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KENR6224 July 2006 Troubleshooting 2 5 0 6 - 1 5 I ndustrial Engine M

KENR6224

July 2006

Troubleshooting

2506-15 I ndustrial Engine

M G A (Engin e) M G B (Engin e) M G D (Engin e)

Engine M G A (Engin e) M G B (Engin e) M G D (Engin e)

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Important Safety Information

Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result in injury or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.

The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as “DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below. The meaning of this safety alert symbol is

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.

The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially presented.

Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in this publication.

Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you choose.

The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.

distributors have the most current information available. When replacement parts are required for this product Perkins

When replacement parts are required for this product Perkins recommends using Perkins replacement parts. Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema- ture failures, product damage, personal injury or death.

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KENR6224

3

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Troubleshooting Section

Electronic Troubleshooting System Overview

5

Glossary

7

Electronic Service Tools

10

Replacing the ECM

12

Self-Diagnostics

13

Sensors and Electrical Connectors

14

Engine Wiring Information

18

Programming Parameters Programming Parameters

21

Factory Passwords

21

Factory Passwords Worksheet

21

Flash Programming

22

Injector Trim File

23

System Configuration Parameters System Configuration Parameters

24

Troubleshooting without a Diagnostic Code Alternator Noise

31

Alternator Will Not Charge

31

Battery

31

Can Not Reach Top Engine RPM

32

Coolant in Engine Oil

33

Coolant Temperature Is Too High

34

ECM Will Not Accept Factory Passwords

34

ECM Will Not Communicate with Other Systems or

Display Modules

34

Electronic Service Tool Will Not Communicate with

ECM

35

Engine Cranks but Will Not Start

36

Engine Has Early Wear

37

Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable

38

Engine Oil in Cooling System

39

Engine Vibration

39

Engine Will Not Crank

40

Excessive Black Smoke

40

Excessive Engine Oil Consumption

41

Excessive Fuel Consumption

42

Excessive Valve Lash

43

Excessive White Smoke

43

Fuel Dilution of Engine Oil

44

Intermittent Engine Shutdown

45

Low Engine Oil Pressure

46

Low Power

46

Mechanical Noise (Knock) in Engine

47

Noise Coming from Cylinder

48

Poor Acceleration or Response

49

Valve Rotator or Spring Lock Is Free

50

Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code Flash Codes

51

Diagnostic Codes

51

Diagnostic Code Cross Reference

52

CID 0001 FMI 11

54

CID 0002 FMI 11

55

CID 0003 FMI 11

55

CID 0004 FMI 11

5 5

CID 0005 FMI 11

56

CID 0006 FMI 11

56

CID 0041 FMI 03

56

CID 0041 FMI 04

57

CID 0091 FMI 08

57

CID 0100 FMI 03

57

CID 0100 FMI 04

57

CID 0110 FMI 03

58

CID 0110 FMI 04

58

CID 0168 FMI 02

58

CID 0172 FMI 03

59

CID 0172 FMI 04

59

CID 0174 FMI 03

59

CID 0174 FMI 04

59

CID 0190 FMI 02

60

CID 0190 FMI 09

60

CID 0190 FMI 11

60

CID 0190 FMI 12

61

CID 0247 FMI 09

61

CID 0248 FMI 09

61

CID 0253 FMI 02

61

CID 0254 FMI 12

62

CID 0261 FMI 13

62

CID 0262 FMI 03

62

CID 0262 FMI 04

63

CID 0268 FMI 02

63

CID 0273 FMI 03

63

CID 0273 FMI 04

63

CID 0274 FMI 03

64

CID 0274 FMI 04

64

CID 0342 FMI 02

64

CID 0342 FMI 11

65

CID 0342 FMI 12

65

CID 0799 FMI 12

65

CID 1690 FMI 08

66

Troubleshooting with an Event Code Event Codes

67

E162 High Boost Pressure

69

E360 Low Engine Oil Pressure

70

E361 High Engine Coolant Temperature

71

E362 Engine Overspeed

72

E363 High Fuel Supply Temperature

72

E368 High Intake Manifold Air Temperature

73

Diagnostic Functional Tests 5 Volt Engine Pressure Sensor Supply Circuit - Test

75

CAN Data Link Circuit - Test

81

Data Link Circuit - Test

85

ECM Memory - Test

88

Electrical Connectors - Inspect

90

Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test

94

Engine Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test

97

Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test

103

Engine Temperature Sen sor Open or Short Circuit -

Test

110

Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test

115

Injector Solenoid Circ uit - Test

119

Speed Control (Analog) - Test

126

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4

Table of Contents

KENR6224

Speed Control (PWM) - Test

129

Switch Circuit s - Test

134

Calibration Procedures Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate

138

Index Section

Index

140

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KENR6224

5

Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting Section

Electronic Troubleshooting

i02547521

System Overview

System Opera tion

Troubleshooting i02547521 System Overview System Opera tion Illustration 1 Block diagram for the 2506-15 engine (1)

Illustration 1

Block diagram for the 2506-15 engine

(1) 12 Pin Connector (2) Electronic Control Module (ECM) (3) Electronic Unit Injectors (4) Crankshaft Position Sensor (5) 36 - 1 Tooth Gear (6) 120 Pin Connector

(7) 36 + 1 Tooth Gear (8) Camshaft Position Sensor (9) Timing Calibration Probe (10) Timing Calibration Probe Connector (11) Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (12) Inlet Manifold Temperature Sensor

This engine is electronically controlled. Each cylinder has an electronic unit injector. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) sends a signal to each injector solenoid in order to control the operation of the fuel injection system.

g01277565

(13) Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor (14) Coolant Temperature Sensor (15) Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (16) Fuel Temperature Sensor

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6

Troubleshooting Section

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Electronic Controls

The electronic system consists of the following components: the ECM, the Mechanically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injectors (MEUI), the wiring harness, the switches, and the sensors. The ECM is the computer. The flash file is the software for the compu ter. The flash file contains the operating maps. The operating maps define the following characteristics of the engine:

Horsepower

Torque curves

The ECM determines the timing and the amount of fuel that is delivered to the cylinders. These decisions are based on the actual conditions and/or on the desired conditions at any given time.

The ECM compares the desired engine speed to the actual engine speed. The actual engine speed is determined through the engine speed/timing sensor. The desired engine speed is determined with the following factors:

Throttle signal

Other input signals from sensors

Certain diagnostic codes

If the desired engine speed is greater than the actual engine speed, the ECM injects more fuel in order to increase t he actual engine speed.

Fuel Injection

The ECM controls the amount of fuel that is injected by varying the signals to the injectors. The injector will pump fuel only if the injector solenoid is energized. The ECM sends a high voltage signal to the solenoid. This high voltage signal energizes the solenoid. By controll ing the timing and the duration of the high voltage signal, the ECM can control injection timing and the ECM can control the amount of fuel that is injected .

The ECM limits engine power during cold mode operation and the ECM modifies injection timing during cold mode operation. Cold mode operation provides the following benefits:

Increased cold weather starting capability

Reduced warm-up time

Reduced white smoke

Cold mode is activated whenever the engine temperature falls below a predetermined value. Cold mode remains active until the engine temperature rises above a predetermined value or until a time limit is excee ded.

The flash file inside the ECM sets certain limits on the amount of fuel that can be injected. The “FRC Fuel Limit” is used to control the air/fuel ratio for

control of emissions. The “FRC Fuel Limit” is a limit that is based on the turbocharger outlet pressure.

