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Dear readers,
This STATIC GK TORNADO is a complete docket of important news and events. The STATIC GK TORNADO is important
and relevant for all competitive exams like IBPS RRB Mains Exam 2016, NABARD 2016, Insurance and UPSC Exams.
STATIC BANKING AWARENESS TORNADO

What is Bank?
Bank is a financial institution which deals in debts and credits. It accepts deposits, lends money and also creates money.
It bridges the gap between the savers and borrowers. Banks are not merely traders in money but also in an important
sense manufacturer of money.
Primary banking functions of the banks include:
1. Acceptance of deposits
2. Advancing loans
3. Creation of credit
4. Clearing of cheques
5. Financing foreign trade
6. Remittance of funds
Demonetization :
Withdrawal of a particular form of currency (such as gold coins) from circulation.
On 8th November 2016 GOI made history by taking a striking bold step to demonetize Rs.500 & Rs.1000 note to reform
the finance sector. Making 86 per cent of the currency in circulation illegal in one stroke.
History of Demonetization in India:
First demonetization : Pre Independence era in year 1946.
The highest denomination note ever printed by the Reserve Bank of India was the Rs 10,000 note in 1938 and again
in 1954. But these notes were demonetized in January 1946 and again in January 1978, according to RBI data to
curb counterfeit and black money.
Sources of Black Money :
Corruption
Tax evasion
Countries Implemented Demonetization :
Nigeria
Ghana
Pakistan
Zimbabwe
North Korea
Soviet Union
Australia
Myanmar

What do you mean by Central Bank of a Country?


The central bank of the country is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). It was established in April 1935 with a share capital
of Rs. 5 crores on the basis of the recommendations of the Hilton Young Commission. RBI was nationalised on 1 January
1949.

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The Management of RBI : The Executive head of the RBI is called the Governor, who is assisted by 4 Deputy Governors
and other executive officers.
Present Governor of RBI : Dr. Urjit R. Patel is the present governor of RBI. He assumed charge as the 24th Governor
of the Reserve Bank of India.
Four Deputy Governor of RBI : There are 4 Deputy Governors of RBI
1. Shri N. S. Vishwanathan
2. R Gandhi and
3. S S Mundra.
4. _________
Note : There are 4 Deputy Governors, but one place is vacant at present so the 3 Deputy Governors are R Gandhi, S S
Mundra and N S Vishwanathan

Powers of RBI
The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 have given the RBI wide powers of:
Supervision and Control over commercial Banks - relating to licensing and establishments,
branch expansion,
liquidity of their assets,
management and methods of working,
amalgamation (merger)
reconstruction and liquidation.

Functions of RBI
Issue of Currency RBI is the sole authority for the issue of currency in India other than one rupee notes and subsidiary
coins, the magnitude of which is relatively small. The RBI is also called Bank of Issue.
Note: The One Rupees notes and coins are issued by the Central Govt., The Ministry of Finance
Banker to the Government As a Bankers to the Govt. RBI performs the following functions:
(i) It accepts money, makes payment and also carries out their exchange and remittances for the Govt.
(ii) It makes loans and advances to the States and local authorities.
(iii) It also sells treasury bills to maintain liquidity in the economy.
(iv) It makes ways and means advances to the Governments for 90 days.
(v) It acts as adviser to the Government on all monetary and banking matters.
Bankers Bank The RBI has extensive power to control and supervise commercial banking system under the RBI Act,
1934 and the Banking Regulation Act, 149.
(i) The Banks are required to maintain a minimum of Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) with RBI.
(ii) The RBI provides financial assistance to scheduled banks and state cooperative banks.
(iii) Enables banks to maintain their accounts with RBI for statutory reserve requirements and maintenance of
transaction balances.
Custodian of foreign exchange reserves The RBI functions as the custodian and manager of forex reserves, and
operates within the overall policy framework agreed upon with Government of India.
(i) The reserves refer to both foreign reserves in the form of gold assets in the Banking Department and foreign
securities held by the Issue Department, and domestic reserves in the form of bank reserves.
(ii) Foreign exchange reserves are important indicators of ability to repay foreign debt and for currency defense, and
are used to determine credit ratings of nations.

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(iii) Its commonly includes foreign exchange and gold, special drawing rights,(SDRs) and International Monetary
Fund(IMF) reserve positions.

Controller of credit Credit control is generally considered to be the principal function of Central Bank. By making
frequent changes in monetary policy, it ensures that the monetary system in the economy functions according to the
nations need and goals.
(i) It can do so through changing the Bank rate or through open market operations.
(ii) It controls the credit operations of banks through quantitative and qualitative controls.
(iii) It controls the banking system through the system of licensing, inspection and calling for information.
Lender of last resort Lender of the last resort means Central Bank (RBI) helps all the commercial and other banks in
time of financial crises.
(i) It can come to the rescue of a bank that is solvent but faces temporary liquidity problems by supplying it with much
needed liquidity when no one else is willing to extend credit to that bank.
(ii) The Reserve Bank extends this facility to protect the interest of the depositors of the bank and to prevent possible
failure of the bank, which in turn may also affect other banks and institutions and can have an adverse impact on
financial stability and thus on the economy.

What is Monetary Policy?


Monetary policy is how central banks manage the money supply to guide healthy economic growth. The money supply
is credit, cash, checks, and money market mutual funds. The most important of these is credit, which includes loans,
bonds, mortgages, and other agreements to repay.
Objectives of Monetary Policy - The primary objective of central banks is to manage inflation. The second is to reduce
unemployment once inflation has been controlled.
Central bank reduces inflation by raising interest rates, selling securities through open market operations, and other
measures to reduce liquidity.
Instrument of Monetary Policy - There are several direct and indirect instruments that are used in the implementation
of monetary policy.
Open Market Operations (OMOs) - It refers to buying and selling of government securities by RBI in the open market.
It controls the money supply in the economy. When RBI sells govt. securities to banks, the lendable resources of the
latter are reduced and banks are forced to reduce or contain their lending, thus curbing the money supply. When money
supply is reduced, it result increase in the interest rates tends to limit spending and investment.
On the other hand, when RBI buys Govt. securities from banks, their lending resources are higher which in turn
encourage banks to lend more in the market and lending leads to increase in money supply. When money supply is
increased, it result decline in the interest rates tends to promote spending and investment.
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) : It is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with the RBI. Current CRR is 4%. For
ex - When a banks deposits increase by Rs100, and if the cash reserve ratio is 4%, the banks will have to hold additional
Rs 4 with RBI and Bank will be able to use only Rs 96 for investments and lending / credit purpose. Therefore, higher the
ratio (i.e. CRR), the lower is the amount that banks will be able to use for lending and investment.
Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) : It indicates the minimum percentage of deposits that the bank has to maintain in form
of gold, cash or other approved securities.

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Note : If SLR increases, banks need to keep more liabilities (deposits) with them and provides less loans to people. If SLR
decreases, banks need to keep fewer liabilities (deposits) with them and provides more loans to people. Changes in SLR
often influence the availability of resources in the banking system for lending to the private sector.
Repo Rate It is the rate at which RBI lends money to commercial banks in the event of any shortfall of funds. It is the
rate of interest which RBI implements on the short term loans, i.e., from a period ranging between 2 days to 3 months
(90 Days). It is used by monetary authorities to control inflation. A reduction in the repo rate helps banks get money at
a cheaper rate and vice versa.
Reverse Repo Rate It is the rate at which the RBI borrows money from commercial banks. Banks are always happy to
lend money to the RBI since their money is in safe hands with a good interest. An increase in reverse repo rate can
prompt banks to park more funds with the RBI to earn higher returns on idle cash. It is also a tool which can be used by
the RBI to drain excess money out of the banking system.
Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) - A facility under which scheduled commercial banks can borrow additional amount of
overnight money from the Reserve Bank by dipping into their SLR portfolio up to a limit (currently two per cent of their
net demand and time liabilities deposits) at a penal rate of interest (currently 100 basis points above the repo rate). This
provides a safety valve against unanticipated liquidity shocks to the banking system. MSF rate and reverse repo rate
determine the corridor for the daily movement in short term money market interest rates.
Bank Rate - Bank rate is the rate of interest implemented by RBI when it lends money to a public sector bank on a long
term basis, i.e. from a period ranging from 90 days to 1 year. Under this definition, Bank Rate and Repo Rate seem to
be similar terms because both are the interest rates at which RBI lends money to banks.
However, the Repo Rate is a short-term measure and refers to short-term loans used for controlling the amount of
money in the market, whereas Bank Rate is a long-term measure and is governed by the long-term monetary policies of
the RBI. Bank rate is also referred to as the discount rate and is the rate of interest which a central bank charges on the
loans and advances to a commercial bank.

What is BPS (Basis Points)?


BPS is an acronym for basic points is used to indicate changes in rate of interest and other financial instrument. 1 BASIC
POINT IS EQUAL TO 0.01%. So when we say that repo rate has been increased by 25 bps, it means that the rate has been
increased by 0.25%
RBI proposed marginal cost of funds methodology to calculate Base Rate The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) proposed
a new methodology to calculate Base Rate (Base Rate). It is based on marginal cost of funds methodology. The new
methodology is aimed at bringing uniformity among BRs of banks so that they will be more sensitive to any changes in
policy rates of the RBI like Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), etc.
Under the proposed methodology, the components of Base Rate will include cost of funds, negative carry on CRR/SLR,
un-allocable overhead costs and average return on net worth. It will be effective from 1 April 2016.
Base Rate
It is defined as the minimum interest rate of a bank below which it is not viable to lend.
It was introduced on 1 July 2010 by the RBI.
It replaced the benchmark prime lending rate (BPLR), the interest rate which commercial banks charged their most
credit worthy customer.

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SBI & ICICI Systemically Important Banks RBI


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) designated State Bank of India (SBI) and ICICI Bank Ltd, the countrys two largest lenders,
as Domestic Systemically Important Banks (D-SIBs). The banks have been named Domestic Systemically Important
Banks (D-SIBs), with SBI falling in bucket three while ICICI Bank is in bucket one.
Systemically Important Bank Systemically important bank or a bank that is too big to fail is one whose failure will
have nationwide or worldwide impacts. A bank failure is a scenario in which the bank or financial institution is unable
to pay its depositors or fulfill its financial obligations.
What is SWIFT?
SWIFT - Society for worldwide Interbank financial tele-communication.
India was 74th Nation to join SWIFT Network.
SWIFT Code is a standard format of bank Identifier code. This code is used particularly in International transfer of
money between banks.
A majority of FOREX related message are sent to correspondent banks abroad through SWIFT.
SWIFT Code consist 8 or 11 character
When code is of 8 digit, It is referred to primary office
1st 2nd 3rd and 4th digit
bank code
5th and 6th digits

country code
7th and 8th digits

location code
9th 10th and 11th digits
branch code (optional).

What is Fiscal Policy?


It is the process of policy decision making in relation to the financial structure of the government receipts and payments.
It includes the action strategies on tax policy, revenue and expenditure, loans and borrowing, deficit financing etc.
Primarily it is the budgetary policy of the Govt. and is reflected through the annual budget formulation.
The Objective of the policy are
Mobilsation of resources for meeting the financial requirements for economic growth.
Improve savings & investment rate to improve the capital formation.
To initiate steps to remove poverty and unemployment and improve the standard of living of the people.
To reduce regional disparities.

History of Banking in India Banking system commenced in India with the foundation of Bank of Hindustan in Calcutta
(now Kolkata) in 1770 which ceased to operate in 1832. After that many banks came but some were not successful like
General Bank of India (1786-1791)
Oudh Commercial Bank (1881-1958) the first commercial bank of India.
Whereas some are successful and continue to lead even now like
Allahabad Bank (est. 1865)
Punjab National Bank (est. 1894, with HQ in Lahore (that time)
Bank of India (est. 1906)
Bank of Baroda (est. 1908)
Central Bank of India (est. 1911)
While some others like Bank of Bengal (est. 1806), Bank of Bombay (est. 1840), Bank of Madras (est. 1843) merged into
a single entity in 1921 which came to be known as Imperial Bank of India.
Imperial Bank of India was later renamed in 1955 as the State Bank of India.

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In April 1935, Reserve Bank of India was formed based on the recommendation of Hilton Young Commission (setup in
1926).
The Indian banking sector is broadly classified into scheduled banks and non-scheduled banks. The scheduled banks
are those which are included under the 2nd Schedule of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
The scheduled banks are further classified into : nationalised banks; State Bank of India and its associates; Regional Rural
Banks (RRBs); foreign banks; and other Indian private sector banks. The term commercial banks refer to both scheduled
and non-scheduled commercial banks which are regulated under the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.
Nationalization Nationalization is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a
national government or state. Need for nationalization in India:
a) The banks mostly catered to the needs of large industries, big business houses.
b) Sectors such as agriculture, small scale industries and exports were lagging behind.
c) The poor masses continued to be exploited by the moneylenders.
Following this, in the year 1949, 1st January the Reserve Bank of India was nationalized.

14 commercial banks were nationalized in 19th July, 1969.


Smt. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India, during in 1969. These were
1. Central Bank of India
6. Canara Bank
11. Indian Bank
2. Bank of India
7. Dena Bank
12. Union Bank of India
3. Punjab National Bank
8. United Bank
13. Bank of Maharashtra
4. Bank of Baroda
9. Syndicate Bank
14. Indian Overseas Bank
5. United Commercial Bank
10. Allahabad Bank
Six more commercial banks were nationalized in April 1980. These were:
1. Andhra Bank
2. Corporation Bank
3. New Bank of India

4. Oriental Bank of Commerce


5. Punjab & Sindh Bank
6. Vijaya Bank.

Meanwhile on the recommendation of M. Narsimhan committee, RRBs (Regional Rural Banks) were formed on Oct 2,
1975. The objective behind the formation of RRBs was to serve large unserved population of rural areas and promoting
financial inclusion.
Other Banks :
Bandhan Bank Ltd. - is an Indian banking and financial services company headquartered in Kolkata, West Bengal.
Bandhan, which started as a micro-finance company in 2001, received banking license by Reserve Bank of India in 2014.
CEO - Chandra Shekhar Ghosh
Chairman - Ashok Lahiri
IDFC Bank Ltd. - is an Indian banking company with headquarters in Mumbai that forms part of IDFC, an integrated
infrastructure finance company. The bank started operations on 1 October 2015. IDFC received a universal banking
license from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in July 2015. On 6th November, 2015, IDFC Bank was listed on BSE and NSE.
CEO - Dr. Rajiv B. Lall
Public Sector Banks Public Sector Banks (PSBs) are banks where a majority stake (i.e. more than 50%) is held by a
government. The shares of these banks are listed on stock exchanges. There are a total of 27 PSBs in India [21
Nationalised banks + 6 State bank group (SBI + 5 associates)]. In 2011 IDBI bank and in 2014 Bharatiya Mahila Bank were
nationalized with a minimum capital of Rs 500 cr. For Ex Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank, Bank of India, etc.

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Private Banks The private-sector banks in India represent part of the Indian banking sector that is made up of both
private and public sector banks. The "private-sector banks" are banks where greater parts of stake or equity are held by
the private shareholders and not by government. For ex ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, Axis Bank, etc.
Regional Rural Banks - Regional Rural Banks are local level banking organizations operating in different States of India.
They have been created with a view to serve primarily the rural areas of India with basic banking and financial services.
However, RRB's may have branches set up for urban operations and their area of operation may include urban areas
too. The Government of India, the concerned State Government and the bank, which had sponsored the RRB
contributed to the share capital of RRBs in the proportion of 50%, 15% and 35%, respectively.

What are the Sources of Banks Income?


