Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

GRADUATE SEMINAR

(CVE 696)
On
REVIEW OF SOLID WASTE MINIMIZATION
(REDUCTION) STRATEGY: A PRAGMATIC APPROACH
TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF
ABUJA (Municipal)

By
BAWA, Sheriff Mohammed
(15/68GE004)

SUBMITTED TO:
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF
ILORIN, ILORIN, NIGERIA.
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWARD OF M.ENG DEGREE IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING

SUPERVISOR: Dr. A.W. Salami


December, 2016

`
ABSTRACT
Solid waste management has been a global issue which has been promoted
by the application of different strategies and measures in most developing
countries. In places such as Abuja, solid waste management which is mostly
a sole responsibility of the Abuja Environmental Protection Board (AEPB),
have put in place management practices in containing the rate of solid waste
generation, yet it isnt sustainable and as contributed to so many effect due
to improper management of solid waste and the utilization of a sustainable
management strategy.
The implementation of solid waste minimization strategy in solid waste
management has been a practice in so many countries and this has brought
a sustainable development in terms of solid waste management, also key
actors in its implementation most be acknowledged in terms of success in its
implementation. Several benefit and importance has been derived as a result
of its implementation. As a practicable strategy for solid waste management
it is therefore recommended in other to have an environmentally friendly
society.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract

ii

Table of Content

iii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

Background

1.1

Aims and Objective of the Study

3
1.2

Scope of Study

1.3

Justification

1.4

Methodology
3

CHAPTER TWO
2.1

Solid Waste Management


4

2.2

Waste Minimization
5
2.2.1 Waste Prevention

2.2.2 Source Separation


8
2.2.3 Re Use

2.2.4 Composition and Anaerobic Digestion


9
2.2.5 Recycling

2.2.6 Material Recovery


9
2.2.7 Disposal

10

`
2.3

Waste Minimization Practice in Other Countries


11

CHAPTER THREE
3.1

Overview of Waste Management in Abuja (municipal) Area


12

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1

Implementation of Waste Minimization (reduction strategies)


15

4.2

Education

4.3

Publicity and Public Relation

15

15
4.4

Policy Initiatives and Action


16

4.5

Financial Incentives / Disincentives


17

4.6

Community and Volunteer Activities


17

4.7

Actors that Need to be Involved


18

4.8

Benefit of Waste Minimization Practice


18

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1

Conclusion

20

5.2

Recommendation

20

REFERENCES
21

LIST OF TABLES
Table No
3.1
Refuse

Title

Page

FCT/ABUJA Percentage Distribution of Household by Type of


12
Disposal Facility

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No

Title

Page

`
2.1

Waste Management Hierarchy


7

LIST OF Plate
Plate No

Title

Page

An Encroachment of Waste on the Major Road of Papei


13

II

Lack of Proper Disposal at Lugbe Housing Estate


13

III

Waste Found Dumped at Unauthorized Places and Back of


Houses in Nyanya

IV

14

Leachate Seeps into Drainages Close to Household around


the Area of Mpape
14

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0

BACKGROUND

Solid waste management is a global issue which is a growing source of


concern in developed and developing countries due to increase urbanization;
changes in consumer pattern and industrialization, which all directly
influence solid waste generation (Kadafa et al., 2013). Mankind naturally
depends on the environment to sustain their lives but solid waste is one of
the three major environmental problems (other major environmental issue
include flooding and desertification) in Nigeria, many other developing and
even the developed countries are threatened by this. It plays a significant
role in the ability of nature to sustain life within its capacity. Most cities
spend 20-50% of their annual budget on solid waste management and only
20-80% of the waste is collected (Achankeng, 2003).
In developing countries such as Nigeria, open dumping of solid wastes
into wetlands, watercourses, drains and burrow pit is a prevalent form of
disposal. This practice has sometimes resulted in the littering of the
surroundings, creating eyesore and odour nuisance (Ihuoma, 2012).
Sangodoyin (1993), stated that open dumping of wastes serves as breeding
place for flies, insects and rats. The proliferation of flies, insects and rats in
the vicinity of a refuse dumpsite is due to the presence of putrescible
components. These flies are capable of transmitting diseases through
contact with food and water such as dysentery and diarrhoea. It has become
a necessity due to the above mentioned, to have an overview and examine
the current state and challenges with this regard. Therefore, there is a dire
need to increase public awareness on solid waste problems and ways in
which waste can be reduced (minimized) rather than been disposed.
1

