individuals. The essential need for such identification in cases involving homicide, suicide,
assault, burglary, robbery, and civil disorders has resulted in the development of a specific technique which shows
whether an individual has been in contact with a particular metallic object. The technique can be conducted by police
officers using simple equipment and the procedures described in this publication. Research has determined that metal
object leave traces on skin and clothing surfaces in characteristic patterns with intensities proportional to the interaction
of weight, friction, or duration of contact with metal objects. The Trace Metal Detection Technique (TMDT) makes such
metal trace patterns visible when skin or clothing is treated with a test solution and then is illuminated by ultra violet
light. Examination by ultraviolet light of the metal trace patterns which appear as fluorescent colors on the hands or
clothing of the suspect allows a police officer to determine whether a suspect has been in contact with certain metal
objects, the type of metal or metals in the objects, and also to infer what type of weapon or metal object was probably
involved. The patterns fluorescent colors can be analyzed with refference to the circumstances requiring the use of
TMDT and with other related information to provide an initial source of evidence. Physical evidence obtained by the
use of TMDT, however, should be use as an adjunct to complete investigation.
Selection of Test Areas
The areas to be examined are selected in relation to the circumstances, the suspect item (handgun, rifle,
tools, bludgeon, etc.), and to the normal handling, use, possession, or concealment of the suspect item. For example,
if the suspect item is a handgun, in addition to the hands those areas of clothing which may have been contact with the
weapon and the skin areas directly beneath should be examined. In the latter case, metal traces and patterns are
sometimes found to have penetrated clothing to the skin area beneath.
Application of TMDT Test Solution

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The area to be examined is completely coated with the TMDT test solution. a spray container is generally the
most suitable for this purpose. Whenever possible, the surface should be in a vertical position while being sprayed to
prevent the formation of puddles. Although the TMDT test solution is nontoxic to skin surfaces, it should not be taken
internally. Care should be taken to avoid spraying the solution into the subjects eyes. If spray does get into the eyes,
the subject should immediately flush his eyes with water for at least ten minutes and obtain medical acid.
Drying the Test Area
The test area is allowed to dry for a period of two or three minutes. The drying time of hands can be
shortened by swinging the arms. Sunlight, breeze, and hot air also shorten the drying process. The areas on clothing
and other materials should be allowed to dry thoroughly before examination.
Examination of Test Area by Ultraviolet Light
The TMDT solution produces a light yellow fluorescent on those parts of the test are that have not been in
contact with metal object. This pale yellow fluorescence provides a background for metal trace patterns seen on parts
of the test area that have been in contact with metal objects. The metal trace patterns will give off fluorescent colors
that are unique to types of metal and appear as silhouettes against the light yellow fluorescent background of the test
area. Examples of fluorescent colors produced by various metals are: steel/iron (blackish purple),. Brass/copper
(purple), galvanized iron (bright yellow), aluminum (mottled dull yellow), and lead (buff, flesh tone, or tannish). The
officer first should identify the types of metal that have been in contact with the test area by the fluorescent color that
appear under the illumination of the ultraviolet light. Essential to the officers ability to make this identification is his
knowledge and experience of what fluorescent colors are produced by metals such as steel, brass, copper, lead,
aluminum, tin chromium, iron nickel, silver and certain alloys that can be contained in metal objects. After determining
the presence of metal traces in the test area and identifying the metals, the officer can next determine the pattern of
the metal traces revealed by the fluorescent colors. The location, size, and shape of metal traces on the hand from
patterns that are characteristic of the size and shape and the normal way in which weapons, tools and other metal
objects handled and used. The recognition of these patterns in conjunction with the determination of what metals left
traces on the skin are the basis for identification of metal objects. In this way the officer can ascertain if the pattern is
pertinent to a suspect item to its having been in the possession of a suspect.
Detection and Identification of Metal Objects on the Hands
The shape, size and weight of the metals object, the duration of contact, and the use of the metal object all
combine to produce the location and intensity of metal traces and their patterns on the hands.
On holding a metal object, metal traces depend on the objects shape and the size (more or less) of the hand
that comes in contact with the metal surface. The intensity is also proportional tot he actions and forces involved in
using a tool, striking blows with weapons, and the recoil from the discharge of firearms. In addition, the intensity is
increased when the suspect resists action to disarm him.
Detection of Metal Objects on Clothing
As noted earlier, metals leave characteristic traces on clothing surfaces. Therefore, the suspects clothing
should be examined by TMDT. In particular, the areas to be examined are: gloves, hats, pocket, lining of coats, shirts,
areas used for concealment, and other areas of clothing where the suspect item may have been carried, concealed, or
otherwise been in contact. The spray is applied to the test areas placed in a vertical p[position whenever possible.
Clothing and other materials vary in their absorbency, therefore some of these test areas may require a heavier
application of spray or two or more spraying to produce the maximum fluorescence and appearance of metal traces
and patterns. The maximum appearance is obtained when a repeated spraying does not produce a brighter
fluorescence that the previous spraying and drying of the test area. Metal traces sometimes penetrate clothing to the
skin areas beneath. For example, metal traces may be found on the hands even though gloves have been worn while
metal objects have been handled. Skin areas directly beneath clothing areas where metal traces have been found
should be examined by TMDT. However, it should be noted the plastic, leather and rubber materials are impervious to
penetration of metal traces.

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Procedures for Detection and Identification of Handguns by TMDT


Because of their unique shape and use, handguns leave characteristic pattern and distinct signatures on the
hands that are specific to types, makes, models, and calibres of these weapons. The police officers, with knowledge
and experience in identifying the characteristic patterns and signatures on handguns by TMDT, can determine if a
suspect has had a handgun in his possession and the signature of the handgun by the following procedures.
Spraying the Hands
The suspects hands are extended from the sides of the body with the palms in a vertical position and the
fingers and thumb separated and extended. The officer should make certain that the entire surface of the front and
back of the hands are covered by the spray.
Examination of Hands
The officer can next examine the suspects dry hands under ultraviolet light. He should make a written record
of the following observations and analysis of the suspects hand:
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