A bank is a business organisation engaged in the business of borrowing and lending money. A bank can earn income
only if it borrows at a lower rate and lends at a higher rate. The difference between the two rates will represent the
costs incurred by the bank and the profit. Bank also provides a number of services to its customers for which it charges
commission. This is also an important source of income.
The followings are the various sources of a banks profit:
Interest on Loans The main function of a commercial bank is to borrow money for the purpose of lending at a higher
rate of interest. Bank grants various types of loans to the industrialists and traders. The yields from loans constitute the
major portion of the income of a bank. The banks grant loans generally for short periods. But now the banks also advance
call loans which can be called at a very short notice. Such loans are granted to share brokers and other banks. These
assets are highly liquid because they can be called at any time. Moreover, they are source of income to the bank.
Interest on Investments Banks also invest an important portion of their resources in government and other first class
industrial securities. The interest and dividend received from time to time on these investments is a source of income
for the banks. Bank also earn some income when the market prices of these securities rise.
Discounts - Commercial banks invest a part of their funds in bills of exchange by discounting them. Banks discount both
foreign and inland bills of exchange, or in other words, they purchase the bills at discount and receive the full amount
at the date of maturity. For instance, if a bill of Rs. 1000 is discounted for Rs. 975, the bank earns a discount of Rs. 25
because bank pays Rs. 975 today, but will get Rs. 1000 on the due date. Discount, as a matter of fact, is the interest on
the amount paid for the remaining period of the bill. The rate of discount on bills of exchange is slightly lower than the
interest rate charged on loans and advances because bills are considered to be highly liquid assets.
Commission, Brokerage, etc. - Banks perform numerous services to their customers and charge commission, etc., for
such services. Banks collect cheques, rents, dividends, etc., accepts bills of exchange, issue drafts and letters of credit
and collect pensions and salaries on behalf of their customers. They pay insurance premiums, rents, taxes etc., on behalf
of their customers. For all these services banks charge their commission. They also earn locker rents for providing safety
vaults to their customers. Recently the banks have also started underwriting the shares and debentures issued by the
joint stock companies for which they receive underwriting commission.

What is NBFC?
Non-bank financial companies (NBFCs) are financial institutions that provide banking services without meeting the legal
definition of a bank, i.e. one that does not hold a banking license. These institutions typically are restricted from taking
deposits from the public depending on the jurisdiction. Nonetheless, operations of these institutions are often still
covered under a country's banking regulations.
NBFCs are doing functions similar to banks. What is difference between banks & NBFCs?
NBFCs lend and make investments and hence their activities are similar to that of banks; however there are a few
differences as given below:

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i. NBFC cannot accept demand deposits;


ii. NBFCs do not form part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue cheques drawn on itself;
iii. Deposit insurance facility of Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation is not available to depositors of
NBFCs, unlike in case of banks.

What is KYC?
It is a process by which banks obtain information about the identity and address of the customers. This process helps to
ensure that banks services are not misused. The KYC procedure is to be completed by the banks while opening accounts
and also periodically update the same.
KYC guidelines were introduced in year 2002 by RBI and all banks were asked to make all accounts KYC compliant by 31
December 2005. These guidelines are issued under Section 35 A of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.
KYC documents - These are the documents used to establish customers identity. Banks need two types of document
one for identity another for address.
Individual : Identity: Pan card, Passport, Aadhar card, Voter id card, Driving license, any other identity card upto banks
satisfaction, letter from recognised public authority establishing identity of the customer.
Address : Telephone bill, electricity bill, Aadhar card, voter id card, Driving license, any other identity card upto banks
satisfaction, letter from recognised public authority establishing address and identity of the customer, letter from
employer, letter from landlord along with kyc of landlord.
Note: If a person is unable to produce necessary documents mentioned, a relaxation is extended if:
1. Balance < Rs. 50000 for all a/cs taken together
2. Total credit in all a/cs for a year < Rs. 1,00,000
Such customer needs to be introduced from an existing customer at least six months old and having full KYC. Also,
transactions are to be stopped in such a/cs once Balance reaches Rs. 40,000 or total credit reaches Rs. 80,000.

What is Anti Money Laundering?


Money laundering is the process by which the origin of funds gained by illegal means is concealed, and made to appear
such that they have been derived from legitimate sources and inserting them back into economic circulation. Money
laundering also covers financial transactions where the end use of funds goes for financing terrorism irrespective of the
source of the funds.
The prevention of money laundering act, 2002 was enacted to prevent money laundering and deal with those who are
guilty of money laundering. The PMLA seeks to combat money laundering in India and has three main objectives:
(i) To prevent and control money laundering
(ii) To confiscate and seize the property obtained from the laundered money; and (iii) To deal with any other issue
connected with money laundering in India.
Case of AML DMKs Kanimozhi, A Raja and Dayalu Ammal were charged under anti-money-laundering act for their
involvement in 2G scam.

What is Financial Inclusion?


Financial inclusion is a concept of making available banking/financial services to a vast section of low income groups and
weaker sections at an affordable price. The objective of financial inclusion is to provide the service of basic banking
products to the unserved masses of the country, aiming towards inclusive economic growth.

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The need for financial inclusion raised when even after years of Independence 40% population lacked access to basic
banking products. And apart from poverty, illiteracy and lack of regular income the major barriers are lack of reach, high
cost of transactions and time.
Regulatory steps taken by Reserve Bank of India in this regard BSBDA (Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account)
No requirement for any minimum balance.
No limit on the number of deposits while restriction on withdrawal to 4.
Relaxation in KYC guidelines
Use of extensive technology in banking
Appointing business correspondents and business facilitators
Opening of branches in unbanked rural areas
Licensing of differentiated banks like Payment Bank and Small Bank
Schemes launched by Government of India to promote financial inclusion are PMJDY (Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana) The main features of this scheme are
(i) The slogan of the scheme is Mera Khata Bhagya Vidhaata
(ii) The scheme provided Rs 5,000 overdraft facility for Aadhar linked accounts and RuPay Debit Card for all account
holders
(iii) An accident insurance cover of up to Rs. 1 Lakh is also provided.
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana The main features of this scheme are
(i) For personal accident insurance
(ii) Age group: 18-70 years
(iii) Sum assured: Rs 2 lakh, while premium: Rs 12 per annum
Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana The main features of this scheme are
(i) For life insurance
(ii) Age group: 18-50 years
(iii) Sum assured: Rs 2 lakh, while premium: Rs 330 per annum
Atal Pension Yojana The main features of this scheme are
(i) For pension purpose
(ii) Age group: 18-40 years
(iii) Fixed pension: Rs 1000-5000 per month at age of 60 years.
Banking products that play a crucial role in the expansion of Financial Inclusion a. Savings-cum-overdraft account
b. Remittance products
c. Savings product
d. Kisan credit card (KCC) or General credit card (GCC)
Fund Allocation - Reserve Bank of India recently created a new Financial Inclusion Fund (FIF) with funding of Rs 2000
Crore for expanding the reach of banking services. The new Financial Inclusion Fund is created by merging Financial
Inclusion Fund and Financial Inclusion Technology Fund into a single Fund Financial Inclusion Fund (FIF). The new FIF
will be maintained by NABARD.
In addition to this, Reserve Bank of India constituted a 14 member committee under the chairmanship of RBI
executive director Deepak Mohanty. It will work out a five-year action plan to spread the reach of financial services to
unbanked population.

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Benefits of Financial Inclusion It offers potential for increasing banking business by bringing more and more customers to bank It seeks to improve
the standard of living of vast majority of poor persons.
It enhances the number of Bankable customers.
It boosts the growth of Banking Business.
It can bridge the Urban-Rural divide.

What is a DeMat Account?


DeMat account is nothing but a dematerialized account. If one has to save money or make cheque payments, then
he/she needs to open a bank account. Similarly, one needs to open a DeMat account if he/she wants to buy or sell
stocks. Thus, DeMat account is similar to a bank account wherein the actual money is being replaced by shares. In order
to open a DeMat account, one needs to approach the Depository Participants [DPs].
In India, a DeMat account is a type of banking account that dematerializes paper-based physical stock shares. The DeMat
account is used to avoid holding of physical shares: the shares are bought as well as sold through a stock broker. In this
case, the advantage is that one does not need any physical evidence for possessing these shares. All the things are taken
care of by the DPs.
This account is very popular in India. Physically only 500 shares can be traded as per the provision given by SEBI. From
April 2006, it has become mandatory for any person holding a DeMat account to possess a Permanent Account Number
(PAN).
What is Derivative?
A derivative is a financial contract that derives its value from another financial product/commodity (say spot rate) called
underlying (that may be a stock, stock index, a foreign currency, a commodity). Forward contract in foreign exchange
transaction, is a simple form of a derivative.
What is a foreign exchange reserve?
Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits and bonds
held by central banks and monetary authorities. However, the term in popular usage commonly includes foreign
exchange and gold, SDRs and IMF reserve positions.
What is Bancassurance ?
Bancassurance means distribution of financial products particularly the insurance policies (both the life and non-life),
also called referral business, by banks as corporate agents, and through their branches located in different parts of the
country.
What is FII?
FII (Foreign Institutional Investor) used to denote an investor, mostly in the form of an institution.
An institution established outside India, which proposes to invest in Indian market, in other words buying Indian stocks.
FII's generally buy in large volumes which has an impact on the stock markets.
Foreign Institutional Investors includes pension funds, mutual funds, Insurance Companies, Banks, etc.
What is FDI?
FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) occurs with the purchase of the physical assets or a significant amount of ownership
(stock) of a company in another country in order to gain a measure of management control (Or) A foreign company
having a stake in a Indian Company.
What is SIDBI?
The Small Industries Development Bank of India is a state-run bank aimed to aid the growth and development of micro,
small and medium scale industries in India.
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It was set up in 1990 through an act of parliament; it was incorporated initially as a wholly owned subsidiary of
Industrial Development Bank of India. Headquarter Lucknow.

What is NABARD?
NABARD was established on the recommendations of Shivaraman Committee on 12 July 1982 to implement the National
Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981. Its headquarter located in Mumbai. Present Chairman is Dr. Harsh
Kumar Bhanwala.
It replaced the Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) and Rural Planning and Credit Cell (RPCC) of Reserve Bank of
India, and Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC).
It is one of the premiere agencies to provide credit in rural areas. NABARD is set up as an apex Development Bank
with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale industries,
cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts.

What is SEBI?
SEBI is the regulator for the Securities Market in India. Head office located in Mumbai.
Originally set up by the Government of India in 1988, it acquired statutory form in 1992 with SEBI Act 1992 being
passed by the Indian Parliament. U.K Sinha is the present Chairman of SEBI.
Note: The Forward Markets Commission (FMC) is the chief regulator of commodity futures markets in India was merged
with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) on 28 September 2015.
What is SENSEX and NIFTY?
SENSEX is the short term for the words "Sensitive Index" and is associated with the Bombay (Mumbai) Stock Exchange
(BSE). The SENSEX was first formed on 1-1-1986 and used the market capitalization of the 30 most traded stocks of BSE.
NSE - Whereas NSE has 50 most traded stocks of NSE.
Note :
SENSEX IS THE INDEX OF BSE and NIFTY IS THE INDEX OF NSE.
Both will show daily TRADING MARKS. Sensex and Nifty both are an "index.
An index is basically an indicator it indicates whether most of the stocks have gone up or most of the stocks have
gone down.

What is CRM?
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) refers to the ability to understand, anticipate and manage the needs of the
customer, interaction and relationship resulting in increased profitability through revenue and margin growth and
operational efficiencies.
What is Right to information Act?
The Right to Information act is a law enacted by the Parliament of India giving citizens of India access to records of the
Central Government and State governments. The Act applies to all States and Union Territories of India, except the State
of Jammu and Kashmir - which is covered under a State-level law. This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005
and came fully into force on 13 October 2005.
What is Recession?
A true economic recession can only be confirmed if GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth is negative for a period of
two or more consecutive quarters.
What is Sub-prime crisis?
The Subprime crisis is due to sub-prime lending. These are the loans given to the people having low credit rating.
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What is IPO?
IPO is Initial Public Offering. This is the f irst offering of shares to the general public from a company wishes to list on
the stock exchange.

What is Revenue deficit?


It defines that, where the net amount received (by taxes & other forms) fails to meet the predicted net amount to be
received by the government.
What is National Income?
National Income is the money value of all goods and services produced in a Country during the year.
What is Disinvestment?
The Selling of the government stake in public sector undertakings.
What is Fiscal Deficit?
It is the difference between the governments total receipts (excluding borrowings) and total expenditure.
What are Mutual funds?
Mutual funds are investment companies that pool money from investors at large and offer to sell and buy back its shares
on a continuous basis and use the capital thus raised to invest in securities of different companies.
The mutual fund will have a fund manager that trades the pooled money on a regular basis. The net proceeds or losses
are then typically distributed to the investors annually.
A company that invests its clients' pooled fund into securities that match its declared financial objectives. Asset
management companies provide investors with more diversification and investing options than they would have by
themselves. Mutual funds, hedge funds and pension plans are all run by asset management companies.
These companies earn income by charging service fees to their clients.
What is NPA?
An asset (loan), including a leased asset, becomes non performing when it stops generating income for the bank.
Note: Once the borrower has failed to make interest or principle payments for 90 days the loan is considered to be a
nonperforming asset. It had been decided to adopt the '90 days' overdue' norm for identification of NPA, from the year
ending March 31, 2004.
The conditions under which an asset becomes an NPA are as follows:
1. If interest or installment or both of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term
loan.
2. If Overdraft/ Cash Credit for an account remains out of order.
3. If bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted.
4. If installment of principal or interest remains overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops / one crop season
for long duration crops.
ASSET CLASSIFICATION - RBI has classified nonperforming assets into the following three categories based on the period
for which the asset has remained nonperforming and the realisability of the dues:
Substandard Assets : With effect from March 31, 2005, a substandard asset is one, which has remained NPA for a
period less than or equal to 12 months.
Doubtful Assets : With effect from March 31, 2005, an asset is classified as doubtful if it has remained in the
substandard category for a period of 12 months.
Loss Assets : A loss asset is one where loss has been identified by the bank or internal or external auditors or the
RBI inspection but the amount has not been written off wholly. In other words, such an asset is considered

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uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted although there may
be some rescue or recovery value.
Reasons for NPA Macroeconomic situations: When a country is not growing on expected lines i.e. GDP is not growing, no demand for
goods, then industry suffers and not able to payback.
Increased Interest Rate: The loan is taken at a time when interest rates were much higher than the present interest
rate.
When some sectors of the economy are doing bad like Infrastructure, Power due to Land acquisition and forest
related issues and environment clearances.
Willful defaulting: When one is able to pay but is not paying like Vijay Mallya.

Now what does the Bank / FIs do?


Firstly the Bank /FIs inspect whether there are genuine reasons or not for non-repayment of loans. Here genuine reasons
include factors that are beyond ones control and certain internal, external reasons. In this case, for the revival of the
corporates as well as for the safety of the money lent by the banks and FIs, timely support through restructuring is done.
This system of restructuring of loans is called as Corporate Debt Restructuring.
What if the case is not genuine?
In this case Bank / FIs may
refer the case to Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT).
refer to Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARC) as per SARFAESI Act, 2002.
file winding up petition in the court of law.
file criminal case against the willful defaulter.
Lets first take the genuine case :
Corporate Debt Restructuring:
It has been implemented by RBI from August 2001.
It covers only multiple banking accounts or syndicated / consortium loan accounts of corporate borrowers where
outstanding exposure is Rs 10 crore or more.
The accounts are eligible for consideration under the CDR system provided at least 75% of the creditors (by value of
loan) and 60% of creditors (by number of loan) agree to the proposal.
Note: The scheme will not apply to accounts involving only one financial institution or one bank.
In case if the reason of non-repayment is not genuine then Bank / FIs can have following options :
Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT):
These are established in various cities under Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions (RDDBF) Act,
1993.
Banks / FIs can file an application with DRT or recover dues from persons / companies.
As per the act the issue is to be settled in 6 months.
In this case the success rate is around 20-30%.
Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARC):
This is formed under the Securitization and Reconstruction of financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest
(SARFAESI) Act, 2002.
It empowers the Banks & FIs to recover NPAs without the intervention of the court.
It was brought to overcome the inefficiency of DRTs.
Under this, Banks / FIs have the power to sell their Bad loans.
The loans which are of Rs 1 lakh and more fall in this category.
RBI has the power to issue licence to ARCs. Asset Reconstruction Company (india) Ltd is the first ARC established in
India.