A higher turbocharger outlet pressure indicates that

there is more air in the cylinder. When the ECM senses a higher turbocharger outlet pressure, the ECM increases the “FRC Fuel Limit”. When the ECM increases the “FRC Fuel Limit”, the ECM allows more fuel into the cylinder. The “FRC Fuel Limit” is programmed into the ECM at the factory. The “FRC Fuel Limit” cannot be changed.

The “Rated Fuel Limit” is a limit that is based on the power rating of the engine and on engine rpm. The Rated Fue l Limit” is similar to the rack stops and to the torque spring on a mechanically governed engine. The “Rated Fuel Limit” provides the power curves and the torque curves for a specific engine family and for a specific engine rating. The “Rated Fuel Limit” is programmed into the ECM at the factory. The “Rated Fuel Limi t” cannot be changed.

Once the ECM determines the amount of fuel that

is requir ed, the ECM must determine the timing of

the fuel injection. The ECM uses the signal from the camshaft position sensor to calculate the top center positio n of each cylinder . The ECM decides when fuel injection should occur relative to the top center position and the ECM provides the signal to the inject or at the desired time. The ECM adjusts timing for optimum engine performance, for optimum fuel economy, and for optimum control of white smoke.

Programmable Parameters

Certain parameters that affect the engine operation may be changed with the Perkins Electronic Service Tool (EST). The parameters are stored

in the ECM, and some parameters are protected

from unauthorized changes by passwords. These passw ords are called factory passwords.

Passw ords

Several system configuration parameters and most logge d events are protected by factory passwords. Factory passwords are available only to Perkins dealers and distributors. Refer to Troubleshooting, Factory Passwords” for additional information.

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KENR6224

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Troubleshooting Section

Glossary

i02554801

Active Diagnostic Code – An active diagnostic code alerts the operator or the service technician that an electronic system malfunction is currently present. Refer to the term “Diagnostic Code” in this glossary.

Adaptive Trim – This is a software process that is performed in the Electronic Control Module (ECM) that optimize s engine performance.

Alternating Current (AC) – Alternating current is an electric cur rent that reverses direction at a regular interval that is reoccurring.

Before Top Ce nter (BTC) – BTC is the 180 degrees of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches the top dead center position in the normal direction of rotation.

Breakout Harness – A breakout harness is a test harness that is designed to connect into the engine harness. This connection allows a normal circuit operation and the connection simultaneously provides a B reakout T in order to measure the signals.

Bypass Cir cuit – A bypass circuit is a circuit that is used as a substitute circuit for an existing circuit. A bypass circuit is typically used as a test circuit.

Camshaft Position Sensor – This sensor determines the position of the camshaft during engine op eration. If the crankshaft position sensor fails during engine operation, the camshaft position sensor is used to provide the signal.

CAN Data Link (see also J1939 CAN Data Link) – The CAN Data Link is a serial communications port that is used for communication with other microprocessor based devices.

Code Ref er to “Diagnostic Code” or “Event Code”.

Communication Adapter Tool – The communic ation adapter provides a communication link between the ECM and the electronic service tool.

Compone nt Identifier (CID) – The CID is a number that identifies the specific component of the electronic control system that has experienced a diagnostic code.

Coolant Temperature Sensor – The coolant temperature sensor detects the engine coolant temperature for all normal operating conditions and for engine monitoring.

Crankshaft Position Sensor – This sensor determines the position of the crankshaft during engine operation. If the crankshaft position sensor fails during engine operation, the camshaft position sensor is used to provide the signal.

Data Link – The Data Link is a serial communication port that is used for communication with other devices such as the electronic service tool.

Derate Certain engine conditions will generate event codes. Also, engine derates may be applied. The map for the engine derate is programmed into the ECM softw are. The derate can be one or more of 3 types: reduction of rated power, reduction of rated engine speed, and reduction of rated machine speed for OEM prod ucts.

Desired Engine Speed – The desired engine speed is input to the electronic governor within the ECM. The electronic governor uses the signal from the throttle position sensor, the engine speed/timing sensor, an d other sensors in order to determine the desired engine speed.

Diagnostic Code – A diagnostic code is sometimes referred to as a fault code. These codes indicate an electronic system malfunction.

Diagnostic Lamp – A diagnostic lamp is sometimes called the check engine light. The diagnostic lamp is used to warn the operator of the presence of an active diagnostic code. The lamp may not be included in all applications.

Digital Sensor Return – The common line (ground) from the ECM is used as ground for the digital sensors .

Digital Sensors – Digital sensors produce a pulse width modulated signal. Digital sensors are supplied with power from the ECM.

Digital Sensor Supply – The power supply for the digital sensors is provided by the ECM.

Direct C urrent (DC) – Direct current is the type of current that flows consistently in only one direction.

DT, DT Co nnector, or Deutsch DT – This is a type of connector that is used on Perkins engines. The connectors are manufactured by Deutsch.

Duty Cycle – Refer to “Pulse Width Modulation”.

Electronic Engine Control – The electronic engine control is a complete electronic system. The electronic engine control monitors the engine operation under all conditions. The electronic engine control also controls the engine operation under all conditions.

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8

Troubleshooting Section

KENR6224

Electronic Control Module (ECM) – The ECM is the control computer of the engine. The ECM provides power to the electronics. The ECM monitors data that is input from the sensors of the engine. The ECM acts as a governor in order to control the speed and the power of the engine.

Electronic S ervice Tool – The electronic service tool allows a computer (PC) to communicate with the ECM.

Engine Monitoring – Engine Monitoring is the part of the electronic engine control that monitors the sensors. Thi s also warns the operator of detected faults.

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor – The engine oil pressure sensor measures engine oil pressure. The sensor sends a signal to the ECM that is dependent on the engine oil pressure.

Engine Position Sensor – An engine position sensor is a hall effect switch that provides a digital signal to the ECM. The ECM interprets this signal as the crankshaft position and the engine speed. Two sensors ar e used to provide the speed and timing signals to the ECM. The crankshaft position sensor is associated with the crankshaft and the camshaft position sensor is associated with the camshaft.

Event Code – An event code may be activated in order t o indicate an abnormal engine operating condition. These codes usually indicate a mechanical fault instead of an electrical system fault.

Failure Mode Identifier (FMI) – This identifier indicates the type of failure that is associated with the comp onent. The FMI has been adopted from the SAE practice of J1587 diagnostics. The FMI follows the parameter identifier (PID) in the descriptions of the fault code. The descriptions of the FMIs are in the following list.

0 The da ta is valid but the data is above the normal operational range.

1 The data is valid but the data is below the normal operational range.

2 The data is erratic, intermittent, or incorrect.

3 – The voltage is above normal or the voltage is shorted high.

4 – The voltage is below normal or the voltage is

shorted low.

5 – The current is below normal or the circuit is open.

6 – The current is above normal or the circuit is grounded.

7 – The mechanical system is not responding properly.

8 – There is an abnormal frequency, an abnormal pulse width, o r an abnormal time period.

9 – There has been an abnormal update.

10 – There is an abnormal rate of change.

11 The failur e mode is not identifiable.

12 – The device or the component is damaged.

Flash File – This file is software that is inside the ECM. The file contains all the instructions (software) for the ECM and the file contains the performance maps for a specific engine. The file may be reprogrammed through flash programming.

