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Introduction

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.
.
.
.
.

.
.NC, CNC
.
.
CNC .
.

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Alan J. Crispin, Programmable logic control and their
engineering application, Mc-Graw Hill, 1997.
Ian G. Wornork, Programmable control, operational
applications, Prentice Hall, 1998.
Barr Leath, Introduction to computer numerical
control, Jones, 1997.

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15
15
10

20

40

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Programmable Logic Control

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)(PLC



, , , , ,
.

.
PLC ,SIEMENES
,ALEN BRADLEY MITSUBISHI
.

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)(PLC
PLC
,
:
.
) (modules
/ .

) (

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PLC
PLC

.

:
.
:
, ,

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PLC

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PLC

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- PLC )(CPU
) :(Central Processing Unit
) (Microprocessor PLC

/ ,
.

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- PLC )(CPU
) (CPU :
) :(ALU
.
) :(Control Unit
, :

) :(fetch cycle .
) :(execution cycle .

) :(registers
) (byte 8 ) (word
16 ) (double word 32 .
.
) :(data registers
.
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- PLC )(CPU

) :(address registers
.
: .
) :(program counters
.
) :(flags register
.

) :(carry bit .
) :(zero bit .
) :(negative bit .
) :(overflow bit .

) :(stack pointer
.
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PLC )(Memory
/
,
, :
) :(ROM
PLC .
) :(RAM ,
.
) :(EPROM
.
) :(Firmware


.
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PLC )(Memory
) :(Memory Stick
PLC
,RAM
.

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PLC )(Memory
PLC :
:
.
: ,
, , ,
.
:

,
.PLC

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PLC )(Buses
:
) :(data bus
, /.
) :(address bus ,

) /(
.
) :(control bus ,
) (
/.

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PLC )(Digital inputs


) (ON, OFF ,
, .

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PLC )Analog
(inputs
)
(.

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PLC )Digital
(outputs
ON ) OFF .(......,LED ,

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PLC )Analog
(outputs
) ,
(.

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PLC )Input
(interfaces

) (Input interfaces

) (Modules

, :

).(DC voltage digital input circuit

) 24-12( .
.
.

).(AC voltage digital input circuit

)(.
.
.

).(ADC-Analog to digital converter


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(circuit

)dc voltage digital input

)(Input device
0V
24V
LED
.
)(Opto-isolator

,

.

.
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)(sink input circuit


(circuit

)DC voltage digital input

)(Input device
24V

) (Opto-isolator
LED
.

.

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)(source input circuit

)AC voltage digital input

(circuit
) (Diode bridge
) (AC ) ,(dc
.

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)(ADC-Analog to digital converter


.
)(SC





)sample and
,(hold
.


)quantization
.(circuit

).(EOC

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PLC )Output
(interfaces

) (Output interfaces
) (Modules

, :

).(Relay output circuit


).(Transistor output circuit
).(DAC-Digital to analog converter

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)(Relay output circuit



AC/DC.

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)(Transistor output circuit

,DC

) (
,
.

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)(DAC-Digital to analog converter


Vref
.
B7 B6 B5 B4 B33 B2 B1 B0
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2

Vout Vref

:
= Vref = 10v ,11110010
1
1 1 1 1
Vout 10
6v
2 4 8 16 128

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PLC


.
PLC
:
).(Sensors
.PLC
).(Actuators

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PLC
) :(Sensors
PLC
.

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PLC
) :(Actuators
PLC .

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:
.

.
.PLC

.

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)(

):(Hand Held Programmer


, ,
.

.

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)(
)(Dedicated Programmer


.

, .
, ,


.

.
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)(
)(Computer

.

.


,
,

, .
,

.
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,
.



.

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PLC

.
.
.
.
.

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PLC
PLC
:
.0

.


.

, .
.

.
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IEC 1131-3 ,,
, PLC .
).(Input image memory
).(Output image memory
).(Internal memory

:
( )numeric code) (second letter code) (first letter code%
% .

First letter code
:.

M:
Q:
I

Second letter code
X B)bit(: W)byte=8bit(: )word=16bit(:
)long word=64bit

(:
L)double word=32bit

(:
D

Numeric field
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