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Filing of Criminal Cases - Criminal cases can be filed against the borrower if the banks feel the non-repayment of the
debt is due to wilful default. Example is Vijay Mallya defaulting onSBI, UCO, United Bank of India.
Winding up petitions - Under the Companies Act, if a borrower fails to pay back the loan, a petition can be filed. For this
a Official liquidator is appointed. It is a long procedure and may not give satisfactory results to banks.
Apart from the steps described above Banks can take other prudential steps, which are:
1. Corrective Action Plan: As per RBI Before the loan becomes an NPA, classify them as
SMA-0 (Special Mention Account) = upto 30 days.
SMA-1 = 31 to 60 days.
SMA-2 =61 to 90 days.
In order to take corrective actions.
2. Joint lenders forum: RBI has mandated to constitute a Joint Lenders Forum at SMA-2 stage, if the loan exposure is
more than Rs 100 Crore or more.
3. Strategic Debt Restructuring: RBI has announced to convert debt into equity i.e. Bank will assume the role of
management (ownership).

What are BASEL III Norms?


The Basel committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) was formed in 1974 by a group of central bank governors of G-10
countries. Later on the committee was expanded to include members from nearly 30 countries. BCBS in 1988 released
Basel-I accords and subsequently to overcome the loopholes in it Basel II was released in 2004.
BCBS released a comprehensive reform package in Dec 2010, which is called as Basel III, a global regulatory framework
for more resilient banks and banking systems. These recommendations cover almost all the nations. And it amend the
Basel -2 guidelines, also introduces some new concepts and recommendations.
Need For BASEL-3 Worldwide: Banks mainly deals with three kind of risks. These are
1. Credit risk
2. Market risk
3. Operational risk

What is Credit risk?


It is basically the risk of loss, arising when a borrower is not capable of paying back the loan as promised. Such borrowers
are also known as Sub-prime borrowers.
Now lets go back to the year 2008, when all of us observed /witnessed the Global financial crisis, which originated in
US because of these Subprime borrowers and this crisis thereafter spilled over in the other markets as well. It created
financial crisis throughout the world. Thus a need was felt for more stringent banking regulation worldwide.
Now In India what is the need to adopt such norms when we saw our banking system standing firm even during the
crisis.
Need for Basel III in INDIA
Firstly, the most important reason is that as India connects with the rest of the world, and as increasingly Indian
banks go abroad and foreign banks come on to our shores, we cannot afford to have a regulatory deviation from
global standards. Any deviation will hurt us.
Secondly, if we ought to maintain a low standard regulatory regime this will put Indian banks at a disadvantage in
global competition.
Therefore, It is becomes important that Indian banks have the cushion provided by this risk management system to
withstand shocks from external systems, especially as we deepen our links with the global financial system.
In India, Basel III regulations has been implemented from April 1, 2013 in phases and it will be fully implemented as
on March 31, 2019.

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The pillars of BASEL norms:


Capital adequacy requirements
Supervisory review
Market discipline
Recommendations of Basel III
Firstly, Basel -3 recommended that the Capital Adequacy ratio(CAR) be increased to 8% internationally, while in
INDIA it is 9%.
Capital Adequacy ratio (CAR), also known as Capital to Risk (weighted) Assets Ratio (CRAR), is a ratio of a banks
capital to its risk.
Capital is the money a bank receives in exchange for issuing shares. This capital is further classified into two Tier 1
and Tier 2 capital.
CAR = (Tier 1 capital + Tier 2 capital)/ Risk weighted Assets
Tier 1

Tier 2

It consists of common shares

Debts (bond)

Preferential Shares

Optionally fully convertible debentures

These are highly liquid instruments i.e.


can be sold easily to gather cash

Less liquid

Out of the 9% (of RWA) capital adequacy requirement, 7 % (of RWA) has to be met by Tier 1 capital while the remaining
2%(of RWA) by Tier 2 capital.
Risk weighted assets Every bank assigns its assets some weight-age based on the risk involved. Thus apply a weight
percentage to each of its assets.
For example Lets say a bank lends Rs 100 to a person for home loan and Rs 100 to a person to start a new company.
Banks total asset = Rs 100 + Rs 100 = Rs 200
Lets imagine home loan has high probability of being repaid than the loan to person to start a company.
i.e. Risk Weight of Home Loan = 50% and Risk Weight of loan for company = 90%
Risk Weighted Assets of Bank = 50% of 100 + 90% of 100 = 50 + 90 = Rs 140.So out of total assets worth Rs 200, Rs 140
are risk weighted assets.
Bank need 9% of RWA as Capital. Bank need 9% of 140 = Rs 12.6 as Capital.
Means, out of Rs 200 that a bank lends, Rs 12.6 must be funded with Capital. Rest, Rs 187.4 can be from the money that
bank borrowed.
Secondly it also introduces the concept of leverage ratio, it measures the ratio of banks total assets to banks capital.
Under the new set of guidelines, RBI has set the leverage ratio at 4.5% (3% under Basel III).
Leverage Ratio = Capital/Total Asset
Concept of leverage
for e.g. - If you have Rs 100 and you invest them and earns a profit of 10% i.e. you have profit of Rs 10 on Rs 100.This is
called non leverage profit.
Now again you have Rs 100 and you borrow Rs 400 and invest Rs 500, earns a profit of 10% i.e. you earn Rs 50 on your
Rs 100. This is called leverage profit.
With Higher leverage, Banks Profit/Loss = Higher = Higher Risk also!
So now leverage ratio of 4.5% means for every Rs bank funds itself with, it can lend up to 22.22 Rs.

Challenges for Its Implementation in India


1. Capital Since nearly 2.4 lakh crore rupees are required for its implementation in India.

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2. Liquidity - During the global crisis 2008, the apparently strong banks of the world ran into difficulties when the
interbank wholesale funding market witnessed a seizure. Thus in Indian context, it would mean an additional burden
of maintaining liquidity along with the SLR requirement.
3. Technology - BCBS is in the process of making significant changes in standard approach for computing RWAs for all
three risk areas. Banks may need to upgrade their systems and processes to be able to compute capital requirements
based on revised standard approach.
4. Skill development - Implementation of the new capital accord requires higher specialized skills in banks.
5. Governance - One can have the capital, the liquid assets and the infrastructure. But corporate governance will be
the deciding factor in the ability of a bank to meet the challenges. Strong capital gives financial strength, it cannot
assure good performance unless backed by good corporate governance.
Steps Taken by Government GOI has allowed banks to access markets to raise capital while maintaining a minimum 52% shareholding.
Govt. also launched a scheme called INDRADHANUSH to revamp PSBs. This scheme seeks to improve the efficiency
and functioning of banks thereby reducing the bad assets. And also plans to infuse Rs 70,000 crore in the banking
system over next 5 years.
In this regard government also announced two banks as DSIBs i.e. SBI and ICICI, based on the criteria of size,
interconnectedness, complexity and substitutability.
Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 Negotiable instruments are written orders or unconditional promises to pay a fixed
sum of money on demand or at a certain time. Negotiable instruments may be transferred from one person to another,
who is known as a holder in due course. Upon transfer, also called negotiation of the instrument, the holder obtains full
legal title to the instrument. Negotiable instruments may be transferred by delivery or by endorsement and delivery.
For e.g. promissory notes, bills of exchange, cheques, drafts, certificates of deposit are all examples of negotiable
instruments.
Cheque - Cheque is an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order, addressed to a banker, sign by the
person who has deposited money with the banker, requiring him to pay on demand a certain sum of money only to
or to the order of certain person or to the bearer of instrument."
Bearer Cheque - The bearer cheque is payable to the person specified therein or to any other else who presents it
to the bank for payment. However, such cheques are risky, this is because if such cheques are lost, the finder of the
cheque can collect payment from the bank.
Order Cheque - It is the one which is payable to a particular person. In such a cheque the word bearer may be cut
out or cancelled and the word order may be written. The payee can transfer an order cheque to someone else by
signing his or her name on the back of it.
Crossed cheque - When a cheque is crossed, the holder cannot encash it at the counter of the bank. The payment
of such cheque is only credited to the bank account of the payee. Crossed cheque is done by drawing two parallel
lines across top left corner of the cheque, with or without writing Account payee in the space between the lines.
A self cheque - It is written by the account holder as pay self to receive money in physical form from the branch
where he holds his account. This can be alternated by using an ATM card.
Post-dated cheque (PDC) - A PDC is a form of a crossed or account payee bearer cheque but post-dated to meet the
said financial payment at a future date. The cheque is valid from the date of issue to three months.
A Bankers cheque - A bankers cheque is issued by a bank drawing money from its own funds rather than that from
an account holders. Bankers cheque is issued after the bank verifies the account status of the requestor and the
amount is immediately deducted from the customers account. A bankers cheque cannot be dishonored as in the
case of a normal cheque, when an account holder has insufficient funds in his/her account. Though different from a
normal cheque it requires clearing too.

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Stale Cheque - If a cheque is presented for payment after three months from the date of the cheque it is called stale
cheque. A stale cheque is not honoured by the bank.

Demand Drafts
A DD is a negotiable instrument similar to a bill of exchange. It is used for effecting transfer of money. A bank issues a
DD to a client (Drawer), directing another bank (Drawee) or one its own branches to pay a certain sum to the specified
party (Payee) directly without involving the drawing bank after presenting.
Some of the differences between a cheque and a DD are:

A cheque is issued by an individual, whereas a DD is issued by a bank.

The amount mentioned on the DD is collected by the bank from the drawer prior to drawing the DD, whereas the
amount mentioned on the cheque is debited only when the cheque is presented for payment.

The payment of cheque can be stopped by the drawer of the cheque, whereas the payment of a DD cannot be
stopped.

A cheque can bounce or be dishonoured, but a DD cannot be bounced and dishonored because it is already paid.
A DD will bounce only when the drawee bank does not have enough funds to honour the cheque.

A cheque can be made payable either to a bearer or to order. But a DD is always payable to order of certain person
or organization, it cannot be a bearer draft

What is RTGS System?


RTGS' stands for Real Time Gross Settlement, which can be defined as the continuous (real-time) settlement of funds
transfers individually on an order by order basis (without netting). 'Real Time' means the processing of instructions at
the time they are received rather than at some later time; 'Gross Settlement' means the settlement of funds transfer
instructions occurs individually (on an instruction by instruction basis). Considering that the funds settlement takes place
in the books of the Reserve Bank of India, the payments are final and irrevocable.
What is NEFT?
National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) is a nation-wide payment system facilitating one-to-one funds transfer. Under
this Scheme, individuals can electronically transfer funds from any bank branch to any individual having an account with
any other bank branch in the country participating in the Scheme.
RTGS Vs NEFT :
Thus, we can say that both RTGS and NEFT are schemes started by RBI for the benefit of the customers which allow
accounts holders in the banks to electronically transfer the funds intra-bank. In the case of RTGS, settlement in on 'Real
Time' basis whereas in case of NEFT the settlement in on batch basis and net basis. There are some other rules,
regulations and differences, which we will be discussing below :
What are the minimum and maximum amount of remittance under RTGS and NEFT :
RTGS
Minimum Amount :
Rs 2 lakhs
Maximum Amount :
No upper ceiling
NEFT
Minimum Amount :
No minimum limit
Maximum Amount :
No upper ceiling
Cheque Truncation System
Cheque Truncation System (CTS) or Image-based Clearing System (ICS), in India, is a project undertaken by the Reserve
Bank of India (RBI) in 2008, for faster clearing of cheques.
Cheque Truncation System (CTS) is a cheque clearing system undertaken by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for faster
clearing of cheques. Truncation is the process of stopping the physical movement of cheques which is replaced by
electronic images and associated MICR line of the cheque.

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Advantage of CTS
Since there is no physical movement of cheques, there is no fear of loss of cheque in transit.
Usage of CTS cheques also means quicker clearance, shorter clearing cycle and speedier credit of the amount to your
account.
Depending on whether the cheque is local or outstation, the cheque can get cleared on the same day or within 24
hours.
The biggest advantage is that CTS-compliant cheques are more secure than old cheques and, hence, less prone to
frauds. Also, as the system matures, it is proposed to integrate multiple locations and reduce geographical
restrictions in cheque clearing.

Small Banks
The purpose of the small banks will be to provide a whole suite of basic banking products such as deposits and supply
of credit, but in a limited area of operation. The aim of small banks is to increase financial inclusion in the country. The
small bank shall be registered as a public limited company under the Companies Act, 2013.
Committee on Small Banks - The applications will be analyzed and evaluated by an External Advisory Committee (EAC).
The EAC for small banks will be chaired by Usha Thorat, former deputy governor, RBI.
RBI granted 'in-principle' approval to the 10 applicants to set up Small Finance Banks. The central bank had received 72
applications for setting up small finance bank licences.
The in-principle approval granted will be valid for 18 months to enable the applicants to comply with the requirements
under the Guidelines and fulfil other conditions as may be stipulated by the RBI.
Key points Capital requirement - The minimum paid-up capital requirement for small banks is Rs. 100 crore.
As per the guidelines, the promoters' initial minimum contribution will be at least 40 % of the minimum capital, to
be locked in for a period of 5 years.
Small banks will offer both deposits as well as loan products.
They cannot set up subsidiaries to undertake non-banking financial services activities.
The maximum loan size and investment limit exposure to single/group borrowers/issuers would be restricted to 15
per cent of total capital funds.
Loans and advances of up to Rs 25 lakhs, primarily to micro enterprises, should constitute at least 50 per cent of the
loan portfolio.
For the first three years, 25 per cent of branches should be in unbanked rural areas.
The foreign shareholding in the bank would be as per the extant FDI policy.
For the initial three years, prior approval will be required for branch expansion.
Payment Banks
The main objective of payment banks is to increase financial inclusion in the country via a primary focus on domestic
payments services by providing small savings accounts. Payments banks will be used only for transaction and deposits
purposes. Unlike small banks, payments banks cannot lend money.
RBI granted 'in-principle' approval to 11 Payment Banks applicants- Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 19 August 2015
granted in-principle approval to 11 payment banks applicants under the Guidelines for Licensing of Payments Banks.
Committee on Payment Banks - These applications are analyzed and evaluated by an External Advisory Committee
(EAC). The EAC Committee for Payment Banks is chaired by Dr. Nachiket Mor, Director, Central Board of the Reserve
Bank of India.
Key Points:
Capital requirement - The minimum paid-up capital requirement for payments banks is Rs. 100 crore.
The Reserve Bank grants a license for commencement of banking business under Section 22(1) of the Banking
Regulation Act, 1949.
RBI's in-principle nod will be valid for a period of 18 months, during which time the applicants have to comply with
the requirements under the Guidelines and fulfill the other conditions as may be stipulated by the Reserve bank.
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As per the guidelines, the promoters' initial minimum contribution will be at least 40 % of the minimum capital, to
be locked in for a period of 5 years.
The payments bank will need to invest 75 percent of its funds in government securities.
Payments banks can open small savings accounts and accept deposits of up to Rs.1 lakh per individual customer and
provide remittance services. Hence, the balance at the close of business on any day should not exceed Rs.1 lakh per
customer.
Payments banks can issue debit cards but they are not eligible to provide credit card facilities.
Payments Banks are allowed to set up their own ATMs (automated teller machines).
Payments banks will have to invest in government securities with a maturity of up to 1 year.

What is Retail Banking?


