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Rashid Petroleum Company

A- Briefly explain two criteria to distinguish between shallow


marine and deep marine environments.
shallow marine
deep marine
shallow marine environments At 4 km depth, the solubility of
far offshore will mainly see the carbonates increases
deposition of carbonate rocks dramatically (the depth zone
where this happens is called
the lysocline). Calcareous
sediment that sinks below the
lysocline will dissolve, so no
limestone can be formed
below this depth.
This means coarser sediment
sediment particles can be
particles can be transported
transported and the deposited
and the deposited sediment
sediment can be coarser than
can be coarse asThe water in
in deep environments. asThe
shallow marine environments water in deep marine
has a generally high
environments has a generally
lower in shallow marine

B- How can you explain presence of dry reservoir


although there is Source rock, Reservoir rock and Trap?
mostly decomposed organic matter in the form of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons. They have no potential to produce
hydrocarbons.

C- Write briefly on the listric faults and structure


associated with it.
Listric faults can be defined as curved normal faults in which
the fault surface in concave upwards; its dip decreases with
depth. These faults also occur in extension zones where there is
a main detachment fracture following a curved path rather
than a planar path. Hanging wall blocks may either rotate or
slide along the fault plane (eg slumps), or they may pull away
from the main fault, slipping instead only along the low dipping
part of the fault.
Roll-over anticlines will often form between bedding planes
and the main fault plane as a result of the flexing between the
two.

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D- Write briefly on the types of kerogen and the.
composition of generated HC from each
Kerogen is a mixture of organic chemical compounds that make
up a portion of the organic matter in sedimentary rocks.[1] It is
insoluble in normal organic solvents because of the huge
molecular weight (upwards of 1,000 daltons or 1000 Da; 1Da= 1
atomic mass unit) of its component compounds. The soluble
portion is known as bitumen. When heated to the right
2

temperatures in the Earth's crust, (oil window ca. 60160 C,


gas window ca. 150200 C, both depending on how quickly the
source rock is heated) some types of kerogen release crude oil
or natural gas, collectively known as hydrocarbons (fossil fuels).
When such kerogens are present in high concentration in rocks
such as shale they form possible source ..
. Type I: Sapropelic:Shows great tendency to readily produce
liquid hydrocarbons.
Type II: Planktonic:Tend to produce a mix of gas and oil.
Type IIsulfur
Similar to Type II produce a mix of gas and oil.but high in sulfur
.Type III: Humic:Tends to produce coal and gas (Recent
research has shown that type III kerogens can actually produce
oil under extreme conditions
]Type IV (residue)mostly decomposed organic matter in the
form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They have no
potential to produce hydrocarbons.