Waste reduction is said to be a logical starting point for sustainable solid


waste management, by reducing the amounts of waste that must be
managed, by collection and disposal (UNEP, 1996). Chapter 21 of Agenda 21
emphasized that reducing wastes and maximizing environmentally sound
waste reuse and recycling should be the first steps in waste management.
This concept was introduced by Agenda 21 and illustrated by the waste
hierarchy, which is a stepwise approach to waste management.
The general principle of the waste hierarchy consists of the following steps,
in order of environmental priority: 1) minimizing waste, 2) maximizing
environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling, 3) promoting
environmentally-sound waste disposal and treatment, and 4) extending
waste service coverage. The United States Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) defines waste reduction as a broad term encompassing all waste
management methods source reduction, recycling, and composting that
result in reduction of waste going to a landfill or combustion facility (USEPA,
1995). Waste reduction has also been identified by the UNEPs Directory of
Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) for the Integrated Management
of Solid, Liquid, and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States in
the Caribbean Region, to be suitable to the environmental, economic,
climatic, cultural and social context of the Caribbean Region (UNEP and CEHI,
2004). The components of waste reduction included in the USEPA definition
have been the focus of past research in developed countries such as the
United States, Canada, and Great Britain, which are farther along in adopting
these strategies. Unfortunately, fewer studies have addressed waste
reduction strategies within the context of developing countries.
Abuja Environmental Protection Board has the sole responsibility of solid
waste management in the Federal Capital Territory (Abuja-Citiserve, 2004).
Only few state capitals have been able to put in place fairly sustainable
2

`
urban waste management programs. It is therefore common to find
mountains of waste scattered all over our cities for days or even weeks with
no apparent effort at getting rid of them within certain districts, even with
the attendant risk of air and ground-water pollution. In other to have an
effective management of waste control it is imperative that minimization or
reduction of waste should be considered as a priority in other to have an
environmental friendly society.

1.1

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research is to review waste minimization (reduction) as a


management strategy towards effective solid waste management in the
municipal area of Abuja. This aim is achieved by the following objectives:
1. To review waste minimization (reduction) strategy that is being
adopted in other countries.
2. To have an overview of waste management in Abuja.
3. Approach in the implementation of solid waste minimization
4. Importance and benefit of solid waste minimization.
1.2

SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this study will cover review of works on waste minimization and
taken the Municipal area of Abuja as a case study in the challenges faced
and how minimization strategy can be of benefit.
1.3

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The outcome of this study will be of benefit in determining the effect of


waste generation and its disposal to the environment also the importance of
waste minimization strategy has a way out in solid waste management.
1.4

METHODOLOGY

Previous journals, project and publications from researchers on waste


minimization strategy in developed and developing countries shall be
3

`
assessed and reviewed. Abuja (Municipal) as a case study will be looked into
in the effect of disposal of waste generation and the benefit of waste
minimization strategy in solving such problems.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Solid Waste Management

Solid waste management is a global issue that is a growing source of concern


in developed and developing countries due to increase urbanization; changes
in consumer pattern and industrialization, which all directly influence solid
waste generation (Kadafa et al., 2013). Adedibu (1993) is of the view that the
nature and composition of solid waste is a product of climatic and business
activities in urban centres. Abumere (1983) links socio-cultural factors to
land use pattern such as housing density and eating habits. He further states
that solid waste accumulation is a product of chaotic land use pattern, the
number of household living and that the eating habit in a house greatly
determines the composition of refuse generated. Abila and Kantola (2013)
are of the view that municipal waste management problems in Nigeria cut
across concern for human health, air and water and land pollution among
others. Adewole (2009) argues that continuous indiscriminate disposal of
municipal solid waste is accelerating and is linked to poverty, poor
governance, urbanization, population growth, poor standards of living and
low level of environmental awareness.
Gordon (2005) is of the view that municipal solid wastes are commonly
known as trash or garbage, it is a combination of the entire citys solid and
sometimes semi-solid waste. It includes mainly households or domestic
waste, but it can also contain commercial and industrial waste with the
4

`
exception of industrial hazardous waste (waste from industrial practices that
causes a threat to human or environmental health). He categorized
municipal waste into five:
i.

