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CUSTOMER AUDIT USING THE DISTRIBUTION SUB-STATION

SERVING HIM:
(A STRATEGY FOR MONITORING TRANSFORMER LOADING & CASH COLLECTION)

BY

ENGR YUSUF ABDULMUMINI CEng, FIMC, FCAI, FNARS


(Bsc (Hons) Eng, MEng, MBA, PhD)
(Electrical and EIA Consultant)

A PAPER PRESENTED AT THE GENERAL MEETING OF NIEEE KADUNA CHAPTER ON THE 6th JUNE 2009 AT NAGWAMATSE HOUSE KADUNA

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OUTLINE OF THE PAPER


Objective of the paper
Introduction of the Topic
Kaduna Monthly Zonal Distribution & Marketing Meeting
The Exercise (Customer Audit).
Gains of the Exercise.
Conclusion

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1.0 OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER


This presentation is to show how THE EXERCISE can be used to: Save Transformers in circuit.
Detect & Capture Illegal Customers in Circuit.
Reduce Technical & Non-Technical Losses in the System.
Improve Monthly Cash Collection.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 The six basic Distribution Systems used by Utilities are:(i) Radial
(ii) Primary loop (Open ring)
(iii) Primary Selective
(iv) Secondary Selective
(v) Spot Network
(vi) Grid Network

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2.2 AC Supply Systems Used by Utilities:-

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(i) Single phase, 2 wire

(ii) Single phase, 3 wire

(iii) Two phase, 3 wire

(iv) Two phase, 4 wire

(v) Two phase, 5 wire

(vi) Three phase, 3 wire

(vii) Three phase, 4 wire

(viii) Six phase, 7 - wire

2.3 PHCN SYSTEM


2.3.1 Distribution System:(i) Mainly Radial (HT & LT).
(ii) Special Feeders are looped at the Primary end.
2.3.2 AC Supply System:(i) Three-phase, 3-wire for HT network.
(ii) Three-phase, 4-wire for LV network.
NB:- Sometimes the followings are found in the network:(i) Single-phase, 2-wire LT network.
(ii) Two-phase, 3-wire LT network.

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2.4 COMPARING URBAN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH RURAL


S/N0
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Item
Network:
Secondary (LT)
Primary (HT)
Load density
HT line/transformer
Line cost/km
System capital cost per
kW
% Losses
Power factor
Fault level

Urban

Rural

4-wire
Radial or Looped
Higher
0.5--0.9km
0.5
Higher

2 to 44-wire
Radial
Lower
1.0 1.5km
Lower

Lower
Lower
Poor
Higher

Higher
Higher
Poor
Higher/Lower

2.5 GENERAL ISSUES FACING PHCN IN DISTRIBUTING ELECTRICITY


Unit Overload(LT), Feeder Overload(HT).
Undersize Conductors/Cables (at LT & HT).
Poor Distribution Substation Grounding.
Customers/Consumers Feeding from two different Distribution S/S.
Illegal Consumers.
Unbalanced Loads
Wrong location of Distribution Substation.

All these & many more can increase Technical & Non-Technical Losses of the
Distribution System.

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3.0 KADUNA ZONAL MONTHLY D&M


MEETING
3.1 ZONAL MEETING OF AUGUST 1996
During the usual Kaduna Zonal D&M meeting of August,1996 it was observed that
8No Distribution transformers were lost between January & August 1996 in Kaduna
District without any good reason. Furthermore, cash collection of the District was
declining.
Zonal Management Leadership refused to accept this trend & vowed to stop it by all
means.
By Sept, 1996 a new District Leadership was put in place and was directed to:-

Provide responsible leadership in the District.


Put a stop to the trend of losing a Transformer every month and cash
collection.

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3.2 STRATEGY ADOPTED BY THE NEW DM


3.2.1 COLLECTION OF DATA
The new DM set- up a five-man committee headed by the District PC&M Engineer, to visit all S/S in
the District , within 2 weeks and submit a report of their findings using the following terms of
reference:(a) Condition of s/s weeding
(b) Transformer Oil level and its condition
(c) Condition of T/F silica gel
(d) Earth resistance of T/F, F/P, & Lightening arrester
(e) Condition of Feeder Pillar and its fuse
(f) Condition of S/S cables & their adequacy
(g) Fuse rating of Substation J&P D-fuse
(h) Plinth level of F/P & T/F
(i) Condition of Lightening arrester and
(j) Condition of J&P D-Fuse assembly

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3.2.2 COMMENCEMENT OF THE EXERCISE