Retail banking is also known as Consumer Banking is the delivery of services by a bank to individual consumers, rather
than to companies, corporations or other banks. Services offered include savings and transaction accounts, mortgages,
personal loans, debit cards, and credit cards.
In retail banking all the needs of individual customers are taken care of in a well integrated manner. Retail banking
sector is characterized by three basic characteristics
Multiple Products (deposits, credit cards, insurance, investment etc)
Multiple Delivery Channels (call centre, branch, Internet and Kisosk)
Multiple Customer groups (consumer, small business, and corporate).
Objectives of Retail Banking The objective of retail banking is to increase penetration by providing increasing level of services and increased access,
by offering value added services to customers by packing with them with retail banking products and services.
What is Inflation?
Inflation is as an increase in the price of bunch of Goods and services that projects the Indian economy. An increase in
inflation figures occurs when there is an increase in the average level of prices in Goods and services.
Inflation happens when there are fewer Goods and more buyers; this will result in increase in the price of Goods, since
there is more demand and less supply of the goods.
What is Deflation?
Deflation is the continuous decrease in prices of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate becomes
negative (below zero) and stays there for a longer period.
GDP
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an estimated value of the total worth of a countrys production and services, within
its boundary, by its nationals and foreigners, calculated over the course of one year. Hence, GDP = Consumption +
Investment + Government Spending + Exports Imports.
GNP
The Gross National Product (GNP) is an estimated value of the total worth of production and services, by citizens of a
country, on its land or on foreign land, calculated over the course of one year. Hence, GNP = GDP + NR (Net income
inflow from assets abroad or Net income Receipts) - NP (Net Payment outflow to foreign assets)
Treasury Bills (T bills)
Treasury Bills are instruments of short term borrowing by the Central/State govt. They are promissory notes issued at
discount and for a fixed period. At present, the Government of India issues three types of treasury bills through auctions,
namely, 91-day, 182-day and 364-day. There are no treasury bills issued by State Governments.
Amount - Treasury bills are available for a minimum amount of Rs. 25,000 and in multiples of Rs. 25,000. Treasury bills
are issued at a discount and are redeemed at par.
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What is BSBDA?
Under the guidelines issued on August 10, 2012 by RBI: Any individual, including poor or those from weaker section of
the society, can open zero balance account in any bank.
BSBDA 'Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account' guidelines are applicable to "all scheduled commercial banks in India,
including foreign banks having branches in India".
All the accounts opened earlier as 'no-frills' account should be renamed as BSBDA. Banks are required to convert the
existing 'no-frills' accounts into 'Basic Savings Bank Deposit Accounts'.
The BSBDA should be considered as a normal banking service available to all customers, through branches.
The aim of introducing 'Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account' is very much part of the efforts of RBI for furthering
Financial Inclusion objectives.
Certificate of Deposits
Certificate of Deposit (CD) is a negotiable money market instrument and issued in dematerialised form or as a Usance
Promissory Note against funds deposited at a bank or other eligible financial institution for a specified time period.
Minimum Size of Issue and Denominations - Minimum amount of a CD should be Rs.1 lakh, i.e., the minimum deposit
that could be accepted from a single subscriber should not be less than Rs.1 lakh, and in multiples of Rs. 1 lakh thereafter.
Maturity - The maturity period of CDs issued by banks should not be less than, from the date of issue.
Commercial Paper
Commercial Paper (CP) is an unsecured money market 7 days and not more than one year instrument issued in the form
of a promissory note. It was introduced in India in 1990. Corporates, primary dealers (PDs) and the All-India Financial
Institutions (FIs) are eligible to issue CP.
Minimum & maximum period of maturity prescribed for CP - CP can be issued for maturities between a minimum of 7
days and a maximum of up to one year from the date of issue. However, the maturity date of the CP should not go
beyond the date up to which the credit rating of the issuer is valid.
Denominations - CP can be issued in denominations of Rs.5 lakh or multiples thereof.
Who can invest in CP?
Individuals, banking companies, other corporate bodies (registered or incorporated in India) and unincorporated bodies,
Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) etc. can invest in CPs. However, investment by FIIs
would be within the limits set for them by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) from time-to-time.
Banking Ombudsman Scheme
It is a scheme which allows bank customers resolve complaints relating to services rendered by banks. It was introduced
under Section 35A of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 by RBI with effect from 1995. Banking Ombudsman is a senior
official appointed by RBI to redress customer complaints against deficiency in certain banking services. All Scheduled
Commercial Banks, RRBs & Scheduled Primary Co- Op Banks are covered under the Scheme.
Some aspects related to the Scheme:
No fee is required for filing and resolving customers complaints.
The amount, if any, to be paid by the bank to the complainant by way of compensation for any loss suffered by the
complainant, is limited to the amount arising directly out of the act or omission of the bank or Rs 10 lakhs, whichever
is lower.
The Banking Ombudsman may award compensation not exceeding Rs 1 lakh to the complainant only in the case of
complaints relating to credit card operations for mental agony and harassment.
If a complaint is not settled by an agreement within a period of one month, the Banking Ombudsman proceeds
further to pass an award.
If one is not satisfied with the decision passed by the Banking Ombudsman, one can approach the appellate authority
against the Banking Ombudsmans decision. The Appellate Authority is vested with a Deputy Governor of the RBI.

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If one is aggrieved by the decision, one may, within 30 days of the date of receipt of the award, appeal against the
award before the appellate authority.

3 gold schemes launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi


Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched three gold related schemes(i) Gold Monetisation Scheme (GMS),
(ii) Gold Sovereign Bond Scheme and the
(iii) Gold Coin and Bullion Scheme
India has surpassed China as the world's largest gold consumer, buying 562 tonnes of yellow metal so far this year,
against China's 548 tonnes
Scheme highlights Gold Monetisation Scheme (GMS), 2015 - The GMS will replace the existing Gold Deposit Scheme, 1999. However,
the deposits outstanding under the Gold Deposit Scheme will be allowed to run till maturity unless the depositors
prematurely withdraw them.
Few things to know about the scheme
Who can make deposit under the scheme
Resident Indians (individuals, HUF, trusts, including mutual funds/exchange traded funds registered under Sebi
norms) can make deposits under the scheme.
Minimum Limit - The minimum deposit at any one time will be raw gold (bars, coins, jewellery excluding stones and
other metals) equivalent to 30 grams of the precious metal of 995 fineness.
Maximum limit - There is no maximum limit for deposit under the scheme and the metal will be accepted at the
Collection and Purity Testing Centres (CPTC) certified by the Bureau of Indian Standards.
Interest Rate - Gold Monetisation Scheme can earn up to 2.50 per cent interest rate on their idle gold.
Note: Interest rate on Medium and Long Term Government Deposit (MLTGD) are 2.25 per cent and 2.20 per cent,
respectively.
Tenor
The tenor of medium term would be between 5-7 years while long term would for 12-15 years tenure.
Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme Few things to know about the scheme
Instead of buying gold in physical form investors can park their money in bonds which are backed by gold. The bonds
will be available both in demat and paper form.
Sovereign Gold Bond has more or equal advantage against the physical gold. The bond will be issued by RBI on behalf
of the Government of India.
Maximum Limit - The bond would be restricted for sale to resident Indian entities and the maximum allowable limit
is 500 grams per person per year.
Rate per gram - The RBI has fixed the public issue price of sovereign gold bonds at Rs 2,684 per gram.
Denominations - These bonds will be issued in denominations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 grams of gold or other
denominations.
Know-your-customer (KYC) norms will be the same as that for purchase of physical gold. KYC documents such as
Voter ID, Aadhaar Card/PAN or TAN /Passport will be required.
Gold coins and Bullion Scheme - The coins will be available in denominations of 5 and 10 grams. A 20 gram bar or
bullion will also be available. About 15,000 coins of 5 gm, 20,000 coins of 10 gm and 3,750 gold bullions will be made
available through MMTC outlets.
Different Types of Bank Accounts
Normally there are 4 types of deposits account in Bank which are
(1) Saving Account
(2) Current Account
(3) Recurring Account
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(4) Fixed Deposit Account


Saving Bank Account - Savings account are basically for individuals and small businesses. You may Rs.1000 today, you
may deposit Rs.1000 today. Tomorrow you may require Rs.5000, you may withdraw Rs.5000 tomorrow. Similarly a
grocery shop owner may deposit Rs.10000 today & in need he may withdraw Rs.5000 tomorrow. This is not for large
businesses. These accounts can be opened individually or jointly or by Hindu undivided family, there is a system invoked
that is known as Hindu undivided family (the head of the family will operate the account).
Another important point is, this is normally intended for person above 18 years of age but person b/w 10 to 18 years
can also open individually without guardian but with some restrictions. Minor accounts i.e below 10 years accounts
has to be opened with guardian only.
Salient Features of Saving Bank Account
Saving Bank account is basically for individuals and small businesses.
The objective of saving bank account is to promote savings.
The rate of interest payable is very nominal on saving accounts.
Minimum Balance (varies from bank to bank) Normally Rs. 500 (without cheque book facility)
Normally Rs. 1000 (with cheque book facility)
Some banks like HDFC, ICICI Bank - allow premium savings a/c deposits with minimum balance of Rs. 5000 or Rs.
10000.
Bank offer zero balance accounts previously known as No frills accounts / BSBDA and now under PMJDY
Note:
If you go to some bank like ICICI or HDFC they may specify 10000/- min. balance in a metropolitan area, 5000/- in
small towns, 2000/- in rural areas. So the min. balance may differ.
If minimum balance is not maintained banks may impose penalty.

What is Regulation and De-Regulation?


From 25 Oct 2011 the interest rate of Saving Account is deregulated by RBI.
If somebody (RBI) is controlling then it is regulation, if you (banks) are controlling i.e deregulation.
Note: Banks are free to decide interest rate on Savings bank a/c deposits.
From 1st April 2010 interest on SA is calculated on daily basis taking into account minimum balance available. Interest
on SA is around 4%.
Current Account - Are for big businesses, companies and institutions such as school, colleges etc., a big business do lot
many transactions across the country. Since there are restriction on number of withdrawals from saving bank account,
this type of account is not suitable for them. They need to have an account from which withdrawal can be made any no.
of times.
Salient Features of Current Account
Firms & companies are eligible to open account.
Current bank accounts are operated to run a business.
It is a non-interest bearing bank account.
No limit on either the number of transactions or the maximum amount of transactions
Overdraft facility (short term loan facility) is available
It needs a higher minimum balance to be maintained as compared to the savings account.
Difference b/w Saving & Current Account
Saving Bank Account
Bank pays interest on daily basis

Current Bank Account


Bank does not pay any interest on current account.

Restriction on the number and amount of


withdrawals

There is no restriction on the number and amount of


withdrawals

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SA can be opened by individuals, small


businesses and students, etc.

Current Accounts are for big businesses, companies and


institutions, etc.

Nomination facility is available for SA


deposits.

Nomination facility is normally not available for CA deposits.

Note: Now CA & SA together are known as demand deposit, since they are payable on demand. Suppose you need
Rs.5000 today you withdraw Rs.5000 today.
CASA RATIO The Ratio of the deposits in the form of Current Account & Saving Account to the total deposits is
known as CASA Ratio (normally expressed in %). More CASA ratio banks are in the safe zone. ICCI, AXIS, HDFC & SBI
have CASA Ratio more than 40%.
Fixed Deposit and Recurring Deposit - these deposits are TIME deposits (as for specified agreed period b/w you and
the bank). In these deposits interest paid by the bank is slightly higher than CA & SA. Its like sabar ka fal mitha hota
hai.
Note: If you are depositing the money for 1 year you will get the money after 1 year. But if you withdraw before the
agreed period i.e before 1 year, you have to pay penalty. Cheque book facility is not available for time deposits.
Salient Features of FD
FIXED DEPOSIT can be operated for a tenure ranging from 7 days to 10 years in Indian banking system.
Not payable on demand and do not enjoy cheque facility.
Interest rates will be slightly higher for senior citizens (60 + years of age)
Premature withdrawal of the deposits is possible, but it attracts penalty at the rates varying from 0.5% to 1.5%
If the deposits are Rs. 1 Crore or more, they come under bulk deposits and interest rates may vary further.
Loan facility is available on principal as well as on interest.
But in FD you have to pay income tax . If your interest income exceeds Rs. 10000 banks will deduct TDS (Tax diretionate
source) i.e banks itself will deduct income tax.
Recurring Deposit Recurring Deposit is a special kind of Term Deposit offered by banks in India which help people
with regular incomes to deposit a fixed amount every month into their Recurring Deposit account and earn interest
at the rate applicable to Fixed Deposits.
The main objective of recurring deposit account is to develop regular savings habit among the public.
Salient Features of RD
In India, minimum amount that can be deposited is Rs.10 at regular intervals.
The period of deposit is minimum six months and maximum ten years. (Minimum tenure varies banks to banks. Some
banks allow minimum tenure in RD for 3 months.)
Minimum balance can be deposited under RD is Rs. 500 per month and thereafter in multiples of Rs 100/ The rate of interest is higher.

Banking Abbreviations
ABEDA
ACF
ACS
AD
ADB
ADR
AEPS
AFS
AGM
AIC

Arab Bank for Economic Development in


Africa.
Auto Correlation Function.
Automated Clearing Systm.
Authorized Dealer.
Asian Development Bank.
American Depository Receipt.
Aadhaar Enabled Payments Switch.
Annual Financial Statement.
Annual General Meeting.
Agricultural Insurance Company.

24

KCC

Kisan Credit Card.

KMB
KVB
KYC
LAB
LAF
LDB
LIBOR
MIBOR
NABARD

Kotak Mahindra Bank.


Karur Vysya Bank.
Know Your Customer.
Local Area Bank.
Liquidity Adjustment Facility.
Land Development Bank.
London Inter Bank Offered Rate.
Mumbai Inter Bank Offer Rate.
National Bank for Agricultural and
Rural Development.

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ASSOCHAM

Associated Chambers of Commerce and


Industry of India.
Association of Mutual Funds in India.
Anti Money Laundering.
Asset Liability Management.
Automated Teller Machine.

NAS

National Account Statistics.

NAV
NBC
NBFC
NEFT

Banking Codes and Standards Board of


India.
Bank for International Settlements.
Bank of Baroda.
Bank of India.
Balance of Payments.
Bank of Rajasthan.
Build,Operate and Transfer.
Banking Regulations Act, 1949.
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
Basic Statistical Returns.
Bombay Stock Exchange.
Basic Statistical Returns.
Bank for International Settlements.
Chartered Accountant.
Capital Account Deficit.
Controller and Auditor General.
Controller and Auditor General of India.
Cash Adequacy Ratio.
Canara Bank.
Core Banking Solution.

NFA

Net Asset Value.


Non Banking Companies.
Non Banking and Finance companies.
National Electronic Funds Transfer
System.
No Frills Account.

Caribbean Development Bank.


Committee of Direction on Banking
Statistics.
Credit Default Swap.

SLR
SPNS

ULIP

CFRA
CGRA
CIBIL

Comprehensive Economic Partnership


Management.
Combined Finance and Revenue Accounts.
Currency and Gold Revaluation Account.
Credit Information Bureau (India) Limited.

CPI
CRAR

Consumer Price Index.


Capital To Risk Weighted Asset Ratio.

ULIP
UPIN

CRMD
CRR
CTI

Credit Risk Management Department.


Cash Reserve Ratio.
Country Threat Index.

USB
USD
VDBS

AMFL
AML
ALM
ATM
BCSBI
BIS
BOB
BOI
BOP
BOR
BOT
BR Act
BSCS
BSR
BSE
BSR
BIS
CA
CAD
CAG
CAG
CAR
CB
CBS
CDB
CDBS
CDS
CEPA

25

NFC
NHB
NIB
NPA
NPS
NSE
OMO
OTP
PGS
RBI
RBS
RRB
RTGS
SCB
SCC
SEPA
SEBI
SHGs
SIDBI

SWIFT

UCB
UEBA
UIDAI

Non Banking Finance Companies.


National Housing Bank.
Nordic Investment Bank.
Non Performing Assets.
National Pensions Scheme.
National Stock Exchange.
Open Market Operations.
One Time Password.
Payment Gateway System.
Reserve Bank Of India.
Royal Bank of Scotland.
Regional Rural Bank.
Real Time Gross Settlement System.
Scheduled Commercial Bank.
Selective Credit Control.
Single Euro Payment Area.
Security Exchange Board Of India.
Self Help Groups.
Small Industries and Development
Bank of India.
Statutory Liquidity Ratio.
Shared Payment Network System.
Society For World Wide Inter Bank
Financial Telecommunication.
Unit Linked Insurance Plan.
Urban Cooperative Bank.
Universal Electronic Bank Account.
Unique Identification Authority of
India.
Unit Linked Insurance Policies.
Unique
Property
Identification
Numbers.
Ultra Small Branch.
United States Dollar.
Vertically
Differentiated
Banking
System.

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COB

Corporation Bank.

WBCIS

CUB
DTAA
ECB
ECS
EEFC
ELSS
EADB
EBRD

City Union Bank


Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement.
External Commercial Borrowings.
Electronic Clearing System.
Exchange Earners Foreign Currency.
Equity Linked Saving Scheme.
East African Development Bank.
European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development.
European Investment Bank.
Export Import Bank of India.
Foreign Currency Assets.
Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds.
Foreign Currency Non resident Account.