The biodegradable which includes things like food, and kitchen waste
such as meat trimmings or vegetable peelings, yard or green waste

ii.

and paper.
Recyclable materials: This includes non-biodegradable items like

iii.

glass, plastic bottles, other plastics, metals and aluminum cans.


Inert waste: Inert materials which include construction and demolition
waste are not necessarily toxic to all species but can be harmful to

iv.

humans.
Composite waste: Items composed of more than one material such as

v.

clothing, plastics as well as children toys.


Households hazardous: This includes medicines, paints, batteries,
light bulbs, fertilizers and pesticides containers and electronic waste
(e-waste) like computers, printers and cellular phones.

Municipal solid waste contains not only valuable and often reusable
materials such as metals, glass, paper, plastics and food remains, but also an
ever- increasing amount of hazardous waste. Hence, the management and
control of wastes at all stages of production, collection, transportation,
treatment and ultimate disposal is a relatively social imperative (Salami et al,
2011).
2.2

Waste Minimization

The three Rs are commonly used terms in waste management; they stand
for reduce, reuse, and recycle. As waste generation rates have risen,
processing costs increased, and available landfill space decreased, the three
R`s have become a central tenet in sustainable waste management efforts
(El-Haggar, 2007; Seadon, 2006; Suttibak & Nitivattananon, 2008; Tudor et
al., 2011). The concept of waste reduction, or waste minimization, involves
redesigning products or changing societal patterns of consumption, use, and
5

`
waste generation to prevent the creation of waste and minimize the toxicity
of waste that is produced (USEPA, 1995). Common examples of waste
reduction include using a reusable coffee mug instead of a disposable one,
reducing product packaging, and buying durable products which can be
repaired rather than replaced. Reduction can also be achieved in many cases
through reducing consumption of products, goods, and services. The most
effective way to reduce waste is by not creating it in the first place, and so
reduction is placed at the top of waste hierarchies (USEPA, 2010). In many
instances, reduction can be achieved through the reuse of products. Efforts
to take action to reduce waste before waste is actually produced can also be
termed pre-cycling (HRM, 2010).
It is sometimes possible to use a product more than once in its same form for
the same purpose; this is known as reuse (USEPA, 1995). Examples include
using single-sided paper for notes, reusing disposable shopping bags, or
using boxes as storage containers (UC Davis, 2008). Reusing products
displaces the need to buy other products thus preventing the generation of
waste. Minimizing waste through reduction and reuse offers several
advantages including: saving the use of natural resources to form new
products and the wastes produced in the manufacturing processes; reducing
waste generated from product disposal; and reducing costs associated with
waste disposal (USEPA, 2010).
Many waste management frameworks seek to incorporate the three Rs in
some capacity. In the UK, North America, throughout Europe and in parts of
Asia, waste hierarchies are being incorporated which promote the adoption
and use of reduce, reuse and recycle initiatives (Allwood et al., 2010).
Waste management hierarchies (Figure 1) place the highest priority on waste
prevention, reuse, and then waste recovery. Disposing materials in a landfill
is the least desirable of the options (ECOTEC, 2000).

Figure 2.1: Waste management hierarchy (CIELP, 2008).


2.2.1 Waste Prevention
Waste prevention requires that the range, composition and design of
products be changed in order to reduce waste through reduced resource
7

`
demand and/or improved quality, i.e. improved manageability or reduced use
of hazardous materials. These changes are at the heart of the waste
management challenge and constitute the starting point for sound waste
management policy. Improving knowledge and understanding of waste
prevention and related concepts is a first step, both within the waste
management sector itself and more broadly with regard to the public.
Consumers have a role to play, e.g. by refusing to choose or use products
that carry waste implications. Recent reports suggest that in developed
countries, 30-40% of food is wasted, a huge burden on the waste
management system (even with home composting) but easy to improve with
better decision-making by consumers and producers. Waste reduction could
be achieved through legislation, product design, local programmes to keep
recyclables and compostables from the waste (Crown, 2012).
2.2.2 Source Separation
Source separation, meaning that goods and materials are separated out from
the waste stream at source, is paramount for successful re-use, composting,
anaerobic digestion, and recycling. Separation at source has two main
benefits: it enables the value of re-usable goods and recyclable materials to
be recovered efficiently; and the composition is less mixed and therefore less
in need of sorting, reducing the problems of dealing with waste downstream,
where sorting is more difficult and expensive. Source separation is centrally
important to the application of the waste hierarchy. To be effective, source
separation requires the active cooperation of the entire population, which in
turn requires considerable outreach, engagement and public education.
These non-technological and non-infrastructural elements, too often
neglected and disregarded as soft, are nevertheless key to successful
waste management. In other parts of the world, in low- and middleincome
countries, the primary motive of source separation is often socio-economic
rather than environmental, due to the low pollution potential of the materials
that are usually separated, as indicated by Lardinois and Furedy (1999).
8