Flash Programming – Flash programming is the method of programming or updating an ECM with an electronic service tool over the data link instead of replacing components.

Fuel Injector E-Trim – Fuel injector E-trim is a software process that allows precise control of fuel injectors by parameters that are programmed into the ECM for each fuel injector. With the use of the electronic service tool, the service technician can read status information for the E-Trim. Data for E-Trim can also be programmed.

FRC – See “Fuel Ratio Control”.

Fuel Ratio Control (FRC) – The FRC is a limit that is based on the control of the ratio of the fuel to air. The FRC is used for purposes of emission control. When the ECM senses a higher intake manifold air pressure (more air into the cylinder), the FRC increase s the FRC Limit (more fuel into the cylinder).

Full Load Setting (FLS) – The FLS is the parameter that repr esents the fuel system adjustment. This adjustment is made at the factory in order to fine tune the fuel system. The correct value for this parameter is stamped on the engine information ratings plate. This parameter must be programmed.

Full Torq ue Setting (FTS) – The FTS is the parameter that represents the adjustment for the engine torque. This adjustment is made at the factory in order to fine tune the fuel system. This adjustment is made in conjunction with the FLS. This parameter must be programmed.

Harness – The harness is the bundle of wiring (loom) that connects all components of the electronic system .

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9

Troubleshooting Section

Hertz (Hz) – Hertz is the measure of electrical frequency in cy cles per second.

Injector Codes – The injector codes or injector trim codes are nume ric codes or alphanumeric codes that are etched or stamped on individual electronic unit injectors. These codes are used to fine tune the fuel delivery.

Injector Trim Files – Injector trim files are downloaded f rom a disk to the ECM. The injector trim files compensate for variances in manufacturing of the electronic unit injector and for the life of the electronic unit injector. The serial number for the electronic unit injector must be obtained in order to retrieve the correct injector trim file.

Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor – The intake manifold air temperature sensor detects the air tempera ture in the intake manifold. The ECM monitors the air temperature and other data in the intake manifold in order to adjust injection timing and other perf ormance functions.

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor – The Intake Manifold P ressure Sensor measures the pressure in the intake manifold. The pressure in the intake manifold may be different to the pressure outside the engin e (atmospheric pressure). The difference in pressure may be caused by an increase in air pressure by a turbocharger (if equipped).

Integrated Electronic Controls – The engine is designed with the electronic controls as a necessary part of the system. The engine will not operate without the electronic controls.

J1939 CA N Data Link – This data link is a SAE standard diagnostic communications data link that is used to communicate between the ECM and the electronic devices.

Logged Diagnostic Codes – Logged diagnostic codes ar e codes which are stored in the memory. These codes are meant to be an indicator of possible causes for intermittent faults. Refer to the term D iagnostic Code” in this glossary for more information.

OEM OEM is an abbreviation for the Original Equipment Manufacturer. This is the manufacturer of the machine or the vehicle that uses the engine.

Open Circuit – An open circuit is a condition that is caused by an open switch, or by an electrical wire or a co nnection that is broken. When this condition exists, the signal or the supply voltage can no longer reach the intended destination.

Parameter – A parameter is a value or a limit that is programmable. This helps determine specific chara cteristics or behaviors of the engine.

Password – A password is a group of numeric characters or a group of alphanumeric characters that is designed to restrict access to parameters. The electronic system requires correct passwords in order to change some parameters (Factory Passwords). Refer to Troubleshooting, “Factory Passwords” for more information.

Personality Module – See “Flash File”.

Power Cycled Power cycled happens when power to the ECM is cycled: ON, OFF, and ON. Power cycled refers to the action of cycling the keyswitch from any posi tion to the OFF position, and to the START/RUN position.

Pulse Width M odulation (PWM) – The PWM is a signal that consists of pulses that are of variable width. These pulses occur at fixed intervals. The ratio of TIME ON versus total “TIME OFF” can be varied. This ratio is also referred to as a duty cycle.

be varied. This ratio is also referred to as a duty cycle. Illustration 2 g00284479 Rated

Illustration 2

g00284479

Rated Fuel Limit – This is a limit that is based on the power rating of the engine and on the engine rpm. The Rated Fuel Limit enables the engine power and torque outputs to conform to the power and torque curves of a specific engine model. These limits are in the flash file and these limits cannot be changed.

Reference Voltage – Reference voltage is a regulated voltage and a steady voltage that is supplied by the ECM to a sensor. The reference voltage is used by the sensor to generate a signal voltage.

Relay – A relay is an electromechanical switch. A flow of electricity in one circuit is used to control the flow of electricity in another circuit. A small current or voltage is applied to a relay in order to switch a much larger current or voltage.

Sensor – A sensor is a device that is used to detect the current value of pressure or temperature, or mechanical movement. The information that is detected is converted into an electrical signal.

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10

Troubleshooting Section

KENR6224

Short Circuit – A short circuit is a condition that has an electrical c ircuit that is inadvertently connected to an undesirable point. An example of a short circuit

is a wire which rubs against a vehicle frame and

this rubbing eventually wears off the wire insulation.

Electrical contact with the frame is made and a short circuit results.

Signal – The signal is a voltage or a waveform that

is used in order to transmit information typically from

a sensor to th e ECM.

Supply Voltage – The supply voltage is a continuous voltage that is supplied to a component in order to provide the electrical power that is required for the component to operate. The power may be generated by the ECM or the power may be battery voltage that

is supplied by the engine wiring.

System Conf iguration Parameters – System configuration parameters are parameters that affect emissions and/or operating characteristics of the engine.

Tattletale – Certain parameters that affect the operation of the engine are stored in the ECM. These parameters can be changed by use of the electronic service tool. The tattletale logs the number of changes that have been made to the parameter. The tattletale is stored in the ECM.

Throttle Position – The throttle position is the interpretation by the ECM of the signal from the throttle position sensor or the throttle switch.

Timing Calibration – The timing calibration is the adjustment of an electrical signal. This adjustment is made in o rder to correct the timing error between the camshaft and the engine speed/timing sensors or between the crankshaft and the engine speed/timing sensors .

Top Center Position – The top center position refers to the cr ankshaft position when the engine piston position is at the highest point of travel. The engine must be turned in the normal direction of rotation in order t o reach this point.

Total Tattletale – The total tattletale is the total number of changes to all the parameters that are stored in the ECM.

i02547729

Electronic Service Tools

Perkins Electronic Service Tools are designed to help the ser vice technician:

Obtain data.

Diagnose faults.

Read parameter s.

Program parameters.

Calibrate sensors.

Required Service Tools

The tools that are listed in Table 1 are required in order to enable a service technician to perform the procedures.

Table 1

 

Required Service Tools

Part

Description

Number

N/A

4 mm Allen Wrench

GE50038

Transducer

GE50039

Transducer Adapter

GE50040

Cable As

-

Digital Multimeter Gp (RS232)

GE50042

Multimeter Probes

GE50037

Adapter Cable As (70-PIN BREAKOUT)

-

Adapter Cable As (3-PIN BREAKOUT)

GE50036

Harness (SERVICE TOOL ADAPTER)

CH11155

Crimp Tool (12 AWG TO 18 AWG)

-

Connector Repair Kit (DEUTSCH DT)

Two short jumper wires are needed to check the continuity of some wiring harness circuits by shorting two adjacent terminals together in a connector. A long extension wire may also be needed to check the continuity of some wiring harness circuits.