WL ATM
WPFI
WPI
KCC
KMB
KVB
KYC
LAB

Foreign Direct Investment.


Foreign Exchange Regulation Act.
Federation of Indian Chambers of
Commerce and Industry.
Foreign Institutional Investor.
Fixed Income Money Markets and
Derivatives Association.
Foreign Investment Promotion Board.
Foreign Portfolio Investment.
Free Trade Agreement.
Gross Domestic Product.
Global Depository Receipt.
Gross Fiscal Deficit.
Government Internal Revenue Order.
General Anti Avoidance Rule.
Housing
Development
Finance
Corporation.
Inter American Development Bank.
Institute of Banking Personnel Selection.
International Bank For Reconstruction And
Development.
Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
Industrial
Credit
and
Investment
Corporation of India.
Islamic Development Bank.
Industrial Development Bank of India.
Indian Depository Receipts.
International Investment Bank.
Indian Institute of Banking and Finance.
Internal Rate Of Return.

NAS
NAV
NBC

EIB
EXIM
FCA
FCCB
FCNRA
FDI
FERA
FICCI
FII
FIMMDA
FIPB
FPI
FTA
GDP
GDR
GFD
GIRO
GAAR
HDFC
IADB
IBPS
IBRD
ICA
ICICI
IDB
IDBI
IDR
IIB
IIBF
IRR

26

LAF
LDB
LIBOR
MIBOR
NABARD

NBFC
NEFT

Weather Based Crop Insurance


Scheme.
White Label ATM.
World Press Freedom Index.
Wholesale Price Index.
Kisan Credit Card.
Kotak Mahindra Bank.
Karur Vysya Bank.
Know Your Customer.
Local Area Bank.
Liquidity Adjustment Facility.
Land Development Bank.
London Inter Bank Offered Rate.
Mumbai Inter Bank Offer Rate.
National Bank for Agricultural and
Rural Development.
National Account Statistics.
Net Asset Value.
Non Banking Companies.

NFA
NFC
NHB
NIB
NPA
NPS
NSE
OMO
OTP

Non Banking and Finance companies.


National Electronic Funds Transfer
System.
No Frills Account.
Non Banking Finance Companies.
National Housing Bank.
Nordic Investment Bank.
Non Performing Assets.
National Pensions Scheme.
National Stock Exchange.
Open Market Operations.
One Time Password.

PGS
RBI
RBS

Payment Gateway System.


Reserve Bank Of India.
Royal Bank of Scotland.

RRB
RTGS

Regional Rural Bank.


Real Time Gross Settlement System.

SCB
SCC
SEPA
SEBI
SHGs
SIDBI

Scheduled Commercial Bank.


Selective Credit Control.
Single Euro Payment Area.
Security Exchange Board Of India.
Self Help Groups.
Small Industries and Development
Bank of India.

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IMD
IMF
IMPS

India Millennium Deposits.


International Monetary Fund.
Immediate Mobile Payment System.

SLR
SPNS
SWIFT

IOB
IPO
IRBI

Indian Overseas Bank.


Initial Public Offering.
Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India.

ULIP
UCB
UEBA

Statutory Liquidity Ratio.


Shared Payment Network System.
Society For World Wide Inter Bank
Financial Telecommunication.
Unit Linked Insurance Plan.
Urban Cooperative Bank.
Universal Electronic Bank Account.

STATIC GK TORNADO
Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana : is a rural development programme broadly focusing upon the development in the
villages which includes social development, cultural development and spread motivation among the people on
social mobilization of the village community.
List of few important villages adopted by MPs

Narendra Modi has adopted Nagepur village his constituency Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh).
Y. S. Chowdary has adopted Ponnavaram village in Krishna district (Andhra Pradesh).
Sonia Gandhi adopted Udwa village in her constituency Rae Bareli (Uttar Pradesh).
Rahul Gandhi adopted Deeh village in his constituency Amethi (Uttar Pradesh).
V. K. Singh adopted Mirpur Hindu in his constituency Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh).
Ahmed Patel adopted Vandari village in Rajpipada(Gujarat).
Sachin Tendulkar adopted Puttamraju vari Kandriga(P.R.Kandriga) a village near Gudur in Nellore (Andhra
Pradesh).
Harish Dwivedi adopted Amodha Khas village in Basti(Uttar Pradesh).
Smt. Sushma Swaraj has adopted Aajnas village in Dewas (Madhya Pradesh)

Indian railways:
Indian Railways owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways is
divided into 17 zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions.
Railway Zones
Northern Railway
North Eastern
Railway
Northeast Frontier
Railway
Eastern Railway
South Eastern
Railway
South Central Railway

Abbr.
NR
NER

Zone Headquarters
Delhi
Gorakhpur

Railway Divions
Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow NR, Moradabad
Izzatnagar, Lucknow NER, Varanasi

NFR

Guwahati

Alipurduar, Katihar, Rangiya, Lumding, Tinsukia

ER
SER

Kolkata
Kolkata

Howrah,Sealdah,Asansol,Malda
Adra,Chakradharpur,Kharagpur,Ranchi

SCR

Secunderabad

Southern Railway

SR

Chennai

Central Railway
Western Railway

CR
WR

Mumbai
Mumbai

Secunderabad,Hyderabad,Vijayawada,Guntakal,Gu
ntur, Nanded
Chennai,Tiruchirappalli, Madurai,Palakkad, Salem,
Thiruvananthapuram
Mumbai, Bhusawal,Pune,Solapur, Nagpur
Mumbai WR,Ratlam,Ahmedabad, Rajkot,
Bhavnagar,Vadodara

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South Western
Railway
North Western
Railway
West Central Railway
North Central Railway
South East Central
Railway
East Coast Railway
East Central Railway

SWR

Hubballi

Hubballi,Bengaluru, Mysuru,

NWR

Jaipur

Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner,Jodhpur

WCR
NCR
SECR

Jabalpur
Allahabad
Bilaspur

Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota


Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi
Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur

ECoR
ECR

Bhubaneswar
Hajipur

Konkan Railway

KR

CBD Belapur, Navi


Mumbai

Khurda Road, Sambalpur,Waltair


Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur,
Sonpur
Karwar,Ratnagiri

List of Highest, Longest, Biggest in India & World


Highest Mountain in India
Highest Mountain in world
Highest rainfall

Kangchenjunga
Mt. Everest
Mawsynram,
Meghalaya, India

Coldest continent
Longest river in India
Longest river in World

Antarctica
Ganga
Nile

Highest waterfall
Biggest forest in world
Biggest forest in India
Largest & Deepest ocean

Angel Falls
Amazon
Van Vihar national Park
Pacific

Longest coastline of India


Biggest country
Biggest continent

Gujrat
Russia
Asia

Jallianwala Bagh
Kalindi Kunj
Indian Botanical Garden
Lal Bagh Garden
Lloyds Botanical Garden
Law Garden
Mughal Garden
Nishat Bagh
Shalimar Garden
Shalimar Garden
Botanical Garden
Gulab Bagh (Sajjan Niwas
Garden)
Sim Park
The Jawaharlal Nehru
Botanical Garden

Amritsar
NCR
Howrah
Bangalore
Darjeeling
Ahmedabad
New Delhi
Kashmir
Jammu Kashmir
New Delhi
Ooty
Udaipur

List of Gardens in India


Hanging Gardens
Brindavan Garden
Rock Garden
Lodi Gardens
Pinjore Gardens
Shalimar Bagh
Rock Garden
Nishat Bagh
Company Garden
Lal Bagh
Tulip Garden
Sarita Udyan

Mumbai
Mysore
Chandigarh
Delhi
Panchkula
Kashmir
Darjeeling
Srinagar
Allahabad
Bangalore
Srinagar
Gandhinagar

Chambal Garden
Chashme Shahi Garden

Kota
Kashmir

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Tamilnadu
Near gangtok

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List of Sea Port & Location


Sea Port Name

Location

Sea Port Name

Location

Chennai Port or Madras Port


Haldia (Kolkata Dock System &
Haldia Dock Complex)
Jawaharlal Nehru Port, also known
as Nhava Sheva
Kamarajar Port or Ennore Port
Kandla Port

Chennai, Madras
Kolkata

Mormugao Port
Mumbai Port

Maharashtra,South
Mumbai
Ennore, Chennai
Gujarat, Gulf of
Kutch

Panaji

Goa
West Mumbai,
Maharashtra
Panaji Goa

Kochi Port or Cochin Port

Kochi, Kerala

Paradip
Tuticorin Port (now
called V.O.Chidambaram
Port)
Visakhapatnam Port

Jagatsinghpur, Odisha
Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

List of Important National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries of India


Assam
Kaziranga National Park
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
Manas National Park
Nameri National Park
Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park
Nambor WLS

Amchang WLS
Chakrashila WLS
Dihing Patkai WLS
East Karbi Anglong WLS
North Karbi Anglong WLS

Bihar
Valmiki National Park
Gautam Budha WLS
Kaimur WLS

Pant (Rajgir) WLS


Valmiki WLS

Chhatisgarh
Indravati National Park
Kanger Valley National Park
Guru Ghasi Das (Sanjay)
Badalkhol WLS

Bhairamgarh WLS
Bhoramdev WLS
Udanti Wild Buffalo WLS

Goa
Bhagwan Mahavir (Mollem) National Park
Bondla WLS
Madei WLS

Netravali WLS
Bhagwan Mahavir (Mollem) WLS

Gujarat
Gir National Park & Sasan Gir Sanctuary
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar
Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch

Kutch Desert WLS


Mitiyala WLS
Porbandar Lake WLS

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Bansda National Park


Jambugodha WLS
Jessore WLS
Wild Ass WLS

Rampara Vidi WLS


Ratanmahal WLS
Thol Lake WLS

Haryana
Kalesar National Park
Sultanpur National Park
Bhindawas WLS

N Khaparwas WLS
Kalesar WLS

Himachal Pradesh
Pin Valley National Park
Great Himalayan National Park
Inderkilla National Park
Khirganga National Park
Simbalbara National Park
Bandli WLS
Daranghati WLS

Daranghati WLS
Dhauladhar WLS
Nargu WLS
Pong Dam Lake WLS
Shilli WLS
Talra WLS

Jammu & Kashmir


Dachigam National Park
Hemis National Park
Kishtwar National Park
Salim Ali National Park

Gulmarg WLS
Limber WLS
Nandini WLS
Dachigam National Park

Jharkhand
Betla National Park
Lawalong WLS

Palkot WLS
Parasnath WLS

Karnataka
Dandeli National Park
Nagarhole National Park
Bandipur National Park
Bannerghatta National Park
Kudremukh National Park
Anshi national park
Arabithittu WLS
Attiveri WLS
Someshwara WLS
Kerala
Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
Eravikulam National Park
Mathikettan Shola National Park

Bhadra WLS
Bhimgad WLS
Brahmagiri WLS
Cauvery WLS
Nugu WLS
Pushpagiri WLS
Ranganathittu Bird WLS
Sharavathi Valley WLS

Pampadum Shola National Park


Aralam WLS
Chimmony WLS
Idukki WLS

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Silent Valley National Park


Anamudi Shola National Park
Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary

Malabar WLS
Mangalavanam Bird WLS
Neyyar WLS
Periyar WLS

Madhya Pradesh
Bandhavgarh National Park
Pench National Park
Kanha National Park
Panna National Park
Madhav National Park
Mandla Plant Fossils National Park
Pench National Park
Sanjay National Park
Satpura National Park
Van Vihar national park

Bori WLS
Gandhi Sagar WLS
Ghatigaon WLS
Ken Gharial WLS
Narsighgarh WLS
National Chambal WLS
Orcha WLS
Kuno WLS
Sardarpur WLS
Son Gharial WLS

Maharastra
Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Chandoli National Park
Navegaon National Park
Tadoba National Park
Gugamal national park
Aner Dam WLS
Bhamragarh WLS
Bhimashankar WLS
Great Indian Bustard WLS
Manipur
Keibul Lamjao National Park

Tipeshwar WLS
Jaikwadi WLS
Koyana WLS
Nagzira WLS
Painganga WLS
Radhanagari WLS
Sagareshwar WLS
Tungareshwar WLS

Yangoupokpi-Lokchao WLS

Meghalaya
Balphakram National Park
Mizoram
Murlen National Park
Phawngpui Blue National Park
Mountain National Park
Dampa WLS (TR)
Ngengpui WLS
Nagaland
Intanki National Park
Fakim WLS

Pualreng WLS
Tokalo WLS
Nokrek National Park
Baghmara Pitcher Plant WLS
Nongkhyllem WLS

Puliebadze WLS
Rangapahar WLS

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Odisha
Similipal National Park
Bhitarkanika National Park
Badrama WLS
Baisipalli WLS
Punjab
Abohar WLS
Harike Lake WLS
Rajasthan
Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary/ Bharatpur National Park
Sariska National Park
Ranthambore National Park
Darrah National Park
Desert National Park
Bundh Baratha WLS
Darrah WLS
Sikkim
Khangchendzonga National Park
Fambong Lho WLS
Kitam WLS (Bird)

Chilika (Nalaban) WLS


Hadgarh WLS
Khalasuni WLS
Satkosia Gorge WLS

Jhajjar Bacholi WLS

Jawahar Sagar WLS


Kailadevi WLS
Mount Abu WLS
Ramsagar WLS
Sawai Man Singh WLS
Shergarh WLS
Sitamata WLS

Maenam WLS
Pangolakha WLS

Tamil Nadu
Mudumalai National Park
Mukurthi National Park
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) National Park
Guindy National Park
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) WLS
Kalakad WLS

Karaivetti WLS
Karikili WLS
Mudumalai WLS
Pulicat Lake WLS
Vaduvoor WLS
Vedanthangal WLS
Vettangudi WLS

Tripura
Bison(Rajbari) National Park
Clouded Leopard National Park
Gumti WLS

Rowa WLS
Sepahijala WLS
Trishna WLS

Uttarakhand
Rajaji National Park
Jim Corbett National Park
Gangotri National Park
Valley of Flowers National Park
Askot Musk Deer WLS

Binsar WLS
Govind Pashu Vihar WLS
Kedarnath WLS
Sonanadi WLS

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Uttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National Park
Hastinapur WLS
Ranipur WLS

Sur Sarovar WLS


Chandraprabha WLS
National Chambal WLS

Sohagibarwa WLS
West Bengal
Sunderbans Wildlife Sanctuary
Buxa National Park
Neora Valley NationalPark
Singalila National Park
Ballavpur WLS

Chintamani Kar Bird Sanctuary


Haliday Island WLS
Lothian Island WLS
Mahananda WLS

List of State, Nuclear Power Station & Thermal Power Station


State
Andhra Pradesh

Nuclear Power Station

Assam
Bihar

Chhattisgarh

Gujarat

Kakrapar Nuclear power station

Haryana

Gorakhpur Atomic Power Station

Himachal Pradesh

Jharkhand

Karnataka

Kaiga Nuclear power station

33

Thermal Power Station


Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant
Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal
Power Station
Bongaigaon Thermal Power Plant
Barauni Thermal Power Station
Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power
Station
Korba Super Thermal Power Plant
Sipat Thermal Power Plant
Bhilai Expansion Power Plant
(iv) Hasdeo Thermal Power Station
Mundra (TPP)
Ukai Thermal Power Station
Sikka Thermal Power Station
(iv) Akrimota Thermal Power Station
Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal
Power Station
(ii) Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power
Station
Girinagar Hydel Project
Binwa Hydel Project
Rangtong Hydel Project
Baner and Neugal Project
Patratu Thermal Power Station
Bokaro Thermal Power Station
Chandrapura Thermal Power Station
(iv) Koderma Thermal Power Station
Udupi Thermal Power Plant
Bellary Thermal Power station
Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant
(iv) Raichur Thermal Power Station