2.2.3 Re-Use
Re-use can be promoted by changing the design of products to make them
easier to re-use. Policy intervention is necessary to divert the materials away
from the waste stream and towards avenues for re-use. Re-use is a form of
waste reduction that: (1) extends resource supplies; (2) keeps high-qualitymatter resources from being reduced to low-matter-quality waste; and (3)
reduces energy and pollution even more than recycling (Begum et al., 2006).
2.2.4 Composting and Anaerobic Digestion
Composting and anaerobic digestion of organic waste provide an opportunity
for diverting organic waste from landfills and incineration to generate
valuable end products (compost and methane for energy production). This is
an important opportunity for waste reduction in low-income countries where
over half of the waste is organic. One advantage is that composting and
anaerobic digestion can be carried out at the household level, the latter in
combination with agricultural waste where possible. Using compost made
from recycling, such as organic wastes, is considered environmentally
sustainable (WRAP, 2003).
2.2.5 Recycling
Recycling requires that materials be collected, sorted, processed, and
converted into useful goods. Sometimes the products of recycling are similar
to the products from which they were originally derived, e.g. recovered office
paper reprocessed into stationery. At other times the products are very
different, e.g. recovered plastic packaging converted into fleece sweaters, or
the example of valuable metals, including gold, silver, palladium, copper and
tin, being recovered from e-waste and sold to smelters for refining and reuse.
According to Ekanayake and Ofori (2000), recycling waste as useful materials
is a very important environmental management tool for achieving
sustainable development.
9

2.2.6 Materials Recovery


Material recovery involves the dismantling and sorting of discarded products
to separate out useful materials, and where appropriate to clean them and
ready them for reuse (for example, the treatment and dismantling of end-oflife vehicles to obtain tyres, glass, plastics, metals and other reusable or
recyclable materials). Many types of industrial waste are sent to specialised
treatment facilities, where value can be recovered, e.g. metal-bearing waste
may be sent to secondary smelters, and collected steel scrap is the
feedstock for electric arc furnaces which produce a large amount of the
worlds steel products. Similarly, synthetic organic compounds may be sent
for solvent recovery and waste oil may be re-refined or used as a bunker
fuel. These processes are similar to materials recovery and recycling in
theory, but careful attention is needed because of the potential for
production of concentrated waste by-products, especially in the context of
transboundary movements of ha-zardous waste (to which the Basel
Convention controls apply).
2.2.7 Disposal
Disposal, at the bottom of the hierarchy, is the management option used for
the remaining fraction of waste when all forms of diversion, reuse and
valorization are exhausted. It also has the important function of removing
unwanted materials from the life-cycle for a final safe and secure storage.
Disposal facilities and operations are not all the same: there is a hierarchy of
sophistication and reliability of measures applied to protect the environment.
At the top of the disposal hierarchy is the landfill, an engineered facility
featuring various controls55 installed to prevent releases of pollutants to soil,
water and air. A controlled disposal site (or controlled dumpsite), officially
designated for the purpose, is next in the hierarchy. The site is fenced and
access is controlled, with some form of control and registration of incoming
waste, and basic operations management at the site. An uncontrolled
10

`
dumpsite is third in the disposal hierarchy, below the level of acceptability
but common in low and sometimes middle-income countries. It is important
to phase out open-burning dumpsites and convert to controlled disposal
facilities, even if they do not meet modern engineering standards. The
internationally accepted approach in this regard is progressive rehabilitation
to upgrade and phase out uncontrolled dumpsites. Despite this lower rate,
rapid urbanisation, particularly in low income developing countries has left
little space for disposal of the increasing amounts of waste material being
generated in urban settings (Sangodoyin, 1993).

