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VoIP

VoIP (. Voice-over-IP IP-) ,


IP-.
, , ()
, , .

1 VoIP
2
3
4 IP
5
6
7 .
8
VoIP

1993 . VoIP (Voice
over IP). IP-
IP.
VoIP
, :

(, , .),
40-50 % ;

(
) 20-40 % .
VoIP ,
() . , 5 %
.
VoIP
ISO 9000 , :

,
,

, (
) .
QoS :

IP-
E.164 IP-
E.164 IP-

e-mail IP-
ETSI TS101329
ITU-T G.114
ETSI

< 1.5
< 2

< 4
< 7
< 5
< 10

< 3

< 8

< 15

< 4
< 150
< 150
G.711

< 13
< 250
< 260
G.726
32 /

< 25
< 350
< 400

GSM-FR

< 450
> 400

MOS

> 4.5

4.0 4.5

3.5 4.0

3.5 3.0

QoS
VoIP ( ,
)
, IP-. :
;
;
, .
QoS (. Quality of Service )
,
, , ,
.

:

(Bandwidth),
, . bit/s
(bps), kbit/s (kbps), Mbit/s (Mbps).

(Delay), .

() (Jitter).

. ,
(Packet Loss).
,
: .

FIFO:
(First In First Out). ,
: FIFO (
) , .
,
ToS. :
. QoS
QoS.
VoIP FTP, SMTP .
QoS
Best Effort Service
ToS Best Effort Service ,
-
.
Integrated Service (IntServ)
RFC 1633
(End-to-End) , .
IntServ RSVP,
. IntServ
(Resource reservation).
Differentiated Service (DiffServ)

RFC 2474 RFC 2475. QoS


,
.
, QoS. DiffServ
, ,
, ,
. DiffServ
.
, QoS

, :

VoIP

, ,

QoS
, IP- IP-
, .
,
, .
Mean Opinion Score (MOS), (QoE)
, . , QoS
, .

: , ,
, , , ,
, . ., (
).

,
.
: , ,
.

. ,
, .


() ,
.
,
, ,
.

VAD (. Voice Activity Detector, ),


. ,
, - ( ,
Code Excited Linear Prediction CELP) 4 8 /.
, ,
0.1 0.2 /, . VAD,

.
.
2 4 /
.
, .
15 45 ,
:


( );

, ,
( ).
(. 1).

,
,
, :
;
.

( ).

:
GSM
G.711 uLaw (Mu-law)
G.711 aLaw
G.722
G.726
Speex
iLBC
:
G.729
G.729A
G.723
G.723.1
IP
IP (, IP )
, / ,
, / .
VoIP :

SIP - 5060
UDP
H.323 - SIP,
1720 TCP
IAX2 - 4569 UDP ,
MGCP
SIGTRAN
SCTP
SGCP
Skinny/SCCP
Unistim -
Nortel

IP- :

,
.

.

. ,
,

. IP-
, ,
.
,
IP.
.
IP WFQ
(Weighted Fair Queuing) RSVP.
WFQ
.
( 10
). ,
,
.
Cisco.
RSVP
. .
RSVP , , ,

.
, IP
.


RTCP (Real-Time Transport Control Protocol),
.

Frame Relay ATM. IP
Frame Relay ATM,
( ,
). Frame Relay ATM
IP.

.


Real Time Protocol (RTP).
, , .

, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
.
:
FXO
FXS
:
BRI
PRI
:
Callback

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