Perkins Electronic Service Tool (EST)

The Perkins EST can display the following information:

Parameters

Event codes

Diagnostic codes

Engine configuration

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11

Troubleshooting Section

The Perkins EST can be used by the technician to perform the fol lowing functions:

Diagnostic tests

Sensor calibration

Flash programming

Set parameters

Table 2 lists the service tools that are required in order to use Perkins EST.

Table 2

Service Tools for the Use of Perkins EST

Part

Description

Number

- (1)

Personal Computer (PC)

- (1)

Single user license for Perkins EST

- (1)

Data Subscription for All Engines

27610251

Communication Adapter Gp

27610164

(2)

Adapter Cable As

(1) Refer to the Perkins Engine Company Limited. (2) The 27610164 Adapter Cable As is required to connect to the USB port on computers that are not equipped with a RS232 serial port.

Note: For more information regarding the use of Perkins EST and the PC requirements for Perkins EST, refer to the documentation that accompanies your Perkins EST software.

Connecting Perkins EST and the Communication Adapter II

Connecting Perkins EST and the Communication Adapter II Illustration 3 (1) Personal computer (PC) (2) Adapter

Illustration 3

(1) Personal computer (PC) (2) Adapter Cable (RS232 Port) (3) Communication Adapter As (4) Adapter Cable As

g01115382

Note: Items (2), (3), and (4) are part of the 27610251 Communication Adapter Gp.

Use the following procedure in order to connect Perkins EST and the Communication Adapter II.

1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. If the keyswitch is not in the OFF position, the engine may start.

2. Connect cable (2) between the “COMPUTER” end of communication adapter (3) and the RS232 serial port of PC (1).

Note: An adapter cable assembly is required to connect to the USB port on computers that are not equipped with a RS232 serial port.

3. Connect cable (4) between the “DATA LINK” end of communication adapter (3) and the diagnostic connector.

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Troubleshooting Section

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4. Place the keyswitch in the ON position. If the Perkins EST and the communication adapter do not communicate with the Electronic Control Module (ECM), refer to the diagnostic procedure Troubleshoot ing, “Electronic Service Tool Will Not Communicate With ECM”.

i02548810

Replacing the ECM

NOTICE Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) contains no moving parts. Replacement of the ECM can be costly. Replacement can also be a time consuming task. Follow the troubleshooting procedures in this manual in order to ensure that replacing the ECM will correct the fault. Verify that the suspect ECM is the cause of the fault.

Note: Ensure that the ECM is receiving power and that the ECM is properly wired to the negative battery circuit before a replacement of the ECM is attempted. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test”.

A test ECM can be used to determine if the ECM is

faulty. Install a test ECM in place of the suspect ECM. Flash program the correct flash file into the test ECM. Program the parameters for normal operation of the

engine. The parameters must match the parameters

in the suspect ECM. Refer to the following test steps

for details. If the test ECM resolves the fault, connect the suspect ECM. Verify that the fault returns. If the fault returns, replace the suspect ECM.

Note: When a new ECM is not available, you may need to remove an ECM from an engine that is not

in service. The interlock code for the replacement

ECM must match the interlock code for the suspect ECM. Be sure to record the parameters from the

replacement ECM on the “Parameters Worksheet”. Use the “Copy Configuration/ECM Replacement” feature that is found under the “Service” menu on the electronic service tool.

NOTICE If the flash file and engine application are not matched, engine damage may result.

Perform the following procedure in order to replace the ECM:

1. Record the configuration data:

a. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector. Refer to Troubleshooting, Electronic S ervice Tools”.

b. Print the parameters from the “Configuration” screen on the electronic service tool. If a printer is unavailable, record all of the parameters. Record any logged diagnostic codes and logged event codes for your records. Record the injector codes from the “Calibrations” screen in the “Service” menu on the electronic service tool .

c. Use the “Copy Configuration/ECM Replacement ” feature that is found under the “Service” menu on the electronic service tool. Select “Load from ECM” in order to copy the configurat ion data from the suspect ECM.

Note: If the “Copy Configuration” process fails and the parameters were not obtained in Step 1.b, the parameters must be obtained elsewhere. Some of the parameters are stamped on the engine information plate. Mos t of the parameters must be obtained from the factory.

2. Remove the ECM:

a. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

b. Disconnect the P1 and P2 connectors from the ECM.

c. Disconnect the ECM ground strap.

d. Remove the mounting bolts from the ECM.

3. Install the replacement ECM:

a. Use the old mounting hardware to install the replacement ECM.

b. Connect the ECM ground strap.

c. Connect the P1 and P2 connectors. Tighten the ECM connector (allen head screw) to the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting, Electri cal Connectors - Inspect” for the correct torque value.

4. Configu re the replacement ECM:

a. Flash program the flash file into the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Flash Programming” for the correct procedure.

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Troubleshooting Section

b. Use the electronic service tool to match the engine applica tion and the interlock code if the replacement ECM was used for a different application.

c. If the “Copy Configuration” process from Step 1.b was successful, return to the “Copy Configurati on/ECM Replacement” screen on the electronic service tool and select “Program ECM”. Proceed to Step 4.e when programming is complete.

d. If the “Copy Configuration” process from Step 1.b was unsuc cessful, manually program the ECM parameters. The parameters must match the parameters from Step 1.b.

e. Program the engine monitoring system, if necessary.

f. Load the injector trim files for the injectors. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Trim File”.

g. Calibrate the engine speed/timing. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Ca librate”.

Self-Diag nostics

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The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has the ability to detect faults with the electronic system and with engine operation. When a fault is detected, a code is generated. An alarm may also be generated. There are two types of codes:

Diagnostic

Event

Diagnostic Code – When a fault with the electronic system is detected, the ECM generates a diagnostic code. This indicates the specific fault with the circuitry.

Diagnostic codes can have two different states:

Active

Logged

Active Code

An active diagnostic code indicates that an active fault has been detected. Active codes require immediate attention. Always service active codes prior to servicing logged codes.

Logged Code

Every generated code is stored in the permanent memory of the EC M. The codes are logged.

Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is needed. The fault may have been temporary. The fault may have been resolved since the logging of the code. If the system is powered, it is possible to generate an active diagnostic code whenever a component is disconnected. When the component is reconnected, the code is no longer active. Logged codes may be useful to help troubleshoot intermittent faults. Logged codes can also be used to review the performance of the engine and of the electronic system.

Event Code

An event code is generated by the detection of an abnormal engine operating condition. For example, an event cod e will be generated if the oil pressure is too low. In this case, the event code indicates the symptom of a fault.