First, note and record the fluorescent colors of the metal traces that make up the pattern for the purpose of
identifying the metallic content of the gun.
Look for the appearance of metal traces (fluorescent colors differing from the light yellow fluorescent color
produced by TMDT test solution) on those parts of the hand that come in contact with the gun: the index
finger which rested on the trigger, the remaining fingers and thumb which enclosed the gun, the palm, and
the degree of protrusion of the gun into the area between and beyond the junction of the thumb and index
finger. (Extensive protrusion of metal traces beyond this area are made by the overhang at the top of the
back edge of the handles of automatics, which is common to the design of this type of handgun.)
Look for any irregularities or distinguishing marks in the pattern which may have been made by screws,
protrusions, ornamentations, and other markings of the gun.
Look for interruptions in the pattern which may be due to nonmetal parts of the gun. Compare these
observations with the suspect handgun or, if it has not been recovered, with a Catalog of Handgun
Signatures. This comparison serves to identify the signatures of the handgun or possession thereof by the
suspect.
Take a photograph of the pattern produced on the suspects hand under illumination by ultraviolet light.
If the suspect handgun has been recovered before the apprehension of the suspect or shortly after his arrest
(it has been found that detectable metal traces may be found up to 38 48 hours after contact with metal
objects), the pattern of the handgun should be produced on a subject who has not recently handled a gun.
The patterns on the subjects hands should be examined side-by-side under ultraviolet light to determine
whether or not the handgun has been in the possession of the suspect. Photographs should be taken as
evidence.
If the suspect handgun has not been recovered, the pattern on the suspects hand should be compared with
the photographs of handgun patterns entered in a Catalog of Handgun Signatures. A photograph of the
pattern on the subjects hand should also be taken and compared with those in the catalog to aid in the
possible identification of the type of gun the suspect has had in his position.

Catalog of Handgun Signatures


It has been noted earlier that handguns leave distinct pattern or signatures which are specific to types,
makes, models, and calibres of these weapons. It is important that police officers develop a thorough knowledge and
permanent record of these signatures. For this purpose a catalog of signatures should be prepared of as many types,
models, makes, and calibres of specimen handgun that can possibly be obtained. The signatures of these handguns
can be produced on the hands of subjects and examined under ultraviolet light as described above. A photograph of
each signature is then entered ultraviolet light and the type, make and model of the specimen handgun.
Detection of Tools and Metal Objects

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Some tools and other metal objects leave patterns that are characteristics of their shape, normal handling
and use (for example: pliers, wrenches, shears, scissors, etc.) while other tools and metal objects may leave patterns
that are similar because they are alike in shape and diameter (for example: crowbars, pipes, metal bars, etc.). Accurate
analysis and determination of patterns on suspects hands depend upon relating the above factors to circumstances,
information, and evidence of the case upon the technicians experience and skill in using TMDT. Again, as an aid in
obtaining such experience and skill, the technician should prepare a catalog of patterns and metal traces produced by
tools and other metal objects.
Contact with Non-Significant Metal Objects
The hands of individual may have metal traces from contact with metal objects such as handles, doorknobs,
keys, etc. The intensities of the traces will be proportional to the force and duration of contact with these metal objects.
In some cases, the metal traces will be faint because of momentary and light contact with the objects, but in other
cases the traces from no significant metal traces and distort the patterns of significant metal objects.

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Disassembly or Assembly of Handgun


If the suspect has handled a handgun for these purposes, metal traces will be left on the hands which do not
form the pattern ordinarily produced by the weapon. However, if the suspect held the weapon in the usual way for a
period of time, the technician may be able to detect the specific pattern left by the handgun. ( It should be noted that
gun oils give off a mother-of-pearl appearance under ultraviolet light.)
Similar Patterns of Metal Objects
Some metal objects may leave metal traces and patterns that are similar but not identical to the metal traces
and patterns of the significant object. The officer should be mindful of such potential false positives and learn to
discriminate accordingly.
Exposure of Hand to Soap and Water
Exposure to water after contact with metal objects does not affect an examination of the hands. Repeated
hand washing with abrasive soap or rubbing with dirt after contact with metals will reduce the amount of traces
deposited on the skin in a deliberate attempt to remove metal traces. However, it has been found that metal trace
patterns may be found on the hands up to 36-48 hours after when the suspect has followed a normal routine of daily
hand washings.
Fluorescence Brightness of Metal Traces and Patterns
The maximum fluorescence brightness of metal m traces and patterns that can be obtained in a TMDT
examination depends not only upon the amount of metal that has been deposited on a skin or clothing surface but also
upon the following factors: (1) adequate application and coverage of the TMDT test solution, (2) a strong source of
ultraviolet illumination, (3) exclusion of all other illumination from the test area, and (4) the proximity of the ultraviolet
light to the test area.
Use of TMDT in the Field and or Group Screening
The successful use of TMDT in the field for checking on a suspect or screening a group of individuals for
previous possession of weapons or other significant metal objects depends on whether the circumstances and
conditions are suitable for such examination. The acquiescence or subjugation of the subject must be obtained to
perform the examination. Sources of environmental light must be greatly reduced or eliminated in order to produce
adequate fluorescence by ultraviolet light. And, finally, field personnel must have sufficient experience and skill to
ascertain whether an individual has been contact with a weapon or significant metal object and whether an individual
should be held for further detailed examination by TMDT. Studies should be carried out by police officers to determine
the conditions and circumstances that prevent or are conductive to valid use and result of TMDT in the field.
Additional Use of TMDT
Another possible use of TMDT is the determination that a metal object has rested on another, non-metal
object. For example, a research experiment involving the successful application of this use determined that (1) a pair of
scissors no longer present had rested on the paper lining in a drawer and (2) coins no longer present had rested on a
paper document in the bottom of a storage container. In the latter case, the duration of contact of the undisturbed coins
was sufficient to show which side of each coin had rested on the document. Since friction is not involved, results
depend of the weight and duration of the contact of the metal object with the surface on which it rests. When
consideration is given ot the use of TMDT for this type of detection, the officer should conduct a test to determine if
trace metal deposit can be produced on the surface in question.
Precautions
Shortwave ultraviolet light in injurious to the eyes. Do not look directly into the light or shine the light into
individual eyes. Protective goggles are commercially available that prevent passage of shortwave ultraviolet but
transmit visible fluorescent light which is not injurious to the eyes.

