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professorgstatla@gmail.com

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Translation

x= x + tx

y= y + ty

The translation distance pair (tx,ty) is called a

translation vector or shift vector

P = x1

P= x1

T = tx

x2

x2

ty

This allows us to write the two dimensional translation

equations in the matrix form

P = P + T

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Translation Illustration

P

P

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Rotation 1

(x,y)

r

(x,y)

X= r cos ()

y = r sin ()

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Rotation 2

Y = r sin ( + ) = r cos sin + r sin cos

x = x cos y sin

Y = x sin + y cos

P = R.P

R = cos

sin

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- sin

cos

Rotation 3

(x,y)

r

r

(x,y)

(xr,yr)

Y = yr + (x xr) sin + ( y yr) cos

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Scaling 1

X = x. sx y = y.sy

x

sx 0

x

y

0 sy

y

P = S . P

Turning a square

into a rectangle

with scaling factors

sx= 2 and sy =1.5

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Scaling 2

Using sx= sy = 0.5 the line is

reduced in size and moved

closer to the origin

p1

(xf,yf)

p2

p3

Distances from each polygon vertex to the fixed

point are scaled y transformation equations

X = xf + (x- xf) sx

Y = yf + (y-yf) sy

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Transformations as Matrix

operations

X

Y

1 0 tx

1 ty

0 1

P = T ( tx , ty ) . P

Translations

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Rotations

X

Y

1

Cos -Sin 0

Sin

Cos 0

P= R() .P

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10

Scaling

X

Y

1

Sx

Sy

P= S(sx, sy) .P

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11

Successive translations

1 0 tx1+tx2

0 1 ty1+ty2

0 0 1

tx1

1 0 tx2

ty1

0 1 ty2

0 1

P= T(tx1, ty1) .[T(tx2, ty2)] P

= {T(tx1, ty1). T(tx2, ty2)}.P

T(tx1, ty1). T(tx2, ty2) = T(tx1+tx2 , ty1 + ty2)

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12

Successive rotations

successive rotations are additive

P= R(2) .{ R(1). P }

= { R (2). R(1)}.P

{ R (2). R(1)} = R(1 + 2)

P = R(1 + 2) . P

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13

Sx1.sx2 0

0

0

sy1sy2 0

0

sx1

sy1 0

sx2

sy2

operations are multiplicative

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14

coordinate origin

Rotate the object about the coordinate origin

Translate the object so that the pivot point is returned to its original

position

(xr,yr)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Original Position

of Object and

pivot point

Translation of

object so that

pivot point

(xr,yr)is at origin

Rotation was

about origin

so that the pivot point is

returned to position

(xr,yr)

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15

1

xr

cos

-sin 0

-xr

yr

sin

cos 0

-yr

cos

sin

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16

coordinate origin

Scale the object with respect to the coordinate origin

Use the inverse translation of step 1 to return the object to its

original position

(xf,yf)

(a)

(b)

Original Position

of Object and

Fixed point

Translation of

object so that

fixed point

(xf,yf)is at origin

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(d)

(c)

scaling was

about origin

so that the Fixed point

is returned to position

(xf,yf)

17

1

xf

sx

-xf

yf

sy

-yf

sx

xf(1- sx)

sy

yf(1- sy)

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18

Transformations Properties

Concatenation properties

A.B.C = (A.B).C = A.(B.C)

Matrix products can be evaluated from left to right or from right

to left

A.B B.A

transformation matrix is evaluated

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19

Order of Transformations

performed may effect the transformed position of an object.

(a)

(b)

In (b) the object is rotated first and then translated

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20

General Composite

transformations

rotations and scalings are expressed as,

X

Y

rsyx rsyy

trsy

rsij represent multiplicative rotation-scaling terms , trsx and trsy are the

translational terms containing combinations of translations and scaling

parameters

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21

Composite transformations

center coordinates (xc,yc) and then translated , the composite

transformation matrix looks like

T(tx,ty). R(xc,yc,) . S(xc, yc, sx, sy)

=

sxcos -sysin

sxsin

0

sycos

0

yc(1-sycos) xc sx sin + ty

1

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22

Composite Transformations

additions

x = x.rsxx + y.r sxy + tr sx

y = x. rsyx + y. rsyy + tr sy

Formulate transformation matrices

Concatenate transformation sequence

Calculate transformed coordinates using the explicit

equation shown above

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23

transformation matrix

and rotations can be expressed in the form

rxx rxy trx

ryx ryy try

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24

Other transformations

an object. It is obtained by rotating the object by 180 deg about

the reflection axis

1 Original position

axis , is accomplished with the

transformation matrix

1 0

0 -1 0

0

1

Reflected position

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25

Reflection

Original position

Reflected position

2

1

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-1 0

26

Reflection

Reflected position

3

-1 0

-1

2

1

1

2

3

Reflection of an object

relative to an axis

perpendicular to the xy plane

and passing through the

coordinate origin

Original position

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27

line y=x

Original position

3

2

1

1

3

Reflected position

2

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28

Shear Transformations

such that the transformed shape appears as if the object were

composed of internal layers that had been caused to slide over

each other

Two common shearing transformations are those that shift

coordinate x values and those that shift y values

An x direction shear relative to the x axis is produced with the

transformation matrix

1 shx 0

0 1 0

X = x + shx.y

y =y

0 0 1

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29

Shear tranformations

(0,1)

(1,1)

(0,0)

(1,0)

Yref =-1

(1,1)

(2,1)

(1/2,0)

(3/2,0)

Yref =-1

We can generate x-direction shears relative to other referance lines with

0 1

0 0

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X= x + shx (y - yref)

y = y

30

Shear transformation

A y-direction shear relative to the line x = xref is generated with the

transformation matrix

Shy 1 -shy.xref

positions

X = x

y = shy (x xref) + y

(1,2)

(0,3/2)

(0,1)

(1,1)

(1,1)

(0,0)

(1,0)

(0,1/2)

Xref = -1

www.eazynotes.com

31

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