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i02548835

Sensors and Electrical Connectors

Table 3

Connector

Function

J1/P1

ECM Connector (70-Pin Engine Harness)

J2/P2

ECM Connector (“120-Pin Engine Harness”)

J61/P61

Customer Connector (Optional) (40-Pin Connector)

J63/P63

Diagnostic Connector (9-Pin Connector)

J100/P100

Coolant Temperature Sensor (2-Pin Connector)

J103/P103

Inlet Manifold Temperature Sensor (2-Pin Connector)

J105/P105

Fuel Temperature Sensor (2-Pin Connector)

J200/P200

Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor (3-Pin Connector)

J201/P201

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (3-Pin Connector)

J203/P203

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (3-Pin Connector)

J300/P300

Injector Solenoid Harness (12-Pin Connector)

J400/P400

Engine Timing Calibration Probe (2-Pin Connector)

J401/P 401

Crankshaft Position Sensor (2-Pin Connector)

J402/P402

Camshaft Position Sensor (2-Pin Connector)

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KENR6224 15 Troubleshooting Section Illustration 4 Block diagram for the 2506-15 engine components (1) 12 Pin

Illustration 4

Block diagram for the 2506-15 engine components

(1) 12 Pin Connector (2) Electronic Control Module (ECM) (3) Electronic Unit Injectors (4) Crankshaft Position Sensor (5) 36 - 1 Tooth Gear (6) 120 Pin Connector (7) 36 + 1 Tooth Gear (8) Camshaft Position Sensor

(9) Timing Calibration Probe (10) Timing Calibration Probe Connector (11) Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (12) Inlet Manifold Temperature Sensor (13) Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor (14) Coolant Temperature Sensor (15) Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (16) Fuel Temperature Sensor

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16 Troubleshooting Section KENR6224 Illustrat ion 5 Locations of the sensors on the 2506-15 engine (1)

Illustrat ion 5

Locations of the sensors on the 2506-15 engine

(1) Coolant temperature sensor (2) Camshaft position sensor (3) Inlet manifold pressure sensor (4) Fuel temperature sensor

g01279372

(5) Inlet manifold temperature sensor (6) Engine oil pressure sensor (7) Atmospheric pressure sensor (8) Crankshaft position sensor

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Troubleshooting Section

KENR6224 17 Troubleshooting Section I l l u stration 6 Block diagram for the machine components

Illu stration 6 Block diagram for the machine components

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Engine Wiring Information

The wiring schematics are revised periodically. The wiring schematics will change as updates are made to the machine harness. For the most current information, always check the revision number of the schematic. Us e the schematic with the latest revision number.

Harness Wire Identification

Perkins identifies all wires with eleven solid colors. The circuit number is stamped on the wire at a 25 mm (1 inch) spacing. Table 4 lists the wire colors and the color codes.

Table 4

Color Codes for the Harness Wire

Color Code

Color

Color Code

Color

BK

Black

GN

Green

BR

Brown

BU

Blue

RD

Red

PU

Purple

OR

Orange

GY

Gray

YL

Yellow

WH

White

   

PK

Pink

Welding on a Machine that is Equipped with an Electronic Control System (ECM)

Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to avoid damage to the engine’s electronic control module, sensors, and associated components. The component that requires welding should be removed. When welding on a machine that is equipped with an ECM and removal of the component is not possible, the following procedure must be followed. This procedure provides the minimum amount of risk to the electronic components.

NOTICE Do not ground the welder to electrical components such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic components, electrical components, and other com- ponents.

Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the com- ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp as close as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos- sibility of damage.

1. Stop the engine. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. If a b attery disconnect switch is installed, open the switch.

b attery disconnect switch is installed, open the switch. Illustration 7 Service welding guide (typical diagram)

Illustration 7 Service welding guide (typical diagram)

g01143634

3. Connect the welding ground cable as close as possible to the area that will be welded. Components which may be damaged by welding include bearings, hydraulic components, and electrical/electronic components.

4. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and from spatter.

5. Weld the materials by using standard welding methods.

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Troubleshooting Section

KENR6224 19 Troubleshooting Section I l l u stration 8 Schematic diagram for a machine with

Illu stration 8 Schematic diagram for a machine with an OEM connector

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20 Troubleshooting Section KENR6224 I l l u stration 9 Schematic diagram for a machine without

Illu stration 9 Schematic diagram for a machine without an OEM connector

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Troubleshooting Section

Programming Pa rameters

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Programming Parameters

The Perkins Electronic Service Tool (EST) can be used to view certain parameters that can affect the operation of the engine. The Perkins EST can also be used to change certain parameters. The parameters are stored in the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Some of the parameters are protected from unauthorized changes by passwords. Parameters that can be changed have a tattletale number. The tattletale number shows if a parameter has been changed.

i02549444

Factory Pa sswords

NOTICE Operating the engine with a flash file not designed for that engine will damage the engine. Be sure the flash file is correct for your engine.

Note: Factory passwords are provided only to Perkins dealers and distributors.

Factory passwords are required to perform each of the following functions:

Program a new Electronic Control Module (ECM).

When an ECM is replaced, the system configuration parameters must be programmed into the new ECM. A new ECM will allow these paramete rs to be programmed once without factory passwords. After the initial programming, some parameters are protected by factory passwords.

Clear event codes.

Most event codes require the use of factory passwords to clear the code once the code has been logged. Clear these codes only when you are certain that the fault has been corrected.

Unlock parameters.

Factory passwords are required in order to unlock certain system configuration parameters. Refer to Trou bleshooting, “System Configuration Parameters”.

Since factory passwords contain alphabetic characters, th e Perkins Electronic Service Tool (EST) must be used to perform these functions. In order to obtain factory passwords, proceed as if you already have t he password. If factory passwords are needed, the Perkins EST will request the factory passwords and the Perkins EST will display the information that is required to obtain the passwords. For the worksheet that is used for acquiring factory passwords, refer to programming parameters Troublesho oting, “Factory Passwords Worksheet”.

i02549455

Factory Passwords Worksheet

Note: A mistake in recording these parameters will result in incorrect passwords.

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Table 5

Factory Passwords Worksheet

Dealer Code

Customer’s Name

Address

Telephone Number

Information From the Engine Information Plate

Engine Serial Number Full Load Setting Full Torque Setting

Information From the Diagnostic Clock

Engine Hours

Information From the “Factory Password Entry Screen” on the Electronic Service Tool

Electronic Service Tool Serial Number

Engine Serial Number

ECM Serial Number

Total Tattletale

Reason Code

From Interlock (1)

To Inte rlock (1)

Factory Passwords

Factory Password (No. 1)

Facto ry Password (No. 2)

(1) This parameter is required when the engine is being rerated. This parameter is displayed only when the engine is being rerated.

i02549457

Flash Programming

Flash Programming – A method of loading a flash file into the Electronic Control Module (ECM)

The electronic service tool can be utilized to flash program a flash file into the ECM. The flash programming transfers the flash file from the PC to the ECM.

Flash Programming a Flash File

1. Obtain the part number for the new flash file.

Note: If you do not have the part number for the flash file, use PTMI ” on the Perkins Internet.

Note: You must have the engine serial number in order to search for the part number for the flash file.

2. Connect the electronic service tool to the service tool connecto r.

3. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine.

4. Select “WinFlash” from the “Utilities” menu on the electronic s ervice tool.

Note: If “WinFlash” will not communicate with the ECM, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Will Not Communicate with ECM”.

5. Flash progra m the flash file into the ECM.

a. Select the engine ECM under the “Detected ECMs”.

b. Press the “Browse” button in order to select the part num ber of the flash file that will be programmed into the ECM.

c. When the correct flash file is selected, press the “Open” button.

d. Verify that the “File Values” match the application. If the “File Values” do not match the application, search for the correct flash file.

e. When the correct flash file is selected, press the “Begin Flash” button.

f. The electronic service tool will indicate when flash programming has been successfully completed .