The Exercise commenced on the 12th of Sept 1996.
On the first day, 4No Distribution T/F were shot down immediately due to their critical
situations. These were:(a) Sokoto Rd 500kVA S/S, Kakuri Dielectric strength of the F/T Oil was 8.3kV with an
earth wire linking the arrestor and the ground
(b) Kakuri Bus Stop 200kVA S/S - All the three lightening arresters were shattered and not in
circuit
(c) Abdulkadir 500kVA S/S Barnawa The T/F Oil level was extremely low with high
substation earth resistance( value at 47.00 ohms).
(d) ECWA 500kVA S/S Anguwan Yalwa All L/arresters were shattered. T/F in circuit with
very low Oil level. F/P Fuses were replaced with iron rods.
With all logistics provided, the Committee was able to visit all the Distribution Substations in the
District and submitted its report within the stipulated time.

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3.2.3 IMMEDIATE ACTIONS TAKEN:(i) All the shot down Substations were attended to by a 7-man Committee headed by
Manager (O&M), 2No Fitters, 2No Cable Jointers & 2No Linesmen.
(ii) Power Station Workshop was reactivated for use in the repairs of T/T, F/P etc.
(iii) Monthly Lecture on routine maintenance of T/F, F/P, RMU etc were arranged and given to
the Service Centre Engineers.
(iv) 4No staff from each S/C were permanently assigned to do tree trimming on HT & LT at their
respective S/C.
(v) All faulty RMUs points were reactivated and put back to service to enhance flexibility.
(vi) 43No Expenditure sanctions were prepared to address the issues in the District.

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4.0 THE EXERCISE


(CUSTOMER AUDIT)
The exercise was a strategy employed to monitor both T/F loading & Cash generated by the T/F in a given S/S
On weekly basis, each S/C Engineer must identify one Distribution S/S with many complains from
customers/consumers and carry out Customer Audit on it.
The S/C Engineer with his team, comprising of Distribution men & marketers use the guideline below in
carrying out Customer Audit on the identified S/S.
(i) Number of Customers with single-phase supply
(ii) Number of Customers with three-phase supply
(iii) Number of Customers on direct connection without meter
(iv) Number of Customers on Supply without documents
(v) Number of Customers on wrong Tariff code
(vi) Number of Customers feeding from two Substations
See typical example is shown on the Table (4.1) below.
T/F % Loading before was 161% with R-phase = 671A, Y-phase = 340A, B-phase = 428A, N = 219A.
T/F % Loading after census was 67%, with R-phase =283A, Y-phase = 266A, B-phase = 233A & N = 36A.

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Table (4.1): SUMMARY OF REPORT ON WAKILI S/S(300kVA S/S) AT KADUNA


SOUTH S/C
S/N
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Total
o
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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No. of Consumers
No. Disconnected for NonNonpayment
No. of Disconnected on Direct
(No meter)
No. Disconnected on illegal
connection (No records)
No. Disconnected on illegal
replacement
No. of Disconnected for burnt
meter
No. of single phase meter
No. of three phase meter
No. of wrong tariff code

84
62

166
94

46
29

296
185

NIL

NIL

NIL

79
1
13

144
3
15

45
1
17

268
5
45

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5.0 GAINS OF THE EXERCISE


5.1 NUMBERS OF T/F SAVED/MONTH: Between FOUR to TEN over a period of 4months in one S/C.
5.2 NUMBER OF ILLEGAL CONSUMERS CAPTURED/MONTH in one month in a S/C was between 28 &
42.
5.3 % REDUCTIO ON LOSSES/SUBSTATION(Wakili S/S):- Tech Losses from 45% to about 15%
Non-tech Losses from 25% to about 2%.
5.4 IMPROVEMENT IN CASH COLLECTION (SEPT DEC 1996):Sept N57,648,854.26
Oct - N57,901,474.91
Nov N59,048,262.49
Dec N65,700,831.03
5.5 REWORD FOR THE HARD WORK: At the GMs(D&M) and DMs(D&M) meeting of 15th & 16th January
1997, that took place in Abuja and chaired by the MD/CE, the GM(D&M) Kaduna Zone presented his
report to the meeting (including what happened at Kaduna District). The meeting was astonished with
revelations made in the Zone, particularly Kaduna District. The DM was called to give details of THE
EXERCISE, which he did. The MD/CE directed the DM to send his report to him through his GM & ED.
After some few days of the submission of the report, the DM was promoted to the rank of Principal
Manager(PM).

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6.0 CONCLUSION
Even though THE EXERCISE was carried out in 1996, I still believe it can also be
done today because of its practicability.

You can never know until you try.

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THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

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