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Kerala
Madhya Pradesh

Maharashtra

Tarapur Atomic power station


(ii) Jaitapur Nuclear Power
Project

Nagaland
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan

Rawatbhata

Sikkim
Tamil Nadu

Tripura
Uttar Pradesh

Kundakulam Nuclear Power


Plant
Kalpakkam
Narora Atomic Power Station

Uttarakhand

West Bengal

Brahmapuram Power Station


(ii) Kayamkulam Power Station
Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power
Station
Sant Singaji (TPP)
Satpura Thermal Power Station
Amarkantak Thermal Power Station
(v) Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project
Tirora (TPP)
Amravati (TPP)
Chandrapur Super (TPP)
(iv) Khaperkheda Thermal Power
Station
Dikhu Hydro Electric Power Plant
Talcher Super Thermal Power Station
Hirakud Captive Power Plant
Guru Gobind Singh Super Thermal Power
Plant
Chhabra (TPP)
Suratgarh Power Station
Rangit Hydro Electric Power Prject
Mettur Theral Power Station
Neyveli Thermal
Tuticorin Thermal Power Station
Palatana Thermal Power Plant
Rihand Thermal Power Station
Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station
Anpara Thermal Power Station
Obra Thermal Power Station
Rosa (TPS)
Panki (TPS)
Chibro Power Plant
Khodri Power Plant
Chilla Power Plant
Durgapur Thermal Power Station

List of Famous Places - Famous Names, Cities and Aliases


Famous names
Golden City
Manchester of India

Cities
Amritsar
Ahmedabad

Famous names
Pink City
Gateway of India

Cities
Jaipur
Mumbai

City of Seven Islands


Queen of Arabian Sea
Space City
Garden City of India
Silicon Valley of India
Electronic City of India

Mumbai
Cochin
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bangalore

Twin City
City of Festivals
Deccan Queen
City of Buildings
Dakshin Ganga

Hyderabad, Secunderabad
Madurai
Pune
Kolkata
Godavari

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List of State, River and Dam


State
Uttarakhand
Himachal Pradesh
Kerala
Uttarakhand
Gujarat
Telangna/Andhra Pradesh
Punjab
Jammu & Kashmir
Telangna/Andhra Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Maharashtra
Uttar Pradesh
Gujarat
Madhya Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
(Kargil district)
Jammu & Kashmir
(Leh district)
Jammu & Kashmir
(Baramula district)
Tamil Nadu
Odisha
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Uttarakhand
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Kerala (idukki district)

River

Dam

Bhagirathi
Sutlej
Periyar
Yamuna
Narmada
Krishna
Raavi
Chenab
Krishna
Chenab
Koyna
Rihand
Tapi
Narmada
Suru

Tehri Dam
Bhakra Dam
Idukki arch Dam
Lakhwar Dam
Sardar Sarover Dam
Srisailam Dam
Ranjit Sagar Dam
Baglihar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Salal Dam
Koyna Dam
Rihand Dam
Ukai Dam
Indira Sagar Dam
Chutak Hydroelectric Power plant

Sindhu
Jhelum

Nimoo Bazgo Hydroelectric


Power plant
Uri Dam

Kaveri
Mahanadi
Chambal
Chambal
Bhagirathi
Chambal
Narmada
Periyar

Mettur Dam
Hirakud Dam
Jawahar Sagar Dam
Rana Pratap Sagar Dam
Koteshwar Dam
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Omkareshwar Dam
Mullaperiyar Dam

List of Revolution and Field


Revolution
Black Revolution
Blue Revolution
Brown Revolution
Golden Fiber Revolution
Golden Revolution
Green Revolution
Grey Revolution
Pink Revolution
Red Revolution
Round Revolution

Field
Petroleum Production
Fish Production
Leather/nonconventional(India)/Cocoa production
Jute Production
Fruits/Overall Horticulture development/Honey Production
Food grains
Fertilizer
Onion production/Pharmaceutical (India)/Prawn production
Meat & Tomato Production
Potato

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Silver Fiber Revolution


Silver Revolution
White Revolution (In India :
Operation Flood)
Yellow Revolution
Evergreen Revolution

Cotton
Egg/Poultry Production
Milk/Dairy production
Oil Seeds production
Overall development of Agriculture

List of State, Folk Dance and Classical Dance


State
Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Gujarat
Jammu and Kashmir
Kerala
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Madhya Pradesh
Manupur
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

Folk Dance
Changu
Bihu
Chhau
Garba
Dumhal
Padayani
Dollu Kunitha
Lavani
Gaur

Classical Dance
Kuchipudi

Rauf
Kathakali

Manipuri
Odissi

Changu
Bhangra
(i) Gair
(ii) Ghoomar
Karagam

Bharat Natyam
Kathak
Chhau

List of State, Monuments and Temples


State
Andhra Pradesh

Monuments

Assam
Bihar
Delhi (NCT)

Gujarat
Haryana
Jammu and Kashmir
Kerala
Maharashtra

Temples
(i) Srisailam Temple
(ii) Tirupathi Temple
(i) Kamakhya Temple
(ii) Sukresvara Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

(i) Humayuns Tomb


(ii) The Red Fort
(iii) Qutub Minar
(iv) Lotus Temple
(v) Janatar Mantar
Somnath Temple
Markandeshwar Temple
Amarnath Temple
Sabrimala Temple
Siddhivinayak Temple

Dal Lake

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Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan

Konark Sun Temple


Golden Temple
Birla Mandir

Darbar Sahib Amritsar


(i) Hawa Mahal Jaipur
(ii) Mehrangarh Fort Jodhpur
(iii) Jal Mahal Jaipur

Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

(i) Meenakshi Temple


(ii) Brihadeeswarar Temple
Salar Jung Museum Hyderabad
Taj Mahal Agra
Victoria Memorial - Kolkata

List of National and International Water Falls


India
Odisha
Goa
Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka
Jharkhand
Madhya Pradesh

Water Falls
Barehipani Falls
Dudhsagar Falls
Nohkalikai Falls
Langshiang Falls
Jog Falls or Gersoppa falls
(Plunge waterfalls)
Magod Falls
Lushington Falls or Unchalli Falls or
Keppa Jog falls
Sivasamudram Falls
Kunchikal Falls (Tiered waterfalls)
Hundru Falls
Kapildhara Falls

International
Venezuela
Venezuela
USA
South Africa
Australia

Water Falls
Angel
Kukenaam
Ribbon
Tugela
Wollomombi

Brazil
Canada

Guaria
Niagara

Zimbabwe

Victoria

List of Airport, City and State


Airport
Veer Savarkar International Airport
Visakhapatnam Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International
Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
Goa International Airport
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
Kempegowda International Airport
Mangalore International Airport
Cochin International Airport
Calicut International Airport
Trivandrum International Airport
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport

City
Port Blair
Visakhapatnam
Hyderabad
Guwahati

State
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Assam

New Delhi
Goa
Ahmedabad
Bengaluru
Mangalore
Kochi
Kozhikode
Thiruvananthapuram
Mumbai

Delhi
Goa
Gujarat
Karnataka
Karnataka
Kerala
Kerala
Kerala
Maharashtra

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Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International


Airport
Tulihal Airport
Biju Patnaik International Airport
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport
Jaipur International Airport
Chennai International Airport
Coimbatore International Airport
Tiruchirapalli International Airport
Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport
Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International
Airport

Nagpur

Maharashtra

Imphal
Bhubaneswar
Amritsar
Jaipur
Chennai
Coimbatore
Tiruchirapalli
Lucknow
Varanasi
Kolkata

Manipur
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

Important Boundary Lines


Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was drawn up in
1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand.
Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The Germans retreated to this line
in 1917 during World War I.
Mason-dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United States.
Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification built by France along its border with Germany
before World War II, to protect its boundary from German attack.
Mannerheim Line is the line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Drawn up by General
Mannerheim.
Macmahon Line was drawn up by Sir. Henry MacMahon, demarcating the frontier of India and China.
China did not recognize the MacMahon line and crossed it in 1962.
Medicine Line is the border between Canada and the United States.
Order-neisse Line is the border between Poland and Germany, running along the Order and Beisse
rivers, adopted at the poland Conference (August 1945) after
Radcliffe Line was drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe, demarcating the boundary between India and
Pakistan.
Siegfried Line is the line of fortification drawn up by Germany on its border with France.
17th Parallel defined the boundary between North Vietnam and South Vietnam before the two were
united.
24th Parallel is the line which Pakistan claims for demarcation between India and Pakistan. This,
however, is not recognized by India.
26th Parallel south is a circle of latitude which croses through Africa, Australia and South America.
30th PARALLEL north is a line of latitude that Stands one-third of the way between the equator and
the North Pole.
33rd Parallel north is a circle of latitude which cuts through the southeren United States, parts of
North Africa, parts of the Middle East, and China.
35th Parallel north forms the boundary between the State of North Carolina and the State of Georgia
and the boundary between the State of Tennessee arid the State of Georgia the State of Alabama,
and the State of Mississippi.

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36030 Parallel north forms the boundary between the Tennessee and Commonwealth of Kentucky
between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River, the boundary between Missiouri and
Arkansas west of the White River, and the northernmost boundary between the Texas and the
Oklahoma.
37th Parallel north formed the southern boundary of the historic and extralegal Territory of
Jefferson.
38th Parallel is the parallel of latitude which separates North Korea and South Korea.
39th Parallel north is an imaginary circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earths equatorial
plane.
40th Parallel north formed the original northern boundary of the British Colony of Maryland.
41th Parallel north forms the northern boundary of the State of Colorado with Nebraska and
Wyoming and the southern boundary of the State of Wyoming with Colorado and Utah.
42nd Parallel north forms most of the New York - Pennsylania Border.
43rd Parallel north forms most of the boundary between the State of Nebraska and the State of South
Dakota and also formed the northern border of the historic and extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
The Parallel 440 north is an imaginary circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earths
equatorial plane.
45th Parallel north is often called the halfway point between the Equator and the North Pole. The
45th parallel makes up most of the boundary between Montana and Wyoming. 45th parallel of south
latitude is the east-west line that marks the theoretical halfway point between the equator and the
South Pole.
49th Parallel is the boundary between USA and Canada

List of International Stadiums and Place


India
Name of Stadium
Feroz Shah Kotla Ground

Place
Delhi

Brabourne Stadium
Green Park Stadium
Wankhede Stadium
Barabati Stadium

Mumbai
Kanpur
Mumbai
Cuttack

Eden Gardens

Kolkata

Name of Stadium
Himachal Pradesh Cricket
Association Stadium
M Chinnaswamy Stadium
M.A. Chidambaram Stadium
Sawai Mansingh Stadium
Punjab Cricket Association
Stadium
Green Park Stadium

Place
Dharamshala
Bangalore
Chennai
Jaipur
Mohali
Kanpur

Australia
Name of Stadium

Place

Name of Stadium

Place

Adelaide Oval

Adelaide

Marrara Cricket Ground

Darwin

Bundaberg Rum

Cairns

Melbourne Cricket Ground

Melbourne

Telstra Dome

Melbourne

Sydney Cricket Ground

Sydney

Manuka Oval

Canberra

W.A.C.A. Ground

Perth

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Bangladesh
Name of Stadium
Bangabandhu National
Stadium
England
Name of Stadium
Edgbaston
Headingley
Lord's
Old Trafford
New Zealand
Name of Stadium
Basin Reserve
Eden Park
Jade Stadium
Pakistan
Name of Stadium
Arbab Niaz Stadium
Ayub National Stadium
South Africa
Name of Stadium
Kingsmead
New Wanderers
Stadium
Newlands
Sri Lanka
Name of Stadium
Colombo Cricket Club
Ground
Galle International
Stadium
P.Saravanamuttu
Stadium
West Indies
Name of Stadium
Sabina Park Kingston
Antigua Recreation
Ground St John's

Place
Dhaka

Name of Stadium
Chittagong Stadium

Place
Chittagong

Place
Birmingham
Leeds
London
Manchester

Name of Stadium
St Lawrence Ground
The Brit Oval
Trent Bridge
Sophia Gardens

Place
Canterbury
London
Nottingham
Cardiff

Place
Wellington

Name of Stadium
John Davies Oval

Place
Queenstown

Auckland
Christchurch

McLean Park

Napier

Place
Peshawar
Quetta

Name of Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium

Place
Lahore

Place
Durban
Johannesburg

Name of Stadium
St George's Park
Centurion Super Sport
Park

Place
Port Elizabeth
Pretoria

Place
Colombo

Name of Stadium
R.Premadasa Stadium

Place
Colombo

Galle

Sinhalese Sports Club


Ground

Colombo

Name of Stadium
Kensington Oval
Bridgetown
Mindoo Phillip Park
Castries

Place
Barbados

Cape Town

Colombo

Place
Jamaica
Antigua

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St Lucia

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Guyana Cricket Stadium


Georgetown

Guyana

Albion Sports Complex


Berbice

Guyana

Zimbabwe
Name of Stadium
Bulawayo Athletic Club
Harare Sports Club

Place
Bulawayo
Harare

Name of Stadium
Kwekwe Sports Club
Queens Sports Club

Place
Kwekwe
Bulawayo

United Arab Emirates


Name of Stadium
Sheikh Zayed Stadium

Place
Abu Dhabi

Name of Stadium
Sharjah Cricket Stadium

Place
Sharjah

List of Awards & their fields


1.

Bharat Ratna: It is the highest civilian award of the India. The award was given for outstanding
achievements in the arts, literature, science and public services but the government expanded the criteria
to include "any field of human endeavor". The number of annual awards is restricted to a maximum of
three in a particular year.
2. Nobel Prize : The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of
literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics.
3. Saraswati Samman (Literature): The award was instituted in 1991 by the K. K. Birla Foundation. It is an
annual award given for outstanding prose or poetry literary works in any 22 Indian languages.
4. Jnanpith award (Literature): The award was instituted in 1961 and it is It is presented by the Bharatiya
Jnanpith, a trust founded by the Sahu Jain family, the publishers of the newspaper The Times of India. It
is an annual award given for outstanding prose or poetry literary works in any 22 Indian languages.
5. Vyas Samman (Literature): Vyas Samman is awarded annually by the K.K. Birla Foundation in recognition
of the Hindi literary work published in past 10 years.
6. Bihari Puraskar (Literature): Bihari Puraskar is a literary award instituted by K. K. Birla Foundation. The
award is named after the famous Hindi poet Bihari and is awarded to an outstanding work published in
Hindi or Rajasthani by a Rajasthani writer.
7. Moorti Devi Award (Literature): The Moortidevi Award is an annual literary award in India presented by
the Bharatiya Jnanpith organization for a work which emphasizes Indian philosophy and culture.
8. Booker Prize (Literature): It is an annual award for the best original novel, written in the English language,
and published in the UK literary award
9. Dadasaheb Phalke Award (Cinema/Films): The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India's highest award in
cinema. It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals,
an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
10. Arjuna Award: Outstanding performance from the sportspersons in sports and games.The Government
has modified the format of Arjuna Award very recently and as per the revised schematic guidelines a
sportsperson must have very good consistent performances for the previous 3 years at the international
level to be considered as eligible for the Award.
11. Dronacharya Award: Eminent coaches of any particular sport.The award is named after the very famous
archery coach, mentioned in the epic of India known as the Mahabharata. This very award is not related
with the sportspersons who are still playing in the field; instead this is related to those eminent coaches
of any particular sport.

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12. Dhyan Chand Award: The award that is given to the veteran sportspersons of India for their lifetime
achievement in their respective field of sport is named as the Dhyan Chand Award for Life Time
Achievement in Sports and Games.
13. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award: The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna is the highest honour bestowed to a
sportsperson for his/her achievements in India.
14. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize (Science & Technology): The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science
and Technology (SSB) is a science award in India given annually by the Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research (CSIR) for notable and outstanding research, applied or fundamental, in biology, chemistry,
environmental science, engineering, mathematics, medicine and Physics.
15. Kalinga Prize (Science): The Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science is an award given by UNESCO
for exceptional skill in presenting scientific ideas to lay people.
16. Pulitzer Prize (Journalism): The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper and online
journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
17. Abel Prize (Mathematics): The Abel Prize is an international prize awarded annually by the Government
of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.
18. Grammy Award (Music): A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an accolade by the National Academy of
Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to recognize outstanding achievement in the music
industry.
19. Stirling Prize (Architecture): The Royal Institute of British Architects Stirling Prize is a British prize for
excellence in architecture.
20. Aga Khan Award (Architecture): The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) is an architectural prize
established by Aga Khan IV in 1977. It aims to identify and reward architectural concepts that successfully
address the needs and aspirations of Islamic societies in the fields of contemporary design, social housing,
community development and improvement.
21. Pritzker Prize (Architecture): The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living
architect.