6. Start the engine and check for proper operation.

a. If a diagnostic code 0268-02 is generated, program any parameters that were not in the old flash f ile.

b. Access the “Configuration” screen under the Service menu in order to determine the parameters that require programming. Look under the “Tattletale” column. All of the parameters should have a tattletale of 1 or more. If a parameter has a tattletale of 0, program that parameter.

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“WinFlash” Error Messages

If you receive any error messages during flash programming, click on the “Cancel” button in order to stop the process. Access the information about the “ECM Summary” under the “Information” menu. Ensure that you are programming the correct flash file for your engine.

Injector Trim File

i02549465

The electronic service tool is used to load the injector trim files into the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

The injector trim files must be loaded into the ECM if any of the following conditions occur:

An injector is replaced.

The ECM is replaced.

Diagnostic code 0253-02 is active.

Injectors are exchanged between cylinders.

Exchanging Electronic Unit Injectors

Exchanging injectors can help determine if a fault is in the injector or in the cylinder. If two injectors that are currently installed in the engine are exchanged between cylinders, the injector trim files can also be exchanged. Press the “Exchange” button at the bottom of the “Injector Trim Calibration” screen on the electronic service tool. Select the two injectors that will be exchanged and press the “OK” button. The tattletale for the injectors that were exchanged will increase by one.

Note: The serial number for the injector and the confirmation code number for the injector are located on the injector.

1. Record the serial number and the confirmation code numberfor each injector.

2. Obtain the injector trim file by one of the following methods:

Select “Service Software Files” on the Perkins Internet.

Use the compact disc that is included with a replacement injector.

3. Enter the serial number for the injector in the search field.

4. Download the injector trim file to the PC. Repeat this procedure for each injector, as required.

5. Connect the electronic service tool to the service tool co nnector. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”.

6. Turn the keysw itch to the ON position.

7. Select the following menu options on the electronic service tool:

Service

Calibrations

Injector Trim Calibration

8. Select the appropriate cylinder.

9. Click on the “Change” button.

10. Select the app ropriate injector trim file from the PC.

11. Click on the “ Open” button.

12. If you are prompted by the electronic service tool, enter the confirmation code number for the injector into the field.

13. Click on the “ OK” button.

The injector trim file is loaded into the ECM.

14. Repeat the procedure for each cylinder, as required.

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KENR6224

System Configuration Parameters

i02549472

System Configuration Parameters

System configuration parameters affect the emissions of the engine or the power of the engine. System configuration parameters are programmed at the factory. Normally, system configuration parameters would never need to be changed through the life of the engine. System configuration parameters must be reprogrammed if an Electronic Control Module (ECM) is replaced. System configuration parameters do not need to be reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed. The correct values for these parameters are stamped on the engine information ratings plate. Factory passwords are required to change these parameters. The following information is a description of the system configuration parameters.

Full Load Setting (FLS)

The full load setting is a number that represents the adjustment to the fuel system that was made at the factory in order to fine tune the fuel system. The correct value for this parameter is stamped on the engine information ratings plate. If the ECM is replaced, the full load setting must be reprogrammed in order to prevent a 0268-02 diagnostic code from becoming active.

Full Torque Setting (FTS)

Full torque setting is similar to full load setting. If the ECM is replaced, the full torque setting must be reprogrammed in order to prevent a 0268-02 diagnostic code from becoming active.

Software Part number

This is the part number of the software that is flashed into the ECM.

Engine Serial Number

When a new ECM is delivered, the engine serial number in the ECM is not programmed. The engine serial number should be programmed to match the engine serial number that is stamped on the engine information plate.

ECM Serial Number

This is a read only parameter that displays the serial number of the ECM.

ECM Software Release Date

This parameter is defined by the ECM software and this parameter is not programmable. The ECM software release date is used to provide the version of the software. The customer parameters and the software change levels can be monitored by this date. The date is provided in the month and the year (AUG06). AUG is the month (August). 06 is the year

(2006).

Critical Override Switch

If equipped, the critical override switch allows the engine to continue running even if engine oil pressure or coolant temperature have reached the shutdown limit for the engine. If the engine is run in this condition, the engine warranty is cancelled and any events that occur are stored in the ECM with the time and the date. Implementation of this facility requires a factory password.

Total Tattletale

This parameter displays the total number of changes that have been made to the configuration parameters.

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Configuration Parameters

Table 6

Screen Order

Configuration Parameter Description

Read/Write

Security

1

Selected Engine Rating

 

2

Rating Numbe r

RW2 (1)

3

Rated Frequency

R

(2)

4

Rated Genset Speed

R

(2)

5

Rated Real G enset Power

R

(2)

6

Rated Apparent Genset Power

R

(2)

7

Engine Rating Application Type

R

(2)

8

External S peed Selection Switch Installed

RW2 (1)

9

ECM Identification Parameters

 

10

Equipment ID

RW2 (1)

11

Engine Serial Number

RW3 (3)

12

ECM Serial Number

R

(2)

13

ECM Software Part Number

R

(2)

14

ECM Software Release Date

R

(2)

15

ECM Software Description

R

(2)

16

Security Access Parameters

 

17

Total Tattletale

R

(2)

18

Engine/Gear Parameters

 

19

Engine Acceleration Rate

RW2 (1)

20

Droop/Isochronous Switch Installed.

RW2 (1)

21

Droop/Isochronous Selection

RW2 (1)

22

Engine Speed Droop

RW2 (1)

23

Critical Override Switch Installed

RW2 (1)

24

Digital Speed Control Installed

RW2 (1)

25

Speed Control Minimum Speed

RW2 (1)

26

Speed Control Maximum Speed

RW2 (1)

27

Digital Speed Control Ramp Rate

RW2 (1)

28

Crank Terminate Speed

RW2 (1)

29

I/ O Configuration Parameters

 

30

Desired Speed Input Arrangement

RW2 (1)

31

Fuel Enable Input Configuration

RW2 (1)

32

System Parameters

 

33

Full Load Setting (FLS)

RW3 (3)

34

Full Torque Setting (FTS)

RW3 (3)

35

Governor Gain Factor

RW1 (4)

36

Governor Minimum Stability Factor

RW1 (4)

37

Governor Maximum Stability Factor

RW1 (4)

(continued)

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KENR6224

(Table 6, contd )

38

Passwords

 

39

Customer Password 1

RW2 (1)

40

Customer Password 2

RW2 (1)

(1) Read/write with a customer password (2) Read only (3) Read/write with a factory password (4) Read/write without a password

Customer Specified Parameters

Customer specified parameters allow the engine to be configured to the exact needs of the application.

Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as a customer’s operation changes.

The following information is a brief description of the customer specified parameters.

Rat ing Duty Selection

This parameter enables selection of the engine rating fro m a series of maps within the ECM. Changing the rating requires a customer password. The available ratings within the ECM will vary with the type of engine and the specification of the engine.

Rated Frequency

This parameter displays the rated frequency of the genset. This is determined by the rating selection and the status of the external speed selection switch. This parameter is read only.

Rated Speed

This parameter displays the rated speed of the engine. This is determined by the rating selection and the status of the external speed selection switch. This parameter is read only.

Rated Real Genset Power

Th is parameter displays the maximum power in kW of the currently selected rating. This parameter is read only.

Rated Apparent Genset Power

T his parameter displays the maximum power in kVA of the currently selected rating. This parameter is read only.

