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Worm Gear

EXAMPLE 1 :Design worm and gear speed reduced to transmit 22 KW at a speed at 1440 rpm the
desired velocity ratio is 24:1. An efficiency of at list 85 % is desired. Assume heat worm is
made of hardened steel and the gear of phosphor bronze.
SOLUTION:Given Data:P = 22 KW
G = 24
nw

= 1440 rpm

n = 0.85
Number of teeth and module
G=

Zg
Zw

24 =

Zg
1

24 =

1440
ng

n g = 60 rpm

Z g = 24

Centre distance (a)


a=

d w +d z
2

Beam strength
2
For phosphor bronze, S ut = 245 N/ mm

Let, take a = 10

by

S ut
3

245
3

= 81.66 N/ mm

b = 0.73 d w
= 0.73 mq
= 0.73 x m x 10 = 7.3 m
Assume 20 full-depth involute
Y = 0.484 -

tan =

= 0.484 -

2.87
24

= 0.364

Zw
q

1
= tan

Fb

2.87
Zg

= by

[ ]
Zw
q

tan1

[ ]
1
10

= 5.71

b m Y cos

= 81.66 x 7.3m x m x cos 5.71 x 0.36


2
= 215.91 m , N .(1)

Wear strength

For hardened steel worm and phosphor bronze worm gear with 10 25
2
K = 0.685 N/ mm
F w = dg b k

= 24m x 7.3m x 0.685


2
= 120.01 m , N ..(2)

Fb

F w worm gear is weaker in pitting

Effective load on worm gear tooth

= 0.03

Take

v = tan 1

0.03
cos (20)

v = 1.828
tan
tan( V + )

n=

tan(5.71)
tan(1.828+5.71)

n=0.75

The output power is given by,


p0 = pi n
3

= 22 x 10

= 16,500 w

x m Z g x 60
60,000

d g ng
60,000

vg =

(F g )t

x 0.75

P0
Vy

16500
0.075m

6
6 +v g

6
6 +0.075 m

6
( 6+0.075
m)

kv =

= 0.075 m/s
220000
,N
m

= 0.9875 m

Take, 1.25
Feff

= 1.25 x

k a (F g )t
kv

22,0000
m

45833.33(6+ 0.075 m)
.(3)
m

Estimation of module
Take

Nf

= 2.0

To avoid pitting failure


Fw =

N f Peff

120.01 m

2 x 45833.33(6+0.075 m)
m

3
120.01 m = 91666.66 (6 + 0.075m)

m3 = 57.28m + 4582.95
Solving above equation by trial & error
M = 6.08 mm
m=8 mm
Here, the designation of worm gear pair is

24 10

a=

d w+ d z
2

Power lost in friction


Pf

= (1-n)

Pi

= (1-0.75) x 22,000

= 5500 w

Pf =5500 w
Thermal considerations
4
A = 1.14 x 10

4
= 1.14 x 10

= 1.4829, m

1.7
2
x a
, m

1.7
x (136)

m x q +m x z g
2

8 x 10+8 x 24
2

= 136

i.e t = 50 C
Hg
(1-n)

Hd

Pi = CA t

5500 = C x 0.4829 x 50
2
2
C = 12.9 w/ m C < 18 w/ m C

EXAMPLE 2 :The worm and worm wheel drive is designed by 1/80/1016. The worm is made of
case hardened steel and the gear is made of phosphor bronze gear box housing is
provides with fins and a fan on worm shaft circulate air over fins. The normal
pressure angle is 20. How much power can be safely transmitted by the set if the
tempering rise of lubricating oil is not to exceed 50 C. the worm wheel rpm is
14,000.
K = overall heat transfer co-efficient = 24 w/ m
2
A = effective surface area of housing = 0.7 m

Solution: Given data:Zw

=1

Z g = 30
q = 10
m = 6 mm
2
K = 24 w/ m C
2
A = 0.7 m

nw

= 1400 rpm

dw

= mq

dg

= m Z g

= 6 x 10

= 6 x 30

d w+ d g
2

a=

= 60 mm

60+ 180
2

= 180 mm

= 120 mm

a=120 mm

= tan

[ ]
2w
q

= = tan

[ ]
1
10

=5.71

Let us take, N = 0.05


v = tan 1

[ v ]

1
= tan

cos n

1
= tan

0.05
cos 20

v =3.0460
G=

nw
ng

30 =

1400
ng

=G=

Zg
Zw

30
1

n g=46.67 rpm
Power transmitted ( pi )
The external surface area of hosting is,
4