List of Banks, Headquarter and Tagline


Banks
Allahabad Bank

Headquarter
Kolkata

Tagline
A Tradition of Trust

Andhra Bank
Bank of Baroda
Bank of India
Bank of Maharashtra
Bharatiya Mahila Bank Limited
Canara Bank
Central Bank of India
Corporation Bank
Dena Bank
Indian Bank
Indian Overseas Bank
Oriental Bank of Commerce
Punjab National Bank
Punjab & Sind Bank
State Bank of India

Hyderabad
Vadodara
Mumbai
Pune
New Delhi
Bangalore
Mumbai
Mangalore
Mumbai
Chennai
Chennai
New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi
Mumbai

Where India Banks


Indias International Bank
Relationship beyond Banking
Ek parivaar Ek Bank
Empowering Women, Empowering India
Together We Can
Central to You Since 1911
Prosperity for all
Trusted Family Bank
Your Own Bank
Good People to Grow With
Where Every Individual is Committed
The Name You can Bank Upon
Where Service is a way of Life
The Banker to Every Indian

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Syndicate Bank
Union Bank of India
United Bank of India
UCO Bank
Vijaya Bank
IDBI Bank Ltd

Manipal
Mumbai
Kolkata
Kolkata
Bangalore
Mumbai

Faithful and Friendly


Good People to Bank with
The Bank that begins with U
Honours your Trust
A Friend you can Bank upon
Bank aisa dost jaisa

List of Internation Organization, Headquarter & President/ G.Sec.


International Organizations
Asian Infrastructure Investment
Bank (AIIB)
New Development Bank (BRICS
Development Bank)
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
International Monetary Fund
(IMF)
World Bank
United Nations Organization (UN)
United Nations Childrens Fund
(UNICEF)
United Nations Populations Fund
(UNFPA)
United Nations Conference on
Trade & Development (UNCTAD)
World Health Organization
(WHO)
World Economic Forum
International Labour Organisation
(ILO)
World Trade Organisation
World Meteorological
Organisation
World Intellectual Property
Organisation
International Committee of the
Red Cross
United Nations Education
Scientific & Cultural Organisation
(UNESCO)
Organisation for Economic
Cooperation & Development
(OECD)
United Nations Industrial
Development Organisation
(UNIDO)

Headquarter
Beijing, China

President/ General Secretary


Jin Liqun

Shanghai, China

K.V. Kamath

Manila, Philippines
Washington DC, US

Takehiko Nakao
Christine Lagarde

Washington DC, US
New York, US
New York, US

Jim Yong Kim


Ban Ki moon
Sven Jurgenson

New York, US

Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin

Geneva, Switzerland

Mukhisa Kituyi

Geneva, Switzerland

Margaret Chan

Geneva, Switzerland
Geneva, Switzerland

Klaus Schwab
Guy Ryder

Geneva, Switzerland
Geneva, Switzerland
Geneva, Switzerland

Roberto Azevedo
Petteri Taalas
(Secretary-General)
Francis Gurry

Geneva, Switzerland

Peter Maurer

Paris, France

Irina Bokova

Paris, France

Jose Angel Gurria

Vienna, Austria

Li Yong

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International Atomic Agency


Organisation of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Amnesty International
International Maritime
Organisation
Commonwealth of Nations

Vienna, Austria
Vienna, Austria

Yukiya Amano
Diezani Alison-Madueke

London, UK
London, UK

Salil Shetty
Koji Sekimizu

London, UK

South Asian Association for


Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
Association of South East Nations
(ASEAN)
Asia Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC)
North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation (NATO)
International Cricket Council (ICC)
Food & Agricultural Organisation
(FAO)
International Court of Justice
International Olympic Committee
The Fdration Internationale de
Football Association (FIFA)
The Organization for the
Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW)
World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF)

Kathmandu, Nepal
Jakarta, Indonesia

Head - Queen Elizabeth II


Secretary-General-Kamalesh
Sharma
Arjun Bahadur Thapa (SecretaryGeneral)
Le Loung Minh

Singapore

Dr. Alan Bollard

Brussels, Belgium
Dubai, UAE
Rome, Italy

Jens Stoltenberg
(Secretary-General)
Zaheer Abbas
Jos Graziano da Silva

The Hague, The Netherland


Lausanne, Switzerland
Zurich, Switzerland

Ronny Abraham
Thomas Bach
Sepp Blatter

The Hague, The Netherlands

Ahmet zmc

Avenue du Mont-Blanc, Gland,


Vaud, Switzerland

Yolanda Kakabadse

List of State, Capital, Governor & Chief Minister


State
Andhra Pradesh

Capital
Hyderabad (Proposed
Capital Amaravati)
Itanagar
Dispur

Governor
Shri E. S. Lakshmi
Narasimhan
Shri V. Shanmuganthan
Shri Banwarilal Purohit

Bihar
Chhattisgarh
Delhi (NCT)
Goa
Gujarat
Haryana

Patna
Raipur

Shri Ram Nath Kovind


Shri Balram DasTandon

Panaji
Gandhinagar
Chandigarh

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Smt. Mridula Sinha


Shri Om Prakash Kohli
Prof. Kaptan Singh
Solanki
Shri Acharya Dev Vrat

Arunachal Pradesh
Assam

44

Chief Minister
Shri. Nara Chandrababu
Naidu
Shri Pema Khandu
Shri Sarbananda
Sonowal
Shri Nitish Kumar
Dr. Raman Singh
Shri Arvind Kejriwal
Shri Laxmikant Parsekar
Shri Vijay Rupani
Shri Manohar Lal
Shri Virbhadra Singh

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Jammu and Kashmir


Jharkhand

Srinagar (summer),
Jammu (winter)
Ranchi

Karnataka
Kerala

Bengaluru
Thiruvananthapuram

Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram

Imphal
Shillong
Aizawl

Nagaland

Kohima

Odisha
Puducherry (UT)
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim

Bhubaneswar

Tamil Nadu
Telangana

Chennai
Hyderabad

Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
West Bengal

Agartala
Lucknow
Dehradun
Kolkata

Shri N. N. Vohra

Mehbooba Mufti Sayeed

Shrimati Droupadi
Murmu
Shri Vajubhai Vala
Shri Justice (Retd.)
Palaniswamy
Sathasivam
Shri Om Prakash Kohli

Shri Raghubar Das

Shri Chennamaneni
Vidyasagar Rao
Dr. Najma A. Heptulla
Shri V. Shanmuganthan
Lt. General (Retd.)
Nirbhay Sharma
Shri Padmanabha
Balakrishna Acharya
Dr. S. C. Jamir

Chandigarh
Jaipur
Gangtok

Shri V. P. Singh Badnore


Shri Kalyan Singh
Shri Shriniwas
Dadasaheb Patil
Shri Ch. Vidyasagar Rao
Shri E.S Lakshmi
Narasimhan (Add.
Charge)
Shri Tathagata Roy
Shri Ram Naik
Dr. Krishan Kant Paul
Shri Keshari Nath
Tripathi

Shri Siddaramaiah
Shri Pinarayi Vijayan

Shri Shivraj Singh


Chouhan
Shri Devendra Fadnavis
Shri Okram Ibobi Singh
Dr. Mukul Sangma
Shri Lal Thanhawla
Shri. T R Zeliang
Shri Naveen Patnaik
Shri. V. Narayanasamy
Shri Parkash Singh Badal
Smt. Vasundhara Raje
Shri Pawan Kumar
Chamling
Selvi J. Jayalalithaa
Shri K Chandrasekhar
Rao
Shri Manik Sarkar
Shri Akhilesh Yadav
Shri Harish Rawat
Km. Mamata Banerjee

List of Union Territory, Capital and Chief Minister/Governor


Union Territory
Delhi
Pondicheerry (Puducherry)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Chandigarh
Daman & Diu
Dadar & Nagar Haveli
Lakshadweep

Capital

Chief Minister/ Governor


Arvind Kejriwal
Dr. Kiran Bedi, IPS, (Retd.) (Lieutenant
Governor)
Prof. Jagdish Mukhi (Lieutenant Governor)
Shri.V.P. Singh Badnore (Administrator)
Shri Praful Patel (Administrator)
Shri Madhup Vyas, IAS (Administrator)
Shri Farooq Khan, IPS (Retd.) (Administrator)

Port Blair
Daman
Silvasa
Kavaratti

45

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List of All Cabinet Ministers


Cabinet Ministers

Ministries

Shri Raj Nath Singh

Minister of Home Affairs

Sushma Swaraj

Minister of External Affairs

Shri Arun Jaitley

Minister of Finance and Minister of Corporate Affairs

Venkaiah Naidu

Minister of Urban Development, Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty


Alleviation and Minister of Information and Broadcasting

Shri Nitin Jairam Gadkari

Minister of Road Transport and Highways; and Minister of Shipping

Shri Manohar Parrikar

Minister of Defence

Shri Suresh Prabhu

Minister of Railways

Shri D V Sadananda
Gowda

Minister of Statistics and Programme Implementation

Sushri Uma Bharati

Minister of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation

Shri Ramvilas Paswan

Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution

Shri Kalraj Mishra

Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Maneka Sanjay Gandhi

Minister of Women and Child Development

Shri Ananthkumar

Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers; and Minister of Parliamentary Affairs

Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad

Minister of Law and Justice and Minister of Electronics and Information


Technology

Shri Jagat Prakash Nadda

Minister of Health and Family Welfare

Shri Ashok Gajapathi Raju


Pusapati

Minister of Civil Aviation

Shri Anant Geete

Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises

Harsimrat Kaur Badal

Minister of Food Processing Industries

Shri Narendra Singh


Tomar

Minister of Rural Development; Minister of Panchayati Raj; and Minister of


Drinking Water and Sanitation

Shri Chaudhary Birender


Singh

Minister of Steel

Shri Jual Oram

Minister of Tribal Affairs

Shri Radha Mohan Singh

Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

Shri Thaawar Chand


Gehlot

Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment

Smriti Zubin Irani

Minister of Textiles

Harsh Vardhan

Minister of Science and Technology and Minister of Earth Sciences

Shri Prakash Javadekar

Minister of Human Resource Development

46

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List of Sports and Trophies/Cups


Sports

Cricket

Hockey

Football

Badminton
Table Tennis
Lawn Tennis
Golf
Horse Racing
Rowing

Trophies/ Cups
Ashes Cup, Asia Cup, C.K. Naidu Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Duleep Trophy,
Gavaskar Border Trophy, G.D. Birla Trophy, Gillette Cup, ICC World Cup,
Irani Trophy, Jawharlal Nehru Cup, Rani Jhansi Trophy, Ranji Trophy,
Rohinton Barcia Trophy, Rothmans Cup, Sahara Cup,
Sharjah Cup, Singer Cup, Titan Cup, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Vijay Merchant
Trophy, Wisden Trophy, Wills Trophy.
Sultan Azlan Shah Cup, Aga khan Cup, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Gold Cup,
Dhyanchand Trophy, Nehru Trophy, Sindhia Gold cup, Murugappa Gold
Cup, Wellington Cup etc, Stanley Cup
Rovers Cup, Bandodkar Trophy, Merdeka Cup, Confederation cup,
DCM Trophy, Durand Cup, Rovers Cup, B. C. Raj Trophy (National
Championship), FIFA world Cup, Jules Rimet Trophy, Kalinga Cup,
Santosh Trophy, IFA Shield, Scissor Cup, Subroto Cup, Sir Ashutosh
Mukherjee Trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, Vittal Trophy,
UEFA Champions League
Amrit Diwan Cup, Asia Cup, Chaddha Cup, European Cup, Harilela Cup,
Ibrahim Rahimatillah Challenger Cup, Konica Cup, Sophia Cup, Kitiakara
Cup, Malaysian Open, Thomas Cup (men) Uber Cup (women)
Travancore Cup (women), Swathling Cup (men), Bama Belleck Cup
Davis Cup, Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, US Open, Heineken
Cup
Augusta Masters, British Open, US Maters
Derby
Wellington trophy

List of Sports and Terminology


Sports
Badminton
Baseball
Billiards
Boxing
Bridge
Chess
Cricket

Football
Golf
Hockey
Horse Racing

Terminology
Deuce, Smash, Drop, Let, Game, Love, Double Fault.
Pitcher, Strike, Diamond, Bunting, Home, Put Out.
Jigger, Break, Scratch, Cannons, Pot, Cue, In Baulk, In Off.
Jab, Hook, Punch, Knock-out, Upper cut, Kidney Punch.
Revoke, Ruff, Dummy, Little Slam, Grand Slam, Trump, Diamonds, Tricks.
Gambit, Checkmate, Stalemate, Check.
LBW, Maiden over, Rubber, Stumped, Ashes, Hat-trick, Leg Bye, Follow on, Googly,
Gulley, Silly Point, Duck, Run, Drive, No ball, Cover point, Leg Spinner, Wicket Keeper,
Pitch, Crease, Bowling, Leg-Break, Hit Wicket, Bouncer, Stone-Walling.
Dribble, Off-Side, Penalty, Throw-in, Hat-Tick, Foul, Touch, Down, Drop Kick, Stopper
Hole, Bogey, Put, Stymie, Caddie, Tee, Links, Putting the green.
Bully, Hat-Trick, Short corner, Stroke, Striking Circle, Penalty corner, Under cutting,
Scoop, Centre forward, Carry, Dribble, Goal, Carried.
Punter, Jockey, Place, Win, Protest.

47

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Lawn Tennis
Rifle Shooting
Swimming

Volley, Smash, Service, Back-hand-drive.


Bull's eyes.
Stroke.

List of Country, Capital, Currency, President and Prime Minister


Asia
Country
Afghanistan
Bahrain
Bangladesh

Capital
Kabul

Currency
Afghan afghani

Manama

Bahraini dinar

Dhaka

Bangladeshi taka

Abdul Hamid

Thimphu

Phnom Penh
Beijing
Nicosia

Bhutanese
ngultrum, Indian
rupee
Cambodian riel
Renminbi
Euro

Tsai Ing-wen
Nicos Anastasiades

Jakarta
Tehran
Baghdad
Jerusalem

Indonesian rupiah
Iranian rial
Iraqi dinar
Israeli new shekel

Joko Widodo
Hassan Rouhani
Fuad Masum
Reuven Rivlin

Tokyo
Astana

Japanese yen
Kazakhstani tenge

Bishkek

Kyrgyzstani som

Vientiane

Lao kip

Beirut
Kuala Lumpur
Male
Ulaanbaatar

Lebanese pound
Malaysian ringgit
Maldivian rufiyaa
Mongolian togrog

Naypyidaw
Kathmandu

Burmese kyat
Nepalese rupee

Pyongyang
Muscat

North Korean won


Omani rial

Bhutan
Cambodia
China
Cyprus [Europe]
Georgia [Europe]
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Japan
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Lebanon
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar (Burma)
Nepal
North Korea
Oman

48

President
Ashraf
Ahmadzai

Prime Minister
Ghani

Nursultan
Nazarbayev
Almazbek
Atambayev
Bounnhang
Vorachith
Michel Aoun
Abdulla Yameen
Tsakhiagiin
Elbegdorj
Htin Kyaw
Bidhya
Devi
Bhandari
Qaboos bin Said Al
Said

Khalifa bin Salman


Al Khalifa
Sheikh
Hasina
Wazed
Tshering Tobgay

Hun Sen
Li Keqiang

Haider al-Abadi
Benjamin
Netanyahu
Shinzo Abe
Bakytzhan
Abdirovich
Sagintayev
Sooronbay
Jeenbekov
Thongloun
Sisoulith
Tammam Salam
Najib Razak
Chimed
Saikhanbileg
Pushpa
Kamal
Dahal
Pak Pong-ju

gradeup.co/banking-insurance

Pakistan
Philippines

Islamabad
Manila
Doha

Pakistani rupee
Philippine peso
Qatari riyal

Mamnoon Hussain
Rodrigo Duterte

Riyadh

Saudi riyal

Seoul
Sri
Jayawardenepura
Kotte, Colombo
Damascus
Taipei
Dushanbe
Bangkok

South Korean won


Sri Lankan rupee

Park Geun-hye
Maithripala
Sirisena

Abdullah
bin
Nasser bin Khalifa
Al Thani
Salman of Saudi
Arabia
Hwang Kyo-ahn
Ranil
Wickremesinghe

