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oblique triangles

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Subject: TRIGONOMETRY

Topic: SOLUTION TO OBLIQUE TRIANGLES

Triangles on Modern Trigonometry

Proponents

Millares, Clarence

Quinsoy, Kim

Segubre, Steven Michael

Torcelino, Carlos Inigo

Tuala, Bhejay

Trigonometry Teacher

Ms. Marissa L. Serrano

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Oblique triangles are any triangles except right triangles. These

triangles may be acute or obtuse. Sometimes, the study of oblique triangles

may be the study of all triangles including right triangles. In trigonometry

the study of oblique triangles are essential to further find new modalities in

studying this field.

An oblique triangle is determined or solvable if a side and any two

other parts are known, whether this might be both sides, both angles, or a

side and an angle. With this two given situations, the measures of the sides

and the interior angles, and possibly the area, of the triangle can be solved.

However, since oblique triangles do not contain any right interior

angle, the basic application of the six trigonometric functions and the famous

and well-rounded Pythagorean Theorem cannot be used directly.

Nonetheless, two theorems of geometry give trigonometry useful laws to

deal with this problem: Law of Cosines and the Law of Sines.

The Law of Sines is vital for studying triangles, specifically on studying

oblique triangles. The Law of Sines can be used when two angles and a side

of a triangle are known. This law is important because, as said above, it can

be applied in all kinds of triangles. The law has the formula a over sin A= b

over sin B= c over sin C which is useful on oblique triangles in trigonometry.

In addition, the Law of Cosines, with the formula a2 = c2 +b2 - 2bc (cos

A), is also important in solving these types of triangles. This law is used

primarily in two situations: when two sides and their included angle are

given, and when three sides are given. This is to fulfill the missing

requirement before using the law of sines.

Before, solving these types of triangles will need an actual diagram of

the polygon and several measuring tools. However, with the use of these

laws, it has been easy for Mathematicians to determine the polygons size

without manually measuring the triangle. Though there are other laws that

can be used, the common used of calculators lead people to only use these

two.

The researchers believe that by studying these types of oblique

triangles and determining their solution provides information to further find

new modalities in studying trigonometry and its application to the everyday

life. It also adds new knowledge on the field of Mathematics as other

formulas may be discovered in answering daily questions.

Also, all of these are essential and vital to human life because this

gives accuracy and precision for engineers and architects in their own work.

Especially with these, humans especially researchers can further find ways in

improving the quality of life.

CHAPTER 2

Methodology

Oblique triangles are triangles that do not have a 90 angle. Because

of this, we cannot solve this triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem. So in

order for you to know how to solve on oblique triangles, you must first know

the law of sines and the law of cosines.

LAW OF SINES

LAW OF SINE

Remember that the sides of the triangle MUST

be opposite of its angle of the same name.

=

=

a

b

c

Fig. 21: LAW OF SINE

Fig. 2.2: ABC

uppercase letters represent the

angles of the triangle. The law of

sine is used to prove triangle congruencies, namely, ASA (Angle-Side-Angle)

and AAS (Angle-Angle-Side). Because, in order for us to solve an oblique

triangle using the law of sines, we should have 2 known angles and 1 known

side.

Example

We have here on the right

Fig. 2.3: DEF

counter-clockwise without skipping

any given angle or side, wed start

with F which measures 61. Next is

D which measures 44. Lastly, we

have a known side named side f (because the name of the side must be

opposite its angle) has a measure of 52. Now we can say that we have an

Angle-Angle-Side or AAS, a congruency theorem. With that, we can now

solve this oblique triangle.

If you are going to look at the figure, we can

say that we only need to find out the values of

side d and side e. And because the law of sines

says that (sin A)/a = (sin B)/b, we can substitute

it using the letter of the other angle or side. Lets

start first with d since its angle is already given.

Fig. 2.4: How to solve d

equation, substitute the given measures in the equation. And lastly, isolate

the variable that we are going to solve, and that is d. Looking at the detailed

solution for side d, the value of d is 41.3.

After solving side d, we still havent solved the triangle yet because the

measure of E and side e is still unknown. And since we cannot solve side e

without having the mE, we should solve it first. Because we have two

angles that are given already, we could add them and then subtract it to

180 to solve E. 180 (61 + 44) =

all the measures of

its sides and angles

we can now solve side e. And by using it,

57.4

41.3

75

measures of the sides and angles of DEF.

The law of sines can only be used to solve AAS or ASA triangle

congruencies, if the given measures were only the sides (SSS) or two sides

and an included angle (SAS), we should use the law of cosines.

LAW OF COSINES

This law is used to prove the SSS (Side-Side-Side) and SAS (SideLAW OF COSINE

a =b +c 2 bc cosA

law, we only need at least two sides of the

oblique triangle. This law is also used when the

largest angle of the oblique triangle is an

obtuse angle.

b2=a2 +c 22 ac cosB

c 2=a 2+ b22 ab cosC

Example

In this example, we have a triangle given all of

its sides. Using the law of cosine, we are going to

solve the angles of the GHI*. Now, the first

thing youre going to do is to solve the largest

angle, which is G. (TAKE NOTE: The largest

angle is opposite the longest side.)