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Fluorescence Photography
It is commonly believed that ultraviolet photography is also fluorescence photography. Actually two types of
photography are involved. The main purpose of ultraviolet photography is to record information about the objects that
have the property of either absorbing or reflecting ultraviolet light or about objects in which two or more of its elements
will absorb or reflect ultraviolet light to different degrees. These effects can be recorded photographically to show
differences between objects or between areas of the same object. Whether or not the objects emit fluorescence does
not enter into the purposes of ultraviolet photography. If a source of ultraviolet light is used to excite fluorescence in an
object, photographing the fluorescent object is known as fluorescence photography. This type of photography is used
for recording fluorescent metal trace patterns produced by TMDT.
Photography Techniques
1.

Illumination. Efficient sources of ultraviolet light, placed as close to the subject as practical, should be used to
excite the maximum fluorescence brightness of the object. The incidence of illumination of the object should
be at an angle of about 45 degrees. Two sources (one on each side of the object) will provide twice as much
light and prove more practical in photographing three dimensional objects.

2.

Barrier Filter. This filter is placed in front of the camera lens to absorb the ultraviolet light radiation
transmitted by the exciter filter and to transmit only the fluorescent given off by the object. An efficient barrier
filter is the Kodak Wratten Filter No. 2A if the exciter filter transmits ultraviolet light only.

3.

Exposure Determination. Because of the very low brightness of fluorescence, the proper exposures for
photographing fluorescent metal trace pattern will have to be determined by tests. The beginner should take
a number of photographs of subjects at various exposures. At fixed lens aperture, exposure time should be
increased by a factor of two in successive steps over a wide range of increasing shutter speeds. A record of
all exposure conditions should be made including: subject, ultraviolet source and its distance from the
subject, filter, shutter speed, and lens opening. With a record of such officer can develop the know-how and
skill in estimating the exposures for photographing subjects.

An extremely sensitive exposure meter can be used for determining exposures. However, its cell should be
covered with a barrier filter to absorb ultraviolet light reflected from the subject which, if higher in brightness that the
fluorescence of the subject, will give erroneous exposure settings on the camera. If the use of an exposure meter is
feasible, the tests described above may not be needed to determine exposures.
PETROGRAPHY AS APPLIED TO CRIME DETECTION
PETROGRAPHY branch of geology that deals with the systematic classification and identification of rocks,
rock forming minerals and soil. Also includes study of dust, dirt, safe insulation, ceramics and other such materials,
both natural and artificial.
Types of Soil
1.
2.
3.

Alluvial Soil formed from soil particles that were washed, blown, or moved by gravity to the lowlands.
Earth, sand, gravel, etc. deposited by moving water.
Colluvial Soil formed from decomposition of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, the
decomposed particles moved by gravity.
Sedentary Soil inactive, not migratory soil.

Collection and Submission of Evidence


Soil usually in form of mud is usually recovered from shoes, slippers, clothes, tires, tools and furniture. If
found on the above the soil should remain in place and the whole submitted to the laboratory. Should be wrapped in a
clean paper or filter paper and placed in a box. Known soil samples should be taken at different places around the
point of reference.

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Constituent of Soil
1.
2.
3.

Primary Minerals
Clay Mineral
Organic Constituents

PRIMARY MINERALS includes under composed rock fragments ranging from stone down thru pebbles,
sand and silt. Important minerals include quartz (silica), calcite (limestone, CaCO3), feldspar (silicate of A1, Na, Ba,
Ca, K) dolomite, mica.
CLAY MINERAL a product of decomposition of primary minerals found in nearly all soils and is the major
constituents of most heavy soil. It imparts to soil cohesiveness and plasticity and becomes hard and adherent on
heating.
ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS one of the most variable of all soil constituents and is of peculiar importance
in the identification of soil.
ANALYSIS OF SOIL there are several methods of petrography analysis that are being use in the
laboratories to establish the identify of two or more samples of soil. There is no procedure that is specially
recommended. It all depends on the availability of the apparatus. The DENSITY GRADIENT APPARATUS is a simple
apparatus utilizing simple procedure in determining the identity or non-identity of soil samples based on the density
distribution. The procedure is rapid, requiring a few hours of completion. It is sensitive to small changes in
composition.
Other Methods of Soil Analysis
X-ray diffraction, spectrographic analysis and thermal analysis are methods extensively used in commercial
and private laboratories as general procedure.
Application of Soil Analysis to Scientific Crime Detection
The value of soil as evidence depends wholly upon the fact that soils differ in various characteristics over the
surface of the earth. This difference makes it possible to establish the identity or non-identity of two soil samples.
DUST AND DIRT
DUST AND DIRT has been described as matter in the wrong place. The study of such piece of evidence
may often provide the investigator with clues as to the occupation or previous whereabouts of a person under
investigation.
DUST matter which is dry and in finely divided form
MUD dust mixed with water
CRIME (heavy dirt) when dust is mixed with the sweat and grease of the human body this is formed.
Composition of Dust
Whatever is the origin of dust and wherever it is found it always contain substances of plant and animal origin
and substances of mineral origin.

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Classification of Dust
For purpose of criminal investigation, dust may well be classified from their source.
1.

Dust Deposited from the Air - extremely fine dust particles present in the air everywhere. More in thickly
populated and industrial region. Settle very slowly and ultimately deposited on any exposed surface. Its value
in crime detection is significant.

2.

Road and Footpath Dust - produced by the wear and tear of the road surface be vehicular and pedestrian
traffic together with particles of soil carried by the wind or rain from adjoining regions.

3.

Industrial Dust - industries ;like cement, button, powdered gypsum and plaster of Paris factories, flour
milling, paint pigment, involves industrial processes like grinding, milling or beating for the purpose of
producing finely powdered ultimate products which in the process impart a pronounced local character to the
dust on the neighboring roads and buildings.

4.

Occupation Dust - some of the finely powdered material maybe found on the clotting and foot wears of
employees engaged in such industries. Aside from this for example, coal miner will have coal dust on his
clothes, bricklayer will yield brick duct, sand and lime on his clothes.