2.3 Waste Minimization Practices in other Countries


Waste minimization is given the highest priority in UK waste management
hierarchy and is known as an essential method for any strategy of waste
management. Re-use, recycling and composting, treatment and disposal is at
the lower level of preference (McDougall et al., 2008; Phillips et al., 1999).
Since 1992, waste minimization has been recognized as a fundamental
component of industries and business entities in the U.K. and considerable
decreasing of wastes in industrial sectors was achieved through the
establishment of waste minimization clubs (Coskeran & Phillips, 2005;
Tonglet et al., 2004). Some guidelines for practicing waste minimization by
industries were provided by the U.K. Government. These guidelines played a
key role in enhancing the awareness and the knowledge of waste
minimization practices and passed it to Local Authorities. For instance it was
suggested that methodologies for preventing wastes and improving the
quality of generated wastes was a product modification, changing input
material, changing technology, changing the procedures, good
housekeeping, on site reuse /recycle and Offsite reuse and recycle (Phillips et
al., 1999).

11

`
In Thailand paper and pulp industry play a vital role in economic growth, but
it was reported that about 0.7 million tons of solid wastes produced each
year. Process modifications and reuse techniques were implemented as
methods of waste minimization to help decrease the amount of generated
wastes (Chavalparit et al., 2006; Vigneswaran et al., 1999). In Zurich,
Switzerland, the city government has adopted tough rules such as high
garbage bags ($4.25 each) which can only be bought from the government.
One resident is reported as saying, When they charge so much for ZuriSacks, you thick twice putting things into the garbage. The effort is said to
be paying off with a decrease in household waste generation by 40% since
1992 (Rosenthal, 2005). In the United States, the Pollution Prevention Act
encourages minimization through input substitution, product reformulation,
production redesign or mordenization (Hartlen, 1997).
In Germany, the Packaging Ordinance stipulates that packaging materials
are manufactured from environmentally compatible materials to facilitate
recycling and reuse (Sakai et al., 1997).

CHAPTER THREE
3.1

Overview of waste management in Abuja (Municipal) area

Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), other local councils in Abuja and the
central governments Federal Environmental Protection Agency have devoted
considerable attentions to waste disposal and the attainment of a healthier
environment in Abuja, a lot still needs to be done as large percentage of
household are on the act of disposing refuse at unauthorized refuse heap
and disposal within compound.
Table 3.1: FCT/ABUJA Percentage distribution of household by type of refuse
disposal facility.
Yea

HH Bin

HH Bin

Governm

Disposal

Unauthoriz

Other

Non

Collected

Collecte

ent Bin or

Within

ed refuse

type

12

`
r

by Govt

d by

Agency

private

Shed

Compou

heap

nd

Agency
200

3.3

10.7

1.1

12.2

68.8

3.9

3.2

6.8

0.7

18.3

65.5

5.9

3.0

7.7

0.5

7.9

66.2

14.8

2.5

2.5

5.8

25.8

52.9

3.1

7
200
8
200
9
201

7.3

0
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2012).
Still due to the effort of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency waste
are still found dumped along roads, underneath bridges, in culverts and in
drainage channels. As shown in (Plate I), an encroachment of waste on the
major road at papei, also lack of proper disposal at Lugbe housing estate
shown in (Plate II) and waste found dumped at unauthorized places and back
of houses as can be found in Nyaya shown in (Plate III). The Mpape dumpsite
is filled up and the site is undergoing land reclamation with the view of using
it as sorting and recycling site. Due to the fertile nature of the soil, people
are cultivating some vegetables and fruit crops around the dumpsite. The
dumpsite was said to have polluted the soils with leachates (Magaji, 2010).
(Plate IV) shows how these leachates seeps and get into the drainages close
to households around the area. All this are what lead to the breed of diseases
that affect the humans leaving in such communities as a result of lack of
effective waste management strategy.

13

Plate I: An
encroachment of waste on the major road at papei

Plate II: lack of proper disposal at Lugbe housing estate

14

Plate III:

Waste found

dumped at unauthorized places and back of houses in Nyaya.