To solve G, we first need to find the

81=64 +92(24)cosG

the original formulas for the law of cosine,

substitute everything in and we have

81=7348 cosG

8173=48 cosG

8173

=cosG

48

Substitute all the values in, and simplify until

we are left out with 81 = 73 - 48 (cos G).

Since -48 is together with cos G, transpose 73

to the other side of the equation then simplify.

Next divide both sides of the equation by -48.

8

=cosG

48

1

=cosG

6

cos1

1

=G

6

99.59=G 99.6

And now we have 8/(-48)= cos G, which can be simplified to -1/6 = cos G.

How can we solve G? You are going to find the inverse function of -1/6. So,

99.6.

Thats just the largest angle of our triangle, we still have two to go.

Since we already have 1 angle measure, we can find the second angle

through the law of sines.

sinG sinh

=

g

h

going to use the law of sine, we need to isolate

sin 99.6 sinh

=

sin H in 9the equation.

8

If we are going to isolate

8sin 99.6

=sinh

sin H, we9 need

to find its inverse to find H.

7.888

=sinh

Solving9the

inverse of the sin H, we have

0.8764=sinh

61.2111 or approximately 61.2.

1

sin 0.8764=H

61.2111=H 61.2

Lastly, in order to

Fig. 2.10: Solving h using

find I, youThe

can

just

LAW

OF SINE

subtract the sum of G and H to 180. So, 180

Fig.19.2

2.11:

GHI with

all the

measures

of its sides

and angles

look at Fig. 2.11, theres GHI with the measures

of all its angles and sides.

99.6

61.2

CHAPTER 3

Research on the Topic Itself

Since oblique triangles do not have any interior right angle, the Pythagorean

Theorem and the six trigonometric functions cannot be applied to answer the

problems involving these triangles easily. However, two new laws are made

so that two of the trigonometric functions, sine and cosine to be exact, can

be used to solve the measurements of the sides and interior angles of any

triangle by showing the relationships of each side to the polygons angles.

DERIVATION

The Laws of Sines and Cosines are used to identify the measures of the sides

and interior angles of any triangle, with or without any interior right angle.

The Law of Sines

Figure 3.1 is an oblique triangle. A perpendicular was drawn from vertex B.

Figure 3.1

sin C = h/a h = a (sin C)

conclude:

triangle, as shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2

From the illustration, it can also be deduced that:

sin C = k/b k = b (sin C)

Both (sin A)/a and (sin B)/b are equal to (sin C)/c, therefore:

From these three equations, the Law of Sines was made. This law can be

simply stated mathematically as:

Figure 3.3 is an oblique triangle. A perpendicular bisector was drawn from

vertex B down to side AC, as shown below.

Figure 3.3

It can now be observed that:

cos A = r/c r = c (cos A)

a2 = h2 + (b-r)2

Since we have known the value of h and r, we can substitute their value to

the former equation.

a2 = h2 + (b-r)2

a2 = (c (sin A))2 + (b - (c (cos A))2

a2 = c2 (sin A)2 +b2 - 2bc (cos A) + c2 (cos A)2

(expand (c (sin A))2 and (b - (c (cos A))2)

a2 = c2 (sin A)2 + c2 (cos A)2 +b2 - 2bc (cos A)

(the terms are reordered)

a2 = c2 ((sin A)2 + (cos A)2) +b2 - 2bc (cos A)

(c2 (sin A)2 + c2 (cos A)2 was grouped, and c2 was factored out)

a2 = c2 (1) +b2 - 2bc (cos A)

(due to the identity sin2 + cos2 = 1, (sin A)2 + (cos A)2 was changed to 1)

a2 = c2 +b2 - 2bc (cos A)

The resulting equation is the equation for the Law of Cosines.

Area of a Triangle

Conventionally, the area of a triangle is bh/2. However, in trigonometry, this

formula could be expressed in terms of trigonometric ratios.

The area of triangle ABC in figure 3.4 is ah/2. If you look at figure 3.4 below

again, the following statement can be made:

Figure 3.4

With this, we can say that the height is equal to the length of side b

multiplied to sin C. Substituting this value to the h in the formula of area, we

can therefore conclude that:

A = ab (sin C)/2

The Law of Sines

The researchers have found out that the equation for Law of Sines can be

rewritten, such that all the terms in each side of the equation are expressed

as products of three values, two of the three sides and the angle opposite

the other side.

(sin A) = a (sin B)/b = a (sin C)/c

bc (sin A) = ac (sin B) = ab (sin C)

Other than that, the researchers have not found any other shortcut or

technique that can simplify further the Law of Sines.

The Law of Cosines

Sadly, the researchers have not found any technique or shortcut to alter the

equation for the Law of Cosines.

However, it should be taken note that the variable of the equation can be

interchanged depending on the variable being asked.

b2 = a2 +c2 2ac (cos B)

c2 = a2 +b2 2ab (cos C)

Observe that the variable on the left side of the equation cannot be seen on

the right side of the equation, and the angle, which its cosine is important to

solve the equation, must be the interior angle opposite the side indicated on

the left portion of the equation. This could be a clue in rewriting the

equation.