From the forensic chemical point of view, the identification of occupational dust is of great importance. In
criminal investigation, the identification of the person through the articles of clotting left in the scene of crime or in a
vehicle may place him in an identifiable class and thus to distinguish from the great majority of other persons. Such
observation does not serve to distinguish the wearer of the cloth from all other persons.
Collection and Submission of Dust and Dirt Specimen
Dust and dirt present in clotting or objects that can be readily transported should be left in site. The whole
article is packed in a clean box with proper protection and hipped to the laboratory.
If the object is immovable or too big to submit as a specimen like sofa, piano, dresses, the specimen maybe
removed by mechanical means if present in large quantity.
Dust on clotting maybe removed by the used of vacuum cleaner with paper bags used in the dust sack to
collect the dirt.
Analysis of Dust and Dirt
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

If the sample is very small, micro-chemical test or spectrographic analysis maybe employed. If the amount of
specimen is sufficient the following is employed.
Examine the sample under the ultraviolet light
Treat a small quantity with a drop of water on a spot plate.
Observe of aqueous drop with hand lens
Note the proportion of the solid matters that remains in suspension and proportion that settles rapidly.
Reaction with litmus paper (aqueous drop)
Treat a small quantity with a drop of 0.1 NHCl.
Note evolution of gas
Note formation of precipitate
Note changes in color
Note materials dissolved by acid
Treat a small quantity with ethanol
Note color of alcohol drop
Note difference between color of an aqueous solution in procedure 2 and that in alcohol solution.
Note other changes

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FORENSIC / LEGAL MEDICINE


General Considerations in Forensic/Legal Medicine
Evidence is the means, sanctioned by law, of ascertaining in a judicial preceding the truth respecting a
matter of fact.
Forensic Medicine is a branch of medical science which deals with application of medical knowledge to
elucidate legal problems.
Legal Medicine is a branch of medicine which deals with application of medical knowledge to the purposes
of law and justice.
Medical Jurisprudence is a branch of law which deals with the organization and regulation of the medical
profession.
Forms of Medical Evidence
a. Real
b. Testimonial
c. Experimental
d. Documentary
Methods of Processing Evidence
a. Photography and sound recording
b. Sketching
c. Description
d. Testimony of witnesses
Evidence Necessary for Conviction
a. Direct Evidence
b. Circumstantial evidence
Kind of Witnesses
a.
b.

Expert witnesses - opinion of a witness regarding a question of science, art or trade, when he is skilled
therein, may be received in evidence.
Ordinary Witnesses - all persons who, having organs of sense, can perceives, and perceiving, can make
their perception to others, may be witnesses.

Historical Development of Legal Medicine in the Philippines


1858 The first textbook in Legal Medicine and its practice by Dr. Rafael Genard Y Mas, who is a Spanish
chief army physician was published and is entitled Manual de Medecina Domestica.
1871 Legal medicine was included in the curriculum of the college of medicine in the University of Santo
Thomas.
March 31, 1876 The medico titulares which took charge of the public sanitation and medico-legal aid for
the purpose of justice was created by the King of Spain in his Royal Decree No. 188.
1894 The Medico Titulares of Forensic which is about the regulation and its practice was published.
1895 A medico-legal laboratory was established in Manila to handle medico-legal cases.
1898 During the American regime, the Spanish Forensic Medicine System was preserved.

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1901 The provincial, insular and municipal board of health (Acts 157, 307, 308) was created by the
Philippine Commission which is about the medico-legal duties of medico titulares of the Spanish regime
and its assignment to the health officers of the respective areas.
1908 Legal Medicine was taught in all medical schools in the Philippines.
1919 The Department of Legal Medicine and Ethics of the University of the Philippines was created under
Dr. Sixto de Los Angeles as chief.
January 10, 1922 The Department of Legal Medicine and Ethics of the University of the Philippines with its
Department head was incorporated to the Philippine General Hospital.
March 10, 1922 The Philippine Legislature enacted Act No. 1043 which became incorporated in the
administrative code as Section 2465 and provides that the Department of Legal Medicine and Ethics of the
University of the Philippines became a branch of the Department of Justice.
December 10, 1937 The creation of the Division of Investigation under the Department of Justice was done
by the Commonwealth Act 181 in which a medico-legal section was under the division with Dr. Gregorio T.
Lantin as the head.
March 3, 1939 The Department of Legal Medicine and Ethics of he University of the Philippines was
abolished and its functions were transferred to the medico-legal section of the Division of Investigation.
July 4, 1942 A medico-legal section of the Manila Police Department was created under Dr. Pablo Anzures.
1945 The Provost Marshall of the United States Army created the criminal investigation laboratory with the
Medical Examiner as an integral part under Dr. Mariano Lara as the Chief Medical Examiner.
June 28, 1945 the Division of Investigation was reactivated under the Department of Justice.
June 19, 1947 The Bureau of Investigation was created by the Republic Act 157. then, the Bureau of
investigation was made the National Bureau of Investigation by the Executive Order from the President of the
Philippines. The medico-legal section was created under the National Bureau of Investigation with its head
Dr. Enrique V. de Los Santos.
The existence of the medico-legal division in the criminal laboratory of the G-2 of the Philippine Constabulary
also occurred. At that time, all provincial, municipal and city health officers, physicians of hospitals, health
centers, asylums, penitentiaries and colonies became the ex-officio medico-legal officers. In remote places,
the service of a Cirujano Ministrante or the Sanitary Inspector may perform the medico-legal work if a
registered physician is not available.
The Medico-Legal System
The medico-legal system adopted in a particular country depends upon the laws of such country. The ones
commonly used are the Medico-legal Office System, Medical Examiner System and the Coroner System. Some
countries employed the three systems at the same time but other countries preferred two or a certain system.
Medico-legal Office System
This is the medico-legal system used in the Philippines at present which is handled by a Medical Jurist or
Medico-legal Officer who is a registered physician duly qualified to practice medicine in the Philippines. The National
bureau of Investigation, Manila Police Department and the Philippine Constabulary had their own medico-legal offices
with their own respective Medico-legal Officers. The Medico-Legal Officer is the one who investigates medico-legal

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cases of death, physical injuries, rape and other sexual crimes. His duty is to examine the victim of assistant, to make
a report and to appear in court as expert witness when summoned by the proper authorities.
In spite of several medico-legal cases in the Philippines, the medico-legal investigation is still insufficient
because of the following reasons:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Look of proficiency by the physician in medico-legal work


Inadequate facilities
inadequate means of transportation and communication
Lack of sufficient training in medico-legal work by the police investigator and other law enforcement agent
Insufficient physician and personnel to handle medico-legal cases
Medical Examiner System