Plate

IV:

leachate seeps into the drainages close to households around the area of
Mpape

CHAPTER FOUR
15

4.1

IMPLEMENTATION OF WASTE MINIMIZATION (REDUCTION)

STRATEGIES
According to waste reduction manual for solid waste planning in local
government as stated in Washington state department of Ecology. The tool
for implementation of waste reduction includes:
4.2

Education

An education program is an essential part of a successful waste reduction


strategy. Education campaigns should give highly visible, clear, and brief
messages. The campaign message needs to be repeated for many days to
enter the public consciousness. Depending upon the target waste stream
and target audience, the most effective campaign may consist of door
hangers, displays, newspaper articles, television or radio announcements,
technical assistance training, or sharing information by means of an
information exchange or forum. Mass ("blanket") mailings may be useful,
although they are expensive and may be the least effective tool for the
education campaign.
Local governments can serve as model waste reduction institutions by
designing and implementing their own in-house G.O.L.D. (Government
Options for Landfill Disposal) Plan and encouraging others to do the same.
4.3

Publicity and Public Relations

Publicity and good public relations are also essential parts of a successful
waste reduction strategy. Once an educational strategy is decided upon,
publicity helps to ensure that the message reaches the largest number of
people:
Use a variety of media forums, such as newspapers, radio and television
public service announcements, handbills, flyers, press releases and

16

`
advertisements to promote various activities such as buying in bulk,
composting, reusing your grocery bag, etc.
Use business newsletters to tell success stories of waste reduction in
businesses.
4.4

Policy Initiatives and Actions

Reduction policies may include design and process modifications, economic


education, voluntary and mandated reduction methods, and legislative
options. Actions may be aimed at removing certain types of solid waste from
the disposal system, placing waste reduction requirements into government
procurement policies, evaluating the manufacturing process for certain
products or product constituents, requiring changes in manufacturing design
or practices, and revising labeling requirements.
Local governments have many creative options to consider when designing
waste reduction campaigns.
The following ideas may provide a framework for a local program:
Develop purchasing practices and preferences for materials that
generate less volume or toxicity of waste.
Develop procurement policies which outline specifications for reusability,
durability and repairability.
Develop purchasing policies which reduce unnecessary buying and
encourage the reuse of materials.
Give technical support to businesses conducting waste audits.
Use small business loan programs to help develop service and repair
infrastructures.
Develop financial incentive/disincentive policies.
Use the local legislative process and work with state and federal
legislators to promote waste reduction through legislation.
Implement "Train the Trainer" programs, such as Master Composters.
Initiate landfill bans for specific materials
Establish a local awards program to recognize waste reduction-conscious
businesses individuals, schools, etc.
Support community reuse through material exchanges, such as paint
swaps.

17

`
Support procurement or marketing cooperatives that enable small
businesses to cost-effectively buy products.
Provide a directory of reuse and repair shops.
Require or conduct life-cycle profiles on packaging or products.
4.5

Financial Incentives/Disincentives

Demonstrating the economic benefits of waste reduction can often be a


successful tactic. Local governments have an opportunity to encourage
waste reduction by using financial incentives and disincentives:
Set variable rate waste disposal charges to motivate consumers and
businesses to reduce the amount of waste generated in the residential
and commercial sectors.
Apply for grants which are available for planning and implementation of
waste reduction plans and education programs (grants are not available
to businesses).
Initiate dollars for data programs.
Establish container deposits to encourage the return of refillable/reusable
containers.
Set fines for illegal disposal of yard waste or recyclables.
Implement reduction incentive practices, such as taxes or deposits.
Provide subsidies.
4.6

Community and Volunteer Activities

Building partnerships with the commercial sector and volunteer networks in


the community is an excellent way to expand limited local resources. Many
waste reduction activities are already established and can be nurtured to
enhance their effectiveness:
Setting up a computerized waste-exchange database and telephone
hotline can provide a valuable service to citizens and businesses in the
community.
Bulletin boards with waste exchange information can be posted in many
places, such as at recycling centers, thrift stores, grocery stores, and
landfills. Counties could establish centralized swap meets and promote
18

`
neighborhood swaps and garage sales by providing free announcements
or a garage sale hotline.
Volunteers can help with updating bulletin boards, staffing information
booths at community events, visiting schools, writing a newspaper
column with tips for reducing waste in the home, and lobbying local retail
stores and manufacturers to sell products that are "waste-reduced"
products.
4.7

Actors that need to be involved

According to UNEP Waste Minimization Work Plan 2012-2013 actors that


need to be involved includes:

Governments: right policy framework and legislation, incentives to


reduce waste generation at the source, ensure adequate infrastructure,

strengthen waste markets, sustainable procurement


Industries: integrate RE and decoupling in production strategies and
invest in adequate production processes, technologies and

research/innovation;
Designers and producers: new products, dematerialization, life cycle

management, eco-design.
Retailers and entrepreneurs: access to sustainable products,
product service systems, and access to distribution of products

(collaborative consumption, ebay, car share etc).