Rating Configuration

This parameter displays the configuration of the currently selected rating. The following list gives the possible configurations:

Standby power

Limi ted time prime power

Prime power

Continuous or baseload power

For definitions of these ratings, refer to ISO8528. This parameter is read only.

Not e: Not all of the above rating configurations will be available in the software files of every ECM.

Ext ernal Speed Selection Switch Enable

For dual speed applications with an external speed selection switch, this parameter enables the functionality of the speed selection switch within the software. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Engine Startup Acceleration Rate

This parameter enables the acceleration rate of the engine in RPM per second to be programmed. The parameter can be programmed from idle speed to rated speed. Control of this parameter enables any overshoot in speed on start-up to be limited. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Dr oop/Isochronous Switch Enable

This parameter determines whether the external droop/isochronous switch is enabled or disabled. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

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Droop/Isochronous Selection

The engine will normally be run in isochronous mode. This means that the engine speed will not change, regardless of the load. If the engine needs to operate in parallel with another genset or the engine needs to operate in parallel with the grid, it is necessary to operate the e ngine in droop mode in order to ensure the stability of the system. This parameter enables droop/isochronous running selection. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Note: If an external droop/isochronous switch is enabled, the position of this switch will override the “Droop/Isochronous” selection.

Engine Speed Droop

If droop operation is selected, this parameter allows the s etting of percentage droop. This is the percentage of speed reduction with an increase in load. This parameter has no effect when the engine is running in isochronous mode. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Digital Sp eed Control Installed

This parameter determines whether input from the raise/low er switch controls the speed of the engine. If digital speed control is not installed, the speed of the engine is controlled by inputs from the analog throttle or the PWM throttle. This depends on the input that is selected in the desired speed input configuration. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Digital Speed Control Minimum Speed

This setting determines the minimum speed range of both the raise/lower control and the analog control. For exam ple, if this is set to 100 RPM and the nominal engine speed is selected to 1500 RPM, the minimum speed setting is 1400 RPM. This parameter does not affect the range of the PWM speed control as this control has a fixed minimum limit and a fixed maximum limit. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Digital Speed Control Maximum Speed

This setting determines the maximum speed range of both the raise/lower control and the analog control. If this is set to 100 RPM and the nominal engine speed is selected to 1500 RPM, the maximum speed setting is 1600 RPM. This setting does not affect the range of the P WM speed control as this control has a fixed minimum limit and a fixed maximum limit. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Digital Speed Control Ramp Rate

This setting determines the rate of change of engine speed in RPM when the raise/lower switch inputs are closed. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Crank Termina te Speed

This parameter is used to set the engine speed that is required be fore the output from the crank terminate relay is switched. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Desired Speed Input Arrangement

If a digital speed control is not installed, this parameter enables selection of either an analog throttle, a PWM throttle or an external CAN Bus speed control. The inputs from the analog throttle, the PWM throttle or the CAN Bus speed control are normally used with genset load sharing and synchroniz ing controllers. Changing this parameter requires a customer password.

Note: If a PW M throttle, an analog throttle or a CAN Bus speed control is selected but there are no inputs to the terminals for the selected speed control, the engine will default to running at 1100 RPM.

If a PWM throttle, an analog throttle or a CAN Bus speed cont rol is not used, the digital speed control should be selected.

Fuel Enabl e Input Configuration

This parameter enables the selection of switch to battery p ositive or CAN input for the control of the injector On and injector Off.

Governor Gain Parameters

The following items are the adjustable parameters for governor gain:

Governor Gain Factor

Governor Minimum Stability Factor

Governor Maximum Stability

Note: No engineering units are associated with these numbers.

Note: The programmable range is wide for flexibility. Values of 1 to 40000 are valid. The full range of this parameter may not be used on any system. Do not expect to use the whole range.

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Gain Explanations

Governor Gain Factor

The governor gain factor is multiplied to the difference between desired speed and actual speed.

If the value of the governor gain factor is too large, the engine speed can overshoot the desired speed. The overshoot is caused by an excessive correction or an instability of a steady state.

If the governor gain factor is too small, the response that is necessary to accelerate the engine to the desired speed must be obtained by increasing the stability terms to a higher value. As this process is slow, the response of the engine speed is slow.

Governor Minimum/Maximum Stability Factor

The stability factor terms work in order to eliminate a steady state speed error. There are two gain terms

that are used for stability. If the error is greater than

20 RPM and if the error is increasing, the maximum

stability gain is functioning. If the error is less than

20 RPM, the minimum stability gain is used. This

function allows the use of a high gain that would otherwise cause the engine to be unstable when the engine is operating near the desired speed.

If either the minimum stability gain or the maximum stability gain is set too high, the governor will provide more fuel than the amount that is necessary to bring the error to zero. The additional fuel will cause the engine speed to overshoot and the engine to produce excessive combustion noise.

If the minimum stability gain or the maximum stability gain is set too low, excessive time is taken in order to stabilize the engine speed.

Tuning Procedure

1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF/RESET position. Before the tuning procedure is started, connect the electronic service tool and then check that engine overspeed protection is enabled. Engine overspeed is configured on the “Service\Monitoring System” screen on the electronic service tool.

NOTICE Performing engine governor tuning without engine overspeed protection could result in serious engine damage. Ensure that this parameter is ON while performing this procedure.

2. Start the engine. On the engine mounted genset control panel, check that the engine has reached rated speed. This panel will serve as the reference point for the speed during this procedure.

3. Enter the “Configuration Parameters” screen on the electronic service tool.

4. Determine the desired scenario in order to tune the engine. For example, check if the engine has poor respons e during specific load assignments or specific load dumps.

5. Perform the d esired load change that is detailed in step 4. Check the response of the engine by viewing the following parameters.

The engine speed on the control panel on the genset

The frequency response of the system bus to the load change

Listening to the response of the engine

6. Use the listed suggestions in order to determine the gains that require adjustment.

Note: Usually, the gain factor of the governor should be lower than the minimum stability factor of the governor in order to obtain optimum performance. The maximum stability factor is typically a smaller value than the minimum stability gain and the governor gain factor.

7. Repeat steps 5, 6 and 7 until a desired engine response can be met. Use large adjustments (10% of original gain) initially to generally tune the engine in the proper manner. As the response gets closer to the desired value, increase the gains in s maller increments (1% of total gain).

Customer Password 1, Customer Password 2

Customer passwords are the programmable paramete rs that can be used to protect certain configuration parameters from any unauthorized changes.

Engine monitoring

Perkins provides an engine monitoring system that is installed at the factory. The system monitors the following parameters:

Engine oil pressure

Coolant temperature

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Troubleshooting Section

Intake manifold air temperature

Engine speed

Boost pressure

Fuel temperature

The monitoring system has three levels of operation. The levels are described below.

Warning Operation

In the Warning condition, the ECM causes the warning lamp to come ON. The warning lamp indicates that a fault has been detected by the engine monitoring system. No further action by the ECM or the engine occurs.

Action Alert Operation

In the Action Alert condition, the ECM causes the action alert lamp to come on. The Action Alert lamp indicates that a fault has been detected by the engine monitoring system. This condition is normally wired in order to c ause a shutdown and the shutdown is controlled by the control panel on the machine.

Shutdown Op eration

If the fault reaches the Shutdown condition, the ECM causes the s hutdown lamp to come on. Unless the engine is in a Critical Override condition, the engine will shut down.