In some parts of the United States, the Medical Examiner System is the preferred, although the Coroner
System is still used in some states. The Medical Examiner System is handled by the Chief Medical Examiner who is a
Doctor of Medicine and appointed by the Mayor from the classified lists compiled by the Civil Medical Examiner is on a
24-hour work with clerical staff always present.
The duty of the Medical Examiner is to investigate the cause of death especially violent death or other
circumstances leading to the death of the victim. The Medical Examiner on duty after being informed by the police
officer of a certain crime that needs to be investigated will go to the place of the crime, interview witnesses, examine
the victim and then take specimens if any, for examination.
During trial, the Medical Examiner will then present his medical report to the court.
Coroner System
The Coroner System probably originated in England, although there are no records of its actual origin. In
common law, the office of the Coroner is a very ancient one. The name Coroner is probably derived from the title
Custodes Placitorum Coronne or Keeper of he Kings Pleas as mentioned in Articles of Eyre of 1194. Magna Charta
(1215) refers to the coroner as Coronator. A report although there is evidence that coroner existed in Australia,
United States and other colonies of England.
Medico-legal Aspect of Identification
A.

When an unknown body is found, the following should be noted by the investigator to facilitate
identification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Place where body is found


Time when found
Cause of Death
Time when death occurred
Approximate age
Supposed profession
Description of the body

B. Points of Identification applicable to both living and dead before onset of decomposition
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Occupational marks
Race Color of skin, shape of skull
Stature
Teeth
Tattoo Marks
Weight
Deformities

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8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Birth Marks
Injuries leaving permanent result
Moles
Scars
Tribal marks
Sexual organ
Blood Group
Fingerprint

Medico-legal Aspects of Death


DEATH is the termination of life. It is the complete cessation of all the vital functions without possibility of
resuscitation.
Types of Death
1.

Brain death death occurs when there is irreversible coma absence of electrical brain activity and complete
cessation of all the vital functions without possibility of resuscitation.

2.

Cardio-Respiratory Death death occurs when there is continues and persistent cessation of hearth action
and respiration.

Kinds of Death
1.

Somatic or Clinical Death state of the body in which there is complete, persistent and continues cessation
of the vital functions of there brain, hearth and lungs which maintain life and health.

2.

Molecular or Cellular Death 3-5 hours later death of individual cells.

3.

Apparent Death or State of Suspended Animation not really death but merely a transient loss of
consciousness or temporary cessation of the vital functions of the body on account of disease, external
stimulus, it may arise especially in hysteria, uremia, catalepsy and electric shock.

Signs of Death
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cessation of heart action and circulation.


Cessation of respiration.
Cooling of the body (Algor Mortis)
Post-mortem caloricity is the rise of temperature of the body due to rapid and early putrefactive changes or
some internal changes. (Observed in the first two or some internal changes. (Observed in the first two (2)
hours after death)
Insensibility of the body and loss of power to move.

Changes in the skin


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Livid discoloration due to the gravitation of blood


Loss of elasticity of the skin:
Post mortem Contact Flattening body becomes flattened on areas which are in contact with the
surface it rests.
Opacity of the skin
Effect of application of heat

Changes in and about the eye


a.
b.

Loss of corneal reflex.


Clouding of the cornea.

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c.
d.
e.

Flaccidity of the eyeball.


Pupil is in the position of rest, (non-reactive)
Ophthalmoscopic Findings

Note: Tache Noir de la Sclerotique - a spot which maybe oval or round triangular with the base towards the cornea
and may appear in the selera a few hours after death. (yellowish-black ) due to thin.
Changes in the Body following death
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Stage of Primary flaccidity


Stage of Rigor Mortis (post-mortem rigidity cadaveric or death struggle of muscles
stage of secondary flaccidity
Putrefaction or decay
Cadaveric

Changes in the Blood


a.
b.

Coagulation of blood
Post mortem lividity
Hypostatic lividity- inside blood vessels
Diffusion lividity - outside the blood vessels in the tissue of the body

Causes of Death
1.
2.
3.

Natural Death
Violent Death - Accident, Negligent, Infanticidal, Parricidal , Murder, Homicidal
Judicial Death

Medico-Legal Aspect of Physical Injuries


Physical Injuries - effects of the application of stimulus to the body
Causes of Physical Injuries
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Physical Violence
Heat or cold
Electrical energy
Chemical energy
Radiation
Change in the atmospheric pressure

Note: Injuries brought about by physical violence - lead to production of wound


Wound - the solution of the natural continuity of tissue of the living body
Vital reaction - sum total of all reactions of tissue and organs for which activities of living cells are necessary.
Defense wounds - result of instinctive reaction of self-protection
Classification of Wounds
1.

As to Severity
a.
b.

2.

Mortal wounds
Non-mortal wounds

As to Kinds of Instruments Used


a. Brought about by blunt instrument
b. Brought about by sharp instruments: Sharp-edge, Sharp-pointed, Sharp-edge and pointed

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c. Brought about by tearing force


d. Brought about by change of atmospheric pressure
e. brought about by heat and cold
f. brought about by infection
3. As to manners of Inflection
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
4.

As regards the Depth


a.
b.

5.

e.

Coup injury - injury found at site of the application of force


Contre Coup - injury found opposite the site of the application of force.
Coup Contre Coup - injury found at the site and also opposite the application of force
Locus minoris resistancia - injury found both at the site or opposite the site of the application of the
force but in some areas offering least resistance to the force applied.
Extensive Injury - injury involving a greater area beyond the site of the application of force.

As to Regions of Organs (Legal Classification)


a.
b.
c.
d.

7.

Superficial
Deep penetrating or perforating

As regards the relation of the site of the application of force and location of injury
a.
b.
c.
d.

6.