Consumers: making better choices, recycling schemes, shifting to
services instead of products (eg velib.fr), making use of repair services

and purchasing from redistribution points ( boncoin.fr,ebay.com).


Scavengers and waste pickers: important to increase work conditions
and better salaries, new opportunities for decent job.

4.8

Benefits of Waste Minimization Practice:

Waste minimization practice benefits not only the company or the waste
generator, but the government regulatory agency as well. This includes:

Increase of production, but lessen the waste generation;

19

Saving money by reducing waste treatment & disposal cost, raw

material purchases and other operational costs including storage;


Optimize use of resources (like water);
Enhance public and worker's health and safety;
Improve environmental performance, regulatory compliance &

meeting to any national waste minimization goals;


Extend the useful life of landfills and disposal sites;
Reduce potential environmental liabilities; and
Promotes good public image on environmental protection.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

20

`
5.1

CONCLUSION

It is noted in this research that waste management has been a major


environmental issue in the society and it is imperative to have a measure
such as solid waste minimization strategy in taking care of waste which
literally could be disposed of and yet be a problem to the environment and
health of mankind. From literature it is quite known in developing countries
that the application of waste minimization has been an ongoing progress and
therefore its benefits cannot be over emphasized.
5.2

RECOMMENDATION

It is imperatively recommended that waste minimization should be adopted


and enforced as a measure of waste management in the local areas. The
Government, community, companies/ industries and consumers has a major
role as actors in adopting this strategy in other to have an environmentally
friendly environment.

REFERENCES
Abila, B. and J. Kantola (2013). Municipal Solid Waste Management Problems
in Nigeria: Evolving Knowledge Management Solutions. World Academy of
Science, Engineering and Technology. 78: 313 318.

21

`
Abuja-Citiserve, (2004). Estimates of Waste Generation Volumes and Income
Potential in Abuja. DFIDCNTR: 00 0512A SLGP Consultants Report Number
805, (Original Number 174).
Abumere, S. (1983) City Surface Solid Waste in Nigeria Cities. Environmental
International. 9(1): 391 396.
Achankeng, E., 2003. Globalization: Urbanization and municipal solid waste
management in Africa. Proceeding of Africian Studies Association of
Australasia and Pacific 2000 Conference Proceedings- African on a
GlobalStage, pp: 1-22.
Adedibu, A. A. (1993). Development Control and Environmental Protection: A
Case of Ilorin. A Paper Presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the NITP
Kano, Nigeria, 25th 27th Oct.
Adewole, A.T. (2009). Waste Management towards Sustainable Development
in Nigeria. A Case Study of Lagos State. Internal NGO Journal. 4(40): 173-179.
AEPB (Abuja Environmental Protection Board), 2012. Federal Capital Territory,
Nigeria
Allwood, J. M., Ashby, M. F., Gutowski, T. G., & Worrell, E. (2010). Material
efficiency: A white paper. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55(3), 362381. Elsevier B.V. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.11.002
Begum R. A., Siwar C., Pereira, J. J., Jaafar A. H. (2007). Implementation of
waste management and minimisation in the construction industry of
Malaysia. Resour. Conserv. Recy. 51, (1), 190,.
Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy. (2008). Towards a Zero
Waste Future: Review of Ontarios Waste Diversion Act, 2002: Discussion
22

`
Paper for Public Consultation (p. 43). Canadian Institute for Environmental
Law and Policy.
Chavalparit, O., Rulkens, W., Mol, A., & Khaodhair, S. (2006). Options for
environmental sustainability of the crude palm oil industry in Thailand
through enhancement of industrial ecosystems. Environment, Development
and Sustainability, 8(2), 271-287.
Coskeran, T., & Phillips, P. S. (2005). Economic appraisal and evaluation of UK
waste minimisation clubs: proposals to inform the design of sustainable
clubs. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 43(4), 361-374.
Crown. (2012). Guidance on the Legal Definition of Waste and Its
Application, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, ,
pp. 1-69.
Ekanayake L.L. and Ofori, G. (2000). Construction material waste source
evaluation. In: Proceedings of the Second Southern African Conference on
Sustainable Development in the Built Environment, Pretoria, 2325 August
2000. p. 35-16.
ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. (2000). Beyond the bin: The
economics of waste management options.
El-Haggar, S. M. (2007). Sustainable industrial design and waste
management: Cradle-to-cradle for sustainable development (p. 424). Oxford:
Elsevier/Academic Press.
Gordon, H. S. (2005). The Economic Theory of Common Property Resource,
In: RK Dorfman (ed) Economic of the Environment; London: Methuen. 221239.
23