Monitoring the Fuel Temperature

The fuel temperature sensor monitors the fuel temperature. The signal from the sensor allows the ECM to compensate for changes in the fuel temperature by adjusting the fuel rate for constant power.

The sensor is also used to warn the operator of excessive fuel temperature with a diagnostic event code. Excessive fuel temperatures can adversely affect engine performance.

Self-Diagnostics

The elect ronic system has the ability to diagnose faults. When a fault is detected, a diagnostic code is generated and the diagnostic code is stored in perma nent memory (logged) in the ECM. The diagnostic lamp is also activated.

When dia gnostic codes occur, the diagnostic codes are referred to as Active diagnostic codes. Active diagnostic codes indicate that a fault of some kind currently exists.

Diagnostic codes that are stored in memory are called Logged d iagnostic codes. The fault may have been temporary or the fault may have been repaired since the fault was logged. For this reason, logged codes do not necessarily mean that something needs to be repaired. Logged diagnostic codes are meant to be an indication of probable causes for intermittent faults.

Diagnostic codes that identify operating conditions outside the n ormal operating range are called Events. Event codes are not typically an indication of a fault with the electronic system.

Note: Some of the diagnostic codes require passwords to clear the code.

Effect of Diagnostic Codes on Engine Performance

The diagnostic lamp comes on when a specific condition exists. When the ECM detects an engine fault, the ECM generates an active diagnostic code and the dia gnostic code is logged. The diagnostic code is logged in order to record the following information:

The date

The time

The number of occurrences of the fault

The two types of diagnostic codes are Fault codes and Event codes.

Fault Codes

Fault codes are provided in order to indicate that an electrical fault or an electronic fault has been detected by the ECM. In some cases, the engine performance can be affected by the condition that is causing the code. More frequently, there is no effect on engine performance.

Event Codes

Event cod es are used to indicate that some operational fault has been detected in the engine by the ECM. This does not usually indicate an electronic malfunc tion.

The ECM also provides a clock in order to add the date and the time to the following critical event codes:

360-3 Low oil pressure shutdown

361-3 High coolant temperature shutdown

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30

Troubleshooting Section

KENR6224

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Diagnostic Code Cross Refe rence” for a list of all the diagnostic fault codes.

Settings for the Monitoring System

Table 7

Parameter

State

 

Trip Point

 

Delay Time

Low Engine Oi l Pressure

Warn Operator (1)

On

300

kPa (43.5 psi)

60

seconds

Action Alert (2)

Always On

None

2

seconds

Engine Shutdown (3)

Always On

None

2

seconds

High Engine Coolant Temperature

Warn Operator (1)

On

104

°C (2190 °F)

60

seconds

Action Alert (2)

Always On

105

°C (221 °F)

10

seconds

Engine Shutdown (3)

Always On

108

°C (226 °F)

10

seconds

Engine Overspeed

Warn Operator (1)

On

2000

RPM

1

second

Action Alert (2)

Always On

2050

RPM

1

second

Engine Shutdown (3)

Always On

2140

RPM

0

second

High Intake Manifold Air Temperature

Warn Operator (1)

On

75

°C (167 °F)

60

seconds

Action Alert (2)

Always On

78

°C (172 °F)

10

seconds

High Fuel Supply Temperature

Warn Operator (1)

On

60

°C (140 °F)

60

seconds

Action Alert (2)

Always On

68

°C (154 °F)

60

seconds

High Boost Pressure

Warn Operator (1)

On

300

kPa (43.5 psi)

30

seconds

Action Alert (2)

Always On

None

5

seconds

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KENR6224

31

Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting without a Diagnostic Code

Alternator Noise

i02556541

Note: This is not an electronic system fault.

Refer to Testing and Adjusting for information on possible electrical causes of this condition.

Probable Causes

Alternator drive belt

Alternator mounting bracket

Alternator drive pulley

Alternator bearings

Recommended Actions

Alternator Drive Belt

Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt. If the alternator drive belt is worn or damaged, check that the drive belt for the alternator and the pulley are correctly aligned. If the alignment is correct, replace the drive belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.

Alternator Mounting Bracket

Inspect the alternator mounting bracket for cracks and wear. Repair the mounting bracket or replace the mounting bracket in order to ensure that the alternator drive belt and the alternator drive pulley are in alignment.

Alternator Drive Pulley

Remove the nut for the alternator drive pulley and then inspect the nut and the drive shaft. If no damage is found, install the nut and tighten the nut to the correct torque. Refer to Specifications, “Alternator and Regulator” for the correct torque.

Alternator Bearings

Check for excessive play of the shaft in the alternator. Check for wear in the alternator bearings. The alternator is a nonserviceable item. The alternator must be replaced if the bearings are worn. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly , “Alternator - Install”.

i02556542

Alternator Will Not Charge

Note: This is not an electronic system fault.

Probable Causes

Alternator drive belt

Charging circ uit

Alternator

Recommended Actions

Alternator Drive Belt

Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt. If the alternator drive belt is worn or damaged, check that the drive belt for the alternator and the pulley are correctly al igned. If the alignment is correct, replace the drive belt. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Belt Tension Chart”.

Charging Circuit

Inspect the battery cables, wiring, and connections in the charging circuit. Clean all connections and tighten all connections. Replace any faulty parts.

Alternator

Verify that the alternator is operating correctly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Charging System - Test”. The alternator is not a serviceabl e item. The alternator must be replaced if the alternator is not operating correctly. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator - Remove and Install”.

Battery

i02556551

Note: This is not an electronic system fault.

Probable Causes

Charging c ircuit

Battery

Auxiliary device

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32

Troubleshooting Section

KENR6224

Recommended Ac tions

Charging Circuit

If a fault in the battery charging circuit is suspected, refer to Troubleshooting, “Alternator Will Not Charge”.

Battery

1. Check that the battery is able to maintain a charge. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, “Battery - Test”.

2. If the battery does not maintain a charge, replace the battery. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace”.

Auxiliary Device

1. Check that an a uxiliary device has drained the battery by being left in the ON position.

2. Charge the ba ttery.

3. Verify that the battery is able to maintain a charge when all auxiliary devices are switched off.

i02556559

Can Not Reach Top Engine RPM

Note: If this fault occurs only under load, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Low Power/Poor or No Response to Throttle”.

Guide, “Low Power/Poor or No Response to Throttle”. The connection of any electrical equipment and the

The connection of any electrical equipment and the disconnection of any electrical equipment may cause an ex plosion hazard which may result in in- jury or death. Do not connect any electrical equip- ment or disconnect any electrical equipment in an explosive atmosphere.

Probable Causes

Diagnostic codes

Event codes

Programm able parameters

Cold mode

Throttle signal

Rated fuel position and/or FRC fuel position

Inlet manifold pressure sensor

Fuel supply

Air inlet and exhaust system

Accessory equipment

Recommended Actions

Diagnostic Co des and Event Codes

Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may cause poor per formance. Connect the electronic service tool and then check for active codes and logged codes. Troubleshoot any codes that are present befor e continuing with this procedure.

Programmable Parameters

Check the following parameters on the electronic service tool:

“Desired Engine Speed”

Desired Speed Input Configuration”

Determine the type of speed control that is used in the applicat ion. Program the parameters to match the type of speed control that is used. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Speed Control Circuit - Test” for more inf ormation.

Note: The engine will have poor performance if the parameters are not programmed correctly.