Nevertheless, there is only one equation for the Law of Cosines, not three.

The two other mentioned equations are just other forms of the first one.

Area of a Triangle

From the formula of the area of a triangle stated beforehand in this research

paper and the other technique or form of the Laws of Sines, it can be

observed that ab (sin C) from A = ab (sin C)/2 can be changed to bc (sin A)

or ac (sin B). Furthermore, the same technique suggested by the

researchers in writing the Laws of Sines can be used to find the

measurements of other sides and interior angles if ever sufficient

information is still not present on the problem given.

THE AMBIGUOUS CASE

Problems arise on the determinacy of a triangle given only two of its sides

and an angle opposite to one of the said sides. In case of such discrepancies,

it is necessary first and foremost to determine whether the said angle is

acute or obtuse. After doing so, solutions can be concluded based on the

properties of the given information for each type of angle.

For Acute Angles

Five different cases exist for the given information above with the use of the

Law of Sines (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.).

If the side opposite the given angle, b, is shorter than the other given

side, a, and less than a certain length, then (a (sin B)/ b) > 1 , and no

solution exists, because there exists no angle whose sine is greater

than one. Refer to figure 3.5 for the polygons illustration.

Figure 3.5

If the side opposite the given angle is shorter than the other given

side, there exists an exact length at which (a (sin B)/ b) = 1, and A =

90. Exactly one solution exists, and a right triangle is determined.

Figure 3.6

If the side opposite the given angle is shorter than the other given

side, but longer than in the previous case, then (a (sin B)/ b) < 1, and

two triangles are determined, one in which A = x, and one in which A

= (180 x), such as in figure 3.7.

Figure 3.7

If the side opposite the given angle is equal in length to the other

given side, then A = B, and an isosceles triangle is determined, as

Figure 3.8

If the side opposite the given angle is longer than the other given side,

then (a (sin B)/ b) < 1, and a triangle is determined, like in figure 3.9.

Figure 3.9

With the same given information stated in the first paragraph of the article,

except this time, the angle is obtuse rather than acute, three different cases

can be made to determine if there is such triangle or not, again, with the use

of the Law of Sines (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.).

If the side opposite the given angle is less than the other given side (b

< a), then arcsin (a (sin B)/ b) + B > 180; there is no solution and no

Figure 3.10

Like in the previous case, if the side opposite the given angle is equal

to the other given side (b = a), then arcsin (a (sin B)/ b) + B = 180.

Figure 3.11

If the side opposite the given angle is greater than the other given

Figure 3.12

CHAPTER 4

Analysis

The researchers found out another way of rewriting the Laws of Sine.

They also discovered an additional means of writing the formula of the Area

of a Triangle. But, unfortunately, they have not found another way of

rewriting the formulas of the Laws of Cosine. All of these new ways of

rewriting the formulas of the said topics are not shortcuts, but are all

rewriting or other techniques of these formulas.

The rewritten formulas are of no significant difference than the original

ones, the researchers just found out that these formulas can be written in

another way. Since the new formulas do not differ from the original ones,

the researchers preferred using the original formulas. The researchers

memorize than the new ones. Also, the original formulas are the simplest

way to solve problems involving these techniques

CHAPTER 5

Discussion

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Retrieved November 20, 2016, from

http://www.sparknotes.com/math/trigonometry/solvingobliquetriangle

s/

Roberts, D. (n.d.). Deriving Law of Sines and Law of Cosines.

Retrieved November 20, 2016, from http://l.facebook.com/l.php?

u=http://www.regentsprep.org/regents/math/algtrig/att12/derivelawof

sines.htm&h=XAQGjJZo8

Roberts, D. (n.d.). Area of Triangle and Parallelogram Using

Trigonometry. Retrieved November 20, 2016, from

http://www.regentsprep.org/regents/math/algtrig/att13/areatriglesson

.htm

Colwell, C. H., Blawn, J. R., & Twain, M. (Eds.). (n.d.). Trigonometry:

Oblique Triangles - Law of Cosines. Retrieved November 20, 2016,

from http://www.algebralab.org/studyaids/studyaid.aspx?

file=Trigonometry_LawCosines.xml

Colwell, C. H., Blawn, J. R., & Twain, M. (Eds.). (n.d.). Trigonometry:

Oblique Triangles - Law of Sines. Retrieved November 20, 2016, from

http://www.algebralab.org/studyaids/studyaid.aspx?

file=Trigonometry_LawSines.xml

In Youtube.com. Retrieved November 20, 2016, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtYbQ8X7U_w&t=507s

Tarrou (Producer). (n.d.). Law of Cosines [Video file]. In Youtube.com.

Retrieved November 20, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=07w-wk8kRRE

Joyce, D. E. (n.d.). Oblique Triangles. Retrieved November 20, 2016,

from http://www2.clarku.edu/~djoyce/trig/oblique.html

Weisstein, E. W. (n.d.). Law of Cosines. Retrieved November 20, 2016,

from http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LawofCosines.html

The Law of Cosines. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2016, from

https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/trig-cosine-law.html

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