A = 1.14 x 10

1.7

x a

= 30

4
= 1.14 x 10

A = 0.3904 m

1.7
x (120)

i.e. = t 50 C
Hg = Hd
Fb

= bg

x b m x Y cos (1)

b = 0.75 d w
= 0.75 x m x q
= 0.75 x 6 x 10
= 45 mm
2.87
zg

Y = 0.484 -

= 0.484 -

2.87
30

Fb

= 80 x 45 x 6 x 0.3883 x cos 5.71

Fb

= 8345.66 N

Fw = d y

= 0.3883

bk

= 180 x 45 x 0.685
= 5548.5 N
vg =

d g ng
60,000

kv =

6
6 +v g

k a f g (t)
kv

Feff

Feff

= 1.34 (f g )t

fw fw
fw =

N f Peff

x 180 x 46.67
60,000
6
6 +0.4398

= 0.4398 m/s

= 0.9317

1.25 x f g (t )
0.9317

5548.5 = 1.5 x 1.34 (f g )t

( f g ) t=2760.44 N

Inlet power rating based on beam strength and wear strength


p0 = (f g )t

x vg

= 2760.44 x 0.4398

= 1214.04 w
tan
tan( v + )

n=

= 1.21 kw

tan(5.71)
tan(3.046+5.71)

n = 0.649

Hence output power rating based on beam strength and wear strength
pi n =

p0
n

1.21
0.649

= 1.86 kw .(2)

Input power rating based on heat dissipation


Hg

(1 - n)

Hd
pi n = CA t

(1 0.649) x

pi n

= 24 x 0.7 x 50

pi n = 2.93 kw

Maximum input power the worm can take


From eq-1 & eq-2, give maximum input power the worm can take, hence
pi=1.86 kw .ANS

EXAMPLE 3 :-

Design a speed reducer unit of worm and worm wheel for an input of 1kw with a
transmission of 25 speed of the worm is made of hardened steel and wheel of
2
phosphor bronze for which material combination factor is 0.7 N mm .The static
stress for the wheel material is 50mpa.The worm is made of double start and center
distance between the axes of the worm and worm wheel is 120mm.The tooth form is
1
to be 14 2 involute check design for strength, wear, and dissipation.
Solution: Given data:P = 22 KW
G = 24
nw = 1440 rpm
n = 0.85
2
k = 0.7 N/ mm

bg =56 N /mm2
1
n =14
2
Beam strength,
Let, q= 10

G=

b =0.75 x m x q
=0.75 x m x 10
=7.5 m

zg
zw

z G = G. z w
dw

=25 x 1

=mq
dg

=m

zG

=25m

= 25

a=

120 =

d w+ d w
2

mq+ 25 m
2

mq+ 25 m
2

m(q+25) = 240
240
m= (q+ 25)
q = 10
m = 4 mm
Y = 0.39 -

2.15
29

= 0.39 -

2.15
25

Y = 0.304

wear strength,
dg

=m

Fw =

zG

=4 x 25

safety

F w = 2055 N

F w worm gear is weaker in bending and hence it should be designed for

against bending failure.

Effective load on worm gear tooth


Let us take, = 0.05
v = tan 1

= 100

d g bk

=100 x 30 x0.685
FB <

dg

[ v ]

1
= tan

cos n

1
= tan

0.05
cos 14.5

v =2.95

n=

tan
tan( V + )

tan(5.71)
tan(2.95+5.71)

n=0.6564

The output power is given by,


p0 = pi n
3
= 1x 10 x 0.6564

nw
G = ng

(F g )t

kv =

d g ng
60,000

6
6 +v g
Feff

1600
ng

25 =

vg =

= 656.4w

x 100 x 64
60,000

P0
Vy

6
6 +0.3351

k a f g (t)
kv

n g =64rpm

656.4
0.3351

= 0.3351m/s

= 1958.81, N

= 0.94710
1.25 x 1958.81
0.94710

Feff =2582.27 N

Feff > Fw
Feff > Fb
Hence, worm speed reduce is not safe

Heat dissipation

4
A = 1.14 x 10
4
= 1.14 x 10

1.7
x a

2
m

1.7
x (120)

2
A = 0.3904 m

i.e. = t 50 C
Hg = Hd

(1 - n)

pi n = CA t

(1 0.6564)1000

= c x 0.3904 x50

2
C = 17.60 w/ m c

2
< 18 w/ m c

Fan is necessary for cooling purpose with horizontal fins on gear box.

EXAMPLE 4 :The gear box for the worm gears of example 20:4 and 20:5 has an effective surface
2
area of 0.25 m .A fan is mounted on the worm shaft to circulate air over the
2
surface of the fins. The co-efficient of heat transfer can be taken as 25w m c.

The permissible temperature rise of the lubricating oil above the atmospheric
temperature is 45c.The co-efficient of friction is 0.035 and normal pressure angle is
20.calculte the power transmitting capacity based on thermal condition.
Step -1

Efficiency of worm gears

The co-efficient of friction is 0.035 for ( v s =2.1 m/s

n=

Step -2

tan
cos

+ tan
cos

cos ( 20 ) + 0.35 tan (5.71)

( 20 ) 0.035 tan(5.71)
cos

n= 0.7259

power transmitting capacity

k (tt 0) A
Kw 1000(1n)

(25)(25)(0.25)
(1000)(10.7259)

= 1.03