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Homework #7

Rishabh Lala

To Find: Develop a MathCAD worksheet(s) that calculates the following:

1. Increment of deflection due to the first application of the total load.
2. Increment of deflection that maycause damage to breakable partitions using the ACI
long-term multiplier (5 year load duration).
3. Increment of deflection that will cause damage to breakable partitions using the effective
modulus of elasticity approach (5 year load duration).
4. Assuming that this is a floor beam, compare to ACI 318-14.
5. If the deflections do not meet ACI 318 requirements, then what measures would you tak
Given:
Section Width

f'c := 4000psi
Ec := 57000

Ln := 25ft

Limiting concrete compressive strain

b := 12in

Modulus of Elasticity

h := 24in

Height of section

cc := 1.5in

Clear Cover

c := 150pcf

Density of Concrete

1/10

Homework #7

Due Date 10/17/2016

Rishabh Lala

Steel Properties
Yield Stres s in Steel

fy := 60ksi
Es := 29000ksi

Modulus of Elasticity

Reinforcement Data
2

Area of Steel

db11

Depth of tensile reinforcement

As := 3 As11 = 4.68 in
d := h - 1.5in - db4 -

No Compression Steel

A's := 0 = 0 in

kip
WLL := 2.5
= 2.5 klf
ft

kip
WsLL := 0.91
= 0.91 klf
ft

wo := b h c

Self Weight

WsDL := 1klf

Required :
1) Determination of Gross and Cracked Moment of Intertia:
6

Modulus of Elasticity

n :=

Es
Ec

Modular Ratio

=8

2
A

As
s
2 As
+ 2 n = 0.415
k := -n
+ n
b d
b d
b d

b h

Ig :=
= 1.382 10 in
12
Icr :=

b ( k d)
3

Gross Moment of Inertia

2

+ n As ( d - k d ) = 8.603 10 in

2/10

Homework #7

Due Date 10/17/2016

Rishabh Lala

3
M 3
Mcr

cr
Ie( M a , M cr) := I
Ig + 1 -

Ma
M a cr

return I if I < Ig
Ig otherwise
2.) Determination of Instantaneous Deflections for each load stage
Modulus of Ruptre

Ig fr

M cr :=
M o :=

wo Ln

= 23.437 kip ft

Cracking Moment

= 45.537 kip ft

0.5 h

Effective moment of Inertia which accounts cracking only

due to the self weight

Ie M o , M cr = 1.382 10 in
5wo Ln

o :=
= 0.053 in
384 Ec Ie M o , M cr

M sDL :=

WsDL Ln

= 78.125 kip ft

Effective Moment of Interia due to DL and SDL

Ie M o + M sDL , M cr = 9073.96261 in
DL :=
M LL :=

5

= 0.349 in

8

Total Moment generated due to Self Weight+ SDL +LL

3

Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr = 8.622 10 in

DL_LL :=

( wo + WsDL + WLL) Ln4

384 Ec Ie( M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr)
5

Answer I Increment of Deflection from self weight deflection to total load application:

( wo + WsDL) Ln4

DL :=

= 0.368 in
384 Ec Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr

3/10

Homework #7

Due Date 10/17/2016

LL := DL_LL - DL = 0.707 in

Rishabh Lala

Determination of Long Term Deflections:

0

1
TDF := 1.2
1.4

2.0
( t) :=

0

.25
Time := .5 yr
1

5

2 if t 5yr
linterp( Time , TDF , t ) otherwise

' :=

A's
b d

( t ) :=

=0

( t)
1 + 50 '

4/10

Homework #7

Due Date 10/17/2016

Rishabh Lala

Recalculating the Deflections with with ACI 318-14 Long Term Load Multipliers:
Assumptions: 1. Partition and superimposed DL are applied together. 2. After 60 days of Shoring Removal, the
superimposed load is applied without any delay/
5wo Ln

o :=
= 0.085 in
384 Ec Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr

Increments :

(WsDL) Ln

Assuming Live Loads are applied after 60 days after shoring

and formwork is removed.