Hit by means o9f bolo, blunt instrument, etc.


thrust stab
Tearing or stretching
Gunpowder explosion
Sliding or rubbing

Mutilation - intentional act of lapping or cutting of any part of the living body
Serious Physical Injury - injury that will incapacitate the subject for more than 90 days
Less Serious Physical Injury - Injury that will require medical attendance for 10 days or more but
not more than 30 days
Slight Physical Injury & Maltreatment - Injury that will incapacitate subject and require medical
attendance from 1 to 9 days

As to the Types of Wounds


Closed Wounds - when there is no breach of continuity of skin or mucous membrane.
Superficial Closed Wounds

Epithelia - extraversion of blood in the subcutaneous tissue or mucous membrane


Contusion or bruise - wound not on the surface of the skin but in the substance of the true skin
and the substance of cellular tissue-color is red and sometimes purple soon after the injury.
Change in the Color of Contusion

4-5 days color changed to green


7-10 days it becomes yellow & gradually disappear on the
14th or 15th day - Note: The ultimate disappearance of color varies from 1 to 4 weeks depending
upon the severity and constitution of the body.
Hecatomb (blood tumor) - extravasations of blood in a newly formed cavity
Ecchymosis - a form of hematoma only that the extent of extravasations of blood is wider but
thinner.

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Deep Closed Wounds


Simple fracture
Sprain - subcutaneous separation or tearing of the articular tendons, ligaments or muscles.
Strained tearing or rupture of muscle fibers
Dislocation displacement from each other of the articular surfaces of bones entering into the
formation of a joint.
Cerebral or brain concussion the jarring or of the brain leading to some commotion of the
cerebral substance.
Internal Hemorrhage Intracranial, Rupture of organs, Laceration of organs
Open Wounds when there is communication with the outside or break in the skin or mucous membrane.
1.

Abrasion characterize by the removal of the


superficial layer of the skin brought about by friction against a hard rough surface.
Forms of Abrasion
Linear
Multi-linear
Confluent almost indistinguishable due to severity of friction and roughness of the
object.
Multiple - several abrasion noted on the body surface of a person.
Types of Abrasion
Scratches
Impact or imprint abrasion
Grazes
Pressure or friction abrasion

2.
3.

Incised wound - produced by forcible contact


Lacerated Wound - produced by forcible contact of
the body with a blunt instrument.

4.

Stab Wound - produced by a sharp-pointed and


sharp edge instrument.

5.

Punctured Wound - produced by a sharp-pointed


instruments

6.

Wound produced by powder explosion - Firearm,


Grenade, dynamite, etc.

7.
8.

Mutilation
Avulsion

Medico-Legal Aspect of Wounds:


The following rules must be always observed:
1.
All injuries must always be described however small for it may be important later.
The description of wounds must be comprehensive.
2.

General Investigation of Surroundings


a.
b.
c.
d.

Place where crime was committed


Examination of clothing, stains, cuts, hairs and other foreign bodies that may be found in the scene of
the crime.
Investigation of those persons who may be witnesses to the incident or which could give light to the
case.
Examination of the wounding instrument.

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e.
3.

Examination of the Wounded Body - examination applicable to the living and dead victim:
a.
b.
c.
d.

4.

c.
d.

External signs and circumstances related to the position and attitude of the body when found.
Location of the weapon or the manner in which it is held.
The motive underlying the commission of the crime or the like.
The personal character of the deceased.
The possibility of the offender to have purposely changed the truth of the condition and other information
such as a) Signs of struggle b) Number and directions of wounds c) Nature and extent of the wound d)
State of the clothing

Length of time of survival of the victim after infliction of wound


a.
b.
c.
d.

8.

Hemorrhage - more profuse when wound was inflicted during lifetime of the victim
Signs of inflammation - there may be swelling of the area surrounding the wound. Other vital reaction
maybe present whenever the wound was inflicted during life.
Signs of repair - fibrin formation, scab or scar formation conclusively show that wound was inflicted
during life.
Retraction of the edge of the wound - Owing to the vital reaction of the skin and contractility of the
muscular fibers, the edges of the wound inflicted during life retract and cause gaping.

Points to consider in the determination whether the wound is homicidal, suicidal or accidental
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

7.

Characteristic of the wound


Location of the wound
Direction of the wound
Number of the Wound
Extent of the Wound
Condition of the surrounding of the wounds
Condition of the locality
Degree of hemorrhage
Evidence of struggle
Information as to the position of the body
Presence of letter or suicide note
Condition of the weapon

Determination whether the wounds were inflicted during life or after death
a.
b.

6.

Age of the wound from the degree of healing


Determination of the weapon used in the commission of the offense.
Determination whether the injury is accidental, suicidal or homicidal.
Reason for the multiplicity of wounds in cases where there are more than one wound.

Examination of the Wound


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.

5.

Photography, sketching, or accurate description of the scene of the crime for purposes of preservation.

Degree of healing
Changes in the body in relation to the time of death
Age of the blood stain
Testimony of witnesses when the wound was inflicted.

Possible instrument used by the assailant in inflicting the injuries


a.
b.
c.

Contusion - by blunt instrument


Incised wound - by sharp-edged instrument
Lacerated wound - produced by blunt instrument

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d.
e.
f.
9.

Punctuated wound - by sharp pointed instrument


Stab - by sharp-edged and pointed instrument
Gunshot wound - the diameter of the wound entrance may approximate the caliber of the wounding
firearm.

Which of the injuries sustained by the victim caused death?

This can be ascertained by examining by examining individually the wounds and noting which of them
involved injury to some vital organs or large vessels or led to secondary result causing death.
10. Which of the wounds was inflicted first?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Relative position of the assailant and the victim when the first injury was inflicted on the latter
Trajectory or course of the wound inside the body of the victim.
Organs involved degree of injury sustained by victim.
Testimony of witness.
Presence of defense wounds on the body of the victim if the victim tried to make defense act during the
initial attack, then the defense wounds must have been inflicted first.

11. Relative Position of Victim and Assailant when Injury was inflicted
a.
b.
c.
d.

Location of the wound in the body of the victim


Direction of the wound
Nature of the instrument used in inflicting the injury
Testimony of witnesses

Death or Physical Injuries Brought About by Powder Propelled Substances:


1.

Production of Combustions
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2.

Bullet - Gunshot wound


Flame - Singeing
Smoke -smudging
Gun powder residue - tattooing
Grime - tattooing
Firearm Wounds

a.

Gunshot Wound

Difference between Entrance and Exit of gunshot wound


ENTRANCE
1. Appears to be smaller than missile owing to elasticity
of tissue except contact fire.
2. Edges inverted
3. Usually ovaloid or rounded
4. Contusion collar present
5. Other product of combustions when firing is near
6. Paraffin test may be positive
3.