Syrian pound
New Taiwan dollar
Tajikistani somoni
Thai baht

Bashar al-Assad

Imad Khamis

Emomali Rahmon

Kokhir Rasulzoda
Maha
Vajiralongkorn

Ashgabat

Turkmenistan
manat
United
Arab
Emirates dirham

Gurbanguly
Berdimuhamedow
Khalifa bin Zayed Al
Nahyan

Uzbekistani som

Islam Karimov

Qatar
Saudi Arabia
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Syria
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Thailand

Nawaz Sharif

Turkey [Europe]
Turkmenistan
United Arab
Emirates
Uzbekistan

Abu Dhabi

Tashkent

Mohammed
Rashid
Maktoum
Shavkat
Mirziyoyev

bin
Al

South American Countries


Country

Capital

Currency

President

Argentina

Buenos Aires

Peso

Mauricio Macri

Sucre

Bolivian boliviano

Juan Evo Morales


Ayma

Brazil

Brasilia

Brazilian real

Michel Temer

Chile

Santiago

Chilean peso

Michelle Bachelet

Bogota

Colombian peso

Juan
Santos

Quito

United
Dollar

Rafael Correa

Asuncion

Paraguayan
guarani

Horacio Cartes

Lima

Sol

Pedro
Kuczynski

Fernando Zavala

Uruguay

Montevideo

Uruguayan peso

Tabare Vazquez

Venezuela

Caracas

Venezuelan bolivar

Nicolas Maduro

Bolivia

Colombia
Ecuador
Paraguay
Peru

States

49

Prime Minister

Manuel

Pablo

gradeup.co/banking-insurance

North American Countries


Country
Bahamas
Barbados

Capital
Nassau
Bridgetown

Currency
Bahamian dollar
Barbadian dollar

President
-

Ottawa

Canadian dollar

Havana

Cuban peso, Cuban


convertible peso
Jamaican dollar
Mexican peso
Nicaraguan
cordoba
United
States
Dollar,
Panamanian
balboa
Trinidad
and
Tobago dollar
United
States
Dollar

Raul Castro

Capital
Tirana
Vienna

Currency
Albanian lek
Euro

Minsk

Belarusian ruble

City of Brussels

Euro

Sofia

Bulgarian lev

Zagreb

Croatian kuna

Prague
Copenhagen

Czech koruna
Danish krone

Helsinki
Paris

Euro
Euro, CFP franc

Prime Minister
Perry Christie
Freundel Jerome
Stuart

Bermuda
Canada
Cuba
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua

Kingston
Mexico City
Managua
Panama City

Panama
Trinidad and
Tobago
United States

Port of Spain
Washington, D.C.

Justin Pierre James


Trudeau
-

Enrique Pena Nieto


Jose Daniel Ortega
Saavedra
Juan Carlos Varela
Rodriguez

Andrew Holness
-

Anthony Thomas
Aquinas Carmona
Barack Obama

Keith Christopher
Rowley
-

President
Bujar Faik Nishani
Heinz
Fischer
GColIH
Aleksandr
Grigoryevich
Lukashenko

Prime Minister
Edi Rama
-

European Countries
Country
Albania
Austria
Belarus
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France

50

Rosen
Asenov
Plevneliev
Kolinda
GrabarKitarovic
Milos Zeman

Sauli Niinisto
Franois Grard
Georges Nicolas
Hollande

Andrei
Vladimirovich
Kobyakov
Charles
Y.J.Gh.
Michel
Boyko Metodiev
Borisov
Andrej Plenkovic
Bohuslav Sobotka
Lars
Lkke
Rasmussen
Juha Petri Sipila
Manuel Carlos Valls
Galfetti

gradeup.co/banking-insurance

Berlin

Euro

Joachim Gauck

Athens

Euro

Budapest

Hungarian forint

Prokopios
Pavlopoulos
Janos Ader

Reykjavik

Icelandic krona

Dublin

Euro

Rome
Riga
Vilnius

Euro
Euro
Euro

Luxembourg City
Valletta

Euro
Euro

Monaco
Amsterdam
Oslo
Warsaw

Euro
Euro
Norwegian krone
Polish zloty

Lisbon

Euro

Bucharest

Romanian leu

Moscow

Russian ruble

Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Monaco
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania

Guoni
Th.
Johannesson
Michael
Daniel
Higgins
Raimonds Vejonis
Dalia Grybauskaite

Marie
Louise
Coleiro Preca

Russia

Andrzej Sebastian
Duda
Marcelo Rebelo de
Sousa
Klaus
Werner
Iohannis
Vladimir
Vladimirovich
Putin

Angela Dorothea
Merkel
(Chancellor)
Alexis Tsipras
Viktor
Mihaly
Orban
Sigmundur Davio
Gunnlaugsson
Enda Kenny

Maris Kucinskis
Algirdas
Butkevicius
Xavier Bettel
Joseph Muscat

Mark Rutte
Erna Solberg
Beata Szydlo
Antonio
Luis
Santos da Costa
Dacian Julien Ciolos
Dmitry
Anatolyevich
Medvedev

African Countries
Algeria
Angola
Cameroon
Egypt
Ethiopia
Gambia
Ghana
Kenya
Liberia
Libya

Algiers
Luanda

Dinar
Angolan kwanza

Yaounde
Cairo
Addis Ababa

Central
African
CFA franc
Egyptian pound
Ethiopian birr

Banjul
Accra

Gambian dalasi
Ghanaian cedi

Nairobi
Monrovia
Tripoli

Kenyan shilling
Liberian dollar
Libyan dinar

51

Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Jose Eduardo dos
Santos
Paul Biya
Abdel Fattah al-Sisi
Mulatu Teshome

Abdelmalek Sellal

Philemon Yang

Hailemariam
Desalegn

Yahya Jammeh
John
Dramani
Mahama
Uhuru Kenyatta
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Fayez al-Sarraj

gradeup.co/banking-insurance

Madagascar
Mali
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique

Antananarivo

Malagasy ariary

Bamako

West African CFA


franc
Mauritian rupee
Moroccan dirham
Metical

Port Louis
Rabat
Maputo
Windhoek

Namibia
Abuja
Rwanda
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Tanzania

Abuja
Kigali
Victoria
Freetown
Mogadishu
Pretoria,
Cape
Town,
Bloemfontein
Juba
Khartoum
Dodoma

Hery
Rajaonarimampianina
Ibrahim
Boubacar
Keta
Ameenah Gurib
Abdelilah Benkirane
Filipe Nyusi

Namibian dollar,
South
African
rand
Nigerian naira
Rwandan franc

Hage Geingob

Seychellois rupee
Sierra
Leonean
leone
Somali shilling

Danny Faure
Ernest Bai Koroma

South
rand

African

South Sudanese
pound
Sudanese pound
Tanzanian shilling

Muhammadu Buhari
Paul Kagame

Hassan
Mohamud
Jacob Zuma

Sheikh

Olivier Mahafaly
Solonandrasana
Modibo Keita
Anerood Jugnauth
Carlos Agostinho
do Rosrio
Saara
Kuugongelwa

Anastase
Murekezi

Omar Abdirashid
Ali Sharmarke

Salva Kiir Mayardit


Omar al-Bashir
John Magufuli

Kassim Majaliwa

List of Important Dates National & International


January
9th
10th
12th
15th
18th
23rd
24th
25th
26th
27th
28th
30th
30th

Pravasi Bhartiya Divas ( NRI Day)


World Hindi Day/ World Laughter Day
National Youth Day (Birth Day of Swami Vivekanand)
Army Day
National Immunization Day (Polio Day)
National Day of Patriotism
National Girl Child Day
National Voters Day
Indias Republic Day/ International Customs day
International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust
Birth Anniversary Lala Lajpat Rai
Death Anniversary Mahatma Gandhi (Martyrs / Sarvodaya Day)
World Leprosy Eradication Day

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February
1st Feb
2nd Feb
4th Feb
6th Feb
10th Feb
13th Feb
20th Feb
21st Feb
24th Feb
28th Feb

Indian Coast Guard Day


World Wetland Day
World Cancer Day
International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation
National Deworming Day
World Radio Day
World Day of Social Justice
International Mother Language Day
Central Excise Day
National Science Day

March
1st
3rd
4th
8th
10th
12th
13th
14th
15th
18th
20th
21st
21st
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
27th
28th

Zero Discrimination Day


World Wildlife Day, National Defence Day
National Security Day (Rashtriya Suraksha Diwas),World Day of Fight Against Sexual
Exploitation.
International Womens Day
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Raising Day
World Kidney Day
World Rotaract Day
Pi Day
World Consumer Rights Day
Ordnance Factories Day
World Sparrow Day, International Day of Happiness
International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
World Poetry Day, International Day of Nowruz
International Day of Forests, World Down Syndrome Day
World Water Day
World Meteorological Day
World Tuberculosis Day
International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave
Trade
World Theatre Day
Earth Hou

April
4th April
6th April
7th April
11th April
12th April
17th April
18th April
21st April

International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action


International Day of Sport for Development and Peace
World Health Day
National Safe Motherhood Day 2015
International Day of Human Space Flight
World Hemophilia Day
World Heritage Day
National Civil Services Day

53

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22nd April
23rd April
24th April
25th April
26th April
28th April
29th April

World Earth Day


World Book and Copyright Day, English Language Day
National Panchayati Day
World Malaria Day
World Intellectual Property Day (World IP Day)
World Day for Safety and Health at Work
World Dance Day, Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare

May
1st May
3rd May
May 04
1st (Tue)
1st (Sun)
May 05
May 06
May 08
May 09
May 10
May 11
May 12
May 13
May 15
May 17
May 18
May 20
May 21
May 22
May 24
May 25
May 29
May 31

International Labour Day


World Press Freedom Day, International Sun Day ,International Energy Day
Coal Miners Day(Intl.), International Firefighters Day
1st (Tue)World Asthma Day takes place each year on the first Tuesday in May.
1st (Sun) World Laughter Day
World Athletics Day, World Midwives Day
World No Diet Day
World Red Cross Day, Remembrance and Reconciliation for Lost Lives of Second World War
World Thalassaemia Day
International Migratory Bird Day
National technology day
International Nurses Day
International Criminal Court Day
International Day of the Families
World Tele-communication and Information Society Day,Wold AIDS Vaccination day, World
Hypertension Day, International day against Homophobia and Transphobia
World Museum Day
World Meteorology Day
National Anti Terrorism Day, National Day for Cultural Development
International Day for Biological Diversity
Commonwealth Day
World Missing Childrens day
International Day of Peacekeepers
World Anti Tobacco Day

June
June 1
June 4
June 5
June 8
June 12
June 14
June 15
3rd (Sun)
June 16
June 18
June 20

World Milk Day


World Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
World Environment Day
World Brain Tumor Day, World Oceans Day
World Day Against Child Labor
World Blood Donor Day
World elder abuse awareness day
World Fathers Day
International Integration Day
International Picnic Day
World Refugee Day
54

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June 21
June 23
June 26

World Music Day


International Olympic Day, United Nations Public Service Day, International Widows Day
International Day against Drug abuse and Illicit Trafficking, International Day in support of
Victims of torture

July
July 1
July 2
1st
July 06
July 07
July 11
July 12
July 18
July 26
July 28
July 29
August
First
(Sun)
6-Aug
8-Aug
9-Aug
12-Aug
13-Aug
14-Aug
15-Aug
19-Aug
20-Aug
21-Aug
23-Aug
29-Aug
30-Aug

International Joke Day, World Doctors Day


World Sports Journalists Day, World UFO day
International Day of Cooperatives
World Zoonoses Day
World Chocolate Day
World Population Day
International Malala Day
International Nelson Mandela Day
Kargil Vijay Diwas or Kargil Memorial Day or Kargil Victory Day
World Nature Conservation Day, World Hepatitis Day
International Tiger Day

International Friendship Day


Hiroshima Day, Anti Nuclear Day
World Senior Citizen Day
Nagasaki Day, International Day of the Worlds Indigenous People, Quit India Day
International Youth Day
International Left Handers Day
Pakistans Independence Day
Indias Independence Day, International Mourning Day
World Humanitarian Day, World Photography Day
National Sadbhavna Divas or Birthday of Rajiv gandhi, World Mosquito Day, Indain Akshay
Urja Diwas
National Senior Citizen Day , International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and Its
Abolition
National Sports Day or Dhyanchand's Birthday
International day of the victims of enforced Disappearances
International Friendship Day

September
2-Sep
5-Sep
7-Sep
8-Sep
10-Sep
14-Sep
15-Sep
16-Sep

World Coconut Day


National Teachers Day or Dr. Radhakrishanan's Birth Day, Sanskrit Day
World Forgiveness Day
World Literacy Day
World Anti-Suicide Day
Hindi Diwas or Hindi Day, World First Aid Day
International Day of Democracy, International Engineers Day
World Ozone Day

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20-Sep
21-Sep
22-Sep
23-Sep
26-Sep
27-Sep
28-Sep
29-Sep

RPF Foundation day


World Peace Day or International day for Peace and Non-violence (UN), World Alzheimers
Day
World Cancer Free Day or Rose Day
International Day of the Deaf
World Contraception Day,
World Tourism Day
World Rabies Day
World Heart Day

October
1st(Mon)
1-Oct
2-Oct
3-Oct
4-Oct
5-Oct
6-Oct
8-Oct
9-Oct
10-Oct
11-Oct
2nd(Thu)
12-Oct
13-Oct
14-Oct
15-Oct
16-Oct
17-Oct
20-Oct
24-Oct
27-Oct
28-Oct
31-Oct

World Habitat Day


World Vegetarian Day, International Day of the older/Elderly
Gandhi Jayanti, International Day of Non-Violence
World Nature Day
World Animal Day
World Teachers Day
World Wildlife Day
Indian Air Force Day
World Postal or Post-office Day
World Mental Health Day, National Post-office Day
International Day of the Girl Child
World Sight Day
World Arthritis Day
International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction
World Standards Day
Global Hand Washing Day, International Day of Rural Women, World White Cane Safety Day
World Food Day
International Poverty Day for it's Eradication
World Osteoporosis Day, World Statistics Day, National Solidarity day
UN Day, World Development Information Day, World Polio Day
World day for Audio Visual Heritage
International Animation Day
World Savings Day or World Thrift day, Halloween Day

November
1-Nov
6-Nov
7-Nov
8-Nov
9-Nov
10-Nov
11-Nov
12-Nov
13-Nov

World Vegan Day


International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed
Conflict
Infant Protection Day, World Cancer Awareness Day
World Radiology Day
World Legal Service Day
World Science day for Peace and Development, Public Transport Day
National Education Day
World Pneumonia Day, Public Service Broadcasting Day
World Kindness Day

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14-Nov
16-Nov
17-Nov
19-Nov
20-Nov
3rd (SUN)
3rd (Thu)
21-Nov
25-Nov
26-Nov
30-Nov
December
1-Dec
2-Dec
3-Dec
4-Dec
5-Dec
7-Dec
9-Dec
10-Dec
11-Dec
14-Dec
16-Dec
18-Dec
19-Dec
20-Dec
23-Dec
25-Dec

Childrens Day(India), World Diabetes Day


International Day for Endurance or Tolerance
International Students Day, Gurunanak Dev's Birth Anniversary, National eplilepsy day
World Toilet Day, International Mens Day, National Integration Day
Universal Childrens Day
World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims
World Philosophy Day , World Vegan Day
World Fisheries Day, World Hello Day, World Television Day
International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, World Non-Veg day
National Law Day or National constitution Day
National Flag Day

World AIDS Day


World Computer Literacy Day, International Day for the Abolition of Slavery
International Day of People with Disability or World Disability Day
Indian Navy Day
International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development
International Civil Aviation Day, Indian Armed Force Flag Day
The International Anti-Corruption Day
World Human Rights Day, International Children's Day of Broadcasting
International Mountain Day, UNICEF Day
National Energy Conservation Day(India)
Vijay Diwas
International Migrants Day, National Minority Rights Day
Goas Libration Day
International Human Solidarity Day
National Farmers Day or Kisan Diwas
Good Governance day

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