Hartlen, J. (1997). Waste Management in Sweden. Waste Management, 16,


(5/6)
Ihuoma, S. O. (2012). Characterization and Quantification of Solid and Liquid
Wastes Generated at the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. MSc. Thesis
Presented to the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Kadafa, A.Y., Latifa, A., Abdullahi, H.S. and W.A. Suleiman (2013).
Comparative Assessment of the municipal Solid Waste Management
Services. Nature and Science. 11(6): 154-164.
Lardinois and Furedy (1999). Source Separation of Household Waste
Materials: Analysis of Case Studies from Pakistan, the Philippines, India,
Brazil, Argentine and the Netherlands Urban Waste Series 7, 1999.
http://www.yorku.ca/furedy/research.htm
McDougall, F. R., White, P. R., Franke, M., & Hindle, P. (2008). Integrated solid
waste management: a life cycle inventory: Wiley. com.
Phillips, P. S., Read, A. D., Green, A. E., & Bates, M. P. (1999). UK waste
minimisation clubs: a contribution to sustainable waste management.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 27(3), 217-247.
Rosenthal, E. (2005). Thinking twice about garbage. Herald Tribune, p. 1, 2324 April.
Sakai, S., Sawell, S.E., Chandler, A.J., Eighmy, T.T., Kosson, D.S., Vehlow, J.,
Vander Sloot, H.A., Hertlen, J. & Hjelmar, O. (1997). World Trends in Municipal
Solid Waste Management. Waste Management, 16, (5/6).
24

Salami, L., Susu, A. A., Patinvoh, R. J. and Olafadehan, O.A. (2011).


Characterization Study of Solid Wastes: A Case of Lagos State. International
Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Volume 1 (3): pp. 47-52.
Sangodoyin, A. Y. (1993). Consideration on Contamination of Groundwater by
Waste Disposal System in Nigeria: Environmental Technology. Vol. 14 (10):
pp. 957-964.
Seadon, J. K. (2006). Integrated waste management--looking beyond the
solid waste horizon. Waste management, 26(12), 1327-36. doi:
10.1016/j.wasman.2006.04.009.
Suttibak, S., & Nitivattananon, V. (2008). Resources , Conservation and
Recycling Assessment of factors influencing the performance of solid waste
recycling programs. Conservation And Recycling, 53, 45-56. doi:
10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.09.004.
Tonglet, M., Phillips, P. S., & Bates, M. P. (2004). Determining the drivers for
householder pro-environmental behaviour: waste minimisation compared to
recycling. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 42(1), 27-48.
Tudor, T., Robinson, G., Riley, M., Guilbert, S., & Barr, S. (2011). Challenges
facing the sustainable consumption and waste management agendas:
perspectives on UK households. Local Environment, 16(1), 51-66. doi:
10.1080/13549839.2010.548372.
UNEP and CEHI. 2004. A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for
the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small
Island Developing States in the Caribbean Region. Division of Environmental
Policy Implementation.
25

USEPA. 1995. Decision-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management, Volume II.


United States Environmental Protection Association. Washington D.C
U.S Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
Wastes Resource Conservation. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from
http://www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/rrr/
Vigneswaran, S., Jegatheesan, V., & Visvanathan, C. (1999). Industrial waste
minimization initiatives in Thailand: concepts, examples and pilot scale trials.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 7(1), 43-47.
Waste Reduction Manual for Solid Waste Planning For Local Governments
Washington State Department of Ecology: Solid Waste Services Program.
Publication No. 94-141
WRAP (2003). Using quality compost to benefit crops. Available from:
http://www.organics-recycling.org.uk/uploads/article1836/ QP%20crop%20benefits.pdf
Zugman, R., Coutto, D.( 2012-2013). Waste Minimization Work Plan

26