EXIT
1. Always bigger than missile
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Edges averted
Variable shape
Contusion collar absent
Always absent
Always negative

Determination of Relative Position of Victim & Assailant


a.
b.

Contusion Collar - the wider side points to the source of the missile.
Smudging & Tattooing - the side with more or intense deposit points to the source of the missile.

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4.

Determination of the probable caliber of the firearm used in the infliction - measure in centimeter of
the cross diameter of the gunshot wound fro collar to collar - the shortest is the probable caliber.

5.

Determination of the distance of fire

a. Contact fire - intense laceration & undermining of the point entrance. Normal bigger than exit.
b. Distance of six (6) inches presence of smudging, singeing and tattooing.
c. Beyond six (6(inches but within thirty six (36) inches - presence of the tattooing.
d. Beyond thirty six(36) inches only the gunshot wound will be present
Shotgun Wound
1.
2.
a.
b.
c.

Unchoked bore or Straight bore


Choked bore
Improved cylinder - narrowing of the bore from rear to the muzzle is 3-5 thousandth of an inch.
Half Chock - narrowing of the barrel is 15-20 thousandth of an inch.
Full Chock - narrowing of the barrel is 35-50 thousandth of an inch.

Characteristics of Shotgun Wounds


Contact fire - entrance of wound is irregular with severe destruction of the underlying tissue. There is
singeing and smudging.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Near shot up to six (6) inches.


Mark laceration of skin.
Gunpowder maybe driven into the deeper area of the wound.
Mark smudging of the skin & deeper portion of the wound of entrance.
Mark tattooing.
Hair is singe.
Wad may be found inside the wound of entrance.

Distance of about one (1) yard


a. Pellets enter as one mass thus making entrance wound with irregular edges.
b. Surrounding skin may be blackened with light burning & tattooing.
Distance of 2 to 3 yards
a. The wound of entrance has big central hole with rugged edges with few stray wound of entrance wound.
b. Smudging & tattooing no longer evident
Distance of 4 yards pellets may enter skin area of about 6 to 8 inches diameter although there may be a
central care where a group might have entered.
Death by Asphyxia
All forms of violent death which results primarily from the interference with the process of respiration or to
condition in which the supply of oxygen to the blood or tissue or both has been reduced below normal level.
1. Hanging
2. Strangulation
a. by ligature
b. manual or throttling
c. special forms of strangulation
c.1. palmer
c.2. garroting
c.3. mugging or yoking
c.4. compression of neck with stick

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3. Suffocation
a. smothering closing mouth and nostrils by solid objects
b. choking
4. Asphyxia by submersion in water (drowning)
5. Asphyxia by pressure on the chest
6. Asphyxia by irrespirable gases
Death or Physical Injuries Due to Vehicular Accidents
1.

Kinds of injuries in vehicular accident cases


Sustained by the pedestrian
Impact injuries - primary impact injuries, subsequent impact injuries, Secondary injuries, Run over injuries
Sustained by driver & passengers - Impact injuries and turn-turtle injuries

2.

Medical Evidence in Vehicular Accident Cases


Evidence from the victim
Crash injury
Tire thread marks
Abrasion prints
Blood, hair or clothing of victim may be found sticking on the part of the vehicle which hit the victim.
Physical defects of the victim like poor eyesight
Inebriation of the victim like under the influence of alcohol
Evidence from the driver
Physical defect like poor eyesight
Under the influence of alcohol or drugs by drive
History of grudge between the driver and the victim.

Medico-Legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes


What is Virginity? It is a condition of a female who not experienced sexual intercourse.
Kinds
1.
2.
3.
4.

Moral virginity
Demi-virginity
Virgo-Inacta
Physical virginity - True physical virginity, False physical virginity

Determination of the condition of virginity


1. Breast
2. Vaginal canal
3. Labia majora minora
4. Fourshette & perineum
5. Hymen
6. Rougosites
What is Defloration? It is the laceration or rupture of the hymen as a result of sexual intercourse.
Classification

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1.
2.
3.

Incomplete Laceration Superficial or Deep


Complete
Complicated

Healing Time of Hymenal Laceration


1.
2.
3.

superficial 2 to 3 days
extensive tear 7 to 10 days
complicated if with intervening infection will require longer to heal

Duration of Laceration of the Hymen


1.
2.
3.
4.

fresh bleeding laceration rupture quite recent


healing after 24 to 7 days
recently healed 7 days to 3 months
old healed 3 mos to years

Medical Evidence to Consider in Sexual Crimes


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Evidence from the victim


Alleged time and place of the commission of the crime.
Date, time and place of the examination.
Condition of clothing.
Physical and mental development of victim.
Gait, facial expression etc.
Examination of body for sign of violence
Examination of genetalia
a. hymen
b. hymental orifice
c. vaginal canal
d. rougosites
e. fourshette
f. pubic hair
g. labias
h. presence of spermatozoa

MedicoLegal Aspects of Pregnancy


Pregnancy is a state of a woman who has within her body the going product of conception.
Legal importance of the study of pregnancy
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Pregnancy ground for the suspension of the execution of the death sentence in women
A conceived child is capable of receiving donation.
Duration of pregnancy 270-280 days from onset of last menstruation.
Abnormally prolonged gestation beyond 300 days.
Minimum period of gestation compatible with viability of the child born at 180 days may live.
Super fecundation fertilization made by separate intercourse of two ova which have escaped at the same
act of ovulation.
Pseudocysis or spurious pregnancy imaginary pregnancy

Medico-Legal Aspects of Delivery


1.

Delivery is the process by which in a woman gives birth to her offspring.

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2.
3.

4.

Puerperium is the interval between the termination of labor (delivery) to the complete return of the
reproductive organ its normal pregnant state-last from 6 to 8 weeks.
The study of delivery is important because proof delivery is necessary in judicial action on the following:
a. Legitimacy
b. Abortion
c. Infanticide
d. Concealment of birth
e. In slander or libel

Methods of delivery
a. Natural Route the normal passages- Spontaneous, Surgical intervention, Instrumentation
b. Surgical Route Abdominal caesarian section, vaginal caesarian section, Post-mortem caesarian section

Medico-Legal Aspect of Abortion


Willful killing of the fetus in the uterus, or violent expulsion of the fetus from the natural womb and which
results to the death of the fetus
Principal elements of crime
1.
2.