sDL :=

= 0.283 in
384 Ec Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr

Inertia

DL_LL :=

5

( WsLL) Ln

ACI Multiplier multiplied to deflection due to superimposed

sLL :=

= 0.257 in
384 Ec Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr

self weight 5 years +SDL at 5 years+

sustained LL at five years +

5yrs_ACI_multiplier_approach - DL = 1.178 in

5/10

Homework #7

Ln + 8in 2

= 1.317 in

240
Ln + 8in 2

Summation of the long term deflections is more than the

limit i.e. 1.317<1.674. This means, damange is likely to
occur.
Partitions are likely to be damaged, since 0.658<1.317.

= 0.658 in

480

Rishabh Lala

t := 365 5 = 1.825 10

Assuming load is applied at 60th day

to := 60
Ultimate creep coefficient in absence of data

Eq. A-19; ACI 209.2R-08; Ultimate creep coefficient

in absence of specific creep data

:= 2.35
Using ACI 209R recommended values in absence of
specific data:
d c := 10
:= 0.6

( t - to )

d c + ( t - to)

( t) :=

( t ) = 0.899

Eq. A-18; ACI 209.2R-08; creep coefficient at concrete

age t due to a load applied at age to

( )

tLT := 2.02
Long Term Modulus of Elasticity
1.5

c
Ec( f ) := 33
f psi
pcf

( )

Ecmto

Ece ( t ) :=

n :=

1 + ( t)

Es
Ece ( t )

= 22.8

2
A

As
s
2 As
+ 2 n = 0.587
k := -n
+ n
b d
b d
b d
3

b h
4 4
Ig :=
= 1.382 10 in
12

6/10

Homework #7

Icr :=

Due Date 10/17/2016

b ( k d)

Rishabh Lala

+ n As ( d - k d ) = 1.608 10 in

3
M 3
Mcr

cr
Ie( M a , M cr) := I
Ig + 1 -

Ma
M a cr

return I if I < Ig
Ig otherwise

(WsDL) Ln4

sDL :=

= 0.501 in
384 Ece ( t) Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr

DL_LL :=

(wo + WsDL + WLL) Ln4

= 1.903 in
384 Ece ( t ) Ie( M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr)
5

LT_sDL := ( 5yr) sDL = 1.002 in

(WsLL) Ln4

sLL :=

= 0.456 in
384 Ece ( t) Ie M o + M sDL + M LL , M cr

LT_sLL := ( 5yr) sLL = 0.911 in

5yrs_Ece_approach := LL + LT_o + LT_sDL + LT_sLL = 2.734 in
Effective_Modulus_Approach_is_more_by := 5yrs_Ece_approach - 5yrs_ACI_multiplier_approach = 1.188 in
DL_LL = 1.903 in
Ln + 8in 2
240
Ln + 8in 2
480

= 1.317 in

= 0.658 in

7/10

Homework #7

Due Date 10/17/2016

Rishabh Lala

Determination of deflection, whether they meet ACI criterion or not:

Criterion:
Floor_LL_Limit :=

Ln + 6in 2
360

= 0.867 in

5yrs_Ece_approach = 2.734 in
5yrs_ACI_multiplier_approach = 1.546 in

The deflections do not meet ACI deflection criterion of Floor Beams.

Measures when Deflections do not meet the ACI Requirements
The following are the measures that are known to reduce deflections in beams:
1. Providing confinement in the beam reduces deflection due to spalling effect.
2. Increasing the yield strength of concrete, improves the modulus of elasticity of concrete.
3. Increasing the flexural rigidity of concrete, which inversely affects the deflection
4. Providing intermediate column so as to reduce span length; for square of span length is directly proportional to
deflection
5. Taking measures to reduce weight coming on the beam, if possible. Some of them could be, reduction in the slab
thickness which results in eventually less weight of slab.
6. Adding flexible joints with partition walls or providing gap tolerances between partition walls and beams, will mitigate
cracks to a great extent.