That the expulsion of the product of conception is induced.


That the fetus dies either as an effect of the violence used, drug administered or fetus was excelled before
the term of its viability.

Provision of the Revised Penal Code on Abortion


Intentional Abortion
1. That the woman is pregnant
2. Violence was applied on such pregnant woman without the intention of abortioning her.
3. The woman aborted as result of the violence.
Unintentional Abortion
1. The woman must be pregnant
2. Violence was applied on such pregnant woman without the intention of abortioning:
3. The woman aborted as aborted as result of the violence.
Abortion Practiced by the woman herself or by her parents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The woman is pregnant


Abortion is intended to be committed
Abortion is induced by
The pregnant woman
Other person with consent of the pregnant woman
The presents of the woman, or either of them for the purpose of concealing her dishonor and with the
consent of the woman herself

Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and dispensing of abortions


1. The woman is pregnant
2. The physician induced or assisted in causing the abortion
3. The acts done by the physician or midwife intended to cause an abortion
4. There must be intention of the physician to produce abortion and the absence of intention will not make the
physician criminally liable.

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Kinds of Abortion
1. Spontaneous or natural
2. Induced therapeutic or criminal
Medico-Legal Aspects of Birth
Legal importance of the study of birth
1. Birth determines personality
2. Appearance of a child is ground for the revocation of donation.
3. Proof of live birth must first be shown before of the child by the prosecution in the case of infanticide
Medico-Legal Aspects of Infanticide
INFANTICIDE is the killing of a child less than three (3) days old.
How the crime committed?
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

By omission or neglect
Failure to litigate the umbilical cord
Failure to protect the child from heat and cold
Omission to take the necessary help of a midwife or skilled physician.
Omission to supply the child with proper proof food.
Omission to remove the child from the mothers discharge with resulted to suffocation

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

By Commission
By inflicting physical injuries
By suffocation
By strangulation
By drawing
By poisoning
By burning
By deliberate exposure to heat and cold

a.
b.

Other allied causes


Abandoning a minor
Abandoning a minor by person entrusted with custody indifference of parents.

2.

3.

Medico-Legal Aspects of Paternity and Filiation


PATERNITY is the civil of the father with respect to the child begotten him.
FILIATION is the civil status of the child in relation to its mother or father.
Legal importance of determining Paternity & Filiations
1.
2.

For succession
For enforcement of the naturalization and immigration laws.

Kinds of children
1.

Legitimate children (proper) born in lawful wedlock or within 300 days after the
dissolution of marriage.

Presumption of Legitimacy children born after 180 days following the celebration of marriage, and before
300 days following its dissolutions or the separation of the spouses shall be presumed to be legitimate.

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Against their presumption no evidence shall be admitted other than that of the physical impossibility of the
husbands having access to his wife within the 180 days of the 300 which preceded the birth of the child.
This physical impossibility may be caused by:
a.
b.

The impotence of the husband; the fact that the husband and wife were living separately in such a ay
that access was not possible.
By the serious illness of the husband.

Requisites of the presumption


a.
b.
c.
2.

There is a valid marriage


the birth of the child took place after 180 days following the celebration of marriage or within 300 days
following its dissolution or separation of spouse;
There is no physical impossibility of the husband having access to the wife during the first 120 days of
the 300 proceeding the birth of the child.
Legitimated Children

Legitimation is defined as a remedy or process by which a child born out of lawful wedlock and are
therefore considered illegitimate are by fiction of law considered by subsequent valid marriage of the parents.
Children that can be legitimated:
a.
3.

Natural children (proper) - Natural children are those born outside lawful of parents who, at the time of
the conception of the former were not disqualified by any impediment to marry each other.
Adopted Children

Adoption is defined the act or proceeding by which of paternity and filiation are recognized as legally
existing between persons not so related by nature.
Persons who may be adopted:
a. The natural child by the natural father or mother;
b. Other illegitimate children, by the father or mother;
c. A step-child, by the step-father or step-mother;
d. Any person, even if age provided adopter is sixteen years older
4.

Illegitimate Children
a.

Natural Children
Natural Children (proper)
Natural children by legal fiction natural children by legal fiction are those born of void degree of
annulment.
Natural children by presumption - are those natural children acknowledge the father or the mother
separately if the acknowledging parent was legally competent to contact marriage at the time of
conception.

b.

Spurious Children - Illegitimate who are not natural are considered spurious children may be:
Adulterous Children conceived in an act of adultery or concubinage.
Sacrilegious Children children born of parents who have been ordained in sacris.
Incestuous Children children born by parents who are legally incapable of contracting valid
marriage because of their blood relations as marriage between brothers and sisters, father and
daughter, etc.

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Manceres children conceived by prostitute. It is very difficult to determine the father because of
the nature of the work.

Artificial Insemination
It is the introduction of seminal fluid with spermatozoa in the generative of a woman by any means of
springe, pipette, irrigator, etc.
Status of Children born by artificial Insemination
a.
b.
c.

If the donor is the husband, the child must be unquestionable legitimate.


If the semen came from a donor than the husband, with the consent of the later, the child may also
consider legitimate in as much as it born lawful wedlock and there is consent of the husband.
If the semen came from a third party and introduced to the wife without consent or against the will of the
husband, the child is illegitimate (adulterous).

Evidence of Paternity and Filleting


1.

d.

Medical Evidences
Parental likeness
Blood grouping
Evidence from the mother - Proof of previous delivery, Proof of physical potency & fertility, Proof of
capacity to have access with the husband
Evidence from the father - Proof of physical potency and fertility, Proof of access

a.
b.
c.

Non-Medical Evidences
Record of birth in the civil registrar, or by an authentic document or a final judgment.
Continuous possession of the status of a legitimate child.
Any other allowed by the Rules of Court and Special Laws.

a.
b.
c.

2.

Medico-legal Aspect of Impotency and Sterility


Impotency is the physical incapacity of either sex to allow or grant to the other legitimate sexual
gratification.
Legal importance of impotency
a. Impotency, if proven, will overthrow the presumption of legitimacy.
b. Impotency maybe ground for the annulment of marriage
Cause of impotency
a. General or functional, unconnected directly